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1

TEMPERATURE RESPONSE TO POWER, INLET COOLANT TEMPERATURE AND FLOW TRANSIENTS IN SOLID FUEL REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the temperature response to power transients in a nuclear ; reactor covers an important link in the closed feedback loop of reactor kinetics. ; It is a necessary step in the determination of the kinetic behavior and stability ; of a power reactor and in the interpretation of oscillator tests. Similarly, the ; temperature response to inlet

Storrer

1959-01-01

2

Design of an Alternative Coolant Inlet Flow Configuration for the Modular Helium Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coolant outlet temperature for the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) was increased to improve the overall efficiency of nuclear hydrogen production using either thermochemical or high temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. The inlet temperature was also increased to keep about the same T across the reactor core. Thermal hydraulic analyses of the current MHR design were performed with these updated

SM Mohsin Reza; Edwin A Harvego; Matt Richards; Arkal Shenoy; Kenneth Lee Peddicord

3

Design of an Alternative Coolant Inlet Flow Configuaration for the Modular Helium Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The coolant outlet temperature for the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) was increased to improve the overall efficiency of nuclear hydrogen production using either thermochemical or high temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. The inlet temperature was also increased to keep about the same _T across the reactor core. Thermal hydraulic analyses of the current MHR design were performed with these updated temperatures to determine the impact of these highter temperatures on pressure drops, coolant flow rates and temperature profiles within the vessel and core regions. Due to these increased operating temperatures, the overall efficiency of hydrogen production processes increases but the steady state reactor vessel temperature is found to be well above the ASME code limits for current vessel materials. Using the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA computer code, an alternative configuration for the MHR coolant inlet flow path was evaluated in an attempt to reduce the reactor vessel temperatures. The coolant inlet flow was shifted from channel boxes located in the annular region between the reactor core barrel and the inner wall of the reactor vessel to a flow path through the outer permanent reflector. Considering the available thickness of graphite in the permanent outer reflector, the total flow area, the number of coolant holes and the coolant-hole diameter were varied to optimize the pressure drop, the coolant inlet velocity and the percentage of graphite removed from the core. The resulting thermal hydraulic analyses of the optimized design showed that peak vessel and fuel temperatures were within acceptable limits for both steady-state and transient operating conditions.

SM Mohsin Reza; E. A. Harvego; Matt Richards; Arkal Shenoy; Kenneth Lee Peddicord

2006-06-01

4

MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

5

Seismic analysis of the HIFAR nuclear reactor secondary coolant pipework and associated inlet and outlet headers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic analysis was carried out to examine the integrity of the secondary coolant circuit within the reactor containment building for the HIFAR reactor located at Lucas Heights. Eigen evaluations of the structure for the first 40 modes were determined for a number of piping configurations. A response spectrum for a 0.2g earthquake was then used to excite the structure

P Bendeich; W Payten

2000-01-01

6

A Generalized Experimental Study of Inlet Temperature Rise of Jet V/STOL Aircraft in Ground Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reduction in exhaust pressure ratio (weight flow) had very little effect on the inlet temperature rise. Reduction in exhaust gas temperature lowered the inlet air temperature significantly. Large changes in wing area and variations in lift engine inlet/ex...

R. F. Speth P. E. Ryan

1966-01-01

7

RELATIVE ECONOMIC WORTH OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ORGANIC COOLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to determine if the use of certain alternate ; coolants which operate at significantly higher temperatures caii reduce the power ; costs of organi cooled and moderated reactors. Calculations are presented and a ; table comparing a typical organosilane with Santowax-R is included (J.R.D.)

Gingrich

1959-01-01

8

Temperature response of turbulent premixed flames to inlet velocity oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flame-turbulence interactions are at the heart of modern combustion research as they have a major influence on efficiency, stability of operation and pollutant emissions. The problem remains a formidable challenge, and predictive modelling and the implementation of active control measures both rely on further fundamental measurements. Model burners with simple geometry offer an opportunity for the isolation and detailed study of phenomena that take place in real-world combustors, in an environment conducive to the application of advanced laser diagnostic tools. Lean premixed combustion conditions are currently of greatest interest since these are able to provide low NO x and improved increased fuel economy, which in turn leads to lower CO2 emissions. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the response of a bluff-body-stabilised flame to periodic inlet fluctuations under lean premixed turbulent conditions. Inlet velocity fluctuations were imposed acoustically using loudspeakers. Spatially resolved heat release rate imaging measurements, using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH2O, have been performed to explore the periodic heat release rate response to various acoustic forcing amplitudes and frequencies. For the first time we use this method to evaluate flame transfer functions and we compare these results with chemiluminescence measurements. Qualitative thermometry based on two-line OH PLIF was also used to compare the periodic temperature distribution around the flame with the periodic fluctuation of local heat release rate during acoustic forcing cycles.

Ayoola, B.; Hartung, G.; Armitage, C. A.; Hult, J.; Cant, R. S.; Kaminski, C. F.

2009-01-01

9

Numerical procedure for calculating temperature profiles in LMFBR coolant channels  

SciTech Connect

A new numerical procedure (which makes use of a weighted residuals procedure in space and a fully-implicit finite difference procedure in time), for calculating temperatures in an LMFBR coolant channel has been developed and incorporated into the Super System Code (SSC). This procedure is highly accurate on a nodal basis and has greatly increased computational efficiency as compared to the method formerly in SSC.

Horak, W.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.

1981-07-01

10

Compensating for the effect of inlet gas temperature on heated humidifier performance.  

PubMed

The humidity output of heated humidifiers may be compromised by inlet gas temperatures exceeding approximately 26 degrees C, with humidity dropping below the recommended levels for intubated patients. A new version of the Fisher & Paykel MR850 humidifier claims to deal with this problem by offering a humidity compensation option. The present study tested this feature by measuring humidity output using the gravimetric method and a hygrometer at different inlet gas temperatures (16.6 degrees C to 40.0 degrees C) with compensation on and off. It was found that the compensation is effective in maintaining humidity levels despite high inlet gas temperatures. PMID:12635396

Carter, B G; Kemp, T; Mynard, J; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A

2003-02-01

11

Development of a High-Temperature Coolant for Advanced Diesel Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to develop a high-temperature coolant for future advanced military diesel engines capable of operating at high temperatures (up to 150 C). The desirable coolant for high-temperature application must have a high boiling point, a low freez...

I. S. Rhee

1984-01-01

12

Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket  

SciTech Connect

One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experiments are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2007-01-01

13

Effect of turbine inlet temperature on rotor blade tip leakage flow and heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose One of the most critical gas turbine engine components, the rotor blade tip and casing, is exposed to high thermal load. It becomes a significant design challenge to protect the turbine materials from this severe situation. The purpose of this paper is to study numerically the effect of turbine inlet temperature on the tip leakage flow structure and

Sung In Kim; Ibrahim Hassan

2012-01-01

14

The influence of temperature and inlet velocity on cyclone pressure drop: a CFD study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation to predict and to evaluate the effects of temperature and inlet velocity on the pressure drop of gas cyclones. The numerical solutions were carried out using spreadsheet and commercial CFD code Fluent 6.1. This paper also reviews four empirical models for the prediction of cyclone pressure drop, namely [Air pollution control:

Jolius Gimbun; T. G. Chuah; A. Fakhrul-Razi; Thomas S. Y. Choong

2005-01-01

15

Effects of Non-Uniform Inlet Temperature Distribution on High-Pressure Turbine Blade Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a non-uniform inlet field on the performance of a commercial, transonic, single-stage, high-pressure, axial turbine with a curved inlet duct have been investigated numerically by solving the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. By adjusting the alignment of the experimentally-based inlet temperature field with respect to the stator vanes, two clocking configurations were generated: a Vane-Impinging (VI) case, in which each hot streak impinged on a vane and a Mid-Pitch (MP) case, in which each hot streak passed between two vanes. An additional case with a purely radial (PR) variation of inlet temperature was also investigated. In the VI case, it was observed that, as the hot streaks impinged on the stator vanes, they spread spanwise due to the actions of the casing passage vortices and the radial pressure gradient; this resulted in a stream entering the rotor with relatively low temperature variations. In the MP case, the hot streaks were convected undisturbed past the relatively cool vane section. Relatively high time-averaged enthalpy values were found to occur on the pressure side of the blades in the MP configuration.

Smith, Craig I.; Chang, Dongil; Tavoularis, Stavros

2012-09-01

16

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

17

Analysis of a water-coolant leak into a very high-temperature vitrification chamber.  

SciTech Connect

A coolant-leakage incident occurred during non-radioactive operation of the Plasma Hearth Process waste-vitrification development system at Argonne National Laboratory when a stray electric arc ruptured az water-cooling jacket. Rapid evaporation of the coolant that entered the very high-temperature chamber pressurized the normally sub-atmospheric system above ambient pressure for over 13 minutes. Any positive pressurization, and particularly a lengthy one, is a safety concern since this can cause leakage of contaminants from the system. A model of the thermal phenomena that describe coolant/hot-material interactions was developed to better understand the characteristics of this type of incident. The model is described and results for a variety of hypothetical coolant-leak incidents are presented. It is shown that coolant leak rates above a certain threshold will cause coolant to accumulate in the chamber, and evaporation from this pool can maintain positive pressure in the system long after the leak has been stopped. Application of the model resulted in reasonably good agreement with the duration of the pressure measured during the incident. A closed-form analytic solution is shown to be applicable to the initial leak period in which the peak pressures are generated, and is presented and discussed.

Felicione, F. S.

1998-06-11

18

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25

19

40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

21

40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

22

Automatic mass spectrometer inlet system  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a mass spectrometer having a gas inlet system for introducing a sample into the ion source of the spectrometer which inlet system includes a cold trap for condensing a sample. The inlet system is provided with means for detecting the pressure therein and means for automatically controlling the operation of the cold trap in dependence on the detected pressure whereby the sample is automatically condensed in the cold trap when it is present in a small quantity. Around the cold trap is conveniently a coolant passage through which coolant from a coolant reservoir is drawn.

Barrie, A.; Freedman, P.A.

