Science.gov

Sample records for inlet coolant temperature

  1. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Technology of high temperature organic coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Makin, R.S.; Vorobei, M.P.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Starkov, V.A.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Checketkin, Y.V.

    1993-12-31

    Research has been performed on the problems related to the use of high temperature organic coolants in small and medium nuclear power plants. The work performed and also the experience of operating the ARBUS reactor confirmed the inherent safety features, reliability, and enhanced safety margins of the plants with this type of coolants. The advantages of this system and research highlights are presented.

  3. Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. II - Effect of Coolant Conditions on Cylinder Temperatures and Heat Rejection at Several Engine Powers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J.; Chelko, Louis J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a V-1650-7 engine to determine the cylinder temperatures and the coolant and oil heat rejections over a range of coolant flows (50 to 200 gal/min) and oil inlet temperatures (160 to 2150 F) for two values of coolant outlet temperature (250 deg and 275 F) at each of four power conditions ranging from approximately 1100 to 2000 brake horsepower. Data were obtained for several values of block-outlet pressure at each of the two coolant outlet temperatures. A mixture of 30 percent by volume of ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The effect of varying coolant flow, coolant outlet temperature, and coolant outlet pressure over the ranges investigated on cylinder-head temperatures was small (0 deg to 25 F) whereas the effect of increasing the engine power condition from ll00 to 2000 brake horsepower was large (maximum head-temperature increase, 110 F).

  4. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  5. Cooled-turbine aerodynamic performance prediction from reduced primary to coolant total-temperature-ratio results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The prediction of the cooled aerodynamic performance, for both stators and turbines, at actual primary to coolant inlet total temperature ratios from the results obtained at a reduced total temperature ratio is described. Theoretical and available experimental results were compared for convection film and transpiration cooled stator vanes and for a film cooled, single stage core turbine. For these tests the total temperature ratio varied from near 1.0 to about 2.7. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was, in general, reasonable.

  6. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Effects of dimensionless coolant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, M. A.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to mode the film cooling performance for a turbine vane leading edge using the stagnation region of a cylinder in cross flow. Experiments were conducted with a single row of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio and dimensionless coolant temperature with free stream-to-wall temperature ratio approximately 1.7 and Re sub D = 90000. the cylindrical test surface was instrumented with miniature heat flux gages and wall thermocouples to determine the percentage reduction in the Stanton number as a function of the distance downstream from injection (x/d sub 0) and the location between adjacent holes (z/S). Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d = 5. The film coolant was injected with T sub c T sub w with a dimensionless coolant temperature in the range 1.18 or equal to theta sub c or equal to 1.56. The data for local Stanton Number Reduction (SNR) showed a significant increase in SNR as theta sub c was increased above 1.0.

  7. Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Robert K. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Cooper, Martin H. (Churchill, PA); Tupper, Robert B. (Greensburg, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly and in flow communication with the inlet thereof. The pump nozzle is operable to create an upward driving flow of primary coolant through the pump diffuser and then to the absorber bundles. The upward driving flow of primary coolant, in turn, creates a suction head within the outer flow channel of the top nozzle and thereby an auxiliary downward flow of the heated coolant portion exiting from the upper end of the adjacent fuel assemblies through the outer flow channel to the pump nozzle via the outer flow passage of the latching mechanism and an annular space between the outer and inner spaced ducts of the control assembly housing. The temperature of the heated coolant exiting from the adjacent fuel assemblies can thereby be sensed directly by the temperature sensitive magnetic material in the latching mechanism.

  8. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  9. Development of a prototype automatic controller for liquid cooling garment inlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. S.; Webbon, B. W.; Montgomery, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a computer control of a liquid cooled garment (LCG) inlet temperature is descirbed. An adaptive model of the LCG is used to predict the heat-removal rates for various inlet temperatures. An experimental system that contains a microcomputer was constructed. The LCG inlet and outlet temperatures and the heat exchanger outlet temperature form the inputs to the computer. The adaptive model prediction method of control is successful during tests where the inlet temperature is automatically chosen by the computer. It is concluded that the program can be implemented in a microprocessor of a size that is practical for a life support back-pack.

  10. Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experiments are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.

  11. Measurement of the Coolant Channel Temperatures and Pressures of a Cooled Radial-Inflow Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation has been installed on the surface of a cooled radial-inflow turbine. Thermocouples and miniature integrated sensor pressure transducers were installed to measure steady state coolant temperatures, blade wall temperatures, and coolant pressures. These measurements will eventually be used to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the rotor. This paper will describe the procedures used to install and calibrate the instrumentation and the testing methods followed. A limited amount of data will compare the measured values to the predicted values.

  12. Experimental Investigation of an Air-Cooled Turbine Operating in a Turbojet Engine at Turbine Inlet Temperatures up to 2500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Reeves P.; Dengler, Robert P.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an air-cooled turbine at average turbine inlet temperatures up to 2500 F. A modified production-model 12-stage axial-flow-compressor turbojet engine operating in a static sea-level stand was used as the test vehicle. The modifications to the engine consisted of the substitution of special combustor and turbine assemblies and double-walled exhaust ducting for the standard parts of the engine. All of these special parts were air-cooled to withstand the high operating temperatures of the investigation. The air-cooled turbine stator and rotor blades were of the corrugated-insert type. Leading-edge tip caps were installed on the rotor blades to improve leading-edge cooling by diverting the discharge of coolant to regions of lower gas pressure toward the trailing edge of the blade tip. Caps varying in length from 0.15- to 0.55-chord length were used in an attempt to determine the optimum cap length for this blade. The engine was operated over a range of average turbine inlet temperatures from about 1600 to about 2500 F, and a range of average coolant-flow ratios of 0.012 to 0.065. Temperatures of the air-cooled turbine rotor blades were measured at all test conditions by the use of thermocouples and temperature-indicating paints. The results of the investigation indicated that this type of blade is feasible for operation in turbojet engines at the average turbine inlet temperatures and stress levels tested(maximums of 2500 F and 24,000 psi, respectively). An average one-third-span blade temperature of 1300 F could be maintained on 0.35-chord tip cap blades with an average coolant-flow ratio of about 0.022 when the average turbine inlet temperature was 2500 F and cooling-air temperature was about 260 F. All of the leading-edge tip cap lengths improved the cooling of the leading-edge region of the blades, particularly at low average coolant-flow ratios. At high gas temperatures, such parts as the turbine stator and the combustor liners are likely to be as critical as the turbine rotor blades.

  13. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  14. Response of a small-turboshaft-engine compression system to inlet temperature distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Klann, G. A.; Little, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted into the response of a small-turboshaft-engine compression system to steady-state and transient inlet temperature distortions. Transient temperature ramps range from less than 100 K/sec to above 610 K/sec and generated instantaneous temperatures to 420 K above ambient. Steady-state temperature distortion levels were limited by the engine hardware temperature list. Simple analysis of the steady-state distortion data indicated that a particle separator at the engine inlet permitted higher levels of temperature distortion before onset of compressor surge than would be expected without the separator.

  15. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  16. Analysis of a water-coolant leak into a very high-temperature vitrification chamber.

    SciTech Connect

    Felicione, F. S.

    1998-06-11

    A coolant-leakage incident occurred during non-radioactive operation of the Plasma Hearth Process waste-vitrification development system at Argonne National Laboratory when a stray electric arc ruptured az water-cooling jacket. Rapid evaporation of the coolant that entered the very high-temperature chamber pressurized the normally sub-atmospheric system above ambient pressure for over 13 minutes. Any positive pressurization, and particularly a lengthy one, is a safety concern since this can cause leakage of contaminants from the system. A model of the thermal phenomena that describe coolant/hot-material interactions was developed to better understand the characteristics of this type of incident. The model is described and results for a variety of hypothetical coolant-leak incidents are presented. It is shown that coolant leak rates above a certain threshold will cause coolant to accumulate in the chamber, and evaporation from this pool can maintain positive pressure in the system long after the leak has been stopped. Application of the model resulted in reasonably good agreement with the duration of the pressure measured during the incident. A closed-form analytic solution is shown to be applicable to the initial leak period in which the peak pressures are generated, and is presented and discussed.

  17. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  18. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  19. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-01

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and 208Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  20. Effect of coolant flow ejection on aerodynamic performance of low-aspect-ratio vanes. 2: Performance with coolant flow ejection at temperature ratios up to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a 0.5 aspect ratio turbine vane configuration with coolant flow ejection was experimentally determined in a full annular cascade. The vanes were tested at a nominal mean section ideal critical velocity ratio of 0.890 over a range of primary to coolant total temperature ratio from 1.0 to 2.08 and a range of coolant to primary total pressure ratio from 1.0 to 1.4 which corresponded to coolant flows from 3.0 to 10.7 percent of the primary flow. The variations in primary and thermodynamic efficiency and exit flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained.

  1. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  2. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  3. Effects of Coolant Temperature Changes on Reactivity for Various Coolants in a Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform an investigation into the relative merit of various salts and salt compounds being considered for use as coolants in the liquid salt cooled very high temperature reactor platform (LS-VHTR). Most of the non-nuclear properties necessary to evaluate these salts are known, but the neutronic characteristics important to reactor core design are still in need of a more extensive examination. This report provides a two-fold approach to further this investigation. First, a list of qualifying salts is assembled based upon acceptable non-nuclear properties. Second, the effect on system reactivity for a secondary system transient or an off-normal or accident condition is examined for each of these salt choices. The specific incident to be investigated is an increase in primary coolant temperature beyond normal operating parameters. In order to perform the relative merit comparison of each candidate salt, the System Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity is calculated for each candidate salt at various state points throughout the core burn history. (author)

  4. Experimental research of temperature and velocity fields in high-temperature flow of liquid heavy metal coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Besnosov, A. V. Savinov, S. Yu. Novozhilova, O. O.; Antonenkov, M. A.

    2011-12-15

    Presented are the results of experimental research of temperature and velocity fields for lead and lead-bismuth coolant flows in channels having circular and annular cross sections under varying oxygen content in the coolant and varying characteristics of insulating coatings. Tests are performed under the following operating conditions: (1) lead-bismuth eutectic-temperature T = 400-520 Degree-Sign C, thermodynamic oxygen activity a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, average flow velocity of the coolant w = 0.12-1.84 m/s, value of magnetic induction B = 0-0.85 T, Reynolds number Re = (0.24-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, Hartmann number Ha = 0-500, and Peclet number Pe = 320-4600; (2) lead coolant-T = 400-550 Degree-Sign C, a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, w = 0.1-1.5 m/s, Re = (2.36-2.99) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, and Pe = 500-7000.

  5. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  6. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  7. Performance of a high-work, low-aspect-ratio turbine stator tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabe, Roy G.; Schwab, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A 0.767-scale model of a turbine stator designed for the core of a high-bypass-ratio aircraft engine was tested with uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The principal measurements were radial and circumferential surveys of stator-exit total temperature, total pressure, and flow angle. The stator-exit flow field was also computed by using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. Other than temperature, there were no apparent differences in performance due to the inlet conditions. The computed results compared quite well with the experimental results.

  8. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

  3. Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

    2008-11-25

    Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

  4. Effect of inlet temperature and pressure on emissions from a premixing gas turbine primary zone combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the performance of a premixing prevaporizing gas turbine primary zone combustor design over a range of combustor inlet temperatures from 700 to 1000 K and a range of inlet pressures from 40 to 240 N/sq cm. The 1 meter long combustor could be operated at pressures up to and including 120 N/sq cm without autoignition in the premixing duct or flashback from the stabilized combustion zone. Autoignition occurred in the mixer tube at the 240 N/sq cm pressure level with an entrance temperature of 830 K and a mixer residence time of 4 msec. Measured NOx level, combustion inefficiency, and hydrocarbon emission index correlated well with adiabatic flame temperature. The NOx levels varied from approximately 0.2 to 2.0 g NO2/kg fuel at combustion inefficiencies from 4 to 0.04 percent, depending upon adiabatic flame temperature and pressure. Measured NOx levels were sensitive to pressure. Tests were made at equivalence ratios ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall total pressure drop for the configuration varied slightly with reference velocity and equivalence ratio, but never exceeded 3 percent.

  5. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat transfer and nuclear performance metrics. Lighter salts also tend to have more favorable (larger) moderating ratios, and thus should have a more favorable coolant-voiding behavior in-core. Heavy (high-Z) salts tend to have lower heat capacities and thermal conductivities and more significant activation and transmutation products. However, all of the salts are relatively good heat-transfer agents. A detailed discussion of each property and the combination of properties that served as a heat-transfer metric is presented in the body of this report. In addition to neutronic metrics, such as moderating ratio and neutron absorption, the activation properties of the salts were investigated (Table C). Again, lighter salts tend to have more favorable activation properties compared to salts with high atomic-number constituents. A simple model for estimating the reactivity coefficients associated with a reduction of salt content in the core (voiding or thermal expansion) was also developed, and the primary parameters were investigated. It appears that reasonable design flexibility exists to select a safe combination of fuel-element design and salt coolant for most of the candidate salts. Materials compatibility is an overriding consideration for high-temperature reactors; therefore the question was posed whether any one of the candidate salts was inherently, or significantly, more corrosive than another. This is a very complex subject, and it was not possible to exclude any fluoride salts based on the corrosion database. The corrosion database clearly indicates superior container alloys, but the effect of salt identity is masked by many factors which are likely more important (impurities, redox condition) in the testing evidence than salt identity. Despite this uncertainty, some reasonable preferences can be recommended, and these are indicated in the conclusions. The reasoning to support these conclusions is established in the body of this report.

  6. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  7. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Precechtel, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Smith, Bob G. (Richland, WA); Knight, Ronald C. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  8. The comparative performance of an aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Schey, Oscar W

    1928-01-01

    This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the effect of high inlet air temperature on the performance of a Liberty 12 aviation engine. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain, for normal service carburetor adjustments and a fixed ignition advance, the relation between power and temperature for the range of carburetor air temperatures that may be encountered when supercharging to sea level pressure at altitudes of over 20,000 feet and without intercooling when using plain aviation gasoline and mixtures of benzol and gasoline. The results show that for the conditions of test, both the brake and indicated power decrease with increase in air temperature at a faster rate than given by the theoretical assumption that power varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature. On a brake basis, the order of the difference in power for a temperature difference of 120 degrees F. Is 3 to 5 per cent. The observed relation between power and temperature when using the 30-70 blend was found to be linear. But, although these differences are noted, the above theoretical assumption may be considered as generally applicable except where greater precision over a wide range of temperatures is desired, in which case it appears necessary to test the particular engine under the given conditions. (author)

  9. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80. PMID:24329978

  10. Effect of steady-state temperature distortion and combined distortion on inlet flow to a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, R. H.; Bobula, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Flow angle, static pressure, total temperature and total pressure were measured in the inlet duct upstream of a turbofan engine operating with temperature distortion or combined pressure-temperature distortion. Such measurements are useful in the evaluation of analytical models of inlet distortion. A rotating gaseous-hydrogen burner and a circumferential 180 degrees-extent screen configuration mounted on a rotatable assembly generated the distortions. Reynolds number index was maintained at 0.5 and engine corrected low-rotor speeds were held at 6000 and 8600 rpm. The measurements showed that at the entrance to the engine, flow angle was largest in the hub region. As flow approached the engine, yaw angle (circumferential variation) increased and pitch angle (radial variation) decreased. The magnitude of static-pressure distortion measured along the inlet-duct and extended bullet nose walls increased exponentially as flow approached the engine.

  11. Effect of Fuel-Air Ratio, Inlet Temperature, and Exhaust Pressure on Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E S; Leary, W A; Diver, J R

    1940-01-01

    An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.

  12. Knock-limited performance of several internal coolants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Evvard, John C

    1945-01-01

    The effect of internal cooling on the knock-limited performance of an-f-28 fuel was investigated in a CFR engine, and the following internal coolants were used: (1) water, (2), methyl alcohol-water mixture, (3) ammonia-methyl alcohol-water mixture, (4) monomethylamine-water mixture, (5) dimethylamine-water mixture, and (6) trimethylamine-water mixture. Tests were run at inlet-air temperatures of 150 degrees and 250 degrees F. to indicate the temperature sensitivity of the internal-coolant solutions.

  13. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device....

  14. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device....

  15. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device....

  16. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device....

  17. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device....

  18. Computer code for predicting coolant flow and heat transfer in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, Peter L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code was developed to analyze any turbomachinery coolant flow path geometry that consist of a single flow passage with a unique inlet and exit. Flow can be bled off for tip-cap impingement cooling, and a flow bypass can be specified in which coolant flow is taken off at one point in the flow channel and reintroduced at a point farther downstream in the same channel. The user may either choose the coolant flow rate or let the program determine the flow rate from specified inlet and exit conditions. The computer code integrates the 1-D momentum and energy equations along a defined flow path and calculates the coolant's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and velocity and the heat transfer coefficients along the passage. The equations account for area change, mass addition or subtraction, pumping, friction, and heat transfer.

  19. Effect of seasonal changes in use patterns and cold inlet water temperature on water-heating loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, D.W.; Shedd, A.C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents long-term test data obtained in 20 commercial buildings and 16 residential sites. The information illustrates the effects of variations in hot water load determinants and the effect on energy use. It also is useful as a supplement to the load profiles presented in the ASHRAE Handbooks and other design references. The commercial facilities include supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, full-service restaurants, commercial kitchens, a motel, a nursing home, a hospital, a bakery, and laundry facilities. The residential sites ere selected to provide test sites with higher-than-average hot water use. They include 13 single-family detached residences, one 14-unit apartment building, and two apartment laundries. Test data are available at measurement intervals of 1 minute for the residential sites and 15 minutes for the commercial sites. Summary data in tabular and graphical form are presented for average daily volumetric hot water use and cold inlet water temperature. Measured cold inlet water temperature and volumetric hot water use figures are compared to values typically used for design and analysis. Conclusions are offered regarding the effect of cold water inlet temperature and variations in hot water use on water-heating load and energy use. Recommendations for the use of the information presented in water-heating system design, performance optimization, and performance analysis conclude the paper.

  20. Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundin, Bruce T; Povolny, John H; Chelko, Louis J

    1949-01-01

    Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature. The effect on engine cooling of scale formation on the coolant passages of the engine and of boiling of the coolant under various operating conditions is also discussed.

  1. Transient simulation of coolant peak temperature due to prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after the vehicle is keyed-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Suh Chyn; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Md. Abul; Hazrat, Md. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Automotive designers should design a robust engine cooling system which works well in both normal and severe driving conditions. When vehicles are keyed-off suddenly after some distance of hill-climbing driving, the coolant temperature tends to increase drastically. This is because heat soak in the engine could not be transferred away in a timely manner, as both the water pump and cooling fan stop working after the vehicle is keyed-off. In this research, we aimed to visualize the coolant temperature trend over time before and after the vehicles were keyed-off. In order to prevent coolant temperature from exceeding its boiling point and jeopardizing engine life, a numerical model was further tested with prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after keying-off. One dimensional thermal-fluid simulation was exploited to model the vehicle's cooling system. The behaviour of engine heat, air flow, and coolant flow over time were varied to observe the corresponding transient coolant temperatures. The robustness of this model was proven by validation with industry field test data. The numerical results provided sensible insights into the proposed solution. In short, prolonging fan operation for 500 s and prolonging both fan and water pump operation for 300 s could reduce coolant peak temperature efficiently. The physical implementation plan and benefits yielded from implementation of the electrical fan and electrical water pump are discussed.

  2. Effect of an inlet temperature disturbance on the propagation of methane-air premixed flames in small tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Il

    2009-07-15

    A flame stabilized in a tube is affected by the temperature disturbance and velocity profile at the inlet boundary. Thus, a multi-dimensional analysis is necessary near the flame. The deviation between one-dimensional and two-dimensional analyses near the flame was investigated quantitatively. The temperature profile in the radial direction was varied to investigate its effects on the propagation of methane-air premixed flames in small tubes. A numerical experiment with Navier-Stokes equations, an energy equation and species equations was conducted coupled with a single-step global-reaction model. Three different temperature profiles were examined for slip and no-slip wall boundary conditions. The effect of temperature profiles on the flame propagation velocity and flame shapes was not negligible depending on the magnitude of the temperature deviation and the tube diameter. This study evaluated a critical length scale of a computational domain or a thermal entrance length of a premixed flame over which the inlet temperature disturbance does not affect the flame characteristics. (author)

  3. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOEpatents

    Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preventing a solar receiver (12) utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver (12) by a plurality of reflectors (16) which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver (12) as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank (30) for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank (30) includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank (34) for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank (34) having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver (12). The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank (30) through the solar receiver (12) and into the second storage tank (34). Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors (16) stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver (12) below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors (16) become defocused with respect to the solar receiver (12) due to the earth's rotation.

  4. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOEpatents

    Glasgow, L.E.

    1980-11-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preventing a solar receiver utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver by a plurality of reflectors which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver. The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank through the solar receiver and into the second storage tank. Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors become defocused with respect to the solar receiver due to the earth's rotation.

  5. FORTRAN program for calculating coolant flow and metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program that calculates the coolant flow and the metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade was developed. The analysis was based on compressible, one-dimensional fluid flow and on one-dimensional heat transfer and treats the vane or blade shell as a porous wall. The calculated temperatures are average values for the shell outer-surface area associated with each film-cooling hole row. A thermal-barrier coating may be specified on the shell outer surface, and centrifugal effects can be included for blade calculations. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on a UNIVAC 1100/42 computer. The method of analysis, the program input, the program output, and two sample problems are provided.

  6. Investigation of X24C-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor. 2; Effect of Inlet-Air Pressure and Temperature of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Harold B.; Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Effect of inlet-air pressure and temperature on the performance of the X24-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was evaluated. Speeds of 80, 89, and 100 percent of equivalent design speed with inlet-air pressures of 6 and 12 inches of mercury absolute and inlet-air temperaures of approximately 538 degrees, 459 degrees,and 419 degrees R ( 79 degrees, 0 degrees, and minus 40 degrees F). Results were compared with prior investigations.

  7. Transient response of a serpentine finned-tube cross-flow heat exchanger to a step change in inlet temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, S.; Rooke, S.

    1997-07-01

    An analysis of the thermal response of a finned-tube, liquid-to-gas cross-flow heat exchanger due to a step change in the liquid inlet temperature is performed. Closed-form solutions for the liquid and gas temperatures as functions of space and time are obtained via the Laplace transform technique for both small and large arguments of the modified Bessel function of the first kind. Using four physically important dimensionless parameters, the response of the liquid and average gas outlet temperatures are studied and presented in the time domain. The analysis is extended to a single-row serpentine coil geometry by accounting for U-tube bends. Using a typical heat exchanger geometry, the effects of the tube bends are shown to be significant. Relevant applications include automotive and HVAC heat exchangers and systems.

  8. Effect of inlet-air humidity, temperature, pressure, and reference Mach number on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  19. Computer program MCAP-TOSS calculates steady-state fluid dynamics of coolant in parallel channels and temperature distribution in surrounding heat-generating solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates the steady state fluid distribution, temperature rise, and pressure drop of a coolant, the material temperature distribution of a heat generating solid, and the heat flux distributions at the fluid-solid interfaces. It performs the necessary iterations automatically within the computer, in one machine run.

  20. Metal temperatures and coolant flow in a wire cloth transpiration cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental heat transfer investigation was conducted on an air-cooled turbine vane made from wire-wound cloth material and supported by a central strut. Vane temperature data obtained are compared with temperature data from two full-coverage film-cooled vanes made of different laminated construction. Measured porous-airfoil temperatures are compared with predicted temperatures.

  1. Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. 1; Coolant-Flow Distribution, Cylinder Temperatures, and Heat Rejections at Typical Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-flow distribu tion, the cylinder temperatures, and the heat rejections of the V-165 0-7 engine . The tests were run a t several power levels varying from minimum fuel consumption to war emergency power and at each power l evel the coolant flows corresponded to the extremes of those likely t o be encountered in typical airplane installations, A mixture of 30-p ercent ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The temperature of each cylinder was measured between the exhaust val ves, between the intake valves, in the center of the head, on the exh aust-valve guide, at the top of the barrel on the exhaust side, and o n each exhaust spark-plug gasket. For an increase in engine power fro m 628 to approximately 1700 brake horsepower the average temperature for the cylinder heads between the exhaust valves increased from 437 deg to 517 deg F, the engine coolant heat rejection increased from 12 ,600 to 22,700 Btu. per minute, the oil heat rejection increased from 1030 to 4600 Btu per minute, and the aftercooler-coolant heat reject ion increased from 450 to 3500 Btu -per minute.

  2. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  3. Numerical Experiments of Coolant Mixing in a Lower Plenum of PWR Under Asymmetric Thermal- Hydraulics Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Masanori Ohtani; Akito Kozuru; Yasuyuki Kashimoto; Mitsuto Montani; Koutaro Takeda; Yasushi Makino

    2006-07-01

    Asymmetric thermal-hydraulic conditions among primary loops during a postulated steam line break (SLB) induce a non-uniform temperature distribution at a core inlet. When coolant of lower temperature intrudes into a part of core, it leads to a reactivity insertion and a local power increase. Therefore, an appropriate model for the core inlet temperature distribution is required for a realistic SLB analysis. In this study, numerical experiments were conducted to examine the core inlet temperature distribution under the asymmetric thermal-hydraulic coolant conditions among primary loops. 3D steady-state calculations were carried out for Japanese standard Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) such as 2, 3, 4 loop types and an advanced PWR. Since the flow in a reactor vessel involves time-dependent velocity fluctuations due to a high Reynolds number condition and a complicated geometry of flow path, the turbulent mixing might be enhanced. Hence, the turbulent thermal diffusivity for the steady-state calculation was examined based on experimental results and another transient calculation. As a result, it was confirmed that (1) the turbulent mixing in a downcomer and a lower plenum were enhanced due to time-dependent velocity fluctuations and therefore the turbulent thermal diffusivity for steady-state calculation was specified to be greater, (2) the core inlet temperature distribution predicted by a steady-state calculation reasonably agreed with a experimental data, (3) the patterns of core inlet temperature distribution were comprehended to be dependent on the plant type, i.e. the number of primary loop and (4) under a low flow rate condition, the coolant of lower temperature appeared on the opposite side of the affected loop due to the effect of a natural convection. (authors)

  4. The Effect of Saline Coolant on Temperature Levels during Decortication with a Midas Rex: An in Vitro Model Using Sheep Cervical Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Asher; Wang, Tian; Christou, Chris; Pelletier, Matthew H.; Walsh, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Decortication of bone with a high-speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability, which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data are available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high-speed burr. Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2?mm below the end plate surface and a thermal camera set up to measure surface temperature. A 3?mm high-pneumatic speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX, USA) was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30) with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data were compared between groups using a Student’s t-test. Application of coolant at the bone–burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2?mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high-speed burr provides a quick and an effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimized through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high-speed burr. PMID:26284253

  5. Attic inlet technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising fuel costs have driven development of alternative heat sources for poultry growers. Attic inlets are employed to pre-heat incoming ventilation air to reduce fuel usage. Attic temperatures are at least 10 °F warmer than the outside temperature at least 80% of the time and offers a source of...

  6. Turbulent Dispersion of Film Coolant in a Turbine Vane Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapa, Sayuri; Elkins, Christopher; Eaton, John

    2012-11-01

    Gas turbine engines operate at peak temperatures in excess of the material limits because the high pressure turbine nozzles and buckets are film cooled. The nozzle vanes of the first stage turbine use the most cooling air because they are exposed directly to the high temperature combustor exhaust. Existing turbine analysis assumes a uniform temperature at the rotor inlet. However, the coolant does not mix completely with the mainstream flow before impinging on the turbine rotor, and the coolant streaks create variations in temperature along the leading edge of the downstream turbine blades. 3D velocity and concentration measurements are made using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques to study turbulent mixing in a realistic film-cooled nozzle vane cascade. A scalar mixing analogy for thermal diffusion is used in which a chemical contaminant plays the role of temperature. In a typical experiment, the mainstream flow is water and the film coolant is a copper sulfate solution. The concentration of copper sulfate measured anywhere in the flow is a surrogate for normalized temperature. The turbulent scalar diffusivity in the scalar transport equation can be estimated from the MR data and used to improve computational fluid dynamics models. Army Research Office.

  7. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  8. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  9. Muir Inlet

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This ship-deck-based photograph of Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, is taken towards the north-northwest and shows the nearly 50-m-high retreating tidewater terminus of the glacier with part of its face capped by a few angular sé...

  10. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  11. Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution temporal and spatial scales of evolution. In addition, there are environmental concerns about transport of the Coastal Modeling System to long-term evolution at inlets and the development of a sediment sampling

  12. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  13. Coolant pressure and airflow distribution in a strut-supported transpiration-cooled vane for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Poferl, D. J.; Richards, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.

  14. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  15. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k--o turbulence model produced a mean flow velocity profile at the middle of the annular diffuser portion that had the best overall match with the experiment. The RNG k --epsilon, however, better predicted the diffuser performance along the exhaust diffuser length by means of the pressure recovery coefficient. These results were obtained using uniform inflow conditions and steady-state simulations. As such, the last phase of our investigations involved varying the inflow parameters like the turbulence intensity, the inlet flow temperature, and the flow angularity, which constitute important characteristics of the turbine blade wake, to investigate their impact on the diffuser design and performance. These isothermal CFD simulations revealed that by changing the flow temperature from 15 to 427°C, the pressure recovery coefficient significantly increased. However, it has been shown that the increase of temperature had no effects on the size of the reversed flow region and the thickness of the separated casing boundary layer, although the flow appears to be more turbulent. Furthermore, it has been established that an optimum turbulence intensity of about 4% produced comparable diffuser performance as the experiment. We also found that a velocity angle of about 2.5° at the last turbine stage will ensure a better exhaust diffuser performance.

  16. Influence of HTR core inlet and outlet temperatures on hydrogen generation efficiency using the sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, Robert; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben; Lovera, Patrick; Carles, Philippe; Borgard, Jean-Marc; Yvon, Pascal

    2012-04-15

    The performance of hydrogen production via thermochemical cycles is typically evaluated using thermal efficiency. In this study, the sulfur-iodine cycle with heat supplied by a high-temperature reactor (HTR) is analyzed. Two cases are examined: one flow sheet designed by General Atomics in the United States, the other by Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives in France. In each case, HTR helium inlet and outlet temperatures are specified. Differences in these temperature specifications lead to process variations between the limy sheets and in how the hydrogen processes interface with the nuclear heat source. Two principal conclusions result from the analysis. First, the thermal efficiency tends to plateau above a certain outlet helium temperature. This is a characteristic effect of the method of Ozturk et al. for sulfuric acid decomposition. Second, it is clear that it is impractical to discuss efficiencies for the hydrogen process that are independent of defined operating parameters of the HTR. (authors)

  17. Preparation and properties of inhalable nanocomposite particles: effects of the temperature at a spray-dryer inlet upon the properties of particles.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Keishiro; Ohkoshi, Takumi; Kawai, Yusaku; Nishiwaki, Motoko; Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko

    2008-02-15

    To overcome the disadvantages both of microparticles and nanoparticles for inhalation, we have prepared nanocomposite particles as drug carriers targeting lungs. The nanocomposite particles having sizes about 2.5 microm composed of sugar and drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles can reach deep in the lungs, and they are decomposed into drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in the alveoli. Sugar was used as a binder of PLGA nanoparticles to be nanocomposite particles and is soluble in alveolar lining fluid. The primary nanoparticles containing bioactive materials were prepared by using a probe sonicator. And then they were spray dried with carrier materials, such as trehalose and lactose. The effects of inlet temperature of spray dryer were studied between 60 and 120 degrees C and the kind of sugars upon properties of nanocomposite particles. When the inlet temperatures were 80 and 90 degrees C, nanocomposite particles with average diameters of about 2.5 microm are obtained and they are decomposed into primary nanoparticles in water, in both sugars are used as a binder. But, those prepared above 100 degrees C are not decomposed into nanoparticles in water, while the average diameter was almost 2.5 microm. On the other hand, nanocomposite particles prepared at lower inlet temperatures have larger sizes but better redispersion efficiency in water. By the measurements of aerodynamic diameters of the nanocomposite particles prepared with trehalose at 70, 80, and 90 degrees C, it was shown that the particles prepared at 80 degrees C have the highest fine particle fraction (FPF) value and the particles are suitable for pulmonary delivery of bioactive materials deep in the lungs. Meanwhile the case with lactose, the particles prepared at 90 degrees C have near the best FPF value but they have many particles larger than 11 microm. PMID:17890065

  18. Preliminary Study on Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Coolant of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor with MOX and Minor Actinides Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia, A. F.; Waris, A.; Novitrian

    2010-06-22

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an uranium oxide (UO2) fuel, graphite moderator and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg. C. Instead of using helium gas, we have utilized carbon dioxide as a coolant in the present study. Beside that, uranium and plutonium oxide (mixed oxide, MOX) and minor actinides have been employed as a new fuel type of HTTR. Utilization of plutonium and minor actinide is one of the support system to non-proliferation issue in the nuclear development. The enrichment for uranium oxide has been varied of 6-20% with plutonium and minor actinides concentration of 10%. In this study, burnup period is 1100 days. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. Reactor core calculation was done by using CITATION module. The result shows that HTTR can achieve its criticality condition with 14% of {sup 235}U enrichment.

  19. Preliminary Study on Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Coolant of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor with MOX and Minor Actinides Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzia, A. F.; Waris, A.; Novitrian

    2010-06-01

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an uranium oxide (UO2) fuel, graphite moderator and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 950° C. Instead of using helium gas, we have utilized carbon dioxide as a coolant in the present study. Beside that, uranium and plutonium oxide (mixed oxide, MOX) and minor actinides have been employed as a new fuel type of HTTR. Utilization of plutonium and minor actinide is one of the support system to non-proliferation issue in the nuclear development. The enrichment for uranium oxide has been varied of 6-20% with plutonium and minor actinides concentration of 10%. In this study, burnup period is 1100 days. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. Reactor core calculation was done by using CITATION module. The result shows that HTTR can achieve its criticality condition with 14% of 235U enrichment.

  20. In order to achieve higher gas turbine efficiency, the main gas temperature at turbine inlet has been steadily increased from approximately 900C to about 1500C over the last few decades.

    E-print Network

    In order to achieve higher gas turbine efficiency, the main gas temperature at turbine inlet has. This temperature is higher than the maximum acceptable temperature for turbine internals. The hot main gas may get the purge air is typically bled off the compressor discharge, this reducing the overall gas turbine

  1. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 ?L sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 ?L sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 ?g/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ? 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ? 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  2. Experimental investigations of heat transfer and temperature fields in models simulating fuel assemblies used in the core of a nuclear reactor with a liquid heavy-metal coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Genin, L. G.; Krylov, S. G.; Novikov, A. O.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this experimental investigation is to obtain information on the temperature fields and heat transfer coefficients during flow of liquid-metal coolant in models simulating an elementary cell in the core of a liquid heavy metal cooled fast-neutron reactor. Two design versions for spacing fuel rods in the reactor core were considered. In the first version, the fuel rods were spaced apart from one another using helical wire wound on the fuel rod external surface, and in the second version spacer grids were used for the same purpose. The experiments were carried out on the mercury loop available at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University's Chair of Engineering Thermal Physics. Two experimental sections simulating an elementary cell for each of the fuel rod spacing versions were fabricated. The temperature fields were investigated using a dedicated hinged probe that allows temperature to be measured at any point of the studied channel cross section. The heat-transfer coefficients were determined using the wall temperature values obtained at the moment when the probe thermocouple tail end touched the channel wall. Such method of determining the wall temperature makes it possible to alleviate errors that are unavoidable in case of measuring the wall temperature using thermocouples placed in slots milled in the wall. In carrying out the experiments, an automated system of scientific research was applied, which allows a large body of data to be obtained within a short period of time. The experimental investigations in the first test section were carried out at Re = 8700, and in the second one, at five values of Reynolds number. Information about temperature fields was obtained by statistically processing the array of sampled probe thermocouple indications at 300 points in the experimental channel cross section. Reach material has been obtained for verifying the codes used for calculating velocity and temperature fields in channels with an intricately shaped cross section simulating the flow pass sections for liquid-metal coolants cooling the core of nuclear reactors.

  3. Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda; Ryan Dalling

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  4. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  5. Exploratory Investigation of Transpiration Cooling of a 40 deg Double Wedge using Nitrogen and Helium as Coolants at Stagnation Temperatures from 1,295 deg F to 2,910 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashis, Bernard

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of transpiration cooling has been conducted in the preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. The model consisted of a double wedge of 40 deg included angle having a porous stainless-steel specimen inserted flush with the top surface of the wedge. The tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 for stagnation temperatures ranging from 1,295 F to 2,910 F. Nitrogen and helium were used as coolants and tests were conducted for values ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.30 percent of the local weight flow rate. The data for both the nitrogen and helium coolants indicated greater cooling effectiveness than that predicted by theory and were in good agreement with the results for an 8 deg cone tested at a stagnation temperature of 600 F. The results indicate that the helium coolant, for the same amount of heat-transfer reduction, requires only about one-fourth to one-fifth the coolant flow weight as the nitrogen coolant.

  6. Afterburner Performance of Circular V-Gutters and a Sector of Parallel V-Gutters for a Range of Inlet Temperatures to 1255 K (1800 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandstetter, J. Robert; Reck, Gregory M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion tests of two V-gutter types were conducted in a 19.25-in. diameter duct using vitiated air. Fuel spraybars were mounted in line with the V-gutters. Combustor length was set by flame-quench water sprays which were part of a calorimeter for measuring combustion efficiency. Although the levels of performance of the parallel and circular array afterburners were different, the trends with geometry variations were consistent. Therefore, parallel arrays can be used for evaluating V-gutter geometry effects on combustion performance. For both arrays, the highest inlet temperature produced combustion efficiencies near 100 percent. A 5-in. spraybar - to - V-gutter spacing gave higher efficiency and better lean blowout performance than a spacing twice as large. Gutter durability was good.

  7. Development of Wing Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racisz, Stanley F.

    1946-01-01

    Lift, drag, internal flow, and pressure distribution measurements were made on a low-drag airfoil incorporating various air inlet designs. Two leading-edge air inlets are developed which feature higher lift coefficients and critical Mach than the basic airfoil. Higher lift coefficients and critical speeds are obtained for leading half of these inlet sections but because of high suction pressures near exist, slightly lower critical speeds are obtained for the entire inlet section than the basic airfoil.

  8. Lead Coolant Test Facility - Design Concept and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Soli Khericha, Ph. D.

    2011-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements are identified in this paper: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing Across these five broad areas are supported by twenty-one specific requirements. The purpose of this facility is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  9. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Coico, Patrick A.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2015-09-15

    A method is provided for fabricating a cooling apparatus for cooling an electronics rack, which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures, and a tube. The heat exchanger is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  10. MHD Analysis of Dual Coolant Pb-17Li Blanket for ARIES-CS C. Mistrangelo1

    E-print Network

    Raffray, A. René

    MHD Analysis of Dual Coolant Pb-17Li Blanket for ARIES-CS C. Mistrangelo1 , A. R. Raffray2 of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0438, USA, rraffray@ucsd.edu A dual coolant Pb-17Li (DCLL) blanketLi channels, serving both as thermal and electrical insulator. The goal is to optimize the Pb-17Li inlet

  11. Hydrodynamic, thermal, and thermophysical characteristics of some porous materials in high-temperature flows and coolant gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanov, A. N.

    1992-06-01

    Knowledge of the accurate hydrodynamical and thermophysical constants of porous materials and their dependence on temperature, porosity, and other parameters is essential in theoretical studies concerned with the strength, filtration, and thermophysical characteristics of porous materials used for the thermal protection of structures. Here, some of these constants are determined on the basis of wind-tunnel test results. The principal parameters of several porous materials (including materials based on stainless steel, nichrome, metal ceramics, molybdenum, and tungsten) are presented.

  12. Atmospheric effects on inlets for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed-compression inlet dynamic behavior in the vicinity of unstart, was simulated and analyzed to investigate time response of an inlet's normal shock to independent disturbances in ambient temperature and pressure and relative velocity (longitudinal gust), with and without inlet controls active. The results indicate that atmospheric disturbances may be more important than internal disturbances in setting inlet controls requirements because they are usually not anticipated and because normal shock response to rapid atmospheric disturbances is not attenuated by the inlet, as it is for engine induced disturbances. However, before inlet control requirements can be fully assessed, more statistics on extreme atmospheric disturbances are needed.

  13. Experimental investigation of coolant-flow characteristics of a sintered porous turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoo, Edward R; Schafer, Louis J , Jr; Richards, Hadley T

    1952-01-01

    Local cooling-air flow rates through the walls of a sintered porous-metal turbine blade were measured at room temperature for a range of pressure drops. In order to check the validity of the correlation procedure, this procedure was used to correlate air-flow rates thorough two porous disks at temperatures up to 600 degrees F.245:00:Experimental investigation of coolant Data indicate the method permits room-temperature flow data to be used for heat-transfer work at elevated temperatures with reasonable accurach. Cooling-air flow distribution around the periphery of the test blade is presented for two internal cooling air pressures with the blade in a 1000 degrees Fahrenheit gas stream at a cascade-inlet Mach number of 0.45.

  14. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  15. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  16. Autoignition in a premixing-prevaporizing fuel duct using 3 different fuel injection systems at inlet air temperatures to 1250 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct at which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250 K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel number 2. The duct was insulated and had an inside diameter of 12 cm. Three different fuel injection systems were used: One was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the references and correlated with an Arrenhius expression. The data obtained with the other multiple source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.

  17. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  18. Attic Inlet Technology Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attic inlets are a popular addition for new construction and energy saving retrofits. Proper management of attic inlets is necessary to get maximum benefits from the system and reduce the likelihood of moisture-related problems in the structure. Solar energy levels were determined for the continen...

  19. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (6 Stephanie La., Manorville, NY 11949)

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  20. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-09-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  1. MACHINE COOLANT WASTE REDUCTION BY OPTIMIZING COOLANT LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Machine shops use coolants to improve the life and function of machine tools. hese coolants become contaminated with oils with use, and this contamination can lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria and shortened coolant life. his project investigated methods to extend coolant life ...

  2. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.; Smith, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    The use of flow boiling for thermal energy transport is intended to provide an alternative for accommodating higher heat fluxes in commercial space systems. The objectives are to: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls, spiral fins, or both spiral fins and a twisted tape; (2) examine the effects of channel diameter and subcooling; and (3) develop an improved reduction analysis and/or suggest possible heat transfer correlation of the present data. Freon-11 is the working fluid. Two-dimensional (circumferential and axial) wall temperature distributions were measured for coolant channels with the above noted internal geometries. The flow regimes which are being studied are: (1) single phase; (2) subcooled flow boiling; and (3) stratified flow boiling. The inside diameter of all test sections is near 1.0 cm. Cicumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients at several axial locations were obtained for selected coolant channels for a mass velocity of 210 kg/sq m s, an exit pressure of 0.19 MPa (absolute), and an inlet subcooling of 20.8 C. Overall (averaged over the entire channel) heat transfer coefficients were compared for the above channel geometries. This comparison showed that the channel with large pitch spiral fins had higher heat transfer coefficients at all power levels.

  3. Ribbed Coolant Liners for Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Coolant-carrying liner for combustion chambers runs cooler and tolerates high-temperature excursions without burning out. Hot gases flowing through core prevented by liner from damaging shell. Concept applicable to such high-temperature chambers as rocket pre-burners, turbojet cans, stationary-turbine combustors, oil burners, and high-pressure chemical reactors.

  4. Microstructural analysis of MTR fuel plates damaged by a coolant flow blockage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Joppen, F.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-10-01

    In 1975, as a result of a blockage of the coolant inlet flow, two plates of a fuel element of the BR2 reactor of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) were partially melted. The fuel element consisted of Al-clad plates with 90% 235U enriched UAl x fuel dispersed in an Al matrix. The element had accumulated a burn up of 21% 235U before it was removed from the reactor. Recently, the damaged fuel plates were sent to the hot laboratory for detailed PIE. Microstructural changes and associated temperature markers were used to identify several stages in the progression to fuel melting. It was found that the temperature in the center of the fuel plate had increased above 900-950 °C before the reactor was scrammed. In view of the limited availability of such datasets, the results of this microstructural analysis provide valuable input in the analysis of accident scenarios for research reactors.

  5. Jet Impingement Quenching: Effect of Coolant Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwa, Nitin; Stephan, Peter

    2012-11-01

    During quenching of wide steel plates with impinging water jets in the accelerated cooling section of a plate mill, the coolant accumulates over the plate. In this study, the effect of coolant accumulation on the heat transfer rate during jet impingement quenching has been investigated. In these experiments, the coolant accumulates over the impingement surface of the test specimen within a volume created by assembling a ceramic tube length around the test specimen. The quenching rate with and without the accumulation of coolant are compared. The propagation of the wetting front is decelerated due to the accumulation of coolant. The reduction in the jet impingement momentum as it passes through the accumulated layer of coolant and the obstruction to the radial outflow of the released vapor by the ceramic tube are the likely reasons for this observation. The maximum heat flux value, analogous to the critical heat flux condition of steady state pool boiling, decreases due to accumulation, but the corresponding temperature shows little dependence on accumulation. This study contributes to further the understanding of the jet impingement quenching process.

  6. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  7. Safety and environmental aspects of organic coolants for fusion facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R. E.; Gierszewski, P.

    1993-06-01

    Organic coolants, such as OS-84, offer unique advantages for fusion reactor applications. These advantages are with respect to both reactor operation and safety. The key operational advantage is a coolant that can provide high temperature (350-400°C) at modest pressure (2-4 MPa). These temperatures are needed for conditioning the plasma-facing components and, in reactors, for achieving high thermodynamic conversion efficiencies (>40%). The key safety advantage of organic coolants is the low vapor pressure, which significantly reduces the containment pressurization transient (relative to water) following a loss of coolant event. Also, from an occupational dose viewpoint, organic coolants significantly reduce corrosion and erosion inside the cooling system and consequently reduce the quantity of activation products deposited in cooling system equipment. On the negative side, organic coolants undergo both pyrolytic and radiolytic decomposition, and are flammable. While the decomposition rate can be minimized by coolant system design (by reducing coolant inventories exposed to neutron flux and to high temperatures), decomposition products are formed and these degrade the coolant properties. Both heavy compounds and light gases are produced from the decomposition process, and both must be removed to maintain adequate coolant properties. As these hydrocarbons may become tritiated by permeation, or activated through impurities, their disposal could create an environmental concern. Because of this potential waste disposal problem, consideration has been given to the recycling of both the light and heavy products, thereby reducing the quantity of waste to be disposed. Preliminary assessments made for various fusion reactor designs, including ITER, suggest that it is feasible to use organic coolants for several applications. These applications range from first wall and blanket coolant (the most demanding with respect to decomposition), to shield and vacuum vessel cooling, to an intermediate cooling loop removing heat from a liquid metal loop and transferring it to a steam generator or heat exchanger.

  8. Environmentally Friendly Coolant System

    SciTech Connect

    David Jackson Principal Investigator

    2011-11-08

    Energy reduction through the use of the EFCS is most improved by increasing machining productivity. Throughout testing, nearly all machining operations demonstrated less land wear on the tooling when using the EFCS which results in increased tool life. These increases in tool life advance into increased productivity. Increasing productivity reduces cycle times and therefore reduces energy consumption. The average energy savings by using the EFCS in these machining operations with these materials is 9%. The advantage for end milling stays with flood coolant by about 6.6% due to its use of a low pressure pump. Face milling and drilling are both about 17.5% less energy consumption with the EFCS than flood coolant. One additional result of using the EFCS is improved surface finish. Certain machining operations using the EFCS result in a smoother surface finish. Applications where finishing operations are required will be able to take advantage of the improved finish by reducing the time or possibly eliminating completely one or more finishing steps and thereby reduce their energy consumption. Some machining operations on specific materials do not show advantages for the EFCS when compared to flood coolants. More information about these processes will be presented later in the report. A key point to remember though, is that even with equivalent results, the EFCS is replacing petroleum based coolants whose production produces GHG emissions and create unsafe work environments.

  9. A Heated Tube Facility for Rocket Coolant Channel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Pease, Gary M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The capabilities of a heated tube facility used for testing rocket engine coolant channels at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The facility uses high current, low voltage power supplies to resistively heat a test section to outer wall temperatures as high as 730 C (1350 F). Liquid or gaseous nitrogen, gaseous helium, or combustible liquids can be used as the test section coolant. The test section is enclosed in a vacuum chamber to minimize heat loss to the surrounding system. Test section geometry, size, and material; coolant properties; and heating levels can be varied to generate heat transfer and coolant performance data bases.

  10. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  11. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  12. Development of Figure of Merits (FOMs) for Intermediate Coolant Characterization and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on characterization of several coolant performances in the IHTL. There are lots of choices available for the IHTL coolants; gases, liquid metals, molten salts, and etc. Traditionally, the selection of coolants is highly dependent on engineer's experience and decisions. In this decision, the following parameters are generally considered: melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. The followings are general thermal-hydraulic requirements for the coolant in the IHTL: (1) High heat transfer performance - The IHTL coolant should exhibit high heat transfer performance to achieve high efficiency and economics; (2) Low pumping power - The IHTL coolant requires low pumping power to improve economics through less stringent pump requirements; (3) Low amount of coolant volume - The IHTL coolant requires less coolant volume for better economics; (4) Low amount of structural materials - The IHTL coolant requires less structural material volume for better economics; (5) Low heat loss - The IHTL requires less heat loss for high efficiency; and (6) Low temperature drop - The IHTL should allow less temperature drop for high efficiency. Typically, heat transfer coolants are selected based on various fluid properties such as melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. However, the selection process & results are highly dependent on the engineer's personal experience and skills. In the coolant selection, if a certain coolant shows superior properties with respect to the others, the decision will be very straightforward. However, generally, each coolant material exhibits good characteristics for some properties but poor for the others. Therefore, it will be very useful to have some figures of merits (FOMs), which can represent and quantify various coolant thermal performances in the system of interest. The study summarized in this paper focuses on developing general FOMs for the IHTL coolant selection and shows some estimation results.

  13. Computation of Space Shuttle high-pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous two-phase fluid flow model, implemented in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using computational fluid dynamics methodology is described. The application of the model to the analysis of the pump-end bearing coolant flow of the high-pressure oxygen turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine is studied. Results indicate large boiling zones and hot spots near the ball/race contact points. The extent of the phase change of the liquid oxygen coolant flow due to the frictional and viscous heat fluxes near the contact areas has been investigated for the given inlet conditions of the coolant.

  14. Subcooled freon-11 flow boiling in top-heated finned coolant channels with and without a twisted tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alvin; Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in top-heated finned horizontal tubes to study the effect of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in coolant channels. The objectives are to examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for circular coolant channels with spiral finned walls and/or spiral fins with a twisted tape, and improve the data reduction technique of a previous investigator. The working fluid is freon-11 with an inlet temperature of 22.2 C (approximately 21 C subcooling). The coolant channel's exit pressure and mass velocity are 0.19 M Pa (absolute) and 0.21 Mg/sq. ms, respectively. Two tube configurations were examined; i.e., tubes had either 6.52 (small pitch) or 4.0 (large pitch) fins/cm of the circumferential length (26 and 16 fins, respectively). The large pitch fins were also examined with a twisted tape insert. The inside nominal diameter of the copper channels at the root of the fins was 1.0 cm. The results show that by adding enhancement devices, boiling occurs almost simultaneously at all axial locations. The case of spiral fins with large pitch resulted in larger mean (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficients, h sub m, at all axial locations. Finally, when twisted tape is added to the tube with large-pitched fins, the power required for the onset of boiling is reduced at all axial and circumferential locations.

  15. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  16. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  17. Inlet shear heating in elastohydrodynamic lubrication.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, J. A.; Kauzlarich, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    In elastohydrodynamic lubrication, the oil film thickness of rollers is controlled by the rate at which the oil is drawn into the conjunction of the disks by the moving surfaces of the rollers. The theory often assumes isothermal conditions in the inlet, although it can be shown that the maximum shear rate often exceeds 1,000,000 per sec, even in pure rolling. A theoretical analysis is presented for the oil temperature rise in the inlet of rollers, and the result is applied to predict the consequent film thickness. It is found that thermal effects on film thickness are only negligible at low rolling speeds. A comparison with experiment supports the conclusion that the thinning of the film thickness below that predicted by isothermal theory is substantially explained by inlet shear heating of the lubricant.

  18. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-07-15

    The reactor transient caused by a perturbation of boron concentration or coolant temperature at the inlet of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) depends on the mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Initial steep gradients are partially lessened by turbulent mixing with coolant from the unaffected loops and with the water inventory of the RPV. Nevertheless the assumption of an ideal mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the reactor leads to unrealistically small reactivity inserts. The uncertainties between ideal mixing and total absence of mixing are too large to be acceptable for safety analyses. In reality, a partial mixing takes place. For realistic predictions it is necessary to study the mixing within the three-dimensional flow field in the complicated geometry of a PWR. For this purpose a 1:5 scaled model [the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM) facility] of the German PWR KONVOI was built. Compared to other experiments, the emphasis was put on extensive measuring instrumentation and a maximum of flexibility of the facility to cover as much as possible different test scenarios. The use of special electrode-mesh sensors together with a salt tracer technique provided distributions of the disturbance within downcomer and core entrance with a high resolution in space and time. Especially, the instrumentation of the downcomer gained valuable information about the mixing phenomena in detail. The obtained data were used to support code development and validation. Scenarios investigated are the following: (a) steady-state flow in multiple coolant loops with a temperature or boron concentration perturbation in one of the running loops, (b) transient flow situations with flow rates changing with time in one or more loops, such as pump startup scenarios with deborated slugs in one of the loops or onset of natural circulation after boiling-condenser-mode operation, and (c) gravity-driven flow caused by large density gradients, e.g., mixing of cold emergency core cooling (ECC) water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet, which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  19. Design modification for the modular helium reactor for higher temperature operation and reliability studies for nuclear hydrogen production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, S. M. Mohsin

    Design options have been evaluated for the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) for higher temperature operation. An alternative configuration for the MHR coolant inlet flow path is developed to reduce the peak vessel temperature (PVT). The coolant inlet path is shifted from the annular path between reactor core barrel and vessel wall through the permanent side reflector (PSR). The number and dimensions of coolant holes are varied to optimize the pressure drop, the inlet velocity, and the percentage of graphite removed from the PSR to create this inlet path. With the removal of ˜10% of the graphite from PSR the PVT is reduced from 541°C to 421°C. A new design for the graphite block core has been evaluated and optimized to reduce the inlet coolant temperature with the aim of further reduction of PVT. The dimensions and number of fuel rods and coolant holes, and the triangular pitch have been changed and optimized. Different packing fractions for the new core design have been used to conserve the number of fuel particles. Thermal properties for the fuel elements are calculated and incorporated into these analyses. The inlet temperature, mass flow and bypass flow are optimized to limit the peak fuel temperature (PFT) within an acceptable range. Using both of these modifications together, the PVT is reduced to ˜350°C while keeping the outlet temperature at 950°C and maintaining the PFT within acceptable limits. The vessel and fuel temperatures during low pressure conduction cooldown and high pressure conduction cooldown transients are found to be well below the design limits. The reliability and availability studies for coupled nuclear hydrogen production processes based on the sulfur iodine thermochemical process and high temperature electrolysis process have been accomplished. The fault tree models for both these processes are developed. Using information obtained on system configuration, component failure probability, component repair time and system operating modes and conditions, the system reliability and availability are assessed. Required redundancies are made to improve system reliability and to optimize the plant design for economic performance. The failure rates and outage factors of both processes are found to be well below the maximum acceptable range.

  20. Effect of coolant flow ejection on aerodynamic performance of low-aspect-ratio vanes. 1: Performance with coolant ejection holes plugged

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a low aspect ratio turbine vane designed with coolant flow ejection holes on the vane surfaces was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade with the coolant ejection holes plugged. The purpose was to establish a baseline for comparison with tests where flow is ejected from the vane surfaces. The vanes were tested over a mean-section ideal critical velocity ratio range of 0.64 to 0.98. This ideal critical velocity ratio corresponds to the vane inlet total to vane aftermixed static pressure ratio at the mean section. The variations in vane efficiency and aftermixed flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained.

  1. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  2. Effects of optimized and sub-optimum two degree of freedom lining tolerances on modeled inlet acoustic attenuation and Normal incidence impedance measurement at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, David R.