1985-01-22

23

Inlet nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Precechtel, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Smith, Bob G. (Richland, WA); Knight, Ronald C. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

24

Inlet nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

1985-09-09

25

Reactor coolant high-temperature filtration. Volume 3. Conceptual system designs and licensing concerns. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual fluid system designs are presented for high temperature reactor coolant magnetic filtration systems. One of these is intended for application to any pressurized water reactor plant and is designated the generic design. The other is intended specifically for pressurized water reactors of the Byron design having RCS loops equipped with loop stop valves. A licensing issues evaluation for the

G. J. Corpora; J. L. Grover; M. L. Masch; T. L. Schulz; S. Shields; S. G. Sterrett; M. Troy

1984-01-01

26

Effect of Coolant Temperature on the Condensation Heat Transfer in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article directly investigates the effect of a cooling medium's coolant temperature on the condensation of the refrigerant R-134a. The study presents an experimental investigation into condensation heat transfer, vapor quality, and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through a commercial annular helicoidal pipe under the severe climatic conditions of a Kuwait summer. The quality of the refrigerant is calculated using

M. H. Alhajeri; A. M. Koluib; R. Alajmi; S. P. Kalim

2009-01-01

27

Experimental research of temperature and velocity fields in high-temperature flow of liquid heavy metal coolant  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the results of experimental research of temperature and velocity fields for lead and lead-bismuth coolant flows in channels having circular and annular cross sections under varying oxygen content in the coolant and varying characteristics of insulating coatings. Tests are performed under the following operating conditions: (1) lead-bismuth eutectic-temperature T = 400-520 Degree-Sign C, thermodynamic oxygen activity a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, average flow velocity of the coolant w = 0.12-1.84 m/s, value of magnetic induction B = 0-0.85 T, Reynolds number Re = (0.24-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, Hartmann number Ha = 0-500, and Peclet number Pe = 320-4600; (2) lead coolant-T = 400-550 Degree-Sign C, a = 10{sup -5}-10{sup 0}, w = 0.1-1.5 m/s, Re = (2.36-2.99) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}, and Pe = 500-7000.

Besnosov, A. V., E-mail: ats@nntu.nnov.ru; Savinov, S. Yu., E-mail: Savinov.S@mail.ru; Novozhilova, O. O.; Antonenkov, M. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

28

Effect of non-thermostated capillary inlet in affinity capillary electrophoresis: uranyl-selenate system at variable temperatures.  

PubMed

The influence of non-thermostated capillary inlet on accuracy of data obtained by affinity capillary electrophoresis is examined in the case of kinetically labile systems (with fast kinetics of equilibrium) at different temperatures. The system uranyl-selenate is studied in aqueous perchloric acid solutions (pH 2.5, ionic strength 0.05 mol l(-1)) in the temperature range from 15 C to 55 C. Moving of the sample through the non-thermostated inlet into the thermostated region of the capillary is used in order to avoid the influence of non efficiently thermostated short capillary inlet. The data on mobility values of uranyl and the values of stability constants obtained by this mode are compared with the data obtained in a traditionally used mode (injection in non-thermostated inlet region). The uranyl mobility values obtained by the two methods are different at temperature higher than 35 C. However, the difference between stability constants obtained by the two methods is not significant (ambient temperature is 20 C). PMID:23031440

Sladkov, Vladimir

2012-09-19

29

Inlet Reynolds Number and Temperature Effects on the Steady-State Performance of a TFE731-2 Turbofan Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of varying engine inlet Reynolds number index (0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.12) and temperature (289 and 244 K) on a TFE731-2 turbofan engine were evaluated. Results were classified as either compression system effects or effects on overall performance...

G. A. Bobula R. A. Lottig

1977-01-01

30

Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

2008-11-25

31

Hierarchical control of reactor inlet temperature in pool-type plants. 2: Implementation and results  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of a computer-based controller for regulating reactor inlet temperature (RIT) in a pool-type power plant is described. The mathematical description of the controller is given in a companion paper. The elements of the control system are organized in a master-follower hierarchical architecture that takes advantage of existing in-plant hardware and software to minimize the need for plant modifications. Low-level control algorithms are executed on existing local digital controllers (followers) with the high-level algorithms executed on a new plant supervisory computer (master). A distributed computing strategy provides integration of the existing and additional computer platforms. The control system operated by having the master controller first estimate the secondary sodium flow needed to achieve a given RIT. The estimated flow is then used as a setpoint by the follower controller to regulate sodium flow using a motor-generator pump set. The control system has been implemented in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) setup and qualified for operation in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II at Argonne National Laboratory. The HIL results are provided.

Garcia, H.E.; Dean, E.M. [Argonne National Lab.-West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, R.B. [Argonne National Lab.-East, IL (United States)

1997-03-01

32

Current instability mechanisms in high-temperature superconductors cooled by liquid coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instability of the steady current state in high-temperature superconductors (Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O8 and YBa2Cu3O7) cooled by a liquid refrigerant (helium, hydrogen and nitrogen) is studied. It is shown that the mechanism of the current instability depends on the type of coolant. Firstly, the destruction of stable current states may occur after transition of the cooling conditions on the surface of

V R Romanovskii

2010-01-01

33

Design modification for the modular helium reactor for higher temperature operation and reliability studies for nuclear hydrogen production processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design options have been evaluated for the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) for higher temperature operation. An alternative configuration for the MHR coolant inlet flow path is developed to reduce the peak vessel temperature (PVT). The coolant inlet path is shifted from the annular path between reactor core barrel and vessel wall through the permanent side reflector (PSR). The number and

S. M. Mohsin Reza

2007-01-01

34

Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat transfer and nuclear performance metrics. Lighter salts also tend to have more favorable (larger) moderating ratios, and thus should have a more favorable coolant-voiding behavior in-core. Heavy (high-Z) salts tend to have lower heat capacities and thermal conductivities and more significant activation and transmutation products. However, all of the salts are relatively good heat-transfer agents. A detailed discussion of each property and the combination of properties that served as a heat-transfer metric is presented in the body of this report. In addition to neutronic metrics, such as moderating ratio and neutron absorption, the activation properties of the salts were investigated (Table C). Again, lighter salts tend to have more favorable activation properties compared to salts with high atomic-number constituents. A simple model for estimating the reactivity coefficients associated with a reduction of salt content in the core (voiding or thermal expansion) was also developed, and the primary parameters were investigated. It appears that reasonable design flexibility exists to select a safe combination of fuel-element design and salt coolant for most of the candidate salts. Materials compatibility is an overriding consideration for high-temperature reactors; therefore the question was posed whether any one of the candidate salts was inherently, or significantly, more corrosive than another. This is a very complex subject, and it was not possible to exclude any fluoride salts based on the corrosion database. The corrosion database clearly indicates superior container alloys, but the effect of salt identity is masked by many factors which are likely more important (impurities, redox condition) in the testing evidence than salt identity. Despite this uncertainty, some reasonable preferences can be recommended, and these are indicated in the conclusions. The reasoning to support these conclusions is established in the body of this report.

Williams, D.F.

2006-03-24

35

Numerical Simulation and Turbulent Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Coolant Channels in a Very High Temperature Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbulent convection correlation is developed for use as a surrogate of full 3-D computational fluid dynamics numerical calculations for helium coolant flow in channels of a prismatic core high temperature gas cooled reactor or very high temperature reactor. The correlation calculates the local heat length. It is developed based on the results of a 3-D thermal-hydraulics numerical analysis of

Boyce W. Travis; Mohamed S. El-Genk

2012-01-01

36

The combined effects of inlet fluid flow and temperature nonuniformity in cross flow plate-fin compact heat exchanger using finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger accouning for the combined effects of inlet fluid flow nonuniformity\\u000a and temperature nonuniformity on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a Finite Element Model. A mathematical\\u000a equation is developed to generate different types of fluid flow\\/temperature maldistribution models considering the possible\\u000a deviations in inlet fluid flow. Using these

C. Ranganayakulu; K. N. Seetharamu

1997-01-01

37

Attic inlet technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rising fuel costs have driven development of alternative heat sources for poultry growers. Attic inlets are employed to pre-heat incoming ventilation air to reduce fuel usage. Attic temperatures are at least 10 F warmer than the outside temperature at least 80% of the time and offers a source of...

38

Influences of calcium oxide content in marine fuel oil on emission characteristics of marine furnaces under varying humidity and temperature of the inlet air.  

PubMed

A marine furnace made of stainless steel. combined with an automatic small-size oil-fired burner, was used to experimentally investigate the influences of calcium oxide content in fuel oil on the combustion and emission characteristics under varying temperatures and humidity of the inlet air. Marine fuel oil generally contains various extents of metallic oxides such as CaO, Fe2O3, V2O5, etc which might affect its burning properties. In this study, an air-conditioner was used to adjust the humidity and temperatures of the inlet air to preset values prior to entering the burner. The adjusted inlet air atomized the marine diesel oil A containing a calcium oxide compound, to form a heterogeneous reactant mixture. The reactant mixture was thereafter ignited by a high-voltage electrode in the burner and burned within the marine furnace. The probes of a gas analyzer, H2S analyzer and a K-type thermocouple were inserted into the radial positions of the furnace through the eight rectangular slots which were cut in the upper side of the furnace. The experimental results showed that an increase of either humidity or temperature of the inlet air caused the promotion of the reaction rate of the fuel. The existence of calcium oxide compound in the diesel fuel also facilitated the oxidation reaction in the combustion chamber. The addition of CaO in the diesel fuel under the conditions of higher temperature or higher relative humidity of the inlet air produced the following: higher concentrations of CO2, SO2, and H2S emissions, an increased burning efficiency, a lowered O2 level, production of excess air and NOx emissions as well as a lower thermal loss and a lower burning gas temperature, as compared with the conditions of a lower temperature or a lower humidity of the inlet air. In addition, the burning of diesel fuel with added CaO compound caused a large variation in the burning efficiency, thermal loss, plus CO2, O2, and excess air emissions between the conditions of higher temperature/higher humidity and lower temperature/lower humidity inlet air compared with no CaO addition in the fuel. Moreover, the burning efficiency and the concentrations of excess air and O2 emissions increased, while the thermal loss, burning gas temperature and H2S, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions decreased with the increase of the axial distance from the measured location to the burner nozzle. PMID:15030157

Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng

2004-01-01

39

Influence of inlet pressure and mass flow rate on the temperature rise of superconducting strands in SSTF under the normal operating conditions [of KSTAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the operating characteristics of the main coils, blip and compensating coils of SSTF (Samsung superconducting test facility) which will be operated under the pulsed field to simulate the operating scenarios of KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research), an analysis has been performed to study the influence of cryogenic parameters, such as inlet temperature, pressure and mass

Cheon Seog Yoon; Qiuliang Wang; Yeong Sung Suh; Sun Woong Choi; Wooho Chung; Hyunki Park; Keeman Kim

2002-01-01

40

Enhancing CO2 Conversion to Methanol Using Dynamic Optimization, Applied on Shell Temperature and Inlet Hydrogen During Four Years Operation of Methanol Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of dynamic optimal policies for an industrial methanol reactor experiencing exothermic, reversible reactions is the subject of this study. Optimal values of inlet hydrogen mole fraction and shell temperature have been investigated for a heterogeneous methanol reactor. Optimization has been carried out by employing the methanol production rate (MPR) as an objective function. Optimal history profiles for shell

G. Zahedi; A. Elkamel; A. Lohi

2007-01-01

41

Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for preventing a solar receiver utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver by a plurality of reflectors which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver. The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank through the solar receiver and into the second storage tank. Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors become defocused with respect to the solar receiver due to the earth's rotation.