    This work first investigates the effect of manufacturing tolerances on realized attenuation for two degree-of-freedom linings with the use of lining models and finite element duct propagation codes. Acoustic linings were created for two turbofan engines that optimize attenuation at takeoff/sideline and approach conditions. Lining physical and geometric parameters were set, which best meet the optimum impedance requirements at two target frequencies. Similar linings were created to investigate sub-optimum designs. Variations of these parameters representing realistic manufacturing tolerances were used to systematically examine the effect on installed impedance and predicted attenuation. Attenuation at sideline and approach conditions was found to be sensitive to manufacturing tolerances around optimum conditions. The results of the study are case dependent; however the analysis scheme presented provides a method for cost-benefit analysis of manufacturing processes. In a second study, an impedance tube, with an associated data analysis method, was developed and analyzed for temperature uncertainties that allowed the measurement of impedance of acoustic samples at elevated temperatures. This impedance measurement method was validated at room temperature by comparing the results with predicted impedance from empirically based impedance models and with impedance measurements in a standard traversing microphone impedance tube. Impedance for four samples was measured at elevated temperatures, and the results were compared to room temperature measurements. For two of the samples, the impedances measured at elevated temperatures were compared to the results of extensions of room temperature empirical models, confirming the trend of the results of the elevated temperature measurements.

  3. The influence of humidification and temperature differences between inlet gases on water transport through the membrane of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuan-Jen; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lai, Wei-Hsiang

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses the effects of humidification and temperature differences of the anode and cathode on water transport in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Heaters are used to cause a difference in gas temperature between two electrodes before the gases enter the fuel cell. The results show that when the temperature of the cathode is higher than that of the anode, the electro-osmotic drag is suppressed. In contrast, when the temperature of the anode is higher than that of cathode, it is enhanced. These effects are more significant when the temperature difference between the anode and cathode is greater. The same trends are seen with back diffusion. Three cases are tested, and the results show that the suppression due to the temperature difference occurs even when the relative humidity is low at the hotter side. The water transport tendencies of electro-osmotic drag and back diffusion in different situations can be expressed as dominant percentages calculated by the water masses collected at the anode and cathode. The suppression effect due to the temperature difference is relatively insignificant with regard to back diffusion compared to electro-osmosis, so water tends to accumulate on the anode rather than the cathode side.

  4. Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures in a research engine for gas stream temperatures cycling between 1067 and 1567 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Yeh, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures were obtained from tests conducted on air-cooled blades in a research turbojet engine, cycling between cruise and idle conditions. Transient data were recorded by a high speed data acquisition system. Temperatures at the same phase of each transient cycle were repeatable between cycles to within 3.9 K (7 F). Turbine inlet pressures were repeatable between cycles to within 0.32 N/sq cm (0.47 psia). The tests were conducted at a gas stream temperature of 1567 K (2360 F) at cruise, and 1067 K (1460 F) at idle conditions. The corresponding gas stream pressures were about 26.2 and 22.4 N/sq cm (38 and 32.5 psia) respectively. The nominal coolant inlet temperature was about 811 K (1000 F).

  5. Summary of investigations of engine response to distorted inlet conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Braithwaite, W. M.; Soeder, R. H.; Abdelwahab, M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is presented of experimental and analytical experience of the NASA Lewis Research Center in engine response to inlet temperature and pressure distortions. This includes a description of the hardware and techniques employed, and a summary of the highlights of experimental investigations and analytical modeling. Distortion devices successfully simulated inlet distortion, and knowledge was gained about compression system response to different types of distortion. A list of NASA research references is included.

  6. Coolant mixing in a PWR - de-boration transients, steam line breaks and emergency core cooling injection - experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Prasser, H.M.; Grunwald, G.; Hoehne, Th.; Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.P.

    2002-07-01

    The reactor transient caused by a perturbation of boron concentration or coolant temperature at the inlet of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) depends on the mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel. Initial steep gradients are partially lessened by turbulent mixing with coolant from the unaffected loops and with the water inventory of the reactor pressure vessel. Nevertheless the assumption of an ideal mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the reactor leads to un-realistically small reactivity inserts. The uncertainties between ideal mixing and total absence of mixing are too large to be acceptable for safety analyses. In reality, a partial mixing takes place. For realistic predictions it is necessary to study the mixing within the three-dimensional flow field in the complicated geometry of a PWR. For this purpose a 1:5 scaled model (the ROCOM facility) of the German PWR KONVOI was built. Compared to other experiments, the emphasis was put on extensive measuring instrumentation and a maximum of flexibility of the facility to cover as much as possible different test scenarios. The use of special electrode-mesh sensors together with a salt tracer technique provided distributions of the disturbance within downcomer and core entrance with a high resolution in space and time. Especially the instrumentation of the downcomer gained valuable information about the mixing phenomena in detail. The obtained data was used to support code development and validation. Scenarios investigated are: (1) Steady-state flow in multiple coolant loops with a temperature or boron concentration perturbation in one of the running loops. (2) Transient flow situations with flow rates changing with time in one or more loops, such as pump start-up scenarios with deborated plugs in one of the loops or onset of natural circulation after boiling-condenser-mode operation. (3) Gravity driven flow caused by large density gradients, e.g. mixing of cold emergency core cooling water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet. which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. CFD calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments. (authors)

  7. Coolant-side heat-transfer rates for a hydrogen-oxygen rocket and a new technique for data correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacht, R. L.; Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-side, heat transfer coefficients for a liquid cooled, hydrogen-oxygen rocket thrust chamber. Heat transfer rates were determined from measurements of local hot gas wall temperature, local coolant temperature, and local coolant pressure. A correlation incorporating an integration technique for the transport properties needed near the pseudocritical temperature of liquid hydrogen gives a satisfactory prediction of hot gas wall temperatures.

  8. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  9. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  10. 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The following compilation of documents includes a list of the 66 attendees, a copy of the viewgraphs presented, and a summary of the discussions held after each session at the 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute, adjacent to the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio on December 12-13, 1996. The workshop was organized by H. Joseph Gladden and Steven A. Hippensteele of NASA Lewis Research Center. Participants in this workshop included Coolant Flow Management team members from NASA Lewis, their support service contractors, the turbine engine companies, and the universities. The participants were involved with research projects, contracts and grants relating to: (1) details of turbine internal passages, (2) computational film cooling capabilities, and (3) the effects of heat transfer on both sides. The purpose of the workshop was to assemble the team members, along with others who work in gas turbine cooling research, to discuss needed research and recommend approaches that can be incorporated into the Center's Coolant Flow Management program. The workshop was divided into three sessions: (1) Internal Coolant Passage Presentations, (2) Film Cooling Presentations, and (3) Coolant Flow Integration and Optimization. Following each session there was a group discussion period.

  11. Analysis of the effects on life of leading-edge holes in an airfoil subjected to arbitrary spanwise and chordwise temperature distributions. [structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of temperature gradients, cooling-hole rim and bulk metal temperatures, and mechanical stress were investigated by using a finite-element structural analysis of a symmetrical airfoil with and without leading-edge holes. The results indicate that leading-edge film cooling is beneficial when large chordwise temperature gradients exist and if the cooling-hole rim temperatures are above the bulk metal temperature. The effects of film cooling at other locations on the airfoil were not considered, and the relative merits of convection or film cooling at the leading edge, in terms of allowable turbine inlet temperature or coolant flow requirements, were not evaluated.

  12. Long life coolant pump technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts were investigated to improve space system coolant pump technology to be suitable for mission durations of two years and greater. These design concepts included an improved bearing system for the pump rotating elements, consisting of pressurized conical bearings. This design was satisfactorily endurance tested as was a new prototype pump built using various other improved design concepts. Based upon an overall assessment of the results of the program it is concluded that reliable coolant pumps can be designed for three year space missions.

  13. Investigation of "6X" Scramjet Inlet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This work represents an initial attempt to determine what, if any, issues arise from scaling demonstration supersonic combustion scramjets to a flight scale making the engine a viable candidate for both military weapon and civilian access to space applications. The original vehicle sizes tested and flown to date, were designed to prove a concept. With the proven designs, use of the technology for applications as weapon systems or space flight are only possible at six to ten times the original scale. To determine effects of scaling, computations were performed with hypersonic inlets designed to operate a nominal Mach 4 and Mach 5 conditions that are possible within the eight foot high temperature tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The total pressure recovery for these inlets is about 70%, while maintaining self start conditions, and providing operable inflow to combustors. Based on this study, the primary scaling effect detected is the strength of a vortex created along the cowl edge causing adverse boundary layer growth in the inlet.

  14. On-site profiling and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at manufactured gas plant sites by a high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe coupled to a photoionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Considine; Albert Robbat Jr.

    2008-02-15

    A new high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe (HTTL-MIP) coupled to a photoionization detector (PID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to rapidly profile and speciate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the subsurface. PID signals were in agreement with GC/MS results. Correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.99 were obtained for discrete and composite samples collected from the same exact location. Continuous probe advancement with PID detection found coal tar, a dense nonaqueous phase liquid, in soil channels and saturated media. When samples were collected conventionally, split, solvent extracted, and analyzed in the field and confirmation laboratory, GC/MS measurement precision and accuracy were indistinguishable; despite the fact the field laboratory produced data five times faster than the laboratory using standard EPA methods. No false positive/negatives were found. Based on these findings, increased confidence in site conceptual models should be obtained, since PID response indicated total PAH presence/absence in 'real-time', while GC/MS provided information as to which PAH was present and at what concentration. Incorporation of this tool into a dynamic workplan will provide more data at less cost enabling environmental scientists, engineers, and regulators to better understand coal tar migration and its impact on human health and the environment. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  16. High-speed inlet research program and supporting analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltrin, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A Mach 5 cruise aircraft was studied in a joint program effort. The propulsion system chosen for this aircraft was an over-under turbojet/ramjet system. The ramjet portion of the inlet is to be tested in NASA Lewis' 10 x 10 SWT. Goals of the test program are to obtain performance data and bleed requirements, and also to obtain analysis code validation data. Supporting analysis of the inlet using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code (PEPSIS) indicates that sidewall shock/boundary layer interactions cause large separated regions in the corners underneath the cowl. Such separations generally lead to inlet unstart, and are thus a major concern. As a result of the analysis, additional bleed regions were added to the inlet model sidewalls and cowl to control separations in the corners. A two-dimensional analysis incorporating bleed on the ramp is also presented. Supporting experiments for the Mach 5 programs were conducted in the Lewis' 1 x 1 SWT. A small-scale model representing the inlet geometry up to the ramp shoulder and cowl lip was tested to verify the accelerator plate test technique and to obtain data on flow migration in the ramp and sidewall boundary layers. Another study explored several ramp bleed configurations to control boundary layer separations in that region. Design of a two-dimensional Mach 5 cruise inlet represents several major challenges including multimode operation and dual flow, high temperatures, and three-dimensional airflow effects.

  17. Data center coolant switch

    DOEpatents

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  18. System and method for determining coolant level and flow velocity in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brisson, Bruce William; Morris, William Guy; Zheng, Danian; Monk, David James; Fang, Biao; Surman, Cheryl Margaret; Anderson, David Deloyd

    2013-09-10

    A boiling water reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel having a feedwater inlet for the introduction of recycled steam condensate and/or makeup coolant into the vessel, and a steam outlet for the discharge of produced steam for appropriate work. A fuel core is located within a lower area of the pressure vessel. The fuel core is surrounded by a core shroud spaced inward from the wall of the pressure vessel to provide an annular downcomer forming a coolant flow path between the vessel wall and the core shroud. A probe system that includes a combination of conductivity/resistivity probes and/or one or more time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes is at least partially located within the downcomer. The probe system measures the coolant level and flow velocity within the downcomer.

  19. Transpiration cooling using air as a coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru; Sakagushi, Katsuji; Shibutani, Hideki )

    1993-02-01

    Transpiration cooling is one of the most effective techniques for protecting a surface exposed to a high-temperature gas stream. In the present paper, the transpiration cooling effectiveness was measured under steady state. Air as a coolant was transpired from the surface of a porous plate exposed to hot gas stream, and the transpiration rate was varied in the range of 0.001 [approximately] 0.006. The transpiration cooling effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the temperature of the upper surface of the plate. Also, a theoretical study was performed and it was clarified that the effectiveness increases with increasing transpiration rate and heat-transfer coefficient of the upper surface. Further, the effectiveness was expressed as a function of the blowing parameter only. The agreement between the experimental results and theoretical ones was satisfactory.

  20. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  1. IPAC-Inlet Performance Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of analyses have been developed which permit the calculation of the performance of common inlet designs. The methods presented are useful for determining the inlet weight flows, total pressure recovery, and aerodynamic drag coefficients for given inlet geometric designs. Limited geometric input data is required to use this inlet performance prediction methodology. The analyses presented here may also be used to perform inlet preliminary design studies. The calculated inlet performance parameters may be used in subsequent engine cycle analyses or installed engine performance calculations for existing uninstalled engine data.

  2. TiAl Scramjet Inlet Flap Subelement Designed and Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation launch vehicles are being designed with turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems having very aggressive thrust/weight targets and long lives. Achievement of these goals requires advanced materials in a wide spectrum of components. TiAl has been identified as a potential backstructure material for maintainable composite panel heat exchangers (HEX) in the inlet, combustor, and nozzle section of a TBCC propulsion system. Weight reduction is the primary objective of this technology. Design tradeoff studies have assessed that a TiAl structure, utilizing a high-strength, hightemperature TiAl alloy called Gamma MET PX,1 reduce weight by 41 to 48 percent in comparison to the baseline Inconel 718 configuration for the TBCC propulsion system inlet, combustor, and nozzle. A collaborative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, Pratt & Whitney, Engineering Evaluation & Design, PLANSEE AG (Austria), and the Austrian Space Agency was undertaken to design, manufacture, and validate a Gamma-MET PX TiAl structure for scramjet applications. The TiAl inlet flap was designed with segmented flaps to improve manufacturability, to better control thermal distortion and thermal stresses, and to allow for maintainable HEX segments. The design philosophy was to avoid excessively complicated shapes, to minimize the number of stress concentrations, to keep the part sizes reasonable to match processing capabilities, and to avoid risky processes such as welding. The conceptual design used a standard HEX approach with a double-pass coolant concept for centrally located manifolds. The flowpath side was actively cooled, and an insulation package was placed on the external side to save weight. The inlet flap was analyzed structurally, and local high-stress regions were addressed with local reinforcements.

  3. Heat transfer to two-phase air/water mixtures flowing in small tubes with inlet disequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, J. M.; Florschuetz, L. W.; Fiszdon, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The cooling of gas turbine components was the subject of considerable research. The problem is difficult because the available coolant, compressor bleed air, is itself quite hot and has relatively poor thermophysical properties for a coolant. Injecting liquid water to evaporatively cool the air prior to its contact with the hot components was proposed and studied, particularly as a method of cooling for contingency power applications. Injection of a small quantity of cold liquid water into a relatively hot coolant air stream such that evaporation of the liquid is still in process when the coolant contacts the hot component was studied. No approach was found whereby heat transfer characteristics could be confidently predicted for such a case based solely on prior studies. It was not clear whether disequilibrium between phases at the inlet to the hot component section would improve cooling relative to that obtained where equilibrium was established prior to contact with the hot surface.

  4. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  5. Max Data Report Jet Stability versus Inlet Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Bremer, N.

    2015-09-01

    This document describes experiments investigating the effect of inlet geometry on the flow field within a glass tank where two jets mix and impinge upon the lid. The setup mimics the outlet plenum of a fast reactor where core exit flows of different temperatures can mix in ways that induce thermal cycling in neighboring structures.

  6. Flow behavior in inlet guide vanes of radial turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokhey, J.; Tabakoff, W.; Hosny, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Scroll flow is discussed. Streamline pattern and velocity distribution in the guide vanes are calculated. The blade surface temperature distribution is also determined. The effects of the blade shapes and the nozzle channel width on the velocity profiles at inlet to the guide vanes are investigated.

  7. Optimal control of a supersonic inlet to minimize frequency of inlet unstart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Zeller, J. R.; Geyser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the use of modern control theory for the design of controls for a supersonic inlet is described. In particular, the task of controlling a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is formulated as a linear optimal stochastic control and estimation problem. An inlet can exhibit an undesirable instability due to excessive inlet normal shock motion. For the optimal control formulation of the inlet problem, a non quadratic performance index, which is equal to the expected frequency of inlet unstarts, is used. This physically meaningful performance index is minimized for a range of inlet disturbance and measurement noise covariances.

  8. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  9. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, B.

    1995-07-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended.

  10. Oregon inlet: Hydrodynamics, volumetric flux and implications for larval fish transport

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, C.R.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1997-05-01

    The temporal response of Oregon Inlet currents to atmospheric forcing and sea level fluctuations is analyzed using time and frequency domain analysis. Temporally persistent and spatially extensive ebb and flood events are identified using data sets from both within and outside of Oregon Inlet. Prism estimates are made to generate a time series of volumetric flux of water transported through the inlet. Water masses flooding into the Pamlico Sound via Oregon Inlet are identified in temperature (T) and salinity (S) space to determine their source of origin. Correlations are examined between the atmospheric wind field, the main axial slope of the inlet`s water level, inlet flow and T, S properties. Synoptic scale atmospheric wind events are found to dramatically and directly affect the transport of water towards (away from) the inlet on the ocean side, in concert with the contemporaneous transport away from (towards) the inlet on the estuary side, and a subsequent flooding into (out of) the estuary via Oregon Inlet. Thus, while astronomical tidal flooding and ebbing events are shown to be one-sided as coastal waters either set-up or set-down, synoptic scale wind events are shown to be manifested as a two-sided in-phase response set-up and set-down inside and outside the inlet, and thus are extremely effective in driving currents through the inlet. These subinertial frequency flood events are believed to be essential for both the recruitment and subsequent retention of estuarine dependent larval fish from the coastal ocean into Pamlico Sound. Year class strength of these finish may be determined annually by the relative strength and timing of these climatological wind events.

  11. Cooling extensive burns: sprayed coolants can improve initial cooling management - a thermography-based study.

    PubMed

    Schnell, H M; Zaspel, J G

    2008-06-01

    This pilot study was designed to verify whether the spraying of coolant improves initial cooling in extensive burns. The cooling effects of 1l of sprayed water and 5l of poured water (at 22 degrees C) were tested; 53 healthy participants were cooled for 15 min over 18% of their total body surface, twice. Thermographic imaging measured the loss of skin temperature and assessed the homogeneity of cooling. With sprayed coolant the mean decrease of skin temperature was significantly higher (p < 0.003) throughout the entire cooling period and more homogeneous for the first 9 min (p < 0.003), compared with poured coolant. Infrared tympanic thermometry estimated core body temperature; neither poured nor sprayed water caused hypothermia. Even with a fifth of the volume of poured water, sprayed water cooled more efficiently. Thus, we conclude that spraying of coolant improves initial management. PMID:17919818

  12. Design of bioaerosol sampling inlets 

    E-print Network

    Nene, Rohit Ravindra

    2007-09-17

    because the collected sample contained particles with sizes larger than those that would penetrate into the thoracic region of the human lung system. The TSP standard was health-based, and the non-thoracic fraction of the aerosol was not considered... particles that could not enter the thoracic region of the human lung tree. The inlet displayed characteristics independent of wind speed up to 9 km/h (2.5 m/s). Later studies showed there to be problems with both the fractionator and with inadvertent...

  13. Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.

    2000-11-16

    Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

  14. Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, J Howard; Mccafferty, Richard J; Surine, Oakley W

    1947-01-01

    The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket.

  15. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  16. Radial inlet guide vanes for a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Simons, Derrick; York, William; Ziminsky, Willy S

    2013-02-12

    A combustor may include an interior flow path therethrough, a number of fuel nozzles in communication with the interior flow path, and an inlet guide vane system positioned about the interior flow path to create a swirled flow therein. The inlet guide vane system may include a number of windows positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles. The inlet guide vane system may also include a number of inlet guide vanes positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles and adjacent to the windows to create a swirled flow within the interior flow path.

  17. Effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas-turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen from a gas-turbine combustor. Combustor inlet-air temperature ranged from 450 F to 1050 F. The tests were run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NO sub x emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet-air humidity at a constant exponential rate of 19 percent per mass percent water vapor in the air. This decrease of NO sub x emission index with increasing humidity was found to be independent of inlet-air temperature.

  18. Low flight speed acoustic results for a supersonic inlet with auxiliary inlet doors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Glaser, F. W.; Lucas, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A model supersonic inlet with auxiliary inlet doors and bounday layer bleeds was acoustically tested in simulated low speed flight up to Mach 0.2 in the NASA Lewis 9x15 Anechoic Wind Tunnel and statically in the NASA Lewis Anechoic Chamber. A JT8D refan model was used as the noise source. Data were also taken for a CTOL inlet and for an annular inlet with simulated centerbody support struts. Inlet operation with open auxiliary doors increased the blade passage tone by about 10 dB relative to the closed door configuration although noise radiation was primarily through the main inlet rather than the doors. Numerous strong spikes in the noise spectra were associated with the bleed system, and were strongly affected by the centerbody location. The supersonic inlet appeared to suppress multiple pure tone (MPT) generation at the fan source. Inlet length and the presence of support struts were shown not to cause this MPT suppression.

  19. Wave and Wind Effects on Inlet Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.; Wargula, A.; Orescanin, M. M.; Hopkins, J.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and numerical simulations of the water circulation and morphological change in two separate, well-mixed inlets will be compared with each other. Tides, winds, waves, and currents were measured from May 1 to 28, 2012 in and near New River Inlet, NC. Offshore significant wave heights were 0 to 3 m, and wind speeds ranged from 0 to 16 m/s. The long, narrow inlet is about 1000 m wide where it opens onto the ebb shoal, narrows to 100 m wide about 1000 m inland, and connects to the Intracoastal Waterway (which connects to additional ocean inlets about 12 and 36 km north and south, respectively) about 3000 m inland. Tides in the inlet are progressive and inlet flows are in phase with water depths. Measurements also were collected during the summers of 2011-2014, including during Hurricanes Irene and Sandy (offshore significant wave heights > 5 m and winds > 15 m/s), in Katama Bay, MA, which connects to Vineyard Sound via Edgartown Channel and to the Atlantic Ocean via Katama Inlet. During this period, Katama Inlet migrated east about 1000 m, narrowed from 400 to 100 m wide, changed depth from 7 to 2 m, and lengthened from 200 to 1000 m. Tidal flows in Katama Inlet are forced by sea level gradients resulting from the 3-hr phase lag between tides in Vineyard Sound and the Atlantic Ocean. Analyses of the momentum balances suggest that waves drive flows into the mouths of the inlets during storms. The timing of the storms relative to ebb and flood, and wind effects, may affect the discharge and sediment transport through the inlet. Winds and waves also drive alongshore flows on the ebb shoals. Lateral flows at bends in New River Inlet, which may be important to the along-inlet transfer of momentum and to mixing, are affected by winds. The importance of connections to additional inlets in multi-inlet systems will be discussed. Funded by ONR, ASD(R&E), NSF, Sea Grant, and NDSEG.

  20. Comparison of flow rates and pressure profiles for N-sequential inlets and three related seal configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for choked flows of fluid nitrogen over a range of reduced inlet stagnation temperatures (from 0.67 to ambient) and reduced inlet stagnation pressures to 2. Flow rate and pressure profile comparisons are made between N aligned sequential orifice inlets, a 33-tooth labyrinth seal, a 3-step seal, a cylindrical seals and the classic venturi. Seal effectiveness appears strongly dependent on upstream losses and geometry configuration.

  1. A comparison of flow rates and pressure profiles for N-sequential inlets and three related seal configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for choked flows of fluid nitrogen over a range of reduced inlet stagnation temperatures (from 0.67 to ambient) and reduced inlet stagnation pressures to 2. Flow rate and pressure profile comparisons are made between N aligned sequential orifice inlets, a 33-tooth labyrinth seal, a 3-step seal, a cylindrical seals and the classic venturi. Seal effectiveness appears strongly dependent on upstream losses and geometry configuration.

  2. A comparison of flow rates and pressure profiles for N-sequential inlets and three related seal configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for choked flows of fluid nitrogen over a range of reduced inlet stagnation temperatures (from 0.67 to ambient) and reduced inlet stagnation pressures to 2. Flow rate and pressure profile comparisons are made between N aligned sequential orifice inlets, a 33-tooth labyrinth seal, a 3-step seal, a cylindrical seal and the classic venturi. Seal effectiveness appears strongly dependent on upstream losses and geometry configuration.

  3. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  4. External-Compression Supersonic Inlet Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2011-01-01

    A computer code named SUPIN has been developed to perform aerodynamic design and analysis of external-compression, supersonic inlets. The baseline set of inlets include axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional single-duct, axisymmetric outward-turning, and two-dimensional bifurcated-duct inlets. The aerodynamic methods are based on low-fidelity analytical and numerical procedures. The geometric methods are based on planar geometry elements. SUPIN has three modes of operation: 1) generate the inlet geometry from a explicit set of geometry information, 2) size and design the inlet geometry and analyze the aerodynamic performance, and 3) compute the aerodynamic performance of a specified inlet geometry. The aerodynamic performance quantities includes inlet flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The geometry output from SUPIN includes inlet dimensions, cross-sectional areas, coordinates of planar profiles, and surface grids suitable for input to grid generators for analysis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The input data file for SUPIN and the output file from SUPIN are text (ASCII) files. The surface grid files are output as formatted Plot3D or stereolithography (STL) files. SUPIN executes in batch mode and is available as a Microsoft Windows executable and Fortran95 source code with a makefile for Linux.

  5. Lake Worth Inlet Palm Beach Harbor

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;1 Lake Worth Inlet Palm Beach Harbor Palm Beach County, Florida Integrated Feasibility Report, was engaged to conduct the IEPR of the Lake Worth Inlet, Palm Beach Harbor Integrated Feasibility Report and recent rates was added to Section 4.2.3. Clarification on the grouping of asphalt, fuel oil

  6. Copper-triazole interaction and coolant inhibitor depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, L.S.; Fritz, P.O.; Pellet, R.J.; Taylor, S.A.; Van de Ven, P.

    1999-08-01

    To a large extent, the depletion of tolyltriazole (TTZ) observed in several field tests may be attributed to the formation of a protective copper-triazole layer. Laboratory aging studies, shown to correlate with field experience, reveal that copper-TTZ layer formation depletes coolant TTZ levels in a fashion analogous to changes observed in the field. XPS and TPD-MS characterization of the complex formed indicates a strong chemical bond between copper and the adsorbed TTZ which can be desorbed thermally only at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical polarization experiments indicate that the layer provides good copper protection even when TTZ is absent from the coolant phase. Examination of copper cooling system components obtained after extensive field use reveals the presence of a similar protective layer.

  7. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  8. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Higgins, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques, and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  9. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and heat transfer correlations for rotating multipass coolant passages, with and without flow tabulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  10. Research on Supersonic Inlet Bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Phase I data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments project at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are presented which include flow coefficient results for two single-hole boundary-layer bleed configurations. The bleed configurations tested are round holes at inclination angles of 90deg and 20deg both having length-to-diameter ratios of 2.0. Results were obtained at freestream Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92 and unit Reynolds numbers of 0.984, 1.89, and 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Approach boundary-layer data are presented for each flow condition and the flow coefficient results are compared to existing multi-hole data obtained under similar conditions. For the 90deg hole, the single and multi-hole distributions agree fairly well with the exception that under supercritical operation, the multi-hole data chokes at higher flow coefficient levels. This behavior is also observed for the 20deg hole but to a lesser extent. The 20deg hole also shows a markedly different characteristic at subcritical operation. Also presented are preliminary results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of both configurations at the Mach 1.33 and a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Comparison of the results shows the agreement to be very good.

  11. Wind- and Tide-Driven Cross-Inlet Circulation at New River Inlet, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargula, A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cross-channel wind forcing to inlet circulation is examined using observations of winds, waves, water levels, and currents collected in and near New River Inlet, NC during May 2012. Although the direct effect of local wind forcing may be neglected in the subtidal along-inlet momentum balance, which is dominated by the pressure gradient, wave radiation stress gradient, and bottom friction, cross-inlet winds may have a significant effect on along-inlet dynamics by driving cross-inlet flows (approximately 0.1 to 0.3 m/s), which can mix lateral and vertical gradients in momentum and water properties. New River Inlet is 1000 m wide at the mouth and tapers to 100 m wide about 1000 m away from the mouth after two sharp 90° bends. Five colocated pressure gages and current profilers were deployed from the shallow (2-3 m water depth) ebb shoal outside the mouth through the deep (5-10 m depth) inlet channel to 200 m beyond the first 90° bend. The inlet is well mixed, and along-inlet tidal currents ranged from +/- 1.5 m/s, offshore significant wave heights from 0.5 to 2.5 m, and wind speeds from 0 to 16 m/s. Time series of currents and winds were lowpass-filtered to examine subtidal wind effects. At the first 90° bend, both surface and bottom cross-inlet flows were correlated (r2 = 0.6) with cross-inlet wind velocity. On the shallow ebb shoal, the cross-inlet flows also were correlated with cross-inlet wind velocity (r2 = 0.6). Cross-inlet flows exhibited a two-layer response to the wind inside the inlet and a depth-uniform response outside the mouth. The observations will be used to examine the momentum balance governing temporal and spatial variations in cross-inlet wind effects on inlet circulation. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  12. Bleed system design technology for supersonic inlets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A boundary layer bleed system design procedure for supersonic inlets, with emphasis on the selection of bleed hole geometry, is described. Available experimental bleed hole performance data, coupled with bleed drag calculations, show that holes with shallow inclination are superior to holes normal to the surface in terms of overall inlet performance. Recent test results from large-scale inlet models indicate that bleed hole size, bleed hole length, and boundary layer velocity profile upstream of the bleed region are important parameters in the design of an effective and efficient bleed system.

  13. Airflow control system for supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, G. A. (inventor); Sanders, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    In addition to fixed and variable bleed devices provided for controlling the position of a terminal shock wave in a supersonic inlet, a plurality of free piston valves are disposed around the periphery of a cowling of a supersonic engine inlet. The free piston valves are disposed in dump passageways, each of which begin at a bleed port in the cowling that is located in the throat region of the inlet, where the diameter of the centerbody is near maximum, and terminates at an opening in the cowling adjacent a free piston valve. Each valve is controlled by reference pressure.

  14. The Origin of Inlet Buzz in a Mach 1.7 Low Boom Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Weir, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic inlets with external compression, having a good level performance at the critical operating point, exhibit a marked instability of the flow in some subcritical operation below a critical value of the capture mass flow ratio. This takes the form of severe oscillations of the shock system, commonly known as "buzz". The underlying purpose of this study is to indicate how Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) analysis of supersonic inlets will alter how we envision unsteady inlet aerodynamics, particularly inlet buzz. Presented in this paper is a discussion regarding the physical explanation underlying inlet buzz as indicated by DES analysis. It is the normal shock wave boundary layer separation along the spike surface which reduces the capture mass flow that is the controlling mechanism which determines the onset of inlet buzz, and it is the aerodynamic characteristics of a choked nozzle that provide the feedback mechanism that sustains the buzz cycle by imposing a fixed mean corrected inlet weight flow. Comparisons between the DES analysis of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMCO) N+2 inlet and schlieren photographs taken during the test of the Gulfstream Large Scale Low Boom (LSLB) inlet in the NASA 8x6 ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) show a strong similarity both in turbulent flow field structure and shock wave formation during the buzz cycle. This demonstrates the value of DES analysis for the design and understanding of supersonic inlets.

  15. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Ravula, Jeswanth; Thadela, S.; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2015-12-01

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (TC + 10 K) and pressure (PC + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables.

  16. Effect of Inlet and Outlet Flow Conditions on Natural Gas Parameters in Supersonic Separation Process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang; Wang, Shuli; Feng, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions. PMID:25338207

  17. Design and initial characterization of an inlet for gas-phase NOy measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Knapp, K.; Neuman, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Sueper, D. T.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1999-03-01

    An understanding of gas-phase HNO3 transmission through an inlet is necessary to evaluate the quality of NOy measurements from an aircraft platform. A simple, inexpensive, low-volume Teflon inlet is described and its suitability as an aircraft inlet for gas-phase NOy is assessed. Aerosol transmission is not characterized, but inlet design and orientation probably discriminates against the majority of aerosol by mass. Laboratory data, in-flight HNO3 standard addition calibrations, and ambient NOy measurements from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment aircraft mission are used to characterize inlet transmission efficiencies and time constants. Laboratory tests show high transmission efficiencies for HNO3 which are relatively independent of ambient temperature and humidity. In-flight standard addition calibrations were carried out at ambient temperatures ranging from -20° to +8°C and relative humidities from 3% to 71%. These data suggest that nearly all the sampled air contacts an inlet surface, with 90% of added HNO3 being transmitted in ˜1.5 s. Ambient data are presented to demonstrate negligible hysteresis in 1-Hz NOy measurements, relative to variability observed in ozone data, from an air mass where HNO3 is expected to be a large fraction of the total NOy. Power spectra of ambient NOy (at temperatures from -35° to +35°C and relative humidities from 3% to 100%) and ozone measurements suggest an effective NOy instrument time constant of ˜2 s.

  18. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

  19. THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA

    E-print Network

    for food for their fami- lies and work dogs. Runs of king salmon in the Cook Inlet area underwent a severe for other markets--fresh, frozen, mild-cured, pickled, or smoked. Pro- duction for these markets has

  20. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  1. The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

  2. Small inlet optical panel and a method of making a small inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY); Slobodin, David (28 Independence Ave., Lake Oswego, OR 97035)

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel having a small inlet, and a method of making a small inlet optical panel, are disclosed, which optical panel includes a individually coating, stacking, and cutting a first plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an outlet face body with an outlet face, individually coating, stacking, and cutting a second plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an inlet face body with an inlet face, and connecting an optical coupling element to the first plurality and to the second plurality, wherein the optical coupling element redirects light along a parallel axis of the inlet face to a parallel axis of the outlet face. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the inlet face is disposed obliquely with and askew from the outlet face.

  3. Effect of inlet disturbances on fan inlet noise during a static test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K. L.; Sheer, R. E., Jr.; Wang, J. C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of fan rotor inlet noise taken during static test situations are at variance with aircraft engine flight data. In particular, static tests generally yield a significantly higher tone at blade passage frequency than that measured during flight. To explain this discrepancy, the extent of the influence of inlet ground vortices and large-scale inlet turbulence on the forward-radiated fan noise measured at a static test facility was investigated. While such inlet disturbances were generated intentionally in an anechoic test chamber, far-field acoustic measurements and inlet flow-field hot-film mappings of a fan rotor were obtained. Experimental results indicate that the acoustic effect of such disturbances appears to be less severe for supersonic than for subsonic tip speeds. Further, a reverse flow that occurs on the exterior cowl in static test facilities appears to be an additional prime candidate for creating inlet disturbances and causing variance between flight and static acoustic data.

  4. Two Stage Supersonic Inlet (TSSI):10-inch Model Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dave (Technical Monitor); Smith, C. F.; Smith, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    The bifurcated inlet examined in this study (which is one of several being considered in the High Speed Research (HSR) Program) was chosen based upon paper trade studies of axisymmetric, single sided, and bifurcated inlets. For a given compression ratio and mass flow a bifurcated inlet weighs less than a single sided inlet. An axisymmetric inlet has less bleed requirements than 2D inlets but has trouble matching transonic airflow requirements without going to a variable diameter centerbody. The bifurcated inlet was selected as one of the candidates because of its ability to match airflow schedules. The inlet examined in this study, the Two Stage Supersonic Inlet (TSSI), was a candidate mixed compression bifurcated inlet. It has a novel concept to aid in inlet stability. This concept was tested in the 10x10 wind tunnel at NASA Glenn. CFD tools were used to predict and interpret the experimental results.

  5. Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, DT

    2005-12-15

    A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced circulation (LOFC) even with failure to scram. Significant natural convection of the coolant salt occurs, resulting in fuel temperatures below steady-state values and nearly uniform temperature distributions during the transient.

  6. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  7. Lead Coolant Test Facility Development Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz

    2005-06-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on May 25, 2005, to discuss the development of a next generation lead or lead-alloy coolant test facility. Attendees included representatives from the Generation IV lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) program, Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, and several universities. Several participants gave presentations on coolant technology, existing experimental facilities for lead and lead-alloy research, the current LFR design concept, and a design by Argonne National Laboratory for an integral heavy liquid metal test facility. Discussions were focused on the critical research and development requirements for deployment of an LFR demonstration test reactor, the experimental scope of the proposed coolant test facility, a review of the Argonne National Laboratory test facility design, and a brief assessment of the necessary path forward and schedule for the initial stages of this development project. This report provides a summary of the presentations and roundtable discussions.

  8. Emergency cooling analysis for the loss of coolant malfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    This report examines the dynamic response of a conceptual space power fast-spectrum lithium cooled reactor to the loss of coolant malfunction and several emergency cooling concepts. The results show that, following the loss of primary coolant, the peak temperatures of the center most 73 fuel elements can range from 2556 K to the region of the fuel melting point of 3122 K within 3600 seconds after the start of the accident. Two types of emergency aftercooling concepts were examined: (1) full core open loop cooling and (2) partial core closed loop cooling. The full core open loop concept is a one pass method of supplying lithium to the 247 fuel pins. This method can maintain fuel temperature below the 1611 K transient damage limit but requires a sizable 22,680-kilogram auxiliary lithium supply. The second concept utilizes a redundant internal closed loop to supply lithium to only the central area of each hexagonal fuel array. By using this method and supplying lithium to only the triflute region, fuel temperatures can be held well below the transient damage limit.

  9. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  10. Coolant monitoring apparatus for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A system for monitoring coolant conditions within a pressurized vessel. A length of tubing extends outward from the vessel from an open end containing a first line restriction at the location to be monitored. The flowing fluid is cooled and condensed before passing through a second line restriction. Measurement of pressure drop at the second line restriction gives an indication of fluid condition at the first line restriction. Multiple lengths of tubing with open ends at incremental elevations can measure coolant level within the vessel.

  11. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    LM Bachman

    2006-07-19

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level.

  12. 76 FR 63840 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Strathmere, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Strathmere, NJ AGENCY... the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), at mile 0.9, across Corson Inlet, in Strathmere, NJ. The... Bridge (CR-619) at mile 0.9, across Corson Inlet in Strathmere, NJ has a vertical clearance in the...

  13. 77 FR 420 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Stathmere, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Stathmere, NJ AGENCY... the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), across Corson Inlet, mile 0.9 in Strathmere, NJ. The..., across Corson Inlet in Strathmere, NJ has a vertical clearance in the closed position to vessels of...

  14. An experimental study of heat transfer in the rectangular coolant passages of a gas turbine rotor blade 

    E-print Network

    Uddin, Mohammed Jalal

    2000-01-01

    Modern gas turbines have high inlet temperatures to harness maximum power output, which causes different components to experience severe thermal stresses and fatigue. To achieve turbine blade durability goals, the blades ...

  15. Hereford Inlet to Cape May Inlet New Jersey Shore Protection Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    2014 ABSTRACT: The project proposes to reduce coastal storm damages along 4.5 miles of barrier island periods of erosion and accretion. This unstable behavior is typical of northern ends of barrier islands shoreline on "Five-Mile Island", between Hereford Inlet to Cape May Inlet in Cape May County along

  16. The Effect of the Gas Inlet on the Fluid Field during Fabricating Hfcvd Diamond-Coated Cutting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bin; Chen, Sulin; Cheng, Lei; Sun, Fanghong

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the fluid field in a process of fabricating diamond coated cutting tools using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method is investigated using the finite volume method (FVM), in which the effects of the inlet height, gas initial velocity, inlet radius and arrangement are illustrated in terms of the gas velocity magnitude and vector distribution near the filaments and the flute surface of cutting tools. In the simulations, the coupling effect of the temperature and the gas field is also considered by simultaneously calculating the temperature distribution. The simulation results suggest that either shortening the distance between the gas inlet and filaments, or increasing the gas initial velocity is helpful for the reactive gas arriving at filaments surface and being dissociated. Furthermore, increasing the inlet area is able to significantly increase the velocity of gas field around the filaments, as well as produce a much more uniform gas velocity field. Based on this conclusion, two novel multi-inlets setups are proposed to further improve the generated gas field and the simulation results show that the most superior gas field can be achieved with the one including 8 larger central inlets and 24 smaller outskirt inlets. Finally, an actual deposition experiment is carried out and its result indicates that adopting the optimized such inlet arrangement could generate a highly uniform and homogeneous growth environment on whole deposition area.

  17. Analysis of Buzz in a Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-stream, low-boom supersonic inlet designed for use on a small, Mach 1.6 aircraft was tested experimentally in the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The tests showed that the inlet had good recovery and stable operation over large mass flow range. The inlet went into buzz at mass flows well below that needed for engine operation, and the experiments generated a wealth of data during buzz. High frequency response pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren videos were recorded for many buzz events. The objective of the present work was to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict some of the experimental data taken during buzz, compare those predictions to the experimental data, and to use both datasets to explain the physics of the buzz cycle. The calculations were done with the Wind-US CFD code using a second-order time-accurate differencing scheme and the SST turbulence model. Computed Mach number contours were compared with schlieren images, and ensemble-averaged unsteady pressures were compared to data. The results showed that the buzz cycle consisted partly of spike buzz, an unsteady oscillation of the main shock at the spike tip while the inlet pressure dropped, and partly of choked flow while the inlet repressurized. Most of the results could be explained by theory proposed by Dailey in 1954, but did not support commonly used acoustic resonance explanations.

  18. Transport phenomena in radial flow MOCVD reactor with three concentric vertical inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xiang-lin

    2006-08-01

    Transport phenomena in radial flow metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor with three concentric vertical inlets are studied by two-dimensional numerical modeling. By varying the parameters such as gas pressure, flow rates combination of multi-inlets, geometric shapes and sizes of reactor and flow distributor, temperatures of susceptor and ceiling, and susceptor rotation, the corresponding velocity, temperature, and concentration fields inside the reactor are obtained; the onset and change of flow recirculation cells under influences of those parameters are determined. It is found that recirculation cells, originated from flow separation near the bend of reactor inlets, are affected mainly by the reactor height and shape, the operating pressure, the flow rates combination of multi-inlets, and the mean temperature between susceptor and ceiling. By increasing the flow rate of mid-inlet and the mean temperature, decreasing the pressure, maintaining the reactor height below certain criteria, and trimming the bends of reactor wall and flow distributor to streamlined shape, the recirculation cells can be minimized so that smooth and rectilinear flow prevails in the susceptor region, which corresponds to smooth and rectilinear isotherms and larger reactant concentration near the susceptor. For the optimized reactor shape, the reactor size can be enlarged to diameter D=40 cm and height H=2 cm without flow recirculation. The susceptor rotation over a few hundred rpm around the reactor central axis will induce the recirculation cell near the exit and deflect the streamlines near the susceptor, which is not the case for vertical reactors.

  19. NGNP Reactor Coolant Chemistry Control Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Castle

    2010-11-01

    The main focus of this paper is to identify the most desirable ranges of impurity levels in the primary coolant to optimize component life in the primary circuit of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which will either be a prismatic block or pebble bed reactor.

  20. Welds chilled by liquid coolant manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odor, M. E.; Whiffen, E. E.

    1966-01-01

    Liquid coolant chill tool provides uniform cooling to materials adjacent to weld areas on long or contoured butt welds. This tool incorporates a manifold that clamps to the weld joint by vacuum and circulates liquid in direct contact with adjacent material.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...testing of liquid-cooled engines, you may use water with or without rust inhibitors. (c) For coolants allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you may use rust inhibitors and additives required for lubricity, up to the levels...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coolants. 1065.745 Section 1065.745 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING... your engine in use. (b) For laboratory testing of liquid-cooled engines, you may use water with...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coolants. 1065.745 Section 1065.745 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING... your engine in use. (b) For laboratory testing of liquid-cooled engines, you may use water with...

  4. Experimental interaction of magma and “dirty” coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, C. Ian; White, James D. L.; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf; Sonder, Ingo; Schmid, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The presence of water at volcanic vents can have dramatic effects on fragmentation and eruption dynamics, but little is known about how the presence of particulate matter in external water will further alter eruptions. Volcanic edifices are inherently “dirty” places, where particulate matter of multiple origins and grainsizes typically abounds. We present the results of experiments designed to simulate non-explosive interactions between molten basalt and various “coolants,” ranging from homogeneous suspensions of 0 to 30 mass% bentonite clay in pure water, to heterogeneous and/or stratified suspensions including bentonite, sand, synthetic glass beads and/or naturally-sorted pumice. Four types of data are used to characterise the interactions: (1) visual/video observations; (2) grainsize and morphology of resulting particles; (3) heat-transfer data from a network of eight thermocouples; and (4) acoustic data from three force sensors. In homogeneous coolants with <~10% bentonite, heat transfer is by convection, and the melt is efficiently fragmented into blocky particles through multiple thermal granulation events which produce associated acoustic signals. For all coolants with >~20% sediment, heat transfer is by forced convection and conduction, and thermal granulation is less efficient, resulting in fewer blocky particles, larger grainsizes, and weaker acoustic signals. Many particles are droplet-shaped or/and “vesicular,” containing bubbles filled with coolant. Both of these particle types indicate significant hydrodynamic magma-coolant mingling, and many of them are rewelded into compound particles. The addition of coarse material to heterogeneous suspensions further slows heat transfer thus reducing thermal granulation, and variable interlocking of large particles prevents efficient hydrodynamic mingling. This results primarily in rewelded melt piles and inefficient distribution of melt and heat throughout the coolant volume. Our results indicate that even modest concentrations of sediment in water will significantly limit heat transfer during non-explosive magma-water interactions. At high concentrations, the dramatic reduction in cooling efficiency and increase in mingling help to explain globular peperite, and provide information relevant to analyses of premixing associated with highly-explosive molten fuel-coolant interactions in debris-filled volcanic vents.

  5. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA); Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  6. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  7. Titanium Aluminide Scramjet Inlet Flap Subelement Benchmark Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Draper, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    A subelement-level ultimate strength test was completed successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/) on a large gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) inlet flap demonstration piece. The test subjected the part to prototypical stress conditions by using unique fixtures that allowed both loading and support points to be located remote to the part itself (see the photograph). The resulting configuration produced shear, moment, and the consequent stress topology proportional to the design point. The test was conducted at room temperature, a harsh condition for the material because of reduced available ductility. Still, the peak experimental load-carrying capability exceeded original predictions.

  8. Design criteria for Waste Coolant Processing Facility and preliminary proposal 722 for Waste Coolant Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A-E) in the performance of Titles 1 and 2 design for the construction of a facility to treat the biodegradable, water soluble, waste machine coolant generated at the Y-12 plant. The purpose of this facility is to reduce the organic loading of coolants prior to final treatment at the proposed West Tank Farm Treatment Facility.

  9. The effect of fuel thermal conductivity on the behavior of LWR cores during loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Wang, Dean; Ott, Larry J.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of variation in thermal conductivity of light water reactor fuel elements on core response during loss-of-coolant accident scenarios is examined. Initially, a simplified numerical analysis is utilized to determine the time scales associated with dissipation of stored energy from the fuel into the coolant once the fission reaction is stopped. The analysis is then followed by full reactor system thermal-hydraulics analysis of a typical boiling and pressurized water reactor subjected to a large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario using the TRACE code. Accordingly, sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of an increase in fuel thermal conductivity, up to 500%, on fuel temperature evolution during these transients are performed. Given the major differences in thermal-hydraulics design aspects of boiling and pressurized water reactors, different fuel and temperature responses during the simulated loss-of-coolant transients are observed.

  10. April 7, 1998 Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    CBX 98­8 April 7, 1998 D.Cinabro S.McGee Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium Abstract A study of the petroleum­based coolant, PF200, has found it to be chemically compat­ ible with beryllium. These features make PF200 a suitable substitute for water in the coolant system of CLEO's beryllium beam pipe. 1

  11. Inlet Housing for a Partial-Admission Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moye, Ralph; Myers, William; Baker, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    An inlet housing for a partial-admission turbine has been designed to cause the inlet airflow to make a smooth transition from an open circular inlet to an inlet slot. The smooth flow is required for purposes of measuring inlet flow characteristics and maximizing the efficiency of the turbine. A partial-admission turbine is a turbine in which the inlet slot occupies less than a complete circle around the rotor axis. In this case, the inlet slot occupies a 90 arc. The present special inlet-housing design is needed because the "bull nose" shape of a conventional turbine inlet housing fails to provide the required smooth transition in a partial-admission configuration and thereby gives rise to a loss of turbine efficiency and inaccuracies in inlet flow measurements. Upon entering the inlet housing through the circular opening, the flow encounters a "tongue"-shaped passageway, which serves as a ramp that diverts the flow to the first of two straight passages. This first passageway occupies a 90 arc and has a length equal to two passage heights. Instrumentation rakes for measuring the characteristics of the inlet flow are installed in this passageway. Just past the first straight passageway is the second one, which is narrower and leads to the 90 turbine inlet slot. This passageway is used to smooth the flow immediately prior to its passage through the turbine inlet slot. The length of this second passageway equals the length of the chord of a turbine vane. The inlet housing incorporates small ports for measuring static pressures at various locations of the flow, and incorporates bosses for the installation of the instrumentation rakes. The inlet housing also includes a flange at its inlet end for attachment to a circular inlet duct and a flange at its outlet end for attachment to the outer casing of the turbine.

  12. Icing Characteristics and Anti-Icing Heat Requirements for Hollow and Ternally Modified Gas-Heated Inlet Guide Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1950-01-01

    A two-dimensional inlet-guide-vane cascade was investigated to determine the effects of ice formations on the pressure losses across the guide vanes and to evaluate the heated gas flow and temperature required to prevent Icing at various conditions. A gas flow of approximately 0.4 percent of the inlet-air flow was necessary for anti-icing a hollow guide-vane stage at an inlet-gas temperature of 500 F under the following icing conditions: air velocity, 280 miles per hour; water content, 0.9 gram per cubic meter; and Inlet-air static temperature, 00 F. Also presented are the anti-icing gas flows required with modifications of the hollow Internal gas passage, which show heatinput savings greater than 50 percent.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Coolant Mixing in the RPV of PWR in the Late Phase of a SBLOCA Event

    SciTech Connect

    Kliem, Soren; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias; Weiss, Frank-Peter; Hansen, Asmus

    2006-07-01

    Partial depletion of the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor during a postulated small break loss of coolant accident can lead to interruption of one-phase flow natural circulation. In this case, the decay heat is removed from the core in the reflux-condenser mode. In this operation mode, slugs of lower borated water can accumulate in the cold legs. After refilling of the primary circuit, the natural circulation in the two loops not receiving emergency core cooling injection (ECC) re-establishes and the lower borated slugs are shifted towards the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Entering the core, the lower borated water causes a reactivity insertion. Mixing inside the RPV is an important phenomenon limiting the reactivity insertion and preventing a re-criticality. The mixing of these lower borated slugs with the ambient coolant in the RPV was investigated at the 1:5 scaled coolant mixing test facility ROCOM. Wire mesh sensors based on electrical conductivity measurement are used in ROCOM to measure in detail the spreading of a tracer solution in the facility. The mixing in the downcomer was observed with a sensor which spans a measuring grid of 64 azimuthal and 32 positions over the height. The resulting distribution of the boron concentration at the core inlet was measured with a sensor integrated into the lower core support plate providing one measurement position at the entry into each fuel assembly. The boundary conditions for the mixing experiment were taken from an experiment at the thermal-hydraulic test facility PKL operated by FANP Germany. The slugs, which have a lower density, accumulate in the upper part of the downcomer after shifting into the RPV. The ECC-water injected into the RPV falls almost straight down through the lower borated water and accelerates. On the outer sides of the ECC-streak, lower borated coolant admixes and flows together with the ECC-water downwards. This is the only mechanism of transporting the lower borated water into the lower plenum. All these effects could be visualized and quantified by the downcomer sensor. On the way to the core, the lower borated water is effectively mixing with the ambient, high borated water. Therefore, in the core inlet plane, lower borated water is detected only in the outer part. The minimum boron concentration, measured at one fuel element inlet position at one certain time point, was 71% of the initial 2500 ppm. There is no change of the initial boron concentration in the inner part of the core inlet plane during the whole transient at all. (authors)

  14. Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor) gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, K. ); Cleveland, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Loss of coolant is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into modular gas-cooled reactor designs, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests were conducted with the 15-MW(electric), 46-MW(thermal), pebble-bed, high-temperature Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCa conditions. Oak Ridge National Laboratory participation in the preparation and conduct of the tests was carried out within the U.S./FRG Agreement for Cooperation in Gas-Cooled Reactor Development.

  15. Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet 1980

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This ship-deck-based August 1980 photograph of Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, shows the nearly 200-ft-high retreating tidewater end of Muir Glacier with part of its face capped by a few angular pinnacles of ice, called séracs....

  16. Artificial Reefs off Murrells Inlet, South Carolina

    E-print Network

    Artificial Reefs off Murrells Inlet, South Carolina R. O. PARKER, Jr., R. B. STONE, and C. C. BUCHANAN - Introduction In recent years, many State fishery agencies have constructed artificial reefs to enhance recreational fishing. There are approximately 500 artificial reefs off the coasts of the United

  17. Design and operation considerations for attic inlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving energy efficiency and environmental control in poultry facilities is essential for profitability. Increases in energy costs have prompted evaluation of solar energy systems and passive solar systems such as attic inlets have been adopted as a means to reduce fuel usage. Successful implem...

  18. Cloud-Droplet Ingestion in Engine Inlets with Inlet Velocity Ratios of 1.0 and 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J

    1957-01-01

    The paths of cloud droplets into two engine inlets have been calculated for a wide range of meteorological and flight conditions. The amount of water in droplet form ingested by the inlets and the amount and distribution of water impinging on the inlet walls are obtained from these droplet-trajectory calculations. In both types of inlet, a prolate ellipsoid of revolution represents either part or all of the forebody at the center of an annular inlet to an engine. The configurations can also represent a fuselage of an airplane with side ram-scoop inlets. The studies were made at an angle of attack of 0 degree. The principal difference between the two inlets studied is that the inlet-air velocity of one is 0.7 that of the other. The studies of the two velocity ratios lead to some important general concepts of water ingestion in inlets.

  19. First principles calculations predict stable 50 nm nickel ferrite particles in PWR coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, C. J.; Rák, Zs.; Bucholz, E. W.; Brenner, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Thermodynamic calculations that combine experimental data with the results of first principles calculations yield negative free energies for {1 1 1} surfaces of nickel ferrite for the temperature, pressure and ion concentrations typical of Pressurized Light Water Reactor (PWR) coolant. When combined with a positive bulk free energy of formation, the negative surface energies predict that thermodynamically-stable octahedral nickel ferrite particles with diameters of ?50 nm should be present in PWR coolant during operation. These particles would not be removed by mixed bed demineralizers and would be below the filter pore sizes typically used in Chemical and Volume Control Systems. The calculations also predict that these particles are not thermodynamically stable in coolant under ambient conditions. Based on these results it is proposed that solvated nickel ferrite particles, which are predicted to be stable and likely long-lived in PWR primary coolant, contribute to the nucleation of metal oxide scale on PWR fuel rod cladding and that conventional methods for purifying the primary coolant may be ineffective in removing these species.

  20. Investigating Liquid CO2 as a Coolant for a MTSA Heat Exchanger Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO 2) control for a future Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO 2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing of approximately 210 K to 280 K . The sorbent is cooled to these sub-freezing temperatures by a Sublimating Heat Exchanger (SHX) with liquid coolant expanded to sublimation temperatures. Water is the baseline coolant available on the moon, and if used, provides a competitive solution to the current baseline PLSS schematic. Liquid CO2 (LCO2) is another non-cryogenic coolant readily available from Martian resources which can be produced and stored using relatively low power and minimal infrastructure. LCO 2 expands from high pressure liquid (5800 kPa) to Mars ambient (0.8 kPa) to produce a gas / solid mixture at temperatures as low as 156 K. Analysis and experimental work are presented to investigate factors that drive the design of a heat exchanger to effectively use this sink. Emphasis is given to enabling efficient use of the CO 2 cooling potential and mitigation of heat exchanger clogging due to solid formation. Minimizing mass and size as well as coolant delivery are also considered. The analysis and experimental work is specifically performed in an MTSA-like application to enable higher fidelity modeling for future optimization of a SHX design. In doing so, the work also demonstrates principles and concepts so that the design can be further optimized later in integrated applications (including Lunar application where water might be a choice of coolant).