Glasgow, L.E.

1980-11-24

42

Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for preventing a solar receiver (12) utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver (12) by a plurality of reflectors (16) which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver (12) as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank (30) for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank (30) includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank (34) for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank (34) having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver (12). The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank (30) through the solar receiver (12) and into the second storage tank (34). Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors (16) stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver (12) below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors (16) become defocused with respect to the solar receiver (12) due to the earth's rotation.

Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01

43

Influences of Calcium Oxide Content in Marine Fuel Oil on Emission Characteristics of Marine Furnaces Under Varying Humidity and Temperature of the Inlet Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine furnace made of stainless steel, combined with an automatic small-size oil-fired burner, was used to experimentally investigate the influences of calcium oxide content in fuel oil on the combustion and emission characteristics under varying temperatures and humidity of the inlet air. Marine fuel oil generally contains various extents of metallic oxides such as CaO, Fe2O3, V2O5, etc which

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Wei-Cheng Chen

2004-01-01

44

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Inlet Air Temperature on Spray Combustion in a Wall Jet Can Combustor Using the k-? Turbulence Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical study was performed to assess the effects of inlet temperature and equivalence ratio on the spray combustion and subsequent NOx emission in a wall jet can combustor (WJCC) installed with twin-fluid air-assisted fuel atomizers. The RNG k?? turbulence model, eddy breakup (EBU) combustion model, and the Zeldovich model of NOx formation were utilized in the numerical study.

Sangpil Jo; Ho Young Kim; Sam S. Yoon

2008-01-01

45

Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary

D. F. Williams; L. M. Toth; K. T. Clarno

2006-01-01

46

Cook Inlet's flood ups production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first waterflood in Cook Inlet, in the Middle Ground Shoal field, yielded a quick oil-production response in spite of many adverse conditions. Platform space available for additional equipment was very limited, permeability of the producing sand was critically low, injection water from the inlet is oxygen saturated and heavily silt laden, and water temperature is as low as 29°F

Bleakley

1971-01-01

47

Compressor inlet guide vanes  

SciTech Connect

Guide vanes are the object of renewed interest because they can reduce power consumption 4 to 9 percent, depending on ambient conditions. Guide vanes function to impart a varying degree of whirl to air entering the compressor inlet in response to signals from the compressor. This induced rotation of the air, in the same direction the impeller turns, reduces the amount of work required to produce the same air discharge conditions. The net result is a lowering of power requirements at the compressor inlet. Inlet guide vanes offer dual benefits - decreased power consumption or increased capacity (over throttling at the same power consumption) - allowing compressors to be operated more cheaply or more efficiently. At 50 F average temperature, a 1000 hp compressor running continually for 1 year to 100 percent design flow would save an average of 42 hp. At 4.5 cent/kWh, this saving amounts of $11,280 per year. The initial cost of the guide vane assembly for a unit of this size is $5000. Thus, the payback period for the initial investment is less than 6 months.

Ledder, H.

1981-12-10

48

Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion

J Farmer; B El-Dasher; M S de Caro; J Ferreira

2008-01-01

49

The Behaviour Of Zirconium Alloys In Santowax OM Organic Coolant At High Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium alloys have been exposed to Santowax OM at temperatures of 320 to 400 deg C for times as long as 5000 hours. Short-term experiments (less than 2 weeks) were done in stainless-steel bombs and small out-of-pile loops. The X-7 organic loop in the NRX reactor was used to study long-term oxidation and hydriding both in-flux and out-of-flux. The results

Sawatzky

1964-01-01

50

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1980-June 1980. [Thermal response of reactor to inlet temperature changes, multiple steady reaction states and control methods  

SciTech Connect

An estimate of the temperature gain, defined as the change in the reactor outlet temperature for a given change in inlet temperature made with the simplified CSTR model, indicates that the gain is about 4 for both P-99 and the demonstration plant. The estimate of gain is independent of reactor scale, and the value of gain agrees with the gains observed using the more comprehensive partially backmixed reactor model. The value of gain indicates a high level of sensitivity (coupling) between inlet and outlet temperatures. The CSTR model can be used in conjunction with data from the pilot plant to estimate the activation energy (E) for the point rate of hydrogen consumption, a key kinetics parameter which determines the gain. The value of E used in the model (18.8 kcal/gmole) was obtained from curve fits to pilot plant and CSTR data and is reasonable for this type of hydrogenolysis process. Some additional implications are: (1) The predicted temperature response profile shows that, in the absence of quench control, should the average temperature increase, it will continue to increase to a high temperature eventually reaching beyond the range of the model. Similarly, should conditions cause the temperature to drop, it would continue to drop until a lower stable steady state around 788/sup 0/F is reached. This lower steady state, one of low reactivity, is within the validity of the model. (2) A separate analysis not presented here indicates that the order of the hydrogen partial pressure dependence in the reaction rate also influences the stability, multiplicity, and gain at the steady state. This behavior was discussed in an earlier report.

Not Available

1981-04-01

51

A Dewpoint Device for HTGR Coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) use a gaseous coolant for heat transfer between the nuclear core and two or more steam generators. Leakage of steam or water from the steam generators to the coolant would expose the nuclear core to water vapor. A moisture measuring system is required to determine the moisture content of the coolant gas in the range of

John B. Roes

1968-01-01

52

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

53

Experimental and theoretical comparison of fuel temperature and bulk coolant characteristics in the Oregon State TRIGA reactor during steady state operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September of 2008 Oregon State University (OSU) completed its core conversion analysis as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program. Experimental bulk coolant temperatures were collected in various locations throughout the Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) core in order to supplement the validity of the numerical thermal hydraulic results produced in RELAP5-3D Version 2.4.2.Axial

W. R. Marcum; B. G. Woods; S. R. Reese

2010-01-01

54

Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system  

SciTech Connect

An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14

55

Stepped inlet optical panel  

DOEpatents

An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

Veligdan, James T. (6 Stephanie La., Manorville, NY 11949)

2001-01-01

56

Attic Inlet Technology Update  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attic inlets are a popular addition for new construction and energy saving retrofits. Proper management of attic inlets is necessary to get maximum benefits from the system and reduce the likelihood of moisture-related problems in the structure. Solar energy levels were determined for the continen...

57

Autoignition in a premixing-prevaporizing fuel duct using three different fuel injection systems at inlet air temperatures to 1250/sup 0/K  

SciTech Connect

Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct in which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions were inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250/sup 0/K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel No. 2. The 12-cm-inside-diameter duct was insulated. Three fuel injectors were used: one was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the literature and correlated with an Arrenhius expression, tau varies as e/sup E/RT//tau, where tau is the autoignition delay time, E and R are constants, T is the absolute temperature, and p is the pressure. The data obtained with the other multiple-source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.

Tacina, R.R.

1983-05-01

58

Preliminary Study on Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Coolant of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor with MOX and Minor Actinides Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an uranium oxide (UO2) fuel, graphite moderator and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 950 C. Instead of using helium gas, we have utilized carbon dioxide as a coolant in the present study. Beside that, uranium and plutonium oxide (mixed oxide, MOX) and minor actinides have been employed as a new fuel type of HTTR. Utilization of plutonium and minor actinide is one of the support system to non-proliferation issue in the nuclear development. The enrichment for uranium oxide has been varied of 6-20% with plutonium and minor actinides concentration of 10%. In this study, burnup period is 1100 days. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. Reactor core calculation was done by using CITATION module. The result shows that HTTR can achieve its criticality condition with 14% of 235U enrichment.

Fauzia, A. F.; Waris, A.; Novitrian, Novitrian

2010-06-01

59

Development of a simultaneous analysis method for carbofuran and its three derivative pesticides in water by GC/MS with temperature programmable inlet on-column injection.  

PubMed

A simultaneous analytical method was examined for carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in water. Since carbofuran derivatives are hydrolyzed to carbofuran in water, the liquid-liquid extraction method was used to obtain an accurate concentration value. Moreover, since these compounds are easily decomposed at the GC/MS injection port, temperature programmable inlet on-column injection was used. By combining the two methods, a sensitive analytical method was established without hydrolysis and thermal decomposition. As a result of recovery experiments using distilled water, river water and tap water, acceptable recovery rates and favorable reproducibility were obtained. This method was used in a field investigation to determine carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in river water taken from three points of the Y river over a period of one year. Carbofuran, benfuracarb, and carbosulfan were detected and corresponded to the period when these pesticides were used in the area. Although benfuracarb and carbosulfan using traditional methods are believed to easily hydrolyze and thermally decompose during the analytical process, by using our method they can be detected. PMID:14696922

Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Makihata, Nobuko

2003-12-01

60

Primary coolant chemistry of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

The chemical impurities in the primary coolants of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors are discussed. The impurity mixtures in the two plants were quite different because the sources of the impurities were different. In the Peach Bottom reactor, the impurities were dominated by H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/, which are decomposition products of oil. In the Fort St. Vrain reactor, there were high levels of CO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Although oil ingress at Peach Bottom created carbon deposits on virtually all surfaces, its effect on reactor operation was negligible. Slow outgassing of water from the thermal insulation at Fort St. Vrain caused delays in reactor startup. The overall graphite oxidation in both plants was negligible.

Burnette, R.D.; Baldwin, N.L.

1980-11-01

61

Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda; Ryan Dalling

2012-01-01

62

Emergency water-cooling system for a steam generator for a pressurized-water coolant nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam generator for a pressurized-water coolant nuclear reactor has a housing with its lower portion closed by a horizontal tube sheet with an inverted U-shaped tube bundle extending upwardly within the housing and having inlet and outlet legs with ends mounted in the tube sheet, the latter having inlet and outlet manifolds below the tube sheet for the inlet

1975-01-01

63

Numerical simulation of PWR response to a small break LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) with reactor coolant pumps operating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations have been made of the response of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) during a small-break, loss-of-coolant accident with the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) operating. This study was conducted, as part of a comprehensive project, to assess the relationship between measurable RCP parameters, such as motor power or current, and fluid density, both local (at the RCP inlet) and global (average

J. P. Adams; C. A. Dobbe; P. D. Bayless

1986-01-01

64

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COOLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>Density, viscosity, specific heat, vapor pressure, and calorific value ; were measured within the temperature range 100 to 400 deg C for mixtures of ; Santowax R with pyrolytic high boiler and with OMRE radiolytic high boiler; in ; addition, measurements were made on Santowax OM, X-7 standard, X-7 loop, and OMRE ; coolants. The accuracies of the measurements made

A. G. Debbage; D. A. Garton; J. H. Kinneir

1963-01-01

65

Water inlet blowdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new blowdown system was developed for cleaning debris from the inlet grill of waterjet propulsion system on Boeing hydrofoil boats. A system was required to work with existing waterjet ducts which are open ended. The new blowdown system consists of an abrupt discharge of high pressure compressed air amidst the water inlet duct. It utilizes the open end of the propulsor discharge nozzle as a safety valve. Feasibility was proven by semi-steady state equations and was confirmed by full scale testing. A system was developed and installed and is now fully operational.