  1. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-06

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  2. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-01

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  3. Investigation of an innovative method for DC flow suppression of double-inlet pulse tube coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Wu, Z. H.; Dai, W.; Zhu, S. L.

    2007-05-01

    The use of double-inlet mode in the pulse tube cooler opens up a possibility of DC flow circulating around the regenerator and the pulse tube. The DC flow sometimes deteriorates the performance of the cryocooler because such a steady flow adds an unwanted thermal load to the cold heat exchanger. It seems that this problem is still not well solved although a lot of effort has been made. Here we introduce a membrane-barrier method for DC flow suppression in double-inlet pulse tube coolers. An elastic membrane is installed between the pulse tube cooler inlet and the double-inlet valve to break the closed-loop flow path of DC flow. The membrane is acoustically transparent, but would block the DC flow completely. Thus the DC flow is thoroughly suppressed and the merit of double-inlet mode is remained. With this method, a temperature reduction of tens of Kelvin was obtained in our single-stage pulse tube cooler and the lowest temperature reached 29.8 K.

  4. TACT 1: A computer program for the transient thermal analysis of a cooled turbine blade or vane equipped with a coolant insert. 2. Programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program to calculate transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and coolant flows in a cooled axial flow turbine blade or vane with an impingement insert is described. Coolant-side heat transfer coefficients are calculated internally in the program, with the user specifying either impingement or convection heat transfer at each internal flow station. Spent impingement air flows in a chordwise direction and is discharged through the trailing edge and through film cooling holes. The ability of the program to handle film cooling is limited by the internal flow model. Input to the program includes a description of the blade geometry, coolant-supply conditions, outside thermal boundary conditions, and wheel speed. The blade wall can have two layers of different materials, such as a ceramic thermal barrier coating over a metallic substrate. Program output includes the temperature at each node, the coolant pressures and flow rates, and the coolant-side heat transfer coefficients.

  5. Coastal Dynamics 2013 SUBTIDAL FLOW STRUCTURE IN TIDALLY MODULATED INLETS

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    such as coral reefs (e.g., Taebi, et al., 2011). In this work we present observations of subtidal current implications to morphologic evolution in the inlet. Key words: Inlet Dynamics, Subtidal Currents, Vertical

  6. Experimentally determined aeroacoustic performance and control of several sonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aeroacoustic performance of several model sonic inlets. The results were analyzed to indicate how inlet aeroacoustic characteristics were affected by inlet design and operating conditions. A system for regulating sonic inlet noise reduction was developed and tested. Results indicate that pressure losses at forward velocity may be substantially less than those at static conditions. This is particularly true for translating centerbody inlets with the centerbody extended in the approach and landing position. Operation to simulated takeoff incidence angles of 50 degrees was demonstrated with good inlet performance. Inlet sound pressure level reduction was regulation was regulated to within approximately + or - 1 dB by controlling inlet surface static pressure measured at the diffuser exit.

  7. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  8. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  9. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  10. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  11. 6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. Left to right: back of headwall; tops of high inlet barrels; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall along former edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  12. Convective heat transfer on an inlet guide vane.

    PubMed

    Holmer, M L; Eriksson, L E; Sunden, B

    2001-05-01

    The flow and temperature fields around an inlet guide vane are determined numerically by a CFD method. Outer surface temperatures, heat transfer coefficient distributions, and static pressure distributions are presented. Three different thermal boundary conditions on the vane are analysed. The computed results are compared with experimental data. The governing equations are solved by a finite-volume method with the low Reynolds number version of the k-omega turbulence model by Wilcox implemented. It is found that the calculated results agree best with measurements if a conjugate heat transfer approach is applied and thus this wall condition is recommended for future investigations of film cooling of guide vanes and turbine blades. PMID:11460632

  13. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inlet and exhaust restrictions. 89.328... Equipment Provisions § 89.328 Inlet and exhaust restrictions. (a) The manufacturer is liable for emission... engine. (b) Perform testing at the following inlet and exhaust restriction settings. (1) Equip the...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  15. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  18. Performance of Air Inlets at Transonic and Low Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Mark R; Pendley, Robert E

    1952-01-01

    A general discussion of the air-inlet problem is presented. Recently obtained drag and pressure-recovery data for transonic-type nose, scoop, and wing-root inlets are summarized. Preliminary results concerning the performance of the sharp-edged supersonic-type inlets at transonic and subsonic speeds also are given.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. 334.1250 Section 334.1250 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1250 Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. (a) Carr Inlet, naval...

  20. 76 FR 14803 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Townsend Inlet, Avalon, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Townsend Inlet, Avalon, NJ AGENCY... the Townsends Inlet Bridge across, mile 0.3, at Avalon, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate... hours notice is given. The Townsend Inlet Bridge, mile 0.3, in Avalon, NJ, has a vertical clearance...

  1. Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.

  2. High tip speed fan inlet noise reduction using treated inlet splitters and accelerating inlets (quiet engine program fan C scale model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    A series of inlet suppression tests were run on a supersonic tip speed fan which employed an acoustically treated cowl wall, treated splitters and elevated average throat Mach numbers in various combinations. Results show appreciable fan noise reductions at high fan speeds; 15-18 PNdB. On the basis of inlet total pressure recovery loss per PNdb of noise reduction, an inlet with no splitters produced the most efficient design. However, greater reduction in noise was achieved with one splitter in the inlet. It was also noted that moderate increases in inlet Mach number increased noise in the acoustically treated inlets and that Mach numbers in excess of 0.65 were required before net noise reduction was realized.

  3. Cryogenic-coolant He-4-superconductor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspi, S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Allen, R. J.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermal interaction between a type 2 composite alloy and cryo-coolant He4 was studied with emphasis on post quench phenomena of formvar coated conductors. The latter were investigated using a heater simulation technique. Overall heat transfer coefficients were evaluated for the quench onset point. Heat flux densities were determined for phenomena of thermal switching between a peak and a recovery value. The study covered near saturated liquid, pressurized He4, both above and below the lambda transition, and above and below the thermodynamic critical pressure. In addition, friction coefficients for relative motion between formvar insulated conductors were determined.

  4. 7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  5. Aerodynamic performance of 0.4066-scale model of JT8D refan stage with S-duct inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the JT8D refan stage was tested with a scale model of the S-duct inlet design for the refanned Boeing 727 center engine. Detailed survey data of pressures, temperatures, and flow angles were obtained over a range of flows at speeds from 70 to 97 percent of design speed. Two S-duct configurations were tested; one with a bellmouth inlet and the other with a flight lip inlet. The results indicated that the overall performance was essentially unaffected by the distortion generated by the S-duct inlet. The stall weight flow increased by less than 0.5 kg/sec (approximately 1.5% of design flow) with the S-duct inlet compared with that obtained with uniform flow. The detailed measurements indicated that the inlet guide vane (IGV) significantly reduced circumferential variations. For example, the flow angles ahead of the IGV were positive in the right half of the inlet and negative in the left half. Behind the IGV, the flow angles tended to be more uniform circumferentially.

  6. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  7. 77 FR 6065 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...Comment Request; Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey AGENCY: National...Abstract The population of Cook Inlet beluga whales found in the Cook Inlet of Alaska...protection actions on the Cook Inlet beluga whale, such as population...

  8. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  9. Liquid-metal coolants for heat pipes and power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bystrov, P.I.; Kagan, D.N.; Krechetova, G.A.; Shpilrain, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book on liquid-metal coolants fills the void of knowledge concerning heat pipe properties and other applications. The authors validate the use of liquid-metal coolants, currently underused due to the lack of information, such as presented in this volume. Applied problems, a complete set of properties of liquid-metal coolants and working fluids for currently operating and design-stage power plants are featured in this important work.

  10. Advanced Technology Inlet Design, NRA 8-21 Cycle II: DRACO Flowpath Hypersonic Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    1999-01-01

    The report outlines work performed in support of the flowpath development for the DRACO engine program. The design process initiated to develop a hypersonic axisymmetric inlet for a Mach 6 rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine is discussed. Various design parametrics were investigated, including design shock-on-lip Mach number, cone angle, throat Mach number, throat angle. length of distributed compression, and subsonic diffuser contours. Conceptual mechanical designs consistent with installation into the D-21 vehicle were developed. Additionally, program planning for an intensive inlet development program to support a Critical Design Review in three years was performed. This development program included both analytical and experimental elements and support for a flight-capable inlet mechanical design.

  11. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  12. Improving an Inlet for Underwater Volatile Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, E.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Kapit, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although the deep ocean remains a challenging place to study, recent progress in technologies such as advanced in situ chemical sensors is beginning to broaden the scope of ocean exploration by enabling more comprehensive measurements at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Such sensors are designed to be compatible with remotely and human operated vehicles and thus shed light on the geochemical composition of, and processes occurring in, seafloor environments. Among these sensors is a recently-developed in situ laser-based analyzer which utilizes Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS). This instrument is capable of measuring stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (?13CCH4), making it a powerful tool for assessing biogeochemical activity in the deep sea. With the aim of improving the sensitivity of this membrane inlet-based chemical sensor, a Membrane Inlet Dissolved Gas Extractor (MIDGE) was developed. Recent work on the MIDGE focused on improving design elements with the aim of enhancing gas transport through the membrane and reducing water vapour in the gas stream. This was accomplished by implementing a newly-designed membrane flow-through inlet geometry, testing a variety of membrane materials, and incorporating an acidification module to evolve dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to gaseous CO2. We will report on results from a September 2014 research cruise, in which the MIDGE ICOS is to be deployed as part of an interdisciplinary mission conducting the first-ever in situ chemical and stable isotopic exploration of two seafloor sites in the Caribbean: the Barbados Mud Volcanoes and Kick 'em Jenny (KEJ). The goals of this project are to 1) use in situ measurements of methane and DIC carbon isotopes to enable biogeochemical exploration and mapping of methane seeps, and 2) measure the composition of bubble streams emanating from the crater of KEJ.

  13. Method for replacing PCB containing coolants in electrical induction apparatus with substantially PCB-free dielectric coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, G.

    1988-05-17

    A method for replacing a coolant containing PCB in an electrical induction apparatus having a tank containing the coolant, an electrical winding and porous solid cellulosic electrical insulation immersed in the PCB-containing coolant with a substantially PCB-free high boiling dielectric permanent coolant to convert the electrical apparatus into one in which the rate of elution of PCB into the coolant is below the maximum allowable rate of elution into the coolant of an electrical apparatus rated as non-PCB, the solid porous electrical insulation being impregnated with the PCB-containing coolant, is described comprising the steps of: (a) draining the PCB-containing coolant from the tank to remove a major portion of the PCB-containing coolant contained by it; (b) filling the tank with an interim dielectric cooling liquid that is miscible with the PCB, is sufficiently low in viscosity to circulate within the tank and penetrate the interstices of the porous solid electrical insulation, and is capable of being readily separated from the PCB; (c) electrically operating the electrical induction apparatus and continuing the electrical operation for a period sufficient to elute PCB contained in the PCB-containing coolant impregnated in the porous solid insulation therefrom into the interim dielectric cooling liquid; (d) thereafter draining the interim dielectric cooling liquid containing the eluted PCB from the tank; (e) repeating the cycle of steps (b), (c) and (d) when the rate of elution of PCB into the interim dielectric cooling liquid exceeds 0.55 ppm of PCB per day based on the weight of the permanent dielectric coolant; and (f) filling the tank with a substantially PCB-free permanent coolant selected from the group consisting of high boiling, high viscosity, silicone oils, synthetic ester fluids, poly-alpha-olefin oils and hydrocarbon oils so as to reclasify the electrical apparatus to non-PCB status.

  14. Performance of a short annular dump diffuser using suction-stabilized vortices at inlet Mach numbers to 0.41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    A short, annular dump diffuser was designed to use suction to establish stabilized vortices on both walls for improved flow expansion in the region of an abrupt area change. The diffuser was tested at near ambient inlet pressure and temperature. The overall diffuser area ratio was 4.0. The inlet height was 2.54 cm and the exit pitot-static rakes were located at a distance from the vortex fence equal to two or six times the inlet height. Performance data were taken at near ambient temperature and pressure for nominal inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 to 0.41 with suction rates of 0 to 18 percent of the total inlet airflow. The exit velocity profile could be shifted toward either wall by adjusting the inner- or outer-wall suction rate. Symmetrical exit velocity profiles were unstable, with a tendency to shift back to hub- or tip-weighted profile. Diffuser effectiveness was increased from about 47 percent without suction to over 85 percent at a total suction rate of about 14 percent. The diffuser total pressure losses at inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.41 decreased from 1.1 and 5.6 percent without suction to 0.48 and 5.2 percent at total suction rates of 14.4 and 5.6 percent, respectively.

  15. An analytical study of the effect of coolant flow variables on the kinetic energy output of a cooled turbine blade flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, H. W., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an analytical study to determine the effect of changes in the amount, velocity, injection location, injection angle, and temperature of coolant flow on blade row performance are presented. The results show that the change in output of a cooled turbine blade row relative to the specific output of the uncooled blade row can be positive, negative, or zero. Comparisons between the analytical results and experimental results for four different cases of coolant discharge, all at a coolant temperature ratio of unity, show good agreement for three cases and rather poor agreement for the other. To further test the validity of the method, more experimental data is needed, particularly at different coolant temperature ratios.

  16. Investigation of REST-Class Hypersonic Inlet Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollan, Rowan; Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Rectangular-to-elliptical shape-transition (REST) inlets are of interest for use on scramjet engines because they are efficient and integrate well with the forebody of a planar vehicle. The classic design technique by Smart for these inlets produces an efficient inlet but the complex three-dimensional viscous effects are only approximately included. Certain undesirable viscous features often occur in these inlets. In the present work, a design toolset has been developed which allows for rapid design of REST-class inlet geometries and the subsequent Navier-Stokes analysis of the inlet performance. This gives the designer feedback on the complex viscous effects at each design iteration. This new tool is applied to design an inlet for on-design operation at Mach 8. The tool allows for rapid investigation of design features that was previously not possible. The outcome is that the inlet shape can be modified to affect aspects of the flow field in a positive way. In one particular example, the boundary layer build-up on the bodyside of the inlet was reduced by 20% of the thickness associated with the classically designed inlet shape.

  17. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  18. Inverse design of a proper number, shapes, sizes, and locations of coolant flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years we have developed an inverse method that allows a thermal cooling system designer to determine proper sizes, shapes, and locations of coolant passages (holes) in, say, an internally cooled turbine blade, a scram jet strut, a rocket chamber wall, etc. Using this method the designer can enforce a desired heat flux distribution on the hot outer surface of the object, while simultaneously enforcing desired temperature distributions on the same hot outer surface as well as on the cooled interior surfaces of each of the coolant passages. This constitutes an over-specified problem which is solved by allowing the number, sizes, locations and shapes of the holes to adjust iteratively until the final internally cooled configuration satisfies the over-specified surface thermal conditions and the governing equation for the steady temperature field. The problem is solved by minimizing an error function expressing the difference between the specified and the computed hot surface heat fluxes. The temperature field analysis was performed using our highly accurate boundary integral element code with linearly varying temperature along straight surface panels. Examples of the inverse design applied to internally cooled turbine blades and scram jet struts (coated and non-coated) having circular and non-circular coolant flow passages will be shown.

  19. Assessment of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Fragmentation in Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction With Simulant System

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, K.S.; Das, S.K.; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Lydia, G.; Murthy, S.S.; Kumareshan, M.; Harvey, J.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the Safety analysis of Fast Breeder Reactor, assessment of Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) assumes importance for two aspects, namely the characterization of the debris and severity of pressure pulses generation. An attempt has been made to investigate the debris generation characteristics with molten Woods Metal (Alloy of Bi 50% Pb 25% Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% and melting point of 346 K) - Water simulant system. Liquid Woods metal and liquid Uranium dioxide physical properties (Density, Surface tension and Kinematic viscosity) are similar. Experimental studies were conducted for various melt temperatures covering non - boiling, convective boiling and film boiling regimes of water, to assess the debris generation resulting from both hydrodynamic and thermal interaction. Woods metal was heated to the desired temperature and poured through a hot funnel having a nozzle of 8 mm release diameter into a water column of height up to 140 cm. Experiments were repeated for different coolant temperature and melt inventory up to 5 kg. The melt entry velocity was determined from video recordings. The debris is analyzed on the basis of interface temperature, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin - Helmholtz instabilities. It is observed that Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is the dominant fragmentation phenomena. Contribution due to coolant boiling resulted in more debris generation in the size less than 4 mm. (authors)

  20. Secondary flow and heat transfer control in gas turbine inlet nozzle guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Steven Wayne

    1998-12-01

    Endwall heat transfer is a very serious problem in the inlet nozzle guide vane region of gas turbine engines. To resolve heat transfer concerns and provide the desired thermal protection, modern cooling flows for the vane endwalls tend to be excessive leading to lossy and inefficient designs. Coolant introduction is further complicated by the flow patterns along vane endwall surfaces. They are three-dimensional and dominated by strong, complex secondary flows. To achieve performance goals for next-generation engines, more aerodynamically efficient and advanced cooling concepts, including combustor bleed cooling, must be investigated. To this end, the overall performance characteristics of several combustor bleed flow designs are assessed in this experimental study. In particular, their contributions toward secondary flow control and component cooling are documented. Testing is performed in a large-scale, guide vane simulator comprised of three airfoils encased between one contoured and one flat endwall. Core flow is supplied to this simulator at an inlet chord Reynolds number of 350,000 and turbulence intensity of 9.5%. Combustor bleed cooling flow is injected through the contoured endwall via inclined slots. The slots vary in cross-sectional area, have equivalent slot widths, and are positioned with their leeward edges 10% of the axial chord ahead of the airfoil leading edges. Measurements with hot-wire anemometry characterize the inlet and exit flow fields of the cascade. Total and static pressure measurements document aerodynamic performance. Thermocouple measurements detail thermal fields and permit evaluation of surface adiabatic effectiveness. To elucidate the effects of bleed injection, data are compared to an experiment taken without bleed. The influence of bleed mass flow rate and slot geometry on the aerodynamic losses and thermal protection arc given. This study suggests that such combustor bleed flow cooling offers significant thermal protection without imposing aerodynamic penalties. Such performance is contrary to the performance of present vane cooling schemes. The results of this investigation support designs which incorporate combustor coolant injection upstream of the airfoil leading edges. To complement, a short exploratory study regarding the effects of surface roughness was also performed. Results indicate modified cooling performance and significantly higher aerodynamic losses with rough surfaces.

  1. Measuring Chemical Loadings through Inlets: Hillsboro and Boca Raton Inlets (Florida, USA)

    E-print Network

    sampling efforts and biweekly water grab samples. Keywords--land-based sources of pollution; inlets; coral health I. INTRODUCTION Land-based pollution is widely implicated in the worldwide decline of coral with respect to land-based sources of pollution requires appropriate estimates of the loading of nutrients

  2. Coastal Inlets Research Program ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory1/48 Coastal Inlets Research Program

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Web Site ­ industrial strength Features · Database: US inlets & structures · Publications / CHETN of R&D Coverage MICRO sec-min MESO hour-week MACRO month-year MEGA decade- century ULTRA century- millennium MICRO mm - m MESO m - km MACRO km - 10 km MEGA sub-regional regional ULTRA regional - continental

  3. Localization and imaging of gangliosides in mouse brain tissue sections by laserspray ionization inlet[S

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Alicia L.; Lietz, Christopher B.; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A new ionization method for the analysis of fragile gangliosides without undesired fragmentation or salt adduction is presented. In laserspray ionization inlet (LSII), the matrix/analyte sample is ablated at atmospheric pressure, and ionization takes place in the ion transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer inlet by a process that is independent of a laser wavelength or voltage. The softness of LSII allows the identification of gangliosides up to GQ1 with negligible sialic acid loss. This is of importance to the field of MS imaging, as undesired fragmentation has made it difficult to accurately map the spatial distribution of fragile ganglioside lipids in tissue. Proof-of-principle structural characterization of endogenous gangliosides using MSn fragmentation of multiply charged negative ions on a LTQ Velos and subsequent imaging of the GD1 ganglioside is demonstrated. This is the first report of multiply charged negative ions using inlet ionization. We find that GD1 is detected at higher levels in the mouse cortex and hippocampus compared with the thalamus. In LSII with the laser aligned in transmission geometry relative to the inlet, images were obtained in approximately 60 min using an inexpensive nitrogen laser. PMID:22262808

  4. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  5. Hypersonic Inlet for a Laser Powered Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrland, Alan; Doolan, Con; Wheatley, Vincent; Froning, Dave

    2011-11-01

    Propulsion within the lightcraft concept is produced via laser induced detonation of an incoming hypersonic air stream. This process requires suitable engine configurations that offer good performance over all flight speeds and angles of attack to ensure the required thrust is maintained. Stream traced hypersonic inlets have demonstrated the required performance in conventional hydrocarbon fuelled scramjet engines, and has been applied to the laser powered lightcraft vehicle. This paper will outline the current methodology employed in the inlet design, with a particular focus on the performance of the lightcraft inlet at angles of attack. Fully three-dimensional turbulent computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a variety of inlet configurations. The performance of the lightcraft inlets have been evaluated at differing angles of attack. An idealized laser detonation simulation has also been performed to validate that the lightcraft inlet does not unstart during the laser powered propulsion cycle.

  6. Method of making a small inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Slobodin, David E.

    2004-02-03

    An optical panel having a small inlet, and a method of making a small inlet optical panel, are disclosed, which optical panel includes a individually coating, stacking, and cutting a first plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an outlet face body with an outlet face, individually coating, stacking, and cutting a second plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an inlet face body with an inlet face, and connecting an optical coupling element to the first plurality and second plurality of stacked optical waveguides, wherein the optical coupling element redirects light along a parallel axis of the inlet face to a parallel axis of the outlet face. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the inlet face is disposed obliquely with and askew from the outlet face.

  7. CFD numerical simulation of Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wei, L.; Chang, B. H.; Xing, J. L.; Jia, K.

    2013-12-01

    For traditional linear type inlet, hydrocyclone has an unstable inner field, high turbulence intensity and low separation efficiency, this paper proposes an inlet mode that uses an Archimedes spiral hydrocyclone. A Mixture liquid-solid multiphase flow model combined with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used to simulate the high concentration water-sand-air three-phase flow in a hydrocyclone. We analyzed the pressure field, velocity field and turbulent kinetic energy and compared with traditional linear type inlet hydrocyclone inner field. The results show that Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone's pressure field is evenly distributed. The Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone can guide and accelerate the mixture flow and produce small forced vortex and less short circuit flow. The particles easily go to the outer vortex and are separated. The Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone has effectively improved the stability of inner flow field and separation efficiency.

  8. Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

  9. 73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks for bi-sodium sulfate/water coolant solution at first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  11. Liquid air as a coolant for thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Jonathan; Hassenzahl, William

    2012-06-01

    Direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems have been suggested as an effective method of transmitting very large amounts of electric power (up to 10 GW) over very long distances (thousands of kilometers). This is made possible mainly by the high-current-carrying capability of the HTS materials when operated below their critical temperatures and by their near zero resistance to constant current. Most HTS cable concepts rely on liquid nitrogen or gaseous helium as the coolant. As an alternative, liquid air offers certain benefits and is discussed here as a cable system coolant. Air has a lower freezing temperature than nitrogen, it can be produced locally, and a liquid air leak will not displace the oxygen in a closed compartment. The dc cable design concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in which the coolant flows in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the cable and a separate return tube, and refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km is assumed for this analysis. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum envelope. The thermal management of this superconducting cable concept with liquid air in long-distance HTS power cables is developed in this paper. The results are compared to the use of liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen.

  12. Tidal inlet variability in Mississippi River delta plain

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, D.; Nummedal, D.; Penland, S.

    1983-09-01

    Stratigraphic sequences of deltaic and shallow marine origin commonly contain sand bodies transgressively overlying lower delta-plain and delta-front deposits. Although generally ascribed to barriers formed during the destructive phase of the delta cycle, most of this sand is probably of tidal-inlet origin because of the high preservation potential for sediment deposited below the base of the retreating shoreface in deep migratory tidal channels and their associated tidal deltas. To facilitate the identification of such units, this paper reviews the temporal evolution of the inlet sand bodies found along the rapidly transgressive shoreline of the abandoned Holocene Mississippi River deltas. This study also reveals that tide dominance of a coastline is not simply a function of tide range and wave height; it depends largely on the tidal prism, an inlet parameter which, in Louisiana, changes rapidly over time. Three distinct stages can be identified in the evolutionary sequence for Louisiana tidal inlets: (1) wave-dominated inlets with flood-tidal deltas, (2) tide-dominated inlets with large ebb deltas, and (3) wide, transitional inlets with sand bodies confined to the throat section. As the inlets migrate during the transgression, they will leave behind on the continental shelf, tidal sand bodies with a landward succession of facies changing from those characteristic of wave dominance, into tide dominance, and back again to transitional or wave-dominated inlets.

  13. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  14. Some design considerations for supersonic cruise mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    A mixed compression inlet designed for supersonic cruise has very demanding requirements for high total pressure recovery and low bleed and cowl drag. However, since the optimum inlet for supersonic cruise performance may have other undesirable characteristics, it is necessary to establish trade-offs between inlet performance and other inlet characteristics. Some of these trade-offs between the amount of internal compression, aerodynamic performance and angle-of-attack tolerance are reviewed. Techniques for analysis of boundary layer control and subsonic diffuser flow are discussed.

  15. Inlet and airframe compatibility for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft with top-mounted inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, D. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and inlet-pressure data were obtained for 9.5% force and pressure models of a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configuration with top-mounted twin inlets. Data are presented from wind tunnel tests conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack up to 27-deg and angles of sideslip up to 12-deg. Trimmed aerodynamic characteristics and inlet performance were compared for three different leading-edge extension (LEX) configurations. The effects of wing leading- and trailing-edge flaps on the inlet were also determined. Maneuver performance was calculated from combined force and inlet-pressure data. The largest of the three LEX sizes tested gave the best airplane maneuver performance. Wing flap deflections improved inlet recovery at all Mach numbers.

  16. Inlet and airframe compatibility for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft with top-mounted inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, D. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and inlet pressure data are obtained for 9.5% force and pressure models of a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configuration with top mounted twin inlets. Data are presented from tests conducted in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack up to 27 deg. and angles of sideslip up to 12 deg. Trimmed aerodynamic characteristics and inlet performance are compared for three different leading edge extension (LEX) configurations. The effects of wing leading and trailing-edge flaps on the inlet are also determined. Maneuver perfromance is calculated form combined force and inlet pressure data. The largest of the three LEX sizes tested gives the best airplane maneuver performance. Wing flap deflections improved inlet recovery at all Mach numbers.

  17. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Microchannel using Temperature Nanosensors 

    E-print Network

    Yu, Jiwon 1982-

    2012-12-03

    testing fluids were measured by varying the coolant flow rates, wall temperatures, nanoparticle material, nanoparticle morphology (shape and nanoparticle size) as well as mass concentrations of nanoparticles in the coolants. Anomalous thermal behavior...

  19. Shock position sensor for supersonic inlets. [measuring pressure in the throat of a supersonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Static pressure taps or ports are provided in the throat of a supersonic inlet, and signals indicative of the pressure at each of the ports is fed to respective comparators. Means are also provided for directing a signal indicative of the total throat pressure to the comparators. A periodic signal is superimposed on the total throat pressure so that the signal from the static pressure tabs is compared to a varying scan signal rather than to total throat pressure only. This type of comparison causes each comparator to provide a pulse width modulated output which may vary from 0% 'time on' to 100% 'time on'. The pulse width modulated outputs of the comparators are summed, filtered, and directed to a controller which operates a bypass valve such as a door whereby air is dumped from the inlet to prevent the shock wave from being expelled out the front.

  20. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  1. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 4; Inlet and Fan/Inlet Accoustics Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  2. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  3. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.407 Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (a) The marine engine manufacturer is liable for emission...

  4. KILLER WHALE PREDATION ON BELUGAS IN COOK INLET, ALASKA: IMPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    KILLER WHALE PREDATION ON BELUGAS IN COOK INLET, ALASKA: IMPLICATIONS FOR A DEPLETED POPULATION KIM Killer whale predation on belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska, has become a concern since the decline of these belugas was documented during the 1990s. Accordingly, killer whale sightings were compiled from systematic

  5. Boundary layer ingesting inlet design for a silent aircraft

    E-print Network

    Freuler, Patrick N., 1980-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) common nacelle, L/D ratios between 2.5 and 3.0, fan face to throat area ratios above 1.06, and offsets lower than 11%. Curvature ahead of the inlet should be avoided as well as bifurcations inside the duct. Inlet ...