Timar, T.

1981-09-01

66

Lead Coolant Test Facility - Design Concept and Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements are identified in this paper: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing Across these five broad areas are supported by twenty-one specific requirements. The purpose of this facility is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

Soli Khericha, Ph. D.

2011-08-01

67

High alpha Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high alpha inlet research effort at Lewis is part of the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP) within NASA. A key goal of HATP is to develop concepts that provide a high level of control and maneuverability for high performance aircraft at low subsonic...

R. R. Burley B. H. Anderson C. F. Smith G. J. Harloff

1991-01-01

68

Nanofluids: Future Industrial Coolants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids have emerged as a major area of research due to significant increase found in their thermal conductivity compared to the base fluids like Water, Ethylene Glycol, Toluene, etc. The enhanced transport properties of nanofluids and heat transfer efficiency have given them an edge over micro to macro sized particle suspensions. These fluids find great applications in thermal management as industrial coolants and various biomedical applications including cancer therapy. Major mechanism appears to be layering of liquid molecules at the solid-particle surface to form an interfacial nanolayer. This paper describes the dependence of effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids on nanoparticle concentration and transport properties of interfacial layer. We have studied the role of interfacial layer and nanoparticle Al2O3 concentration to the effective thermal conductivity of Al2O3/Water based nanofluid. Effect of temperature and pressure has also been investigated. Estimated values are found to match excellently with the available experimental data.

Arora, Sakshi; Srivastava, Sunita

2011-12-01

69

F. E. L. coolant  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility of a number of organic and inorganic materials with Freon-113 in ETA-II is studied. The stability of Freon-113 in the simulated electrical environment is also discussed. It would be desirable to use Freon-113 as the dielectric coolant because it is a factor of twenty less expensive than the currently used Flourinert-75. No substantial problems were observed with any of the materials of interest. Polycarbonate will craze under certain conditions of exposure to Freon-113, mechanical stress, temperature and time. Extruded polymethylmethacrylate crazes on exposure to Freon-113. This is assumed to result from residual stress or processing aids because the cast polymer shows no effects. The polysiloxane swelled severely in the Freon-113 which is no surprise since solubility parameters are close. The Freon-113 did not break down under electrical arcing which simulated service conditions to produce HF or HCl within the detection limits of a Karl Fisher titration even with substantial added water.

Schumann, D.; Lepper, J.

1987-11-20

70

Effects of anti-freeze concentration in the engine coolant on the cavitation temperature of a water pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in engine-manufacturing technology have gradually increased the thermal efficiencies of engines as well as the burning temperature and pressure of fuels within the cylinders. Accordingly, greater heat dissipation are required. However, the volume of the radiators is constrained by the configuration of the engines, leading to excessive internal resistance in the engine-cooling system. Therefore, water pumps in engines are

K. David Huang; Sheng-Chung Tzeng; Wei-Ping Ma

2004-01-01

71

Machine coolant waste reduction by optimizing coolant life. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The project was designed to study the following: A specific water-soluble coolant (Blasocut 2000 Universal) in use with a variety of machines, tools, and materials; Coolant maintenance practices associated with three types of machines; Health effects of use and handling of recycled coolant; Handling practices for chips and waste coolant; Chip/coolant separation; and Oil/water separation.

Pallansch, J.

1995-08-01

72

Effect of temperature and pH on biological oxidation of antifreeze coolant using a packed column aerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated wastewater containing 0.75% (v\\/v) antifreeze was treated biologically using a 0.18-m diameter packed column aerator with a 0.4-m higth packed bed of 20-mm polypropylene spheres. Effects of liquid temperature and pH on the biological oxygen demand (BOD?) removal were investigated. All experiments were performed under an air flux of 0.0080 kg.m-.s- and a liquid flux of 14.8 kg.m-.s-. An

Syed M Nasir Naqvi

2005-01-01

73

Adsorption removal of carbon dioxide from the helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conducts experiments on the removal of CO from helium by means of a Soviet-made adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cleaning systems. The adsorption of CO from helium was studied under dynamic conditions with a fixed layer of adsorbent in a flow-through apparatus with an adsorber 16 mm in diameter. The analysis of the helium

A. V. Varezhkin; Ya. D. Zel'venskii; I. V. Metlik; A. A. Khrulev; A. N. Fedoseenkov

1986-01-01

74

NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT  

DOEpatents

The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

Colichman, E.L.

1959-10-20

75

Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

Soli T. Khericha

2006-09-01

76

Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants  

SciTech Connect

The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

Park, S.H. [comp.

1995-08-01

77

MACHINE COOLANT WASTE REDUCTION BY OPTIMIZING COOLANT LIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Machine shops use coolants to improve the life and function of machine tools. hese coolants become contaminated with oils with use, and this contamination can lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria and shortened coolant life. his project investigated methods to extend coolant life ...

78

Engine coolant testing: Fourth volume  

SciTech Connect

The 25 papers in this proceeding are arranged under the following topical sections: Organic acid inhibitor technology; Test methods; Heavy-duty coolant technology; Engine coolant recycling technology; Engine coolant characteristics and quality; and Engine coolant service and disposal. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Beal, R.E. [ed.

1999-08-01

79

Quick-response control system for low-flow engine coolant systems  

SciTech Connect

A quick-response coolant control system is described for a vehicle engine having a low-flow engine coolant system. A major portion of the coolant flows in a high-flow coolant loop containing an engine block and a minor portion of the coolant fluid flows in a connected low-flow coolant loop, serially containing various components, including a radiator and an aftercooler. It consists of: a high-flow coolant loop including an engine block within the high-flow loop; a low-flow coolant loop connected to the high-flow coolant loop, including a radiator and an aftercooler for cooling engine intake air from a turbocharger; means for sensing the temperature of air leaving the aftercooler; a radiator bypass flow conduit to allow coolant fluid in the low-flow coolant loop to bypass the radiator; a quick-acting, radiator flow control valve in the low-flow loop to mix coolant from the radiator and coolant from the radiator bypass flow conduit; an aftercooler bypass flow conduit to allow coolant fluid in the low-flow coolant loop to bypass the aftercooler; means for sensing the temperature of coolant in the engine block; and a quick-acting, proportional aftercooler shuttle vale in the low-flow coolant loop to proportionally mix coolant from the aftercooler bypass flow conduit and the aftercooler for application to the low-flow coolant loop in response to a signal from the engine block coolant temperature-sensing means to maintain the temperature of the engine block within a desired range.

Larsen, H.N.; Stephens, D.L.

1987-10-06

80

MHD Control for Scramjet Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potentialities of MHD effect for flow control in a scramjet inlet are discussed. In the papers it is shown that the MHD interaction allows one to control the oblique shocks position and to make the flow field in the inlet at off-design conditions quit...

E. G. Sheikin A. L. Kuranov

2003-01-01

81

GENERIC HYPERSONIC INLET MODULE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational study associated with an inter- nal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study con- sisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three- dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics

Charles E. Cockrell; Lawrence D. Huebner

1991-01-01

82

Effects of optimized and sub-optimum two degree of freedom lining tolerances on modeled inlet acoustic attenuation and Normal incidence impedance measurement at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work first investigates the effect of manufacturing tolerances on realized attenuation for two degree-of-freedom linings with the use of lining models and finite element duct propagation codes. Acoustic linings were created for two turbofan engines that optimize attenuation at takeoff/sideline and approach conditions. Lining physical and geometric parameters were set, which best meet the optimum impedance requirements at two target frequencies. Similar linings were created to investigate sub-optimum designs. Variations of these parameters representing realistic manufacturing tolerances were used to systematically examine the effect on installed impedance and predicted attenuation. Attenuation at sideline and approach conditions was found to be sensitive to manufacturing tolerances around optimum conditions. The results of the study are case dependent; however the analysis scheme presented provides a method for cost-benefit analysis of manufacturing processes. In a second study, an impedance tube, with an associated data analysis method, was developed and analyzed for temperature uncertainties that allowed the measurement of impedance of acoustic samples at elevated temperatures. This impedance measurement method was validated at room temperature by comparing the results with predicted impedance from empirically based impedance models and with impedance measurements in a standard traversing microphone impedance tube. Impedance for four samples was measured at elevated temperatures, and the results were compared to room temperature measurements. For two of the samples, the impedances measured at elevated temperatures were compared to the results of extensions of room temperature empirical models, confirming the trend of the results of the elevated temperature measurements.

Burd, David R.

83

Effects of temperature on the median tolerance limit of pink salmon and shrimp exposed to toluene, naphthalene, and cook inlet crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine animals may be more susceptible to oil spills in Alaskan and other cold waters than they would be in warmer waters because of direct and indirect effects of low temperatures on the physical behavior of oil and the sensitivity of animals. Oil-water solutions probably remain at toxic concentrations for longer periods of time at lower temperatures because of reduced

Sid Korn; D. Adam Moles; Stanley D. Rice

1979-01-01

84

Safety and environmental aspects of organic coolants for fusion facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic coolants, such as OS-84, offer unique advantages for fusion reactor applications. These advantages are with respect to both reactor operation and safety. The key operational advantage is a coolant that can provide high temperature (350-400C) at modest pressure (2-4 MPa). These temperatures are needed for conditioning the plasma-facing components and, in reactors, for achieving high thermodynamic conversion efficiencies (>40%). The key safety advantage of organic coolants is the low vapor pressure, which significantly reduces the containment pressurization transient (relative to water) following a loss of coolant event. Also, from an occupational dose viewpoint, organic coolants significantly reduce corrosion and erosion inside the cooling system and consequently reduce the quantity of activation products deposited in cooling system equipment. On the negative side, organic coolants undergo both pyrolytic and radiolytic decomposition, and are flammable. While the decomposition rate can be minimized by coolant system design (by reducing coolant inventories exposed to neutron flux and to high temperatures), decomposition products are formed and these degrade the coolant properties. Both heavy compounds and light gases are produced from the decomposition process, and both must be removed to maintain adequate coolant properties. As these hydrocarbons may become tritiated by permeation, or activated through impurities, their disposal could create an environmental concern. Because of this potential waste disposal problem, consideration has been given to the recycling of both the light and heavy products, thereby reducing the quantity of waste to be disposed. Preliminary assessments made for various fusion reactor designs, including ITER, suggest that it is feasible to use organic coolants for several applications. These applications range from first wall and blanket coolant (the most demanding with respect to decomposition), to shield and vacuum vessel cooling, to an intermediate cooling loop removing heat from a liquid metal loop and transferring it to a steam generator or heat exchanger.

Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R. E.; Gierszewski, P.

1993-06-01

85

Automobile coolant flow control  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage flow controller is described for use in a vehicle heating circuit, comprising: a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a flow control chamber intermediate the inlet and outlet; structure defining a valve seat within the chamber; a flow controller assembly slidably disposed in the chamber for movement towards and away from the seat; biasing means urging the flow controller assembly away from the seat; the flow controlling assembly including: a flow controlling element defining a valve seat engaging surface and a through passage, the element operative to restrict fluid flow through the passage as a function of fluid pressure.

Yeoman, R.L.

1989-01-31

86

Nuclear-Radiation-Actuated Valve for Increasing Coolant Flow to Blanket).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel...

D. W. Christiansen D. P. Schively

1982-01-01

87

OMRE COOLANT PRUIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a small batch vacuum distillation svstem built as an ; integral part of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) demonstrated ; satisfactory separation of high boiling decomposition products from the organic ; coolant. Information gained in the operation of the batch system and data ; obtained in the related development program were used to design a continuous

Haroldsen

1960-01-01

88

Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly  

DOEpatents

A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

1986-01-01

89

Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly  

DOEpatents

A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

Hutter, E.

1984-01-27

90

Optimization study of the coolant routing in the ITER divertor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the current design of the ITER divertor cooling system is examined. Various combinations of the plasma facing components in series and\\/or in parallel are studied and the most suitable cooling scheme is selected in terms of the pumping power, the overall pressure drop, the coolant temperature rise, and the coolant flow rate. The proposed scheme not only

N. J. Zhan; M. D. Carelli; L. Green

1996-01-01

91

Erosion-Corrosion of Boiler Inlet Ferrule Assemblies: Part 4. Temperature and Flow Dependency at pH 9.50.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are given for four experiments carried out on the CERL Isothermal Rig aimed at defining the temperature and flow dependency of erosion-corrosion at pH 9.30 and 9.50. At pH 9.50 it was found that the flow dependency for the maximum rate in the post...

K. Garbett G. J. Bignold C. H. Whalley D. F. Libaert R. Sale

1987-01-01

92

GOP. HTGR Coolant Impurity Mass Balance  

SciTech Connect

GOP is used to predict graphite corrosion rates and overall impurity mass balances for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Both thermal and radiolytic reactions involving the coolant gas impurities H2O, CO2, CO, H2, and CH4 are modeled.

Richards, M.; Gillespie, A. [CEGA Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-08-01

93

VAPOR PRESSURE OF POLYPHENYL COOLANT AND COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to measure the vapor pressure of organic coolant ; materials over the temperature range 450 to 900 deg F. The vapor pressure of ; diphenyl, Santowax R and ortho-, meta-, and para-terphenyl was determined ; experimentally. (W.L.H.)

Silvey

1959-01-01

94

Behavior of primary coolant pump shaft seals during station blackout conditions  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the ability of typical Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) Shaft Seals to withstand the conditions predicted for a station blackout (loss of all alternating current power) at a nuclear power station. Several factors are identified that are key to seal stability including inlet fluid conditions, pressure downstream of the seal, and geometrical details of the seal rings. Limits for stable seal operation are determined for various combinations of these factors, and the conclusion is drawn that some RPC seals would be near the threshold of instability during a station blackout. If the threshold were exceeded, significant leakage of coolant from the primary coolant system could be expected.

Hill, R.C.; Rhodes, D.B.

1986-09-12

95

Morphodynamic modelling for Thuan An inlet, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thuan An is a tidal inlet located in Vietnam in a tropical monsoon area. The inlet is very dynamic and variable under the influences of not only tides and waves from the sea but also flows and floods from upstream rivers. Therefore, morphodynamic behaviour of the inlet is very complicated and not\\u000awell understood. Studies on inlet are also facing

T. N. Lam; M. J. Stive; H. J. Verhagen; Z. B. Wang

2006-01-01

96

Inlet turbine powered exhaust extractor for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A four-cycle internal combustion engine is provided with apparatus comprising a turbine in the inlet air flow path and an extracting compressor in the exhaust gas path. Where the internal combustion engine is an automobile engine and is operating under normal cruising conditions, the manifold inlet pressure is substantially less than atmospheric pressure and incoming air drives the inlet turbine to in turn drive the compressor. The arrangement is such that the inlet air is isentropically expanded while the exhaust gas back pressure is decreased. As a consequence, the energy of compression is reduced and the overall operating temperature of the internal combustion cycle is lowered with the result that more power is delivered for a given quantity of fuel.

Gertz, D.C.

1984-04-03

97

PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING FREON 114 LEAK RATES IN CASCADE COOLANT CONDENSERS BY THE GAS DILUTION METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas dilution method for the measurement of Freon leak rates to the ; water side of cascade coolant condensers has been tested on various condensers in ; the X-333 building and on one condenser in the X-330 building. The gas dilution ; method involves injecting Freon 115 (CClF--CF) into the water inlet ; of a condenser suspected of leaking

1958-01-01

98

Turbines power Cook Inlet waterflood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbines have become the accepted power unit for some major platform waterflood installations. Their success may indicate an application on shore in a more conventional environment. Pan American Petroleum Corp., as operator, and its 3 partners in Cook Inlet, Skelly Oil Co., Atlantic Richfield Co., and Phillips Petroleum Co., will soon have 4 platforms with gas turbine-driven waterflood injection

Woodhall

1970-01-01

99

Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1986-01-01

100

On-site profiling and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at manufactured gas plant sites by a high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe coupled to a photoionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe (HTTL-MIP) coupled to a photoionization detector (PID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to rapidly profile and speciate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the subsurface. PID signals were in agreement with GC/MS results. Correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.99 were obtained for discrete and composite samples collected from the same exact location. Continuous probe advancement with PID detection found coal tar, a dense nonaqueous phase liquid, in soil channels and saturated media. When samples were collected conventionally, split, solvent extracted, and analyzed in the field and confirmation laboratory, GC/MS measurement precision and accuracy were indistinguishable; despite the fact the field laboratory produced data five times faster than the laboratory using standard EPA methods. No false positive/negatives were found. Based on these findings, increased confidence in site conceptual models should be obtained, since PID response indicated total PAH presence/absence in 'real-time', while GC/MS provided information as to which PAH was present and at what concentration. Incorporation of this tool into a dynamic workplan will provide more data at less cost enabling environmental scientists, engineers, and regulators to better understand coal tar migration and its impact on human health and the environment. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Thomas Considine; Albert Robbat Jr. [Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States). Chemistry Department, Center for Field Analytical Studies and Technology

2008-02-15

101

On-site profiling and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at manufactured gas plant sites by a high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe coupled to a photoionization detector and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A new high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe (HTTL-MIP) coupled to a photoionization detector (PID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to rapidly profile and speciate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the subsurface. PID signals were in agreement with GC/MS results. Correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.99 were obtained for discrete and composite samples collected from the same exact location. Continuous probe advancement with PID detection found coal tar, a dense nonaqueous phase liquid, in soil channels and saturated media. When samples were collected conventionally, split, solvent extracted, and analyzed in the field and confirmation laboratory, GC/MS measurement precision and accuracy were indistinguishable; despite the fact the field laboratory produced data five times faster than the laboratory using standard EPA methods. No false positive/negatives were found. Based on these findings, increased confidence in site conceptual models should be obtained, since PID response indicated total PAH presence/absence in "real-time", while GC/MS provided information as to which PAH was present and atwhat concentration. Incorporation of this tool into a dynamic workplan will provide more data at less cost enabling environmental scientists, engineers, and regulators to better understand coal tar migration and its impact on human health and the environment. PMID:18351095

Considine, Thomas; Robbat, Albert

2008-02-15

102

Design of Hypersonic Inward-Turning Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A family of dual-axis compression, high-contraction-ratio, inward- turning inlets has been designed to achieve a desired shock structure and aerodynamic performance at Mach 6. Computational simulations of the internal inlet flowfield were performed using ...

B. A. Croker

2007-01-01

103

Coupled inlet-engine dynamic analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for unsteady analysis of turbine engine propulsion systems. The method is a coupled analysis of the inlet-compressor combination with multidimensional inlet capability. The method incorporates inviscid, unsteady, computational fluid dynamics in the inlet using an unstructured numerical grid and a one-dimensional dynamic turbomachinery model. The present application of the method is an axisymmetric mixed compression

Keith E. Numbers

1998-01-01

104

33 CFR 117.757 - Townsend Inlet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Townsend Inlet. 117.757 Section 117.757 Navigation...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.757 Townsend Inlet. The draw of Townsend Inlet Bridge, mile 0.3 in Avalon, shall...

2013-07-01

105

33 CFR 117.757 - Townsend Inlet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Townsend Inlet. 117.757 Section 117.757 Navigation...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.757 Townsend Inlet. The draw of Townsend Inlet Bridge, mile 0.3 in Avalon, shall...

2010-07-01

106

33 CFR 117.757 - Townsend Inlet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Townsend Inlet. 117.757 Section 117.757 Navigation...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.757 Townsend Inlet. The draw of Townsend Inlet Bridge, mile 0.3 in Avalon, shall...

2009-07-01

107

Decontaminating reactor coolant systems  

SciTech Connect

Chemical agents and processes that reduce radioactivity levels where people must work make repairs in the coolant circuits of nuclear power reactors faster and less costly. The low-oxidation-state metal ions (LOMI) chemical process quickly dissolves tough corrosion films that hold radioactive isotopes. Radiation fields on pipe surfaces can be cut by a factor of 20 before repair crews go to work. The two-step LOMI process reagents weaken bonds between oxygen and iron atoms by a spontaneous electron transfer from vanadium to iron. This interrupts the lattice, and iron oxide is easily dissolved by picolinic acid. While cost is the prime factor, since exposure limits must be complied with in any event, safety is the ultimate issue, not only in worker health, but in the reliability and quality of the work done under specific time pressures. 4 references, 5 figures.

Whitaker, R.; Wood, C.

1984-06-01

108

Using thermal energy storage equipment for cooling gas turbine inlet air  

SciTech Connect

With turbine-inlet air cooling, a well-accepted strategy for increasing turbine capacity, the problem of high ambient air temperatures that means a loss in turbine capacity and an increase in electrical generating costs is solved. The system has five component parts, namely, ice harvesting refrigeration equipment, ice storage tanks, a water pumping and distribution system, ambient air turbine inlet cooling coils, and an inlet air structure. 4 figs.

Brezonick, M.