  6. Improving commercial broiler attic inlet ventilation thorugh CFD analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of solar heated attic air is an area of increasing interest in commercial poultry production. Attic inlets satisfy the demand for alternative heating while being simple to implement in an existing poultry house. A number of demonstration projects have suggested that attic inlets may decrease...

  7. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system representative of the installed engine may be used. In other cases a test shop system may be used. (2)...

  8. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system representative of the installed engine may be used. In other cases a test shop system may be used. (2)...

  9. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system representative of the installed engine may be used. In other cases a test shop system may be used. (2)...

  10. Isolated testing of highly maneuverable inlet con cepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norby, W. P.; Haeffele, B. A.; Burley, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten percent scale models of a Mach 2.2 two dimensional inlet and a Mach 2.0 axisymmetric inlet were tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel as part of a cooperative effort with the McDonnell Aircraft Company. The objective of this effort was to test methods designed to increase the maneuvering performance of fighter aircraft inlets. Maneuvering improvement concepts were tested up to 40-deg angle of attack for Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9, and up to 25 deg for Mach numbers 1.2 and 1.4. Maneuvering improvement concepts included a rotating cowl lip, auxiliary inlets aft of the inlet throat, and a retracting centerbody for the axisymmetric inlet. Test results show that the rotating cowl design was effective in improving subsonic maneuvering performance for both inlets. Auxiliary inlets did not produce significant performance increases for either model. The retracted centerbody resulted in some performance benefits at high angles of attack. None of the maneuvering improvement concepts were effective at Mach 1.2 and 1.4.

  11. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  12. Validation of WIND for a Series of Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Abbott, John M.; Cavicchi, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Validation assessments compare WIND CFD simulations to experimental data for a series of inlet flows ranging in Mach number from low subsonic to hypersonic. The validation procedures follow the guidelines of the AIAA. The WIND code performs well in matching the available experimental data. The assessments demonstrate the use of WIND and provide confidence in its use for the analysis of aircraft inlets.

  13. A probabilistic method for determining effluent temperature limits for flow instability for SRS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B.J.; White, A.M.

    1990-06-01

    This manual describes the uncertainty analysis used to determine the effluent temperature limits for a Mark 22 charge in the Savannah River Site production reactors. The postulated accident scenario is a DEGB/LOCA resulting from a coolant pipe break at the plenum inlet accompanied by the safety rod failure described in the previous chapter. The analysis described in this manual is used to calculate the limits for the flow instability phase of the accident. For this phase of the accident, the limits criterion is that the Stanton number does not exceed 0.00455 [1]. The limits are determined for a specified 84% probability that the Stanton number will not exceed 0.00455 in any assembly in the core.

  14. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    1991-01-01

    Future space exploration and commercialization will require more efficient heat rejection systems. For the required heat transfer rates, such systems must use advanced heat transfer techniques. Forced two phase flow boiling heat transfer with enhancements falls in this category. However, moderate to high quality two phase systems tend to require higher pressure losses. This report is divided into two major parts: (1) Multidimensional wall temperature measurement and heat transfer enhancement for top heated horizontal channels with flow boiling; and (2) Improved analytical heat transfer data reduction for a single side heated coolant channel. Part 1 summarizes over forty experiments which involve both single phase convection and flow boiling in a horizontal channel heated externally from the top side. Part 2 contains parametric dimensionless curves with parameters such as the coolant channel radius ratio, the Biot number, and the circumferential coordinate.

  15. Modulation of the neutron field in the multiplying condensed matter and coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Vodyanitskii, A. A.; Slyusarenko, Yu. V.

    2009-12-14

    The spatial damping of acoustic, neutron and thermal branches of oscillations are found in neutron multiplying medium with coolant. All three branches give additive contribution to the neutron density oscillations. However, their wave numbers and coefficients of spatial damping (at the same frequency) differ greatly from the sound with its high phase velocity and small attenuation to the neutron wave with the damping length, which is comparable with its wavelength. A spatial growth of neutron density oscillations is found in the case of large frequency of neutron capture and weak coupling of neutron density and temperature branches of oscillations. This fact is of importance for the noise diagnostics of the multiplying medium with coolant. The results can be applied to the development of the methods of noise diagnostics of the in core reactor equipment.

  16. Blade row dynamic digital compressor program. Volume 1: J85 clean inlet flow and parallel compressor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a one-dimensional dynamic digital blade row compressor model study of a J85-13 engine operating with uniform and with circumferentially distorted inlet flow. Details of the geometry and the derived blade row characteristics used to simulate the clean inlet performance are given. A stability criterion based upon the self developing unsteady internal flows near surge provided an accurate determination of the clean inlet surge line. The basic model was modified to include an arbitrary extent multi-sector parallel compressor configuration for investigating 180 deg 1/rev total pressure, total temperature, and combined total pressure and total temperature distortions. The combined distortions included opposed, coincident, and 90 deg overlapped patterns. The predicted losses in surge pressure ratio matched the measured data trends at all speeds and gave accurate predictions at high corrected speeds where the slope of the speed lines approached the vertical.

  17. Copper-based micro-channel cooler reliably operated using solutions of distilled-water and ethanol as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, A. K.; Nelson, A.; Chin, R. H.; Bertaska, R.; Jacob, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Copper-based micro-channel coolers (Cu-MCC) are the lowest thermal-resistance heat-sinks for high-power laserdiode (LD) bars. Presently, the resistivity, pH and oxygen content of the de-ionized water coolant, must be actively controlled to minimize cooler failure by corrosion and electro-corrosion. Additionally, the water must be constantly exposed to ultraviolet radiation to limit the growth of micro-organisms that may clog the micro-channels. In this study, we report the reliable, care-free operation of LD-bars attached to Cu-MCCs, using a solution of distilledwater and ethanol as the coolant. This coolant meets the storage requirements of Mil-Std 810G, e.g. exposure to a storage temperature as low as -51°C and no growth of micro-organisms during passive storage.

  18. Inlet flow field investigation. Part 1: Transonic flow field survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Salemann, V.; Sussman, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the local inlet flow field characteristics of an advanced tactical supersonic cruise airplane. A data base for the development and validation of analytical codes directed at the analysis of inlet flow fields for advanced supersonic airplanes was established. Testing was conducted at the NASA-Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.20 and angles of attack from 0.0 to 10.0 degrees. Inlet flow field surveys were made at locations representative of wing (upper and lower surface) and forebody mounted inlet concepts. Results are presented in the form of local inlet flow field angle of attack, sideflow angle, and Mach number contours. Wing surface pressure distributions supplement the flow field data.

  19. Results from computational analysis of a mixed compression supersonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J. D.; Keith, T. G.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to simulate the critical flow through a supersonic inlet. This flow field has many phenomena such as shock waves, strong viscous effects, turbulent boundary layer development, boundary layer separations, and mass flow suction through the walls, (bleed). The computational tools used were two full Navier-Stokes (FNS) codes. The supersonic inlet that was analyzed is the Variable Diameter Centerbody, (VDC), inlet. This inlet is a candidate concept for the next generation supersonic involved effort in generating an efficient grid geometry and specifying boundary conditions, particularly in the bleed region and at the outflow boundary. Results for a critical inlet operation compare favorably to Method of Characteristics predictions and experimental data.

  20. Minimum weight design of a generic axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1996-01-01

    A new minimum weight design method for high-speed axisymmetric inlets was demonstrated on a generic inlet. The method uses Classical Beam Theory and shell buckling to determine the minimum required equivalent isotropic thickness for a stiffened shell based on prescribed structural design requirements and load conditions. The optimum spacing and equivalent isotropic thickness of ring frame supports are computed to prevent buckling. The method thus develops a preliminary structural design for the inlet and computes the structural weight. Finite element analyses were performed on the resulting inlet design to evaluate the analytical results. Comparisons between the analytical and finite element stresses and deflections identified areas needing improvement in the analytical method. The addition of the deflection due to shear and a torsional buckling failure mode to the new method brought its results in line with those from the finite element analyses. Final validation of the new method will be made using data from actual inlets.

  1. Inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinwei; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Antaki, James F; Olsen, Don B

    2004-10-01

    The purposes of inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps, including inducers and diffusers for axial pumps, inlet and exit volutes for centrifugal pumps, and inlet and outlet cannulas, are to guide the blood into the impeller, where the blood is accelerated, and to convert the high kinetic energy into pressure after the impeller discharge, respectively. The designs of the inlet and outlet devices have an important bearing on the pump performance. Their designs are highly dependent on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, guided by intuition and experience. For inlet devices, the design objectives are to eliminate separated flow, to minimize recirculation, and to equalize the radial components of velocity. For outlet devices, the design goals are to reduce speed, to minimize energy loss, and to avoid flow separation and whirl. CFD analyses indicate the velocity field and pressure distribution. Geometrical optimization of these components has been implemented in order to improve the flow pattern. PMID:15384997

  2. Computational Analysis of a Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2011-01-01

    A low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for use on a conceptual small supersonic aircraft that would cruise with an over-wing Mach number of 1.7. The inlet was designed to minimize external overpressures, and used a novel bypass duct to divert the highest shock losses around the engine. The Wind-US CFD code was used to predict the effects of capture ratio, struts, bypass design, and angles of attack on inlet performance. The inlet was tested in the 8-ft by 6-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with capture ratios near one, a peak core total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a stable operating range much larger than that of an engine. Predictions generally compared very well with the experimental data, and were used to help interpret some of the experimental results.

  3. Catalytically-Promoted Analyte Derivatization Inside a Gas Chromatographic Inlet

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, William K.; Gamble, Kelly J.; Wright, Amber R.

    2010-01-01

    Reported here is a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of catalyzing on-line derivatization reactions inside the inlet (i.e., the injection port) of a gas chromatograph (GC) with solid heterogeneous catalysts. The experiments described here entail the installation of candidate catalysts inside the GC inlet liner and the subsequent injection of analyte/reagent mixtures onto the catalyst beds. Two catalysts are identified, each of which clearly catalyzes one of the chosen model derivatization reactions in the inlet of a GC. This result supports our hypothesis that on-line derivatizations can, in principle, be reproducibly catalyzed inside the GC inlet by solid heterogeneous catalysts and that the presence of such catalysts in the inlet do not necessarily cause a serious loss of instrument performance or chromatographic efficiency. PMID:20822662

  4. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  5. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H20 for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  6. Radiation effects in the stainless steel primary coolant supply adapter

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.

    1995-09-01

    The primary coolant supply adapter (PCSA) is a flanged, cylindrical collar of 316NG stainless steel that is part of the primary pressure boundary of the Advanced Neutron Source. The radiation fluxes on the PCSA are dominated by thermal neutrons. During its intended 40-year service life, the PCSA will receive a thermal neutron fluence of 1.8 {times} 10{sup 26} m{sup {minus}2} in its upper sections at a temperature of <1OO{degree}C. The PCSA will suffer radiation damage, caused primarily by the interaction of thermal neutrons with the 14% nickel in the steel, which will generate helium by the sequential reactions {sup 58}Ni (n,y){sup 59}Ni (n,{alpha}){sup 56}Fe and will concurrently produce significant atomic displacements per atom (dpa) from the {sup 59}Ni (n,{alpha}){sup 56}Fe recoils. It is estimated that the helium concentration and total atomic displacements in the upper parts of the PCSA will be about 430 atomic parts per million and 1 dpa, respectively. From newly compiled trend curves of tensile properties and fracture toughness data versus atomic displacements for 316 steel, it is deduced that the irradiated PCSA will retain at least 20% uniform tensile elongation and a fracture toughness of more than 200 Mpa{radical}m, which are judged adequate to resist brittle failure. Tberefore, employment of a neutron shield around the PCSA is unnecessary.

  7. Effect of replacing surface inlets with blind or gravel inlets on sediment and phosphorus subsurface drainage losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open surface inlets that connect to subsurface tile drainage systems provide a direct pathway for sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals to surface waters. This study was conducted to determine whether modifying open inlets by burying them in gravel capped with 30 cm of sandy clay loam soil or in ve...

  8. Heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system based on fluctuation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Guilera, A.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Rubi, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    We present a model to study the heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system. Such a model introduces thermal fluctuations as well as external noises due to different mechanisms of heat interchange. A unified treatment of both kinds of noise is carried out. The stationary mean value of the channel temperature is studied, obtaining effective transport coefficients which affect the stability of the system. The effects of the different noises are visualized in a correlation length obtained from the temperature correlation function. The model has practical implications in the field of nuclear-reactor noise theory.

  9. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. he specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtration and distilla...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  11. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida...continue to be managed as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area...U.S.C. 1787), which created the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural...

  12. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series: Admiralty Inlet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dethier, Megan N.; Hodson, Timothy O.; Kull, Kristine K.; Golden, Nadine E.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Moegling, Crescent; Pacunski, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Puget Sound is separated into four interconnected basins; Whidbey, Central (Main), Hood Canal, and South (Thomson, 1994). The Whidbey, Central, and Hood Canal basins are the three main branches of the Puget Sound estuary and are separated from the Strait of Juan de Fuca by a double sill at Admiralty Inlet. The Admiralty Inlet map area includes the Inlet and a portion of the Whidbey Basin (fig. 1). The shallower South Basin is separated by a sill at Tacoma Narrows and is highly branched with numerous finger inlets. Flow within Puget Sound is dominated by tidal currents of as much as 1 m/s at Admiralty Inlet, reducing to approximately 0.5 m/s in the Central Basin (Lavelle and others, 1988). The lack of silt and clay-sized sediments in the Admiralty Inlet map area is likely a result of the strong currents (see Ground-Truth Studies for the Admiralty Inlet Map Area, sheet 3). The subtidal component of flow reaches approximately 0.1 m/s and is driven by density gradients arising from the contrast in salty ocean water at the entrance and freshwater inputs from stream flow (Lavelle and others, 1988). The total freshwater input

  13. Flow Simulation of Supersonic Inlet with Bypass Annular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, HyoungJin; Kumano, Takayasu; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Conners, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    A relaxed isentropic compression supersonic inlet is a new concept that produces smaller cowl drag than a conventional inlet, but incurs lower total pressure recovery and increased flow distortion in the (radially) outer flowpath. A supersonic inlet comprising a bypass annulus to the relaxed isentropic compression inlet dumps out airflow of low quality through the bypass duct. A reliable computational fluid dynamics solution can provide considerable useful information to ascertain quantitatively relative merits of the concept, and further provide a basis for optimizing the design. For a fast and reliable performance evaluation of the inlet performance, an equivalent axisymmetric model whose area changes accounts for geometric and physical (blockage) effects resulting from the original complex three-dimensional configuration is proposed. In addition, full three-dimensional calculations are conducted for studying flow phenomena and verifying the validity of the equivalent model. The inlet-engine coupling is carried out by embedding numerical propulsion system simulation engine data into the flow solver for interactive boundary conditions at the engine fan face and exhaust plane. It was found that the blockage resulting from complex three-dimensional geometries in the bypass duct causes significant degradation of inlet performance by pushing the terminal normal shock upstream.

  14. The performance of a centrifugal compressor with high inlet prewhirl

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    The performance requirements of centrifugal compressors usually include a broad operating range between surge and choke. This becomes increasingly difficult to achieve as increased pressure ratio is demanded. In order to suppress the tendency to surge and extend the operating range at low flow rates, inlet swirl is often considered through the application of inlet guide vanes. To generate high inlet swirl angles efficiently, an inlet volute has been applied as the swirl generator, and a variable geometry design developed in order to provide zero swirl. The variable geometry approach can be applied to increase the swirl progressively or to switch rapidly from zero swirl to maximum swirl. The variable geometry volute and the swirl conditions generated are described. The performance of a small centrifugal compressor is presented for a wide range of inlet swirl angles. In addition to the basic performance characteristics of the compressor, the onsets of flow reversals at impeller inlet are presented, together with the development of pressure pulsations, in the inlet and discharge ducts, through to full surge. The flow rate at which surge occurred was shown, by the shift of the peak pressure condition and by the measurement of the pressure pulsations, to be reduced by over 40%.

  15. Computational study of inlet injection for a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computational simulation of reacting 2-D and 3-D flowfields in a model inlet section of a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine concept was performed. LARCK, a multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with finite-rate kinetics chemistry developed at NASA LaRC by J.A. White, was adapted for this simulation. The flow conditions in the simulation match those envisioned for the PM/SIC engine experiments currently planned at LaRC. The reacting flowfields were Mach 6.3 freestream air and Mach 2 hydrogen at various pressure and temperature conditions injected through a slot injector at the base of the inlet section. In the PM/SIC engine, fuel is injected at the inlet section upstream of the combustor, and reaction is initiated by the shock wave at the inlet which increases the gas temperature and pressure beyond the kinetic limits for reaction. Many challenges exist prior to establishing shock-controlled combustion as a practical engine concept. These challenges include fuel injection schemes that can provide proper fuel-air mixing without creating large losses in the inlet section, and control of the combustion process so that early ignition or combustion propagation through the inlet boundary layer does not occur. For this project, a parametrics study was carried out to model the fuel injection of hydrogen at different flow conditions. It was found that, as the fuel temperature and pressure were increased, the potential for pre-ignition was high at a short distance downstream of the slot injector. The next stage of this work will investigate injection techniques for enhancing mixing of fuel and air in a manner that prevents or reduces the potential for premature ignition observed numerically.

  16. Distortion-rotor interaction noise produced by a drooped inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. B.; Moore, M. T.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The 'drooped' inlet used on most wing mounted engines produces a wall static pressure distortion at the fan face of about plus or minus 2%. The interaction of the fan rotor with this fixed distortion pattern produces blade passing frequency and harmonic tone levels in flight which contribute to forward radiated engine noise spectra. Data from a wind tunnel test, using both a drooped inlet and an inlet with no droop, show large changes in forward radiated noise levels over a limited fan speed range. An analytical model of this fan noise mechanism is developed and is used to account for the major features of the measured results.

  17. A novel concept for subsonic inlet boundary-layer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    A self-bleeding method for boundary layer control is described and tested for a subsonic inlet designed to operate in the flowfield generated by high angles of attack. Naturally occurring surface static pressure gradients are used to remove the boundary layer from a separation-prone region of the inlet and to reinject it at a less critical location with a net performance gain. The results suggest that this self-bleeding method for boundary-layer control might be successfully applied to other inlets operating at extreme aerodynamic conditions.

  18. Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.

  19. Estimation of additive forces and moments for supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Stanley C., Jr.; Dillenius, Marnix F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for estimating the additive forces and moments associated with supersonic, external compression inlets as a function of mass flow ratio has been developed. The technique makes use of a low order supersonic paneling method for calculating minimum additive forces at maximum mass flow conditions. A linear relationship between the minimum additive forces and the maximum values for fully blocked flow is employed to obtain the additive forces at a specified mass flow ratio. The method is applicable to two-dimensional inlets at zero or nonzero angle of attack, and to axisymmetric inlets at zero angle of attack. Comparisons with limited available additive drag data indicate fair to good agreement.

  20. Feasibility study of inlet shock stability system of YF-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blausey, G. C.; Coleman, D. M.; Harp, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of self actuating bleed valves as a shock stabilization system in the inlet of the YF-12 is considered for vortex valves, slide valves, and poppet valves. Analytical estimation of valve performance indicates that only the slide and poppet valves located in the inlet cowl can meet the desired steady state stabilizing flows, and of the two the poppet valve is substantially faster in response to dynamic disturbances. The poppet valve is, therefore, selected as the best shock stability system for the YF-12 inlet.

  1. Heavy minerals in surficial sediments from lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Amphiboles, orthopyroxenes, and clinopyroxenes dominate the heavy mineral suite of surficial sediments in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. Sources for these sediments include the igneous arc terrane of the northeast Alaska Range, reworked intrabasinal sediments, and local drainages in lower Cook Inlet. The distribution of these deposits is a reflection of both the tidal currents and the prevailing southerly net movement from the head of Cook Inlet. The heavy mineral studies concur with similar findings from gravel analyses, clay mineral investigations, and quartz microtexture observations. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Fuel, Structural Material and Coolant for an Advanced Fast Micro-Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, J. A.; Duimarães, L. N. F.; Ono, S.

    The use of nuclear reactors in space, seabed or other Earth hostile environment in the future is a vision that some Brazilian nuclear researchers share. Currently, the USA, a leader in space exploration, has as long-term objectives the establishment of a permanent Moon base and to launch a manned mission to Mars. A nuclear micro-reactor is the power source chosen to provide energy for life support, electricity for systems, in these missions. A strategy to develop an advanced micro-reactor technologies may consider the current fast reactor technologies as back-up and the development of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials. The next generation reactors (GEN-IV) for terrestrial applications will operate with high output temperature to allow advanced conversion cycle, such as Brayton, and hydrogen production, among others. The development of an advanced fast micro-reactor may create a synergy between the GEN-IV and space reactor technologies. Considering a set of basic requirements and materials properties this paper discusses the choice of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials for a fast micro-reactor. The chosen candidate materials are: nitride, oxide as back-up, for fuel, lead, tin and gallium for coolant, ferritic MA-ODS and Mo alloys for core structures. The next step will be the neutronic and burnup evaluation of core concepts with this set of materials.

  3. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  4. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue design curves of carbon and low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1998-03-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data indicate that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) environments. The existing fatigue S-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, strain rate, temperature, orientation, and sulfur content on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue S-N curves as a function of material, loading, and environmental variables. The results have been used to estimate the probability of fatigue cracking of reactor components. The different methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments on the ASME Code fatigue design curves are presented.

  5. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Integral Test and Engineering Analysis of Coolant Depletion During a Large-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Park, Goon Cherl; Suh, Kune Yull; Lee, Un Chul

    2005-02-15

    This study concerns the development of an integrated calculation methodology with which to continually and consistently analyze the progression of an accident from the design-basis accident phase via core uncovery to the severe accident phase. The depletion rate of reactor coolant inventory was experimentally investigated after the safety injection failure during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident utilizing the Seoul National University Integral Test Facility (SNUF), which is scaled down to 1/6.4 in length and 1/178 in area from the APR1400 [Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MW(electric)]. The experimental results showed that the core coolant inventory decreased five times faster before than after the extinction of sweepout in the reactor downcomer, which is induced by the incoming steam from the intact cold legs. The sweepout occurred on top of the spillover from the downcomer region and expedited depletion of the core coolant inventory. The test result was simulated with the MAAP4 severe accident analysis code. The calculation results of the original MAAP4 deviated from the test data in terms of coolant inventory distribution in the test vessel. After the calculation algorithm of coolant level distribution was improved by including the subroutine of pseudo pressure buildup, which accounts for the differential pressure between the core and downcomer in MAAP4, the core melt progression was delayed by hundreds of seconds, and the code prediction was in reasonable agreement with the overall behavior of the SNUF experiment.

  7. Some flow phenomena in a constant area duct with a Borda type inlet including the critical region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Mass limiting flow characteristics for a 55 L/D tube with a Borda type inlet were assessed over large ranges of temperature and pressure, using fluid nitrogen. Under certain conditions, separation and pressure drop at the inlet was sufficiently strong to permit partial vaporization and the remaining fluid flowed through the tube as if it were a free jet. An empirical relation was determined which defines conditions under which this type of flow can occur. A flow coefficient is presented which enables estimations of flow rates over the experimental range. A flow rate stagnation pressure map for selected stagnation isotherms and pressure profiles document these flow phenomena.

  8. Influence of coolant pH on corrosion of 6061 aluminum under reactor heat transfer conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.; Felde, D.K.; Pawel, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    To support the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), an experimental program was conducted wherein aluminum alloy specimens were exposed at high heat fluxes to high-velocity aqueous coolants in a corrosion test loop. The aluminum alloys selected for exposure were candidate fuel cladding materials, and the loop system was constructed to emulate the primary coolant system for the proposed ANS reactor. One major result of this program has been the generation of an experimental database defining oxide film growth on 6061 aluminum alloy cladding. Additionally, a data correlation was developed from the database to permit the prediction of film growth for any reasonable thermal-hydraulic excursion. This capability was utilized effectively during the conceptual design stages of the reactor. During the course of this research, it became clear that the kinetics of film growth on the aluminum alloy specimens were sensitively dependent on the chemistry of the aqueous coolant and that relatively small deviations from the intended pH 5 operational level resulted in unexpectedly large changes in the corrosion behavior. Examination of the kinetic influences and the details of the film morphology suggested that a mechanism involving mass transport from other parts of the test loop was involved. Such a mechanism would also be expected to be active in the operating reactor. This report emphasizes the results of experiments that best illustrate the influence of the nonthermal-hydraulic parameters on film growth and presents data to show that comparatively small variations in pH near 5.0 invoke a sensitive response. Simply, for operation in the temperature and heat flux range appropriate for the ANS studies, coolant pH levels from 4.5 to 4.9 produced significantly less film growth than those from pH 5.1 to 6. A mechanism for this behavior based on the concept of treating the entire loop as an active corrosion system is presented.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Non-Rotating and Rotating Coolant Channel Flow Fields. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Future generations of ultra high bypass-ratio jet engines will require far higher pressure ratios and operating temperatures than those of current engines. For the foreseeable future, engine materials will not be able to withstand the high temperatures without some form of cooling. In particular the turbine blades, which are under high thermal as well as mechanical loads, must be cooled. Cooling of turbine blades is achieved by bleeding air from the compressor stage of the engine through complicated internal passages in the turbine blades (internal cooling, including jet-impingement cooling) and by bleeding small amounts of air into the boundary layer of the external flow through small discrete holes on the surface of the blade (film cooling and transpiration cooling). The cooling must be done using a minimum amount of air or any increases in efficiency gained through higher operating temperature will be lost due to added load on the compressor stage. Turbine cooling schemes have traditionally been based on extensive empirical data bases, quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and trial and error. With improved capabilities of CFD, these traditional methods can be augmented by full three-dimensional simulations of the coolant flow to predict in detail the heat transfer and metal temperatures. Several aspects of turbine coolant flows make such application of CFD difficult, thus a highly effective CFD methodology must be used. First, high resolution of the flow field is required to attain the needed accuracy for heat transfer predictions, making highly efficient flow solvers essential for such computations. Second, the geometries of the flow passages are complicated but must be modeled accurately in order to capture all important details of the flow. This makes grid generation and grid quality important issues. Finally, since coolant flows are turbulent and separated the effects of turbulence must be modeled with a low Reynolds number turbulence model to accurately predict details of heat transfer.

  10. Tangential blowing for control of strong normal shock - Boundary layer interactions on inlet ramps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendemann, M. F.; Sanders, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of tangential blowing from a row of holes in an aft facing step is found to provide good control of the ramp boundary layer, normal shock interaction on a fixed geometry inlet over a wide range of inlet mass flow ratios. Ramp Mach numbers of 1.36 and 1.96 are investigated. The blowing geometry is found to have a significant effect on system performance at the highest Mach number. The use of high-temperature air in the blowing system, however, has only a slight effect on performance. The required blowing rates are significantly high for the most severe test conditions. In addition, the required blowing coefficient is found to be proportional to the normal shock pressure rise.

  11. Shuttle Centaur engine cooldown evaluation and effects of expanded inlets on start transient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    As part of the integration of the RL10 engine into the Shuttle Centaur vehicle, a satisfactory method of conditioning the engine to operating temperatures had to be established. This procedure, known as cooldown, is different from the existing Atlas Centaur due to vehicle configuration and mission profile differenced. The program is described, and the results of a Shuttle Centaur cooldown program are reported. Mission peculiarities cause substantial variation in propellant inlet conditions between the substantiated Atlas Centaur and Shuttle Centaur with the Shuttle Centaur having much larger variation in conditions. A test program was conducted to demonstrate operation of the RL10 engine over the expanded inlet conditions. As a result of this program, the Shuttle Centaur requirements were proven satisfactory. Minor configuration changes incorporated as a result of this program provide substantial reduction in cooldown propellant consumption.