1994-07-01

109

Effect on cold starting performance of an exhaust gas to engine coolant heat exchanger in an automobile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exhaust-to-coolant heat exchange on fuel economy and cab heater performance during cold start was studied using a 1981 Ford Granada automobile and a 1977 Buick V-6 engine on a test stand. The ambient soaking temperatures ranged from 35 to -15 degrees Fahrenheit. It was found that fuel used in a 7 minute warm up run of the test stand engine was less by 2.1 to 4.6% when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler in the system. Likewise for the Granada, fuel consumption was less by 2.8 to 3.8% over an in town test route and less by 1.5 to 1.8% on a highway test route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler. Similarly, the time required for the coolant at the inlet of the cab heater to reach a temperature of 180 Fahrenheit was 27.5 to 28.8% shorter for the test stand engine, 6.3 to 7.0% shorter for the Granada in town route and 16.6 to 16.9% shorter for the Granada highway route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler.

Goettler, H.J.; Vidger, L.J.

1983-05-01

110

Analise do comportamento de pressao e temperatura da contencao de um reator PWR sob os efeitos de um acidente de perda de refrigerante. (Analysis of the behaviour of pressure and temperature of the containment of a PWR reactor, submitted to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this work is to analyse the pressure and temperature behaviour of the metalic containment of a PWR building, submitted to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by a double-ended rupture in the main line of the primary cir...

D. E. Silva L. A. J. Arrieta J. R. Costa C. Camargo C. M. Santos

1979-01-01

111

Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet  

SciTech Connect

Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

Kolp, D.A. [Kolp Engineering, Avon, CT (United States); Flye, W.M. [Stewart and Stevenson, Houston, TX (United States); Guidotti, H.A. [Energy Services, Inc., Framington, CT (United States)

1995-07-01

112

Evaluation of the Long-Term Thermal Capability of a High-Temperature Insulation System Using Silicone Liquid as a Dielectric Coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional thermal evaluation of test transformers insulated with silicon fluid is described. Studies have shown that polydimethylsiloxane fluids maintain good electrical properties at elevated temperatures, but system evaluation is required to determine their capability in a transformer. A transformer test facility meeting the requirements of IEEE Standard 262 is described and was used for the accelerated thermal testing of

Louis N. Gifford; Tor Orbeck

1984-01-01

113

Bouyancy effects on sodium coolant temperature profiles measured in an electrically heated mock-up of a 61-rod breeder reactor blanket assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes test results selected to demonstrate the effect of buoyancy on the temperature profiles in a 61-rod electrically heated mock-up of an LMFBR radial blanket assembly. In these assemblies, heat transfer occurs over a wide range of complex operating conditions. The range and complexity of conditions are the result of the steep flux and power gradients which are

F. C. Engel; R. A. Markley; B. Minushkin

1978-01-01

114

Estimation of temperature-induced reactor coolant system and steam generator tube creep rupture probability under high-pressure severe accident conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe accident has inherently significant uncertainties due to the complex phenomena and wide range of conditions. Because of its high temperature and pressure, performing experimental validation and practical application are extremely difficult. With these difficulties, there has been few experimental researches performed and there is no plant-specific experimental data. Instead, computer codes have been developed to simulate the accident

Youngsuk Bang; Gunhyo Jung; Byungchul Lee; Kwang-Il Ahn

2012-01-01

115

Vapor cooled internal combustion engine coolant jacket  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cooling system for a device having a structure subject to heating: 1.) a coolant jacket formed above the heated structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; 2.) a manifold in fluid communication with the coolant jacket for receiving the vapor generated within the coolant jacket by the boiling of

Hirano

1986-01-01

116

Double inlet pulse tube cryocooler theory  

SciTech Connect

An analytical model has been developed for the performance of a double inlet pulse tube cryocooler employing a stepped piston compressor. Numerical results are presented as a function of the area ratio of the stepped piston. The double inlet pulse tube cryocooler is shown to have more refrigeration power than the corresponding single inlet device. However, the increased refrigeration power is achieved at the cost of reduced thermal efficiency.

Mirels, H.

1993-02-02

117

The effects on vapor pressure and heat of vaporization of adding the liquid coolant C816 to the evaporative coolant R-114  

SciTech Connect

The liquid coolants C816 (perfluorodimethylcyclohexane) (FC-c71(16)) and B437 (2,2,3-trichloroheptafluorobutane) (CFC-317a) are now surplus materials. The future availability of sufficient quantities of the evaporative coolant R-114 (1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane) (CFC-114) has been cast in doubt by the Montreal International Protocol, which regulates the production of chlorofluorocarbons, including R-114. To examine the possibility that the liquid coolant might be used to stretch the R-114 supply, the effects of adding small amounts of the liquid coolants, as exemplified by C816, to the R-114 were examined. When the coolant is removed from the cooler, a residual of about 32 lb (14.5 kg) of liquid that is principally C816 remains unless the cooler temperature is above {approximately}116{degree}F (46.7{degree}C). There is an additional quantity of coolant in the vapor phase. If a cooler leak to the cell were to develop during a treatment, the partial pressure of the coolant could reach about 0.08 psia (550 Pa). The effects of such an incident will be explored in a supplemental report. Introduction of quantities of these liquid coolants which exceed the allowable limits for fluorocarbons via small coolant leaks into the isotopic cascade could be a source of difficulty because all the current product removal systems are designed to eliminate only materials more volatile than UF{sub 6} from product. This problem will be explored further in the supplemental report. This report suggests that a heat transfer study be made to estimate the cooler temperature that results from coolant removal from the system and how long it will take to remove the coolant. When these estimates and the results of the other supplemental studies are available, a decision as to the possibility of economically using the surplus liquid coolants for the suggested purpose can be made.

Barber, E.J.

1988-08-01

118

Oregon inlet: Hydrodynamics, volumetric flux and implications for larval fish transport  

SciTech Connect

The temporal response of Oregon Inlet currents to atmospheric forcing and sea level fluctuations is analyzed using time and frequency domain analysis. Temporally persistent and spatially extensive ebb and flood events are identified using data sets from both within and outside of Oregon Inlet. Prism estimates are made to generate a time series of volumetric flux of water transported through the inlet. Water masses flooding into the Pamlico Sound via Oregon Inlet are identified in temperature (T) and salinity (S) space to determine their source of origin. Correlations are examined between the atmospheric wind field, the main axial slope of the inlet`s water level, inlet flow and T, S properties. Synoptic scale atmospheric wind events are found to dramatically and directly affect the transport of water towards (away from) the inlet on the ocean side, in concert with the contemporaneous transport away from (towards) the inlet on the estuary side, and a subsequent flooding into (out of) the estuary via Oregon Inlet. Thus, while astronomical tidal flooding and ebbing events are shown to be one-sided as coastal waters either set-up or set-down, synoptic scale wind events are shown to be manifested as a two-sided in-phase response set-up and set-down inside and outside the inlet, and thus are extremely effective in driving currents through the inlet. These subinertial frequency flood events are believed to be essential for both the recruitment and subsequent retention of estuarine dependent larval fish from the coastal ocean into Pamlico Sound. Year class strength of these finish may be determined annually by the relative strength and timing of these climatological wind events.

Nichols, C.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, MD (United States); Pietrafesa, L.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1997-05-01

119

Morphologic Analysis of Sebastian Inlet, Florida: Enhancements to the Tidal Inlet Reservoir Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geomorphic analysis was conducted for Sebastian Inlet, FL to re- formulate an analytic model of shoal evolution and sediment bypassing. The Tidal Inlet Reservoir Model (Kraus 2002) was enhanced to include sediment pathways that allow seasonal reversals in...

G. A. Zarillo N. C. Kraus R. K. Hoeke

2003-01-01

120

Computational study of fuel injection in a shcramjet inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this investigation is to present the mixing of fuel with air in the inlet of a shock-induced combustion ramjet (shcramjet). The study is limited to non-reacting hydrogen-air mixing in an external-compression inlet at a flight Mach number of 11 and at a dynamic pressure of 1400 psf (67032 Pa), using an array of cantilevered ramp injectors. A numerical method based on the Yee-Roe scheme and block-implicit approximate factorization is developed to solve the FANS equations closed by the Wilcox ko turbulence model. A new acceleration technique for streamwise-separated hypersonic flow, dubbed the "marching window", is presented. The dilatational dissipation correction is seen to affect the mixing efficiency considerably for a cantilevered ramp injector flowfield even at a vanishing convective Mach number, due to the high turbulent Mach number generated by the high cross-stream shear induced by the ramp-generated axial vortices. Due to the fuel being injected at a very high speed, fuel injection in the inlet is found to increase considerably the thrust potential, with a gain exceeding the loss by 40--120%. Losses due to skin friction are seen to play a significant role in the inlet, as they are estimated to make up as much as 50--70% of the thrust potential losses. The use of a turbulence model that can predict accurately the wall shear stress is hence crucial in assessing the losses accurately in a shcramjet inlet. Substituting the second inlet shock by a Prandtl-Meyer compression fan is encouraged as it decreases the thrust potential losses, reduces the risk of premature ignition by reducing the static temperature, while decreasing the mixing efficiency by a mere 6%. One approach that is observed herein to be successful at increasing the mixing efficiency in the inlet is by alternating the injection angle along the injector array. The use of two injection angles of 9 and 16 degrees is seen to result in a 32% increase in the mixing efficiency at the expense of a 14% increase in the losses when compared to a single injection angle of 10 degrees. Using alternating injection angles, the mixing efficiency reaches as much as 0.47 at the inlet exit.

Parent, Bernard

121

Lacueva Arroyo Inlet, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LaCueva Arroyo Inlet collects the runoff in the LaCueva Arroyo basin and merges the flow into the North Diversion Structure, which diverts upland runoff around Albuquerque, NM. Built in the late 1960's, the LaCueva Arroyo Inlet was designed to pass 5,...

C. H. Tate

1989-01-01

122

Axial inlet cyclone for mineral processing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial inlet cyclone was developed and tested for wet size classification of particulate materials with the purpose of providing an alternative to the tangential inlet cyclone used traditionally in the mineral processing industry. The proposed device shared many of the fundamental features of a conventional cyclone, but had a circular opening on the roof of the cylindrical section and

T. Yalcin; E. Kaukolin; A. Byers

2003-01-01

123

Actuated Attic Inlets: A Progress Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attic inlets are being widely employed by poultry growers to alleviate high fuel costs during the brooding period. Pre-heated inlet air can reduce fuel usage and estimates for fuel savings were derived from field reports. Fuel usage was estimated for both large and small bird flocks for one year...

124

Characterization of Inlet Diffuser Performance for Stratified Thermal Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage of sensible heating or cooling capacity in stratified vessels has important applications in central heating and cooling plants, power production, and solar energy utilization, among others. In stratified thermal storage systems, diffusers at the top and bottom of a stratified tank introduce and withdraw fluid while maintaining a stable density gradient and causing as little mixing as possible. In chilled water storage applications, mixing during the formation of the thermocline near an inlet diffuser is the single greatest source of thermal losses. Most stratified chilled water storage tanks are cylindrical vessels with diffusers that are either circular disks that distribute flow radially outward or octagonal rings of perforated pipe that distribute flow both inward and outward radially. Both types produce gravity currents that are strongly influenced by the inlet Richardson number, but the significance of other parameters is not clear. The present investigation considers the dependence of the thermal performance of a perforated pipe diffuser on design parameters including inlet velocity, ambient and inlet fluid temperatures, and tank dimensions for a range of conditions representative of typical chilled water applications. Dimensional analysis is combined with a parametric study using results from computational fluid dynamics to obtain quantitative relationships between design parameters and expected thermal performance.

Cimbala, John M.; Bahnfleth, William; Song, Jing

1999-11-01

125

Turbine-generator shaft-coupled auxiliary generators supplying short-duration electrical loads for an emergency coolant injection system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved process for operating a nuclear reactor water coolant injection system during a loss-of-coolant inventory accident including the steps of: providing a second generator; mechanically coupling the second generator to the turbine and the coupled main generator: converging rotational energy of the turbine and the coupled main generator into electric power using the mechanical coupled second generator comprising converting the spindown momentum of the turbine and the coupled main generator to electric power through the mechanically coupled second generator; providing a reactor coolant injection pump having an inlet and an outlet; coupling the inlet to a source of coolant; coupling the outlet to the interior of the reactor; providing the outlet to the interior of the reactor; providing an electric motor to drive the reactor coolant injection pump; and supplying power from the second generator to the motor during operation of the plant, whereby power to the reactor coolant injection pump includes the power generated from the spindown momentum of the turbine and the coupled main generator.

Gluntz, D.M.; Black, J.C.

1989-04-04

126

Optical condensation measurement in gas turbine engine inlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-intrusive optical system for the measurement of air inlet condensation in gas turbine engines is presented. The system uses a technique in which a linear relationship between the liquid water content (LWC) and the optical extinction coefficient exists. The extinction coefficient was determined by measuring the extinction of a 10.6 micrometers CO2 laser beam due to Mie scattering from water droplets and the LWC calculated from the linear relationship. Results of the extinction coefficient determined with the system used in a single transmission path mode on a condensing flow occurring in the inlet of a subsonic suction tunnel are presented together with the temperature rise of the ambient air calculated from the extinction coefficient. A rise of 8.65 degrees K was obtained at 0.65. Mach, for an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C and relative humidity 49 percent, which is consistent with previous non-optical measurements.

Potter, Jason; Tatam, Ralph P.

1997-11-01

127

33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. 334.1250...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1250 Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. (a) Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas (1)...

2010-07-01

128

33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. 334.1250...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1250 Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas. (a) Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas (1)...

2009-07-01

129

Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geom...

C. K. W. Tam E. Envia E. W. Chien S. A. Parrish

2012-01-01

130

77 FR 420 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Stathmere, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...January 5, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 420...Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Stathmere, NJ AGENCY: Coast...the operation of the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), across Corson Inlet, mile 0.9 in...

2012-01-05

131

Conceptual Study of a Turbojet/Ramjet Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An inlet concept for separate turbojet and ramjet engines was defined and compared with an equivalent inlet for a wraparound turboramjet engine. The comparison was made for a typical high altitude hypersonic cruise vehicle where the turbojet inlet capture...

J. P. Weidner

1979-01-01

132

Cryogenic Temperature Control and Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of some of the many control, measurement, and regulation techniques for cryogenic temperatures, applying liquid coolants (LN2, LHe) and the equipment developed for their realization, such as pressure, coolant level, and temperature contr...

H. J. Forth

1977-01-01

133

Comparison of flow rates and pressure profiles for N-sequential inlets and three related seal configurations  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and analytical results are presented for choked flows of fluid nitrogen over a range of reduced inlet stagnation temperatures (from 0.67 to ambient) and reduced inlet stagnation pressures to 2. Flow rate and pressure profile comparisons are made between N aligned sequential orifice inlets, a 33-tooth labyrinth seal, a 3-step seal, a cylindrical seals and the classic venturi. Seal effectiveness appears strongly dependent on upstream losses and geometry configuration.

Hendricks, R.C.

1983-08-01

134

Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels. The implications for wetland loss and construction of ...

A. Sanchez

2008-01-01

135

The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)|

Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

1979-01-01

136

Uranium Isotope Systematic in Saanich Inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a redox-sensitive element Uranium has become the focus of stable isotope studies. Based on the nuclear field shift effect [1], U isotope fractionation was predicted as a function of U(IV)-U(VI) exchange reactions with the insoluble reduced U(IV) species being heavier than the soluble oxidized U(VI) species. Recently, variations in 238U/235U were reported in low temperature aqueous and sedimentary environments [2,3] indicating that U deposited in well-oxygenated environments is characterized by light isotopic composition, whereas suboxic and anoxic deposits tend towards a heavy isotopic signature. U isotope fractionation has been hence proposed as a promising new paleo-redox proxy. In order to test the efficacy of U isotope fractionation to record oxidation states in marine systems, we are investigating sediment samples deposited over a range of redox conditions in the seasonally anoxic Saanich Inlet, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. We have also made ?238U measurements for water samples from above and below the redoxcline. The measurements were carried out by MC-ICPMS using 233U/236U-double spike technique. The data are reported as ?238U relative to NBL 112a with a 238U/235U ratio of 137.88 (2sd). External precision is better than 0.10 permil (2sd). Eleven analyses of seawater performed over the course of this work yielded ?238U of -0.410.07 permil (2sd). No clear difference in ?238U values has been found, thus far, in water samples collected at 10m (O2~380?M) and 200m (O2~1?M) depths from a single location in the middle of the inlet. The mean of two measurements of the deepwater sample yielded -0.430.01 permil (2sd). Two measurements of the shallow water sample yielded a mean value of -0.380.03 permil (2sd). The ?238U values for HF-HNO3 digestions of the organic rich sediments, one taken in the middle of the basin (3.11% organic carbon) below seasonally anoxic bottom waters (-0.220.01 permil, n=2), and the other taken from the sill (1.29% organic carbon) below well-oxygenated bottom waters (-0.22 permil, n=1) are identical. The ?238U value matches previously reported values for suboxic sediments from the Peru margin [3], but is lighter than organic rich sediments from the Black Sea [3], where the bottom waters are strongly euxinic. The consistency in ?238U vaues between previously investigated suboxic sediment samples [3] and our two sediment samples indicates that the magnitude of the U isotopic fractionation is identical between seawater and sediments deposited under a range of bottom water oxygen conditions from oxygenated to anoxic. However, differences between the U isotope compositions in Saanich Inlet and those from the Black Sea remain to be explained, if U isotope fractionation is be used as a quantitative proxy for paleoredox in ancient oceans. [1] Schauble (2007) GCA 71, 2170- 2189. [2] Stirling et al. (2007) EPSL 264, 208-225. [3] Weyer et al. (2007) GCA 72, 345-399.

Amini, M.; Holmden, C.; Francois, R.

2008-12-01

137

Control rod drive mechanism stator loss of coolant test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the stator loss of coolant test conducted at HEDL on the lead unit Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) in February, 1977. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate scram capability of the CRDM with an uncooled stator and to obtain a time versus temperature curve of an uncooled stator under power. Brief descriptions of the test,

L. Besel; R. Ibatuan

1977-01-01

138

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were

H. A. Ingley

1980-01-01

139

Unstart margin control of hypersonic inlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum performance of the hypersonic inlet/scramjet will be achieved when operating as close as possible to unstart boundary. In order to maintain the high performance without crossing the unstart boundary, an active unstart margin predictor and controller is necessary. The goal of the control system is to acquire the unstart margin and maintain the unstart margin as the designated value, and predict inlet unstart before it occurs, then take some measures to unstart mitigation or inlet restart. The unstart boundary and margin of hypersonic inlet were discussed and analyzed firstly. By analyzing the dynamic mechanism of the physical system, the dynamics of the hypersonic inlet can be regarded as unmodeled dynamics based on the frequency-domain simplification theory. The unstart boundary and margin reveal great nonlinear characteristic at different freestream conditions, so it is necessary to introduce the nonlinear control method to perform the control system design. The gain scheduling control method was introduced to compensate the nonlinear gain of the hypersonic inlet. To validate the validity of the controller, the simulation platform of CFD/MATLAB was established. The simulation results prove that the gain scheduling method is valid, and it can guarantee that the control system arrives at the same performance index at different freestream conditions.

Chang, Juntao; Fan, Yi; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren; Shen, Yi

2010-01-01

140

Patch testing of coolant fractions.  

PubMed

Dermatitis among machine operators, and others who are consistently exposed to cutting and grinding liquids, has presented the industrial physician with the problems of how to protect the machinist from the cause of his dermatitis and how to detect irritants that may be responsible for the skin problem. In order to examine the various components of machine coolant that might be responsible for causing a dermatitis reaction, 13 suspensions were prepared. They consisted of various combinations of New Codol (coolant base), biocides, masking agent, tramp oil, used coolant and metal fragments. Patch test techniques were used to examine these suspensions for their potential to cause a localized skin irritation on plant employees. Two hundred and six New Process Gear employees were tested over a ten-month period. The participants were management, general salaried employees and hourly labor employees. There was not a single positive reaction in any one of the 206 individuals who completed their skin testing. Of the 206 tested, 29 persons were tested and retested a total of 62 times over a period of one to 25 weeks after the initial testing. In neither the testing nor the retesting was a positive patch test reaction -- irritant or allergic -- obtained. PMID:126305

Menter, P; Harrison, W; Woodlin, W G

1975-09-01

141

Ocean City Inlet, Maryland: a catalyst for coastal change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean City Inlet is located along the microtidal Atlantic Ocean coastline of Maryland. The inlet was opened by a hurricane in 1933 and stabilized with a double jetty system in 1934. Dramatic shoreline recession has occurred downdrift of the inlet with accretion to the north. Analysis of these trends has led past researchers to conclude that inlet stabilization is the