  12. Unsteady Analysis of Inlet-Compressor Acoustic Interactions Using Coupled 3-D and 1-D CFD Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, A.; Cole, G. L.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the dynamic response of a mixed compression supersonic inlet is very sensitive to the boundary condition imposed at the subsonic exit (engine face) of the inlet. In previous work, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) inlet code (NPARC) was coupled at the engine face to a 3-D turbomachinery code (ADPAC) simulating an isolated rotor and the coupled simulation used to study the unsteady response of the inlet. The main problem with this approach is that the high fidelity turbomachinery simulation becomes prohibitively expensive as more stages are included in the simulation. In this paper, an alternative approach is explored, wherein the inlet code is coupled to a lesser fidelity 1-D transient compressor code (DYNTECC) which simulates the whole compressor. The specific application chosen for this evaluation is the collapsing bump experiment performed at the University of Cincinnati, wherein reflections of a large-amplitude acoustic pulse from a compressor were measured. The metrics for comparison are the pulse strength (time integral of the pulse amplitude) and wave form (shape). When the compressor is modeled by stage characteristics the computed strength is about ten percent greater than that for the experiment, but the wave shapes are in poor agreement. An alternate approach that uses a fixed rise in duct total pressure and temperature (so-called 'lossy' duct) to simulate a compressor gives good pulse shapes but the strength is about 30 percent low.

  13. The relationships between certain physical and chemical variables and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of a shallow hypertrophic lake with different nutrient inputs.

    PubMed

    Celik, Kemal; Ongun, Tugba

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between water discharge, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) conductivity, turbidity, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of a shallow hypertrophic lake (Lake Manyas, Turkey) were studied between January 2003 and December 2004. The results showed that different levels of water discharge, turbidity, conductivity, TDS and nutrients could lead to the development of significantly different phytoplankton assemblages in inlets of shallow hypertrophic lakes. The multiple regression analysis identified water discharge, turbidity and water temperature as the driving factors behind the dynamics of phytoplankton biovolume in the studied inlets. The first two axes of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) explained 78% of the total variance in dominant phytoplankton species at Si?irci Inlet and 88% at Kocaçay Inlet, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between water discharge, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, pH, TDS, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of the shallow hypertrophic Lake Manyas, Turkey by means of multivariate statistical analysis. PMID:16897515

  14. 46 CFR 42.15-60 - Scuppers, inlets, and discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...15-60 Scuppers, inlets, and discharges. (a) Discharges led through the shell either from spaces below the freeboard...doors complying with the requirements of § 42.15-10 shall be led overboard. (e) All valves and shell fittings...

  15. 46 CFR 42.15-60 - Scuppers, inlets, and discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...15-60 Scuppers, inlets, and discharges. (a) Discharges led through the shell either from spaces below the freeboard...doors complying with the requirements of § 42.15-10 shall be led overboard. (e) All valves and shell fittings...

  16. 46 CFR 42.15-60 - Scuppers, inlets, and discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...15-60 Scuppers, inlets, and discharges. (a) Discharges led through the shell either from spaces below the freeboard...doors complying with the requirements of § 42.15-10 shall be led overboard. (e) All valves and shell fittings...

  17. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 46 CFR 42.15-60 - Scuppers, inlets, and discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...15-60 Scuppers, inlets, and discharges. (a) Discharges led through the shell either from spaces below the freeboard...doors complying with the requirements of § 42.15-10 shall be led overboard. (e) All valves and shell fittings...

  19. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both... structural limitation of the airplane; and (c) In showing compliance with paragraph (b) of this section,...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage. (2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage. (2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each...

  2. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage. (2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage. (2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage. (2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each...

  5. Aerodynamic and acoustic performance of high Mach number inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Clark, L. R.; Cherng, J. C.; Tag, I.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results were obtained for two types of high Mach number inlets, one with a translating centerbody and one with a fixed geometry (collapsing cowl) without centerbody. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of these inlets was examined. The effects of several parameters such as area ratio and length-diameter ratio were investigated. The translating centerbody inlet was found to be superior to the collapsing cowl inlet both acoustically and aerodynamically, particularly for area ratios greater than 1.5. Comparison of length-diameter ratio and area ratio effects on performance near choked flow showed the latter parameter to be more significant. Also, greater high frequency noise attenuation was achieved by increasing Mach number from low to high subsonic values.

  6. INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  7. LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  8. STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  9. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  10. 46 CFR 42.15-60 - Scuppers, inlets, and discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...15-60 Scuppers, inlets, and discharges. (a) Discharges led through the shell either from spaces below the freeboard...doors complying with the requirements of § 42.15-10 shall be led overboard. (e) All valves and shell fittings...

  11. An experimental investigation into enhancing pulsejet performance through inlet redesign 

    E-print Network

    Wood, Randolph Handley, 1967-

    1994-01-01

    operation, the engine was tested in a moving flow of air. The experimental data consisted of combustion chamber pressure measurements, inlet pressure measurements and thrust measurements. The diffuser configuration successfully achieved the research...

  12. Flow analysis and control in a subsonic inlet

    E-print Network

    Tournier, Serge (Serge E.)

    2005-01-01

    S-duct inlets are commonly used on subsonic cruise missiles, as they offer a good compromise between compactness, low observability and aerodynamic performance. Though currently used S-ducts exhibit good performance in ...

  13. Turbine inlet non-uniformities and unsteady mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Jedamski, Devon (Devon James)

    2015-01-01

    The effect of axial turbine stage inlet non-uniformities are examined through two model problems: wake attenuation and hot streak processing. In the first, twodimensional calculations (RANS and URANS) are used to identify ...

  14. CFD Results for an Axisymmetric Isentropic Relaxed Compression Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Conners, Timothy R.; Merret, Jason M.; Howe, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    The OVERFLOW code was used to calculate the flow field for a family of five relaxed compression inlets, which were part of a screening study to determine a configuration most suited to the application of microscale flow control technology as a replacement for bleed. Comparisons are made to experimental data collected for each of the inlets in the 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to help determine the suitability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for future studies of these inlets with flow control devices. Effects on the wind tunnel results of the struts present in a high subsonic flow region accounted for most of the inconsistency between the results. Based on the level of agreement in the present study, it is expected that CFD can be used as a tool to aid in the design of a study of this class of inlets with flow control.

  15. High-temperature turbine technology program hot-gas path development test. Part II. Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    This topical report of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) Phase II program presents the results of testing full-scale water-cooled first-stage and second-stage turbine nozzles at design temperature and pressure to verify that the designs are adequate for operation in a full-scale turbine environment. Low-cycle fatigue life of the nozzles was demonstrated by subjecting cascade assemblies to several hundred simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycles. This testing was accomplished in the Hot-Gas Path Development Test Stand (HGPDTS), which is capable of evaluating full-scale combustion and turbine nozzle components. A three-throat cascade of the first-stage turbine nozzle was successfully tested at a nozzle inlet gas temperature of 2630/sup 0/F and a nozzle inlet pressure of 11.3 atmospheres. In addition to steady-state operation at the design firing temperature, the nozzle cascade was exposed to a simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycle by varying the firing temperature. A total of 42 h at the design point and 617 thermal cycles were accumulated during the test periods. First-stage nozzle test results show that measured metal and coolant temperatures correspond well to the predicted design values. This nozzle design has been shown to be fully satisfactory for the application (2600/sup 0/F), with growth capability to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature. A post-test metallurgical examination of sectioned portions of the tested nozzles shows a totally bonded structure, confirming the test results and attesting to the successful performance of water-cooled composite nozzle hardware.

  16. Velocity Field Characteristics at the Inlet to a Pipe Culvert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolerski, Tomasz; Wielgat, Pawe?

    2014-12-01

    A poorly designed culvert inlet structure causes scouring, which can lead to the collapse of the culvert and significant damage to the neighboring land. A set of laboratory tests was evaluated to examine velocity distribution at the culvert inlet. A three-dimensional acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to measure instantaneous flow velocity upstream of the culvert. The analysis of mean velocities, turbulence strength, and Reynolds stresses was performed to understand the flow structure near the culvert entrance.

  17. Utilizing numerical techniques in turbofan inlet acoustic suppressor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical theories in conjunction with previously published analytical results are used to augment current analytical theories in the acoustic design of a turbofan inlet nacelle. In particular, a finite element-integral theory is used to study the effect of the inlet lip radius on the far field radiation pattern and to determine the optimum impedance in an actual engine environment. For some single mode JT15D data, the numerical theory and experiment are found to be in a good agreement.

  18. Demonstrated survivability of a high temperature optical fiber cable on a 1500 pound thrust rocket chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstration of the ability of an existing optical fiber cable to survive the harsh environment of a rocket engine was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The intent of this demonstration was to prove the feasibility of applying fiber optic technology to rocket engine instrumentation systems. Extreme thermal transient tests were achieved by wrapping a high temperature optical fiber, which was cablized for mechanical robustness, around the combustion chamber outside wall of a 1500 lb Hydrogen-Oxygen rocket engine. Additionally, the fiber was wrapped around coolant inlet pipes which were subject to near liquid hydrogen temperatures. Light from an LED was sent through the multimode fiber, and output power was monitored as a function of time while the engine was fired. The fiber showed no mechanical damage after 419 firings during which it was subject to transients from 30 K to 350 K, and total exposure time to near liquid hydrogen temperatures in excess of 990 seconds. These extreme temperatures did cause attenuation greater than 3 dB, but the signal was fully recovered at room temperature. This experiment demonstrates that commercially available optical fiber cables can survive the environment seen by a typical rocket engine instrumentation system, and disclose a temperature-dependent attenuation observed during exposure to near liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  19. Investigation of Power Requirements for Ice Prevention and Cyclical De-Icing of Inlet Guide Vanes with Internal Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Blatz, Robert E.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the electric power requirements necessary for ice protection of inlet guide vanes by continuous heating and by cyclical de-icing. Data are presented to show the effect of ambient-air temperature, liquid-water content, air velocity, heat-on period, and cycle times on the power requirements for these two methods of ice protection. The results showed that for a hypothetical engine using 28 inlet guide vanes under similar icing conditions, cyclical de-icing can provide a total power saving as high as 79 percent over that required for continuous heating. Heat-on periods in the order of 10 seconds with a cycle ratio of about 1:7 resulted in the best over-all performance with respect to total power requirements and aerodynamic losses during the heat-off period. Power requirements reported herein may be reduced by as much as 25 percent by achieving a more uniform surface-temperature distribution. A parameter in terms of engine mass flow, vane size, vane surface temperature, and the icing conditions ahead of the inlet guide vanes.was developed by which an extension of the experimental data to icing conditions and inlet guide vanes, other than those investigated was possible.

  20. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  2. Tidal Wave Characteristics and Water Quality Response at New River Inlet, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Reniers, A. J.; Weltmer, M.; Rynne, P. F.; Van De Kreeke, J.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Feddersen, F.; Guza, R. T.; Milligan, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the spring 2012, a multi-institutional collaborative field experiment (RIVET) was performed at New River Inlet (NRI), NC. A wide range of instrumentation was used to measure winds, tides, mean sea-surface levels, waves, currents, salinity, temperature, ocean color, water quality, and the bathymetry from offshore of the ebb shoal to the mouth of the inlet to along the inlet channel and into the estuary. A brief overview of the collaborative effort will be presented, followed by a discussion of tidal propagation from the ocean to the back-bay estuary and the Intra Coastal Waterway (ICW), and the corresponding effect on water quality and optical properties. NRI is a shallow-water, frictional estuary that connects the ocean via a 5 km long, narrow channel to the back bay. NRI is considered a "choked" inlet due to the small cross-sectional area, long channel, and large storage of the back bay. In contrast to many inlets on the east coast of the US, owing to the morphologic choking the ebb and flood dominance at the entrance is primarily controlled by the modulation (MSF, K1, O1) of the M2 oceanic forcing. However, farther upstream the system becomes flood-dominated owing to the bathymetric configuration. The transition zone, located at the upper extent of the tidal excursion, is near the channel exit within the back bay and features tidal intrusion fronts. The ICW intersection with the inlet channel influences the mixing and exchange of the NRI system and neighboring inlets. The flow measured in the ICW at 1 km south of the ICW intersection is in phase with the flow in the primary NRI channel and is independent of the inlet 36 km to the south. In contrast, the flow 1 km north of the ICW intersection primarily is controlled by the inlet 12 km to the north, resulting in a phase lag with the flow in the primary NRI channel. Ocean-derived water is prevalent in the northern ICW, whereas higher levels of colored dissolved organic matter and salinities are found in the southern ICW associated with the marshes, shallow bays, and small channels. Owing to the confluence of the ICW, frontal patterns are observed in the center of the channel. During the ebb flows, these fronts oscillate across the channel as they propagate downstream. The tidal modulation of water quality and optical properties will be discussed in relation to the flow behavior. The detailed in situ field observations of NRI allow for extensive evaluation of numerical models for tidal propagation and three-dimensional tidal mixing, tidal exchange, and residence times, as well as for material transport and water quality. In addition, the in situ observations provide a rich data set for ground truth for the simultaneous remote sensing studies (DARLA), as well as data to initialize, to assimilate into, and to test models that invert for the underlying bathymetry. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research.

  3. Cladding embrittlement during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.; Yan, Y.; Burtseva, T.; Daum, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-31

    The effect of fuel burnup on the embrittlement of various cladding alloys was examined with laboratory tests conducted under conditions relevant to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The cladding materials tested were Zircaloy-4, Zircaloy-2, ZIRLO, M5, and E110. Tests were performed with specimens sectioned from as-fabricated cladding, from prehydrided (surrogate for high-burnup) cladding, and from high-burnup fuel rods which had been irradiated in commercial reactors. The tests were designed to determine for each cladding material the ductile-to-brittle transition as a function of steam oxidation temperature, weight gain due to oxidation, hydrogen content, pre-transient cladding thickness, and pre-transient corrosion-layer thickness. For short, defueled cladding specimens oxidized at 1000-1200 C, ring compression tests were performed to determine post-quench ductility at {le} 135 C. The effect of breakaway oxidation on embrittlement was also examined for short specimens oxidized at 800-1000 C. Among other findings, embrittlement was found to be sensitive to fabrication processes--especially surface finish--but insensitive to alloy constituents for these dilute zirconium alloys used as cladding materials. It was also demonstrated that burnup effects on embrittlement are largely due to hydrogen that is absorbed in the cladding during normal operation. Some tests were also performed with longer, fueled-and-pressurized cladding segments subjected to LOCA-relevant heating and cooling rates. Recommendations are given for types of tests that would identify LOCA conditions under which embrittlement would occur.

  4. Effect of variable inlet guide vanes on the operating characteristics of a tilt nacelle inlet/powered fan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.; Pontonides, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) assembly on the operating characteristics of a V/STOL inlet and on the performance of a 20-in. (0.508-m) diameter fan engine were investigated. The data indicate that the VIGVs are effective thrust modulators over a wide range of free-stream velocities, nacelle angles of attack, and fan speeds. The thrust modulation ranges, including choking limits, fan stall limits, and inlet separation boundaries are presented. The presence of the VIGV assembly causes significant losses in inlet angle-of-attack capability and generally increases the blade stress levels at all limit conditions except at high angle of attack and high free-stream velocity. Reducing the fan nozzle exit area limited the positive VIGV actuation range and consequently decreased the range of thrust modulation at all limit conditions except at both high free-stream velocity and high angle of attack conditions.

  5. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  6. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  7. Molten fuel/coolant interactions: Recent analysis of experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, M.L.

    1984-04-01

    If a complete failure of normal and emergency coolant flows occurs in a light water reactor, fission product decay would eventually cause melting of the reactor fuel, leading to contact with water. An energetic fuel/coolant interaction (steam explosion) may result. Experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories in which about5 to 20 kg of molten fuel simulant were delivered into water in which the water mass was 1.5 to 50 times greater than the fuel. These experiments in subcooled and saturated water showed that spontaneous explosions occurred over the range of water/fuel mass ratio and that in certain experiments multiple explosions occurred. The kinetic energy conversion ratio was <2%. A model is proposed to describe the fuel/coolant mixing process. The model is compared to these intermediate-scale experiments. Additional data analysis indicates that the steam explosion is affected by the mixing process.

  8. Response of a turbofan engine compression system to disturbed inlet conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Fattah, A.M.

    1997-10-01

    A generic code DYNTECC has been adapted to perform a parametric study of the effect of inlet flow distortion on the stability of the Pratt and Whitney TF30 engine. This code was developed at Arnold Engineering Development Center, USA, for single and dual spool systems. It was modified at AMRL to accommodate the particular geometry of the TF30 engine. The stage characteristics needed to operate DYNTECC were derived from experimental data for the fan and low-pressure compressor. For the high-pressure compressor they were derived using the STGSTK code developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This program was modified at AMRL to include real flow effects that were in turn derived using yet another adapted code, CASCAD. The code was primarily used at AMRL to predict the onset of system instability due to simulated full-face rapid inlet temperature ramps typical of those caused during armament firings. It was also run with sinusoidal total pressure oscillations of varying amplitudes and frequencies at the inlet. The code predictions were compared with available data whenever possible, and were found to be consistent with the observed experimental trends.

  9. Benefits of compressor inlet air cooling for gas turbine cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.; Boggio, V.

    1996-07-01

    Compressor inlet air cooling is an effective method for enhancing the performance of gas turbine plants. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different solutions for cooling the compressor inlet air for the LM6000 gas turbine in a cogeneration plant operated in base load. Absorption and evaporative cooling systems are considered and their performance and economic benefits compared for the dry low-NO{sub x} LM6000 version. Reference is made to two sites in Northern and Southern Italy, whose climate data series for modeling the variations in ambient temperature during the single day were used to account for the effects of climate in the simulation. The results confirmed the advantages of inlet air cooling systems. In particular, evaporative cooling proved to be cost effective, though capable of supplying only moderate cooling, while absorption systems have a higher cost but are also more versatile and powerful in base-load operation. An integration of the two systems proved to be able to give both maximum performance enhancement and net economic benefit.

  10. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  11. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  12. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  13. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  14. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  15. Columbia's uninsulated water coolant lines in the payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yesterday, NASA decided to postpone for 24-hours the launch of Columbia on mission STS-83 due to a requirement to add additional thermal insulation to water coolant lines in the orbiter's payload bay. The water coolant lines are seen here winding their way around the window on the left. Managers determined that the lines, which cool various electronics on the orbiter, were not properly insulated and could possibly freeze during Columbia's 16-days in space. Columbia's launch is now set for 2:00 p.m. EST on Friday, April 4, 1997.

  16. Control of Inflow Distortion in a Scarf Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    The scarf inlet has the potential to reduce aircraft inlet noise radiation to the ground by reflecting it into the space above the engine. Without forward motion of the engine, the non-symmetry of the inlet causes inflow distortion which generates noise that is greater than the noise reduction of the scarf. However, acoustic evaluations of aircraft engines are often done on static test stands. A method to reduce inflow distortion by boundary layer suction is proposed and evaluated using a model of a high bypass ratio engine located in an anechoic chamber. The design goal of the flow control system is to make the inflow to the inlet circumferentially uniform and to eliminate reversed flow. This minimizes the inflow distortion and allows for acoustic evaluation of the scarf inlet on a static test stand. The inlet boundary layer suction effectiveness is evaluated both by aerodynamic and by acoustic measurements. Although the design goal is not met, the control system is found to have a beneficial effect on the engine operation, reducing blade stall and speed variation. This is quantified by two acoustic benefits, reduction both of the variability of tone noise and of the low frequency wideband noise due to the inflow distortion. It is felt that a compromise in the manufacture of the control hardware contributes to the inability of the control system to perform as expected from the analysis. The control system with sufficient authority is felt to have the potential to permit reliable acoustic testing in a static configuration of engines with non-symmetric inlets. Because the control system can improve operation of the engine, it may also have the potential to reduce noise and vibration and enhance engine longevity during low speed ground operations in the terminal area.

  17. Observed and modeled drifters at a tidal inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spydell, Matthew S.; Feddersen, Falk; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Chen, Jialin; Guza, R. T.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2015-07-01

    Material transport and dispersion near the mouth of a tidal inlet (New River Inlet, NC) are investigated using GPS-tracked drifters and numerical models. For ebb tide releases, velocities are largest (>1 m s-1) in two approximately 30 m wide channels that bisect the 1-3 m deep ebb shoal. In the channels, drifter and subsurface current meter velocities are similar, consistent with strong vertical mixing and 2-D hydrodynamics. Drifters were preferentially entrained in the channelized jets where drifter cluster lateral spreading rates ?in were small (?in?0.5 m2 s-1). At the seaward edge of the ebb shoal, jet velocities decrease linearly with distance (to ?0.2 m s-1, about 1 km from shore), and cluster spreading rates are larger with ?out?3 m2 s-1. Although the models COAWST and NearCom generally reproduce the observed trajectory directions, certain observed drifter properties are poorly modeled. For example, modeled mean drifter velocities are smaller than observed, and upon exiting the inlet, observed drifters turn north more than modeled drifters. The model simulations do reproduce qualitatively the spreading rates observed in the inner inlet, the flow deceleration, and the increase in ?out observed in the outer inlet. However, model spreading rates increase only to ?out<1 m2 s-1. Smaller modeled than observed ?out may result from using unstratified models. Noncoincident (in space) observations show evidence of a buoyant plume (??=1 kg m-3) in the outer inlet, likely affecting drifter lateral spreading. Generally, drifter-based model performance is good within the inlet channels where tidal currents are strongest, whereas model-data differences are significant farther offshore.

  18. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the actively managed Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility Superfund Site, where further source-control actions and monitoring are under way.

  19. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  20. Corrugated and Composite Nozzle-Inlets for Thrust and Noise Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Blankson, I. M.; Gromov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. I.

    2004-01-01

    The following research results are based on development of an approach previously proposed and investigated in for optimum nozzle design to obtain maximum thrust. The design was denoted a Telescope nozzle. A Telescope nozzle contains one or several internal designs, which are inserted at certain locations into a divergent conical or planar main nozzle near its exit. Such a design provides additional thrust augmentation over 20% by comparison with the optimum single nozzle of equivalent lateral area, What is more, experimental acoustic tests have discovered an essential noise reduction due to application of Telescope nozzles. In this paper, some additional theoretical results are presented for Telescope nozzles and a similar approach is applied for aero-performance improvement of a supersonic inlet. Numerical simulations were conducted for supersonic flow into the divergent portion of a 2D or axisymmetric nozzle with several plane or conical designs as well as into a 2D or axisymmetric supersonic inlet with a forebody. The Kryko-Godunov marching numerical scheme for inviscid supersonic flows was used. Several cases were tested using the NASA CFL3d and IM/MSU Russian codes based on the full Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical simulations were conducted for non reacting flows (both codes) as well as for real high temperature gas flows with non-equilibrium chemical reactions (the latter code). In general, these simulations have confirmed essential benefits of Telescope design applications in propulsion system. Some preliminary numerical simulations of several typical inlet designs were conducted with the goal of inlet design optimization for maneuvering flight conditions.

  1. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  2. Water as a coolant of the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Rapid urbanization during the last century showed the necessity for understanding urban climate. Since already half of the world population lives in cities - and this number is predicted to increase in coming years and decades - making big urban areas comfortable places gains interest of the general public and policy makers, as well as scientists. It is well known fact that urban climate differs significantly from the climate of rural areas. This is caused by several factors such as lack of evaporation, anthropogenic heat, specific geometry of street canyons, etc. Magnitude of the effect of each of these factors is a widely discussed topic throughout the literature. One of the most important factors is a lack of evaporation and consequent change in the energy balance compared to rural areas. This research aims to reveal the effect of water in the city on the temperature and comfort of inhabitants. We hypothesize that water works as a cooling liquid of cities and the lack of it is the main reason for formation of so called urban heat island. We focus on two major ways water can be stored in cities; in a form of open water areas, and in plants and green areas in general. Open water buffers the temperature extremes in its surroundings, but also has a warming effect at night due to its higher heat capacity compared to buildings and pavements. Trees are then providing shading and transpirate significant amount of water. On the other hand, shading effect alone, as provided by for example mash, can increase the temperature in the area simply because it prevents ventilation. Human comfort is however not determined only by temperature; for example higher air humidity is known to lower comfort of inhabitants and therefore mitigate the cooling effect of evaporation. Understanding properly the different effects of urban climate, and the particular aspects that can influence it, is important for optimal urban design that provides pleasant living environment.

  3. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  4. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

  5. Improved Inlet Noise Attenuation by Alteration of Boundary Layer Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mani, Ramani; Luedke, Jon; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic liners are an essential component of technology used to reduce aircraft engine noise. Flow affects attenuation due to the liner in several ways, one of which is that boundary layers adjacent to the liner refract the sound. In the case of inlet noise, the boundary layer causes sound to be refracted away from the liner, thus degrading attenuation. A concept to improve attenuation by the liner by alteration of inlet boundary layer profiles is presented. The alteration of profiles is achieved by inlet blowing. Computational fluid dynamics and duct mode propagation theory for ducts carrying a parallel sheared flow have been used to design experiments to explore such a possibility in the NASA Langley Research Center Grazing Incidence Tube using an inlet blowing scheme developed at General Electric Global Research. The effects of inlet blowing on two liner configurations were evaluated. Calculated results will be shown for blowing ratios (injected flow/duct flow) of approximately 12% and frequencies up to 3 kHz. These results emphasize changes of attenuation achieved by blowing for the two liners. Experimental results of measured flow profiles (with and without blowing) in the Grazing Incidence Tube, and of corresponding changes in attenuation by the liner due to blowing will be presented.

  6. Design and Analysis Tool for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN has been developed to design and analyze external-compression supersonic inlets for aircraft at cruise speeds from Mach 1.6 to 2.0. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced Busemann inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flowfield is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling and the parts are defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates and surface grids useable by grid generation methods for higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. SUPIN is demonstrated through a series of design studies and CFD analyses were performed to verify some of the analysis results.

  7. Passive acoustic monitoring of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Lammers, Marc O; Castellote, Manuel; Small, Robert J; Atkinson, Shannon; Jenniges, Justin; Rosinski, Anne; Oswald, Julie N; Garner, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to use passive acoustic monitoring to document the year-round distribution of belugas, as well as killer whales (Orcinus orca), which prey on belugas. Beginning in June 2009, ten moorings were deployed throughout the Inlet and refurbished every two to eight months. Despite challenging conditions consisting of strong tidal currents carrying debris and seasonal ice cover, 83% of mooring deployments were successfully recovered. Noise from water flow, vessel traffic, and/or industrial activities was present at several sites, potentially masking some signals. However, belugas were successfully detected at multiple locations. Detections were relatively common in the upper inlet and less common or absent at middle and lower inlet locations. Killer whale signals were also recorded. Some seasonal variability in the occurrence of both belugas and killer whales was evident. PMID:23968047

  8. Coolant Characteristics and Control in Direct Chill Casting

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    This project focuses on understanding the fundamentals of coolant behavior and developing strategies to control the cooling rate of DC casting of aluminum ingots. Project partners will conduct a fundamental study to identify various parameters affecting critical heat flux and boiling transition and evaluate the effects of various additives (impurity particulates, sodium and calcium salts, carbonates, bicarbonates, surfactants, etc.).

  9. Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

  10. Antimony tartrate corrosion inhibitive composition for coolant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Payerle, N.E.

    1987-08-11

    An automobile coolant concentrate is described comprising (a) a liquid polyhydric alcohol chosen from the group consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol and mixtures thereof, and (b) corrosion inhibitors in a corrosion inhibitory amount with respect to corrosion of lead-containing solders, the corrosion inhibitors comprising (i) an alkali metal antimony tartrate, and (ii) an azole compound.

  11. Coolants with selective optical filtering characteristics for ruby laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Devitt, F. R.; Rasquin, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Coolant-filtering medium developed consists of a solution of copper sulfate in a 4-1 volumetric mixture of ethanol and methanol. This solution should be a useful addition to ruby laser systems, particularily in large pulse or Q switching applications.

  12. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1964-01-01

    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  13. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  14. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  15. LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACIDENT SIMULATIONS IN THE NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSAL REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W D; Goodman, R L; Heaberlin, S W; Hesson, G M; Nealley, C; Kirg, L L; Marshall, R K; McNair, G W; Meitzler, W D; Neally, G W; Parchen, L J; Pilger, J P; Rausch, W N; Russcher, G E; Schreiber, R E; Wildung, N J

    1981-02-01

    Pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) phenomena are being simulated with a series of experiments in the U-2 loop of the National Research Universal Reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The first of these experiments includes up to 45 parametric thermal-hydraulic tests to establish the relationship among the reflood delay time of emergency coolant, the reflooding rate, and the resultant fuel rod cladding peak temperature. Subsequent experiments establish the fuel rod failure characteristics at selected peak cladding temperatures. Fuel rod cladding pressurization simulates high burnup fission gas pressure levels of modern PWRs. This document contains both an experiment overview of the LOCA simulation program and a review of the safety analyses performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to define the expected operating conditions as well as to evaluate the worst case operating conditions. The primary intent of this document is to supply safety information required by the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), to establish readiness to proceed from one test phase to the next and to establish the overall safety of the experiment. A hazards review summarizes safety issues, normal operation and three worst case accidents that have been addressed during the development of the experiment plan.

  16. Observed and Modeled Sediment Transport Around Katama Inlet, Martha's Vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Katama Inlet, connecting Katama Bay to the Atlantic Ocean on the southern shoreline of Martha's Vineyard, MA, has migrated eastward more than 2.5 km since it was breached during the Patriot's Day storm in 2007. This morphological evolution, typical of the inlet's decadal cycle of breach-migration-closure, is owing to sediment transport driven by wave-orbital velocities, breaking-wave-generated mean currents, and tidal flows. Here, the rapidly evolving shoreline near Katama Inlet and on the southern edge of Martha's Vineyard is investigated using field observations and numerical model simulations. The bathymetry was surveyed in summer 2013 and 2014, and tides, waves, and currents were measured for a month in August 2013 and 2014 in the surf zone (~2 m water depth), on the outer edge of the ebb shoal offshore of the inlet mouth (~6 m depth), and on the inner continental shelf (~7 m depth). The model [Delft3D with coupled waves (SWAN) and currents] skillfully simulates observed wave heights, wave directions, and tidal currents, and is used here to estimate sediment transport rates. Model results suggest that during the relatively calm August conditions there is little transport on the inner shelf, but there is significant transport that changes directions with the tide on the outer ebb shoal. Transport rates in the surf zone decrease and become more unidirectional (wave-driven) with distance away (west) from the mouth of the inlet. In August, transport of suspended sediments is relatively more important on the outer ebb shoal than near the surf zone, where bedload transport dominates. The relative impact of these types of simulated transport on the migration of Katama Inlet will be discussed. Funded by ONR, ASD(R&E), NSF, and NDSEG.

  17. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159...Testing § 159.119 Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating...

  18. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159...Testing § 159.119 Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating...

  19. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159...Testing § 159.119 Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating...

  20. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159...Testing § 159.119 Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating...

  1. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Operability test; temperature range. 159.119 Section 159...Testing § 159.119 Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating...

  2. Advanced two-stage compressor program design of inlet stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryce, C. A.; Paine, C. J.; Mccutcheon, A. R. S.; Tu, R. K.; Perrone, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of an inlet stage for a two-stage, 10/1 pressure ratio, 2 lb/sec flow rate compressor is discussed. Initially a performance comparison was conducted for an axial, mixed flow and centrifugal second stage. A modified mixed flow configuration with tandem rotors and tandem stators was selected for the inlet stage. The term conical flow compressor was coined to describe a particular type of mixed flow compressor configuration which utilizes axial flow type blading and an increase in radius to increase the work input potential. Design details of the conical flow compressor are described.

  3. Large perturbation flow field analysis and simulation for supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varner, M. O.; Martindale, W. R.; Phares, W. J.; Kneile, K. R.; Adams, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis technique for simulation of supersonic mixed compression inlets with large flow field perturbations is presented. The approach is based upon a quasi-one-dimensional inviscid unsteady formulation which includes engineering models of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and geometry effects. Numerical solution of the governing time dependent equations of motion is accomplished through a shock capturing finite difference algorithm, of which five separate approaches are evaluated. Comparison with experimental supersonic wind tunnel data is presented to verify the present approach for a wide range of transient inlet flow conditions.

  4. Laboratory Analysis of Vortex Dynamics For Shallow Tidal Inlets 

    E-print Network

    Whilden, Kerri Ann

    2010-10-12

    OF VORTEX DYNAMICS FOR SHALLOW TIDAL INLETS A Thesis by KERRI ANN WHILDEN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Ocean... Engineering LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF VORTEX DYNAMICS FOR SHALLOW TIDAL INLETS A Thesis by KERRI ANN WHILDEN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  5. Development of a three-dimensional supersonic inlet flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggeln, R. C.; Mcdonald, H.; Levy, R.; Kreskovsky, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A method for computing three dimensional flow in supersonic inlets is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The governing equations are written in general orthogonal coordinates. These equations are modified in the subsonic region of the flow to prevent the phenomenon of branching. Results are presented for the two sample cases: a Mach number equals 2.5 flow in a square duct, and a Mach number equals 3.0 flow in a research jet engine inlet. In the latter case the computed results are compared with the experimental data. A users' manual is included.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of a New Type of Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio; Nucci, Louis M

    1952-01-01

    A supersonic inlet with supersonic deceleration of the flow entirely outside of the inlet is considered a particular arrangement with fixed geometry having a central body with a circular annular intake is analyzed, and it is shown theoretically that this arrangement gives high pressure recovery for a large range of Mach number and mass flow and, therefore, is practical for use on supersonic airplanes and missiles. Experimental results confirming the theoretical analysis give pressure recoveries which vary from 95 percent for Mach number 1.33 to 86 percent for number 2.00. These results were originally presented in a classified document of the NACA in 1946.

  7. On-line distortion analysis system inlet-engine test

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, W.K.; Lazalier, G.R.; Rose, C.D.; Lauer, R.F.

    1991-06-01

    A system for near-real-time distortion analysis support of aircraft turbine engine-inlet altitude testing is described. Target applications include both subscale and full-scale inlet-engine compatibility testing in wind tunnel, direct-connect, and free-jet configurations. The system digitizes analog-format, time-dependent data and combines it with digital-format, steady-state data. A high-speed data bus and multiple array processors provide for on-line execution of complex distortion analysis algorithms to compute and display distortion indices, histograms, isobar plots, and surge margin consumption. Analysis algorithms are programmed using a high-level language (FORTRAN 77).

  8. Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.

  9. Three-dimensional simulation of a translating strut inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D. J.; Trexler, Carl A.; Hudgens, Julie A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code is used to numerically simulate the flow through a translating strut scramjet inlet. The inlet has variable geometry for efficient operation over a wide speed range. Overall flow-field features such as the corner flow, topwall separation, shockwave coalescence, cowl pressure increase, and flow distortion at the throat are investigated. Comparisons are made with experimental results to provide for the assessment of the present analysis. Effects of boundary-layer ingestion on the overall flow features are also investigated.

  10. Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    G.K. Housley; K.G. Condie; J.E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

    2007-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830°C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10’ x 16’ skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.

  11. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulatory Approvals § 50.46a Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for...

  12. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathbun, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  13. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance affected by spiral inlet and outlet in a positive displacement blower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lu, Jun; Gao, Renheng; Xi, Guang

    2013-09-01

    The flow in the positive displacement blower is very complex. The existing two-dimensional numerical simulation cannot provide the detailed flow information, especially flow characteristics along the axial direction, which is unfavorable to improve the performance of positive displacement blower. To investigate the effects of spiral inlet and outlet on the aerodynamic performance of positive displacement blower, three-dimensional unsteady flow characteristics in a three-lobe positive displacement blower with and without the spiral inlet and outlet are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equations coupled with RNG k-? turbulent model. In the numerical simulation, the dynamic mesh technique and overset mesh updating method are used. The computational results are compared with the experimental measurements on the variation of flow rate with the outlet pressure to verify the validity of the numerical method presented. The results show that the mass flow rate with the change of pressure is slightly affected by the application of spiral inlet and outlet, but the internal flow state is largely affected. In the exhaust region, the fluctuations of pressure, velocity and temperature as well as the average values of velocity are significantly reduced. This illustrates that the spiral outlet can effectively suppress the fluctuations of pressure, thus reducing reflux shock and energy dissipation. In the intake area, the average value of pressure, velocity and temperature are slightly declined, but the fluctuations of them are significantly reduced, indicating that the spiral inlet plays the role in making the flow more stable. The numerical results obtained reveal the three-dimensional flow characteristics of the positive displacement blower with spiral inlet and outlet, and provide useful reference to improve performance and empirical correction in the noise-reduction design of the positive displacement blowers.

  14. A comparison of predicted and measured inlet distortion flows in a subsonic axial inlet flow compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Albert K.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed flow measurements were taken inside an isolated axial compressor rotor operating subsonically near peak efficiency. These Laser Anemometer measurements were made with two inlet velocity profiles. One profile consisted of an unmodified baseline flow, and the second profile was distorted by placing axisymmetric screens on the hub and shroud well upstream of the rotor. A detailed comparison in the rotor relative reference frame between a Navier-Stokes solver and the measured experimental results showed good agreement between the predicted and measured flows. A primary flow is defined in the rotor and deviations and the computed predictions is made to assess the development of a passage vortex due to the distortion of the inlet flow. Computer predictions indicate that a distorted inlet profile has a minimal effect on the development of the flow in the rotor passage and the resulting passage vortex.

  15. Visualizing Coolant Flow in Sodium Reactor Subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Uniformity of temperature controls peak power output. Interchannel cross-flow is the principal cross-assembly energy transport mechanism. The areas of fastest flow all occur at the exterior of the assembly. Further, the fast moving region winds around the assembly in a continuous swath. This Nek5000 simulation uses an unstructured mesh with over one billion grid points, resulting in five billion degrees of freedom per time slice. High speed patches of turbulence due to vertex shedding downstream of the wires persist for about a quarter of the wire-wrap periodic length. Credits: Science: Paul Fisher and Aleks Obabko, Argonne National Laboratory? Visualization: Hank Childs and Janet Jacobsen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?? This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy's NEAMS program.

  16. Dynamics of a supersonic inlet-engine combination subjected to disturbances in fuel flow and inlet overboard bypass airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhagen, R. E.; Paulovich, F. J.; Geyser, L. C.

    1972-01-01

    An axisymmetric mixed-compression supersonic inlet and a single-spool turbojet engine were dynamically tested at Mach 2.5. The propulsion system was subjected to sweep-frequency sinusoidal disturbances of either inlet overboard bypass airflow. The disturbances were at a logarithmic sweep rate of 1 decade per minute. Dynamic responses were taken of signals throughout the propulsion system. Selected signals were reduced relative to the prime propulsion system parameters. The experimental data are presented in Bode plots. Most of the plots are for a frequency range of 1.0 to 50 hertz.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of a series of twin-inlet air-breathing missile configurations. 3: Axisymmetric and two-dimensional inlets at subsonic-transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configurated with either twin axisymmetric or two dimensional inlets. Three circumferential inlet locations were investigated: 90 deg, 115 deg, and 135 deg from the top center. Two vertical wing locations, as well as wingless configurations, were used. Three tail configurations were formed by locating the tail surfaces either on the inlet fairing or on the inlet fairing or on fairings on the body. The surfaces were used to provide pitch control. Two dimensional inlets with extended compression surfaces, used to improve the angle-of-attack performance of the inlets for wingless configurations, were also investigated. The twin axisymmetric two dimensional inlet types without internal flow are covered, and the boost configuration of an air-breathing missile is simulated.

  18. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  19. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  20. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  1. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  2. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  3. Rock Inlet Structure at top of Lisbon Chute

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lisbon Chute is a side channel to the Missouri River between Glasgow and Arrow Rock, Missouri, on the Big Muddy National Wildlife Refuge. It currently has a rock inlet structure (pictured) which controls the amount of water that flows into it from the main channel of the Missouri River. Telemet...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded as follows: Beginning at the water's edge 900 feet northwest of the centerline of the landward end of the POL... POL dock; thence along the water's edge to the point of beginning. (ii) The area will be marked...

  5. 63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust scrubber at building 202, June 18, 1955. NASA GRC drawing no. CD-101266. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Baseline data on the oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Regional relationships between river hydrology, sediment transport, circulation and coastal processes were analyzed utilizing aircraft, ERTS-1 and N.O.A.A. -2 and -3 imagery and corroborative ground truth data. The use of satellite and aircraft imagery provides a means of acquiring synoptic information for analyzing the dynamic processes of Cook Inlet in a fashion not previously possible.

  7. Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.

  8. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW FLOW RATE INLET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several ambient air samplers that have been designated by the U. S. EPA as Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) for measuring particulate matter nominally less than 10 um (PM10) include the use of a particular inlet design that aspirates particulate matter from the atmosphere at 1...

  9. The deglaciation of Clyde Inlet, northeastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    ; Laurentide; Ice Sheet; Baffin Island; cosmogenic exposure dating; radiocarbon dating. Introduction (LIS) in arctic fiord landscapes can now be well dated using cosmogenic exposure dating. We use cosmogenic exposure and radiocarbon ages to constrain the deglaciation history of Clyde Inlet, a 120 km long

  10. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... “Carr Inlet Range Control” at the range instrument laboratory building located on Fox Island. The Navy... instrument laboratory located on Fox Island. The Navy shall promptly suspend operations when necessary...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... “Carr Inlet Range Control” at the range instrument laboratory building located on Fox Island. The Navy... instrument laboratory located on Fox Island. The Navy shall promptly suspend operations when necessary...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... “Carr Inlet Range Control” at the range instrument laboratory building located on Fox Island. The Navy... instrument laboratory located on Fox Island. The Navy shall promptly suspend operations when necessary...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... “Carr Inlet Range Control” at the range instrument laboratory building located on Fox Island. The Navy... instrument laboratory located on Fox Island. The Navy shall promptly suspend operations when necessary...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... “Carr Inlet Range Control” at the range instrument laboratory building located on Fox Island. The Navy... instrument laboratory located on Fox Island. The Navy shall promptly suspend operations when necessary...

  15. STUDIES OF CIRCULATION AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN DEEP INLET ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to investigate various aspects of circulation dynamics and primary production in a deep inlet environment. Throughout the course of the research, special attention has been give...

  16. Cook Inlet maintaining oil flow in spite of budget reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    Operators in Alaska's Cook Inlet area are shifting focus from exploration to maintaining production in the face of budget cuts. That follows last year's flurry of exploration that came on the heels of what at first appeared to be a world class discovery, sunfish, in an area that is the cradle of alaska's commercial oil industry. Disappointing follow-up results dampened Cook Inlet exploration excitement, matching industry's recent experience on the North Slope. In Cook Inlet, overall production in the first quarter largely held its own. Seven fields--McArthur River, Middle Ground Shoal, Granite Point, Swanson River, Trading Bay, West McArthur River, and Beaver Creek--produced an average 39,640 b/d, down only 0.2% from last year's 39,700 b/d. That compares with a high of about 72,000 b/d in 1983 but is down only slightly from 41,575 b/d in 1992. Although slowed by budget cuts, Unocal Corp. continues as the major player in the inlet with its Chakachatna project. The project involves development of what Unocal has described as significant bypassed reserves from Platforms Bruce and Anna in the northern portion of Granite Point field and Platforms Baker and Dillon in Middle Ground Shoal field. Trends are discussed.

  17. Cyclone energy: impact of inlet velocity and outlet évasé designs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because electricity generation produces emissions, reducing cyclone pressure drop has the potential to benefit the environment. Enhanced 1D3D cyclones common in the cotton ginning industry were tested with various évasés, over a range of inlet velocities. With évasés it was possible to reduce the ...

  18. 8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS PLANT. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  19. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE SEASONAL INLET CLOSURE IN

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    on the literature study and the first sketch of the model, the monsoon, wind, human activities and climate change Dien estuary. The conceptual model will form the basis of a simulation model, in which solutions monsoon. Other factors that affect the seasonal inlet closure are human activities and climate change

  20. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  1. Hypersonic Magneto-Fluid-Dynamic Compression in Cylindrical Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, Joseph S.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2007-01-01

    Hypersonic magneto-fluid-dynamic interaction has been successfully performed as a virtual leading-edge strake and a virtual cowl of a cylindrical inlet. In a side-by-side experimental and computational study, the magnitude of the induced compression was found to be depended on configuration and electrode placement. To better understand the interacting phenomenon the present investigation is focused on a direct current discharge at the leading edge of a cylindrical inlet for which validating experimental data is available. The present computational result is obtained by solving the magneto-fluid-dynamics equations at the low magnetic Reynolds number limit and using a nonequilibrium weakly ionized gas model based on the drift-diffusion theory. The numerical simulation provides a detailed description of the intriguing physics. After validation with experimental measurements, the computed results further quantify the effectiveness of a magnet-fluid-dynamic compression for a hypersonic cylindrical inlet. At a minuscule power input to a direct current surface discharge of 8.14 watts per square centimeter of electrode area produces an additional compression of 6.7 percent for a constant cross-section cylindrical inlet.

  2. Muir and Riggs Glaciers, Muir Inlet, Alaska - 1950

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This, the first of two repeat photographs, documents significant changes that have occurred during the nine years between photographs A and B. Although Muir Glacier has retreated more than 3 kilometers and thinned more than 100 meters, exposing Muir Inlet, it remains connected with tributary Riggs G...

  3. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLER INLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are presented on the wind tunnel performances of two prototype Inhalable Particulate Matter (IPM) inlets designed for use with a dichotomous sampler. One was developed at the Aerosol Science Laboratory (ASL) Colorado State University, while the other was developed in an inde...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16?54? N, longitude 122°41?33? W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16?54? N, longitude 122°41?33? W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16?54? N, longitude 122°41?33? W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1250, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16?54? N, longitude 122°41?33? W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion...

  8. Experiment Operations Plan for a Loss-of-Coolant Accident Simulation in the National Research Universal Reactor Materials Tests 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russcher, G. E.; Wilson, C. L.; Marshall, R, K.; King, L. L.; Parchen, L. J.; Pilger, J. P.; Hesson, G. M.; Mohr, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    A loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simulation program is evaluating the thermal-hydraulic and mechanical effects of LOCA conditions on pressurized water reactor test fuel bundles. This experiment operation plan for the second and third experiments of the program will provide peak fuel cladding temperatures of up to 1172K (1650{degree}F) and 1061K (1450{degree}) respectively. for a long enough time to cause test fuel cladding deformation and rupture in both. Reflood coolant delay times and the reflooding rates for the experiments were selected from thermal-hydraulic data measured in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor facilities and test train assembly during the first experiment.

  9. Equilibrium bed profiles in an idealized two-inlet embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, Paulo; Meerman, Corine; Schuttelaars, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Multiple inlet systems are present at many coasts worldwide, often in coastal areas with high ecological and/or economical value (e.g., Wadden Sea, Venice Lagoon, Terminos Lagoon, etc). These coastal systems are highly dynamic, and their equilibrium is fragile. The stability depends mainly on the sediment dynamics at the inlet and inside the embayment, as well as numerous other factors and processes, such as inlet and embayment geometries, sediment properties, sediment availability, tidal and wave forcing, wind, fresh water input, and human interventions. It also depends on the presence of watersheds inside the system that can generate subembayments during some periods of the tidal cycle or longer timescales (e.g., dry season), and consequently modify the residual circulation and transport, which in turn can affect the long-term stability. This study focuses particularly on the equilibrium bed profile in a two-inlet system, as a function of varying conditions (inlet depth, basin length, tidal amplitude and nonlinearity). In order to address this, an idealized cross-sectionally averaged semi-analytical model was developed, in which only the essential physical processes are taken into account. The basin is assumed to be short (compared to the wavelength) and shallow, and the width may vary in the along-channel direction. The water motion is described by the depth averaged shallow water equations. The model is forced at each inlet with a mean surface elevation, a prescribed semidiurnal signal (M2) and its first overtide (M4), and the depths at the entrances are prescribed. The sediment transport is described by a depth integrated advection-diffusion equation, and the bed evolves due to the divergence of tidally-averaged bedload and suspended load fluxes. Model results of equilibrium bottom profiles suggest that morphodynamic equilibria can be found in such two-inlet systems. The observed equilibrium profiles show the formation of watersheds, with its location and height depending on the parameters used. The sensitivity of this equilibrium to various parameters, such as tidal amplitude of the M2 and M4 components will be discussed, and results will be compared with the Marsdiep-Vlie system in the Wadden Sea.

  10. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  11. Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.

  12. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed.

  13. Experimental and Computational Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Allan, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability. an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations was conducted. A computational study of one of the inlets was also conducted using a Navier-Stokes solver. The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) develop a new high Reynolds number inlet test capability for flush-mounted inlets; 2) provide a database for CFD tool validation; 3) evaluate the performance of S-duct inlets with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion; and 4) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83. Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a full-scale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of the experimental study indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise. The computational results captured the inlet pressure recovery and distortion trends with Mach number and inlet mass-flow well: the reversal of the pressure recovery trend with increasing inlet mass-flow at low and high Mach numbers was predicted by CFD. However, CFD results were generally more pessimistic (larger losses) than measured experimentally.

  14. 92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant process water tanks (sodium bisulfate solution), stainless steel, for electronic systems cooling in transmitter and MIP rooms. RCA Services Company 29 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-1226 - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Humenik, Keith E. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  16. Experimental investigations of thermal interaction between corium and coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorul'ko, Yu. I.; Zhmurin, V. G.; Volov, A. N.; Kovalev, Yu. P.

    2008-03-01

    We present a generalized analysis of the experimental results from investigations of thermal interaction in corium simulators (melts of thermite mixtures U + Mo3 and Zr + Fe2O3)-coolant (Na and H2O) systems. We also present the results from experimental assessments of the kinematic characteristics pertinent to the displacement of materials during the thermal interaction process and the coefficients for conversion of the corium thermal energy into mechanical work.

  17. Application of CFX-10 to the Investigation of RPV Coolant Mixing in VVER Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, Fabio; Melideo, Daniele; Terzuoli, Fulvio; D'Auria, Francesco

    2006-07-01

    Coolant mixing phenomena occurring in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor constitute one of the main objectives of investigation by researchers concerned with nuclear reactor safety. For instance, mixing plays a relevant role in reactivity-induced accidents initiated by de-boration or boron dilution events, followed by transport of a de-borated slug into the vessel of a pressurized water reactor. Another example is constituted by temperature mixing, which may sensitively affect the consequences of a pressurized thermal shock scenario. Predictive analysis of mixing phenomena is strongly improved by the availability of computational tools able to cope with the inherent three-dimensionality of such problem, like system codes with three-dimensional capabilities, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The present paper deals with numerical analyses of coolant mixing in the reactor pressure vessel of a VVER-1000 reactor, performed by the ANSYS CFX-10 CFD code. In particular, the 'swirl' effect that has been observed to take place in the downcomer of such kind of reactor has been addressed, with the aim of assessing the capability of the codes to predict that effect, and to understand the reasons for its occurrence. Results have been compared against experimental data from V1000CT-2 Benchmark. Moreover, a boron mixing problem has been investigated, in the hypothesis that a de-borated slug, transported by natural circulation, enters the vessel. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some geometrical features, model parameters and boundary conditions. (authors)

  18. Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from ENDF/B-V data via the MATXS6s master cross section library. Cross sections were self shielded assuming one homogeneous core region, and doppler broadened to 1300 K using the cross section preparation code TRANSX. Calculations were performed using an S{sub 4}/P{sub 1} approximation and 80 neutron energy groups. Part Two of the study consisted of a theoretical investigation into the behavior of helium gas in the primary loop of lithium cooled space reactors. The SP-100 space power system was used as a representative of such a system. Topics investigated included: (1) heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation; (2) bubble growth/collapse by diffusion, mechanical temperature/pressure effects, and coalescence; and, (3) the effects on bubble distribution of microgravity, magnetic fields, and inertially induced buoyancy. 104 refs., 78 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 54 by 51.9 km (33.5 by 32.1 miles) Location: 59.3 deg. North latitude, 153.4 deg. West longitude Orientation: north to top Resolution: 90 m ASTER Date Acquired: January 31, 2006

  20. A modified two-stage pulse tube cryocooler utilizing double-inlet and multi-mesh regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arablu, M.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a thermally coupled Stirling-type two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers (TSPTC) is studied using a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD code. After validating the results of the simulations, effects of synchronous utilization of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on the performance of the TSPTC are investigated. Results of simulations show that non-oscillating friction factors do not possess sufficient accuracy for calculation of oscillating friction losses in non-porous media. Whereas, using oscillating friction factor of non-porous media leads to sufficient accurate results. According to the results, using multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet increases the COP and decreases the minimum attainable temperature of the system. It is observed that a minimum temperature of 18.2 K is attainable using optimum multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet; whereas, for a simple TSPTC with a uniform mesh regenerator, a minimum temperature of 26.4 K is concluded.

  1. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  2. Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant pumps and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.K.; Miller, R.F.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors contains one reactor coolant pump, one PUMP suction side motor operated valve, and other smaller valves. The pumps me double suction, double volute, and radially split type pumps. The valves are different size shutoff and control valves rated from ANSI B16.5 construction class 150 to class 300. The reactor coolant system components, also known as the process water system (PWS), are classified as nuclear Safety Class I components. These components were constructed in the 1950`s in accordance with the then prevailing industry practices. No uniform construction codes were used for design and analysis of these components. However, no pressure boundary failures or bolting failures have ever been recorded throughout their operating history. Over the years, the in-service inspection (ISI) was limited to visual inspection of the pressure boundaries, and surface and volumetric examination of the pressure retaining bolts. Efforts are now underway to implement ISI requirements similar to the ASME Section XI requirements for pumps and valves. This report discusses the new ISI requirements which also call for volumetric examination of the pump casing and valve body welds.

  3. One dimensional transient fluid model for fuel coolant interaction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.C.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrodynamic liquid drop fragmentation model for 10 < We < 10/sup 5/ was developed by using the Rayleigh Taylor instability with a drop deformation mechanism. This model is used to predict the transient drop breakup phases and obtain a theoretical correlation of the fragment size with time. This model is then incorporated into a one-dimensional transient fluid model to better characterize the fuel coolant mixing processes for fundamental understanding of fuel coolant interaction (FCI). This drop fragmentation model when compared to the previous drop breakup results in the gas/liquid system gave good agreement with experimental data. To demonstrate the capabilities of the one-dimensional transient fluid model, several sample problems were solved and compared to known analytic results or experimental data. Comparisons show that this hydrodynamic liquid drop fragmentation model was successfully incorporated into this one-dimensional transient fluid model. Furthermore, the intermediate-scale experiments and full-scale simulation of fuel jet/water mixing are investigated to more fundamentally understand the fuel coolant fragmentation and mixing behavior.

  4. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  5. Additional testing of the inlets designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of a scale model of a tandem fan nacelle designed for a type (subsonic cruise) V/STOL aircraft configuration is discussed. The performance for the isolated front inlet and for the combined front and aft inlets is reported. Model variables include front and aft inlets with aft inlet variations of short and long aft inlet cowls, with a shaft simulator and diffuser vortex generators, cowl lip fillets, and nacelle strakes. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, and inlet angle-to-attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocity from 0 to 240 knots, angles-of-attack from -10 to +40 degrees and inlet flow rates corresponding to throat Mach number from 0.0 to 0.6. Combined nacelle pitch and yaw runs up to 30 deg. were also made.

  6. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet,...

  8. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla....

  9. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla....

  10. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale...

  11. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale...

  12. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale...

  13. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale...

  14. Dynamic characterization and active control of unstarts in a near-isentropic supersonic inlet

    E-print Network

    Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    A near-isentropic supersonic inlet, at Mach 2.2, has been designed to give enhanced recovery and thus increased range for a supersonic transport aircraft. In such a design a mixed compression inlet design is typically used. ...

  15. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  16. 75 FR 1582 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...habitat for the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, under...critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale can be found on our Web site...

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of a series of twin-inlet air-breathing missile configurations. 2: Two-dimensional inlets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configured with either twin axisymmetric or two dimensional inlets. Three circumferential inlet locations were investigated: 90 deg, 115 deg, and 135 deg from the top center. Two vertical wing locations, as well as wingless configurations, were used. Three tail configurations were formed by locating the tail surfaces either on the inlet fairings or on fairings on the body. The surfaces were used to provide pitch control. Two dimensional inlets with extended compression surfaces, used to improve the angle-of-attack performance of the inlets for wingless configurations, were also investigated. The two dimensional inlet configurations are covered.

  18. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Order No. 7202 (61 FR 29758 (1996)), which reserved public land on Jupiter Inlet, Florida, for... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse... Management to continue to be managed as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area....

  19. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...

  20. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...