S. C. Knowles; S. K. May

1985-01-01

142

A computational study of icing effects on the performance of an S-duct inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a diffusing S-duct inlet (M2129) is computationally studied for the effects of inlet icing. Different ice accretion shapes, predicted by numerical analysis in the literature reviewed, are simulated on the inlet lip. Two commercial codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+ are used for the steady- and unsteady-state computations. The shear-stress transport (SST) kappa-o turbulence model and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model are applied in the computations. The glaze ice shape, which is characterized by intrusive horns, degrades inlet performance, while the effect of the streamlined rime ice shape is negligible. At the free-stream Mach number of Minfinity =0.23, the glaze ice causes a 3.2 percent decrease in the total pressure recovery and a 26 percent reduction in the inlet mass flow rate. This result comes from the massive flow separation and flow blockage from the glaze ice horns. The total pressure recovery is further decreased by 22.8 percent, as the free-stream Mach number increases to Minfinity=0.85, due to the increased internal blockage and formation of internal shocks in the S-duct inlet. Also, the glaze iced inlet induces 6.6 percent increase in the engine thrust loss and the specific fuel consumption at Minfinity=0.25. The level of the ice-induced flow blockage by the ice accretion is also important for the inlet performance. The symmetrical glaze ice that covers the entire inlet lip portion causes a nearly 11.8 percent decrease in the total pressure recovery at Minfinity=0.475, whereas the top- or bottom-asymmetrical glaze ice that accretes on a portion of the inlet lip leads to just a 2.5 percent decrease. Also, the dynamic inlet distortion level, which is represented by the total pressure fluctuation at the engine face, is almost doubled with the symmetrical glaze ice when compared to the asymmetrical glaze ice. Therefore, the dynamic inlet distortion is proportional to the total pressure recovery that corresponds to the steady-state inlet distortion. Furthermore, the application of local angles of attack and local sideslip angles for the iced S-duct inlet contributes to the further degradation of the inlet performance, regardless of the ice shapes. However, the angles that provide the most distortion for each ice shape all differ due to the combined effects of the angle of attack or sideslip angle, icing location, and downward duct curvature. In addition, both the steady-state inlet distortion and dynamic inlet distortion become most severe at the highest angles tested: symmetrical (alpha=+20), top-asymmetrical (alpha=-20), bottom-asymmetrical (alpha=+20), and side-asymmetrical glaze (beta=-20). Finally, a strongly coupled temperature-total pressure distortion is created at the engine face under the icing condition. This coupling, as measured by the total pressure distortion parameter, increases the engine face distortion by 6.97 percent in the glaze iced inlet at Minfinity=0.85 when the inlet wall is heated to 350 K.

Jin, Wonjin

143

Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve  

DOEpatents

A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

1998-03-24

144

Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve  

DOEpatents

A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA); Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA)

1998-03-24

145

A Helical Coolant Channel Design for the Solid Wall Blanket  

SciTech Connect

A helical coolant channel scheme is proposed for the APEX solid wall blanket module. The self-coolant breeder in this system is FLIBE (LiF)2(BeF2). The structural material is the nanocomposited alloy 12YWT. The neutron multiplier used in the current design is either stationary or slow moving liquid lead. The purpose of this study is to design a blanket that can handle a high wall loading (5 MW/m{sup 2}). In the mean time the design provides means to attain the maximum possible blanket outlet temperature and meet all engineering limits on temperature of structural material and liquids. An important issue for such a design is to optimize the system for minimum pressure loss. For advanced ferritic steel (12YWT) an upper temperature limit of 800 deg. C is expected, and a limit of 700 deg. C at the steel/FLIBE interface is recommended.The blanket module is composed of two main continuous routes. The first route is three helical rectangular channels side-by-side that surround a central box. The helical channels are fed from the bottom and exit at the top to feed the central channels in the central box. The coolant helical channels have a cross sectional area with a length of about 10 cm and a width that changes according to the position around the central box. For instance: the width of the coolant channels facing the plasma is the narrowest while it is the widest in the back (farthest from the plasma).In this design the coolant runs around the central box for only 5 turns to cover the total height of the first wall (6.8 m). The design is optimized with the FW channel width as a parameter with the heat transfer requirements at the first wall as the constraints.

Mogahed, E.A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-07-15

146

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR gas-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss-of-coolant is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into small High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests have been conducted with the German pebble-bed High-Temperature Reactor AVR. The AVR is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCA conditions. The

J. Cleveland; K. Krueger; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G. m. b. H

1989-01-01

147

Organic coolant for ARIES-III  

SciTech Connect

ARIES-III is a D-He{sub 3} reactor design study. It is found that the organic coolant is well suited for the D-He{sub 3} reactor. This paper discusses the unique features of the D-He{sub 3} reactor, and the reason that the organic coolant is compatible with those features. The problems associated with the organic coolant are also discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sawan, M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA)); Gierszewski, P. (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Hollies, R. (Hollies (R.) (USA)); Sharafat, S. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Herring, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1991-04-01

148

INHIBITING THE POLYMERIZATION OF NUCLEAR COOLANTS  

DOEpatents

>The formation of new reactor coolants which contain an additive tbat suppresses polymerization of the primary dissoclation free radical products of the pyrolytic and radiation decomposition of the organic coolants is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to 5% of a powdered metal hydride chosen from the group consisting of the group IIA and IVA dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

Colichman, E.L.

1959-10-20

149

INLET GUIDE VANE WAKES INCLUDING ROTOR EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV

R. T. JOHNSTON; S. Fleeter

2001-01-01

150

Unstart margin control of hypersonic inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum performance of the hypersonic inlet\\/scramjet will be achieved when operating as close as possible to unstart boundary. In order to maintain the high performance without crossing the unstart boundary, an active unstart margin predictor and controller is necessary. The goal of the control system is to acquire the unstart margin and maintain the unstart margin as the designated

Juntao Chang; Yi Fan; Wen Bao; Daren Yu; Yi Shen

2010-01-01

151

Design and operation considerations for attic inlets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving energy efficiency and environmental control in poultry facilities is essential for profitability. Increases in energy costs have prompted evaluation of solar energy systems and passive solar systems such as attic inlets have been adopted as a means to reduce fuel usage. Successful implem...

152

Multiducted inlet combustor research and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary flow visualization studies and residence time testing has been conducted of a multi-ducted inlet combustor configuration at the Water Tunnel test rig facility of the Ramjet Technology Branch AFWAL/PORT Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. Tests were conducted on a 45 degree inlet configuration for combustor dome plate positions of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 inches forward of the inlet ducts. Tests were conducted at water flow rates of 150 to 500 gallons per minute in 50 gallon per minute increments. The inlet duct Reynolds number per foot range was from 0.62 to 2.06 million per foot. This initial test program was conducted after the completion of several facility improvements and hardware modifications. In conjunction with the research and development effort, support has also been provided to the Cold Flow Channel and the Burner Thrust Stand test rigs of the Ramjet Technology Branch AFWAL/PORT. A literature survey on related technical areas has been conducted and work has been initiated on math modeling efforts.

Streby, G. D.

1982-10-01

153

Coanda Inlet/Jet Flap Diffuser Ejector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combination of a Coanda inlet and jet flap diffusion, for the achievement of high performance, low volume, thrust augmentation, has been investigated in a two-dimesnional experiment. The use of jet flap diffusion provides a mechanism for the achieveme...

M. Alperin

1972-01-01

154

Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.

2000-11-16

155

Application of Landsat thematic mapper to inlet dynamics, Old Drum Inlet, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early morning hours of September 27, 1985, Hurricane Gloria crossed the North Carolina coast near Cape Hatteras, opening several new inlets on the Outer Banks barrier-island chain. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery was used to watch the closure of one of the breaches, Old Drum Inlet, and to test the applicability of the TM sensor to small-scale, high-frequency processes such as inlet dynamics. By photographically enlarging the 1:1000 000 film negatives to a scale of 1:20 000, we were able to map the progressive infilling of Old Drum Inlet over a four-month period. Good spatial resolution (30-m pixel size) and a 16-day repetition rate are features that make the TM sensor particularly useful in inaccessible areas where aerial photography is acquired at irregular and infrequent intervals.

Wells, J. T.; Camp, J. E.

1987-09-01

156

Application of Landsat thematic mapper to inlet dynamics, Old Drum Inlet, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early morning hours of September 27, 1985, Hurricane Gloria crossed the North Carolina coast near Cape Hatteras, opening several new inlets on the Outer Banks barrier-island chain. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery was used to watch the closure of one of the breaches, Old Drum Inlet, and to test the applicability of the TM sensor to small-scale, high-frequency

J. T. Wells; J. E. Camp

1987-01-01

157

Biases in ion transmission through an electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry capillary inlet  

PubMed Central

A heated capillary inlet for an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) interface was compared with shorter versions of the inlet to determine the effects on transmission and ionization efficiencies for low-flow (nano) electrosprays. Five different inlet lengths were studied, ranging from 6.4 to 1.3 cm. As expected, the electrospray current transmission efficiency increased with decreasing capillary length due to reduced losses to the inside walls of the capillary. This increase in transmission efficiency with shorter inlets was coupled with reduced desolvation of electrosprayed droplets. Surprisingly, as the inlet length was decreased, some analytes showed little or no increase in sensitivity, while others showed as much as a15 fold gain. The variation was shown to beat least partially correlated with analyte mobilities, with the largest gains observed for higher mobility species, but also affected by solution conductivity, flow rate, and inlet temperature. Strategies for maximizing sensitivity while minimizing biases in ion transmission through the heated capillary interface are proposed.

Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Baker, Erin S.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

2010-01-01

158

DECOMPOSITION RATES FOR POLYPHENYL REACTOR COOLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief outline is presented of the results of the experimental program ; on polyphenyl decomposition rates, from the laboratory-scale capsule irradiations ; to the OMRE. The decomposition rates are tabulated for the terphenyls, Santowax ; OM and R, diphenyl, and OMRE coolant. The calculation of the coolant makeup rate ; for the SENN reactor is considered. (D.L.C.);

D. W. Bareis; R. H. J. Gercke

1958-01-01

159

Valve control for low temperature overpressure protection in a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a nuclear power plant having a reactor coolant system and associated coolant pressure boundary, a control system is described for overpressure protection of the reactor coolant boundary to prevent violating a prescribed pressure-temperature relationship. The control system consists of: a relief nozzle connected to the reactor coolant boundary; a fluid collector remote from the reactor coolant boundary; first and

C. W. McMullin; S. E. Weismantel

1986-01-01

160

New strategies for the determination of phenylurea pesticides by gas chromatography with hot splitless inlet systems.  

PubMed

Direct gas chromatographic methods to analyse phenylurea pesticides are discouraged by the thermal instability of these compounds, that in conventional hot splitless inlet systems leads to extensive and irreproducible formation of isocyanates and amines. However a careful control of the operating conditions, like the inlet temperature, the pressure and the presence of suitable chemical additives (as acetic acid, low-molecular-mass amines, organic anhydrides) can either: (i) minimise the thermal decomposition enabling the direct GC-MS analysis of phenylureas, or (ii) lead to reproducible conversion to isocyanates. Experimental design was employed to study the effect of the experimental variables on the thermal transformation of phenylurea pesticides in splitless inlet system. Two strategies were alternatively optimised: (i) the minimisation of degradation reactions to increase the signal of phenylureas; (ii) the maximisation of the degradation to isocyanates that are in turn determined. The maximal yields in isocyanate were obtained with high inlet temperatures, low carrier flows in the injection phase and the presence of acetic anhydride. By contrast, the use of relatively low inlet temperatures, high carrier flows during the injection and the presence of an amine maximise the response of the parent compounds. PMID:11263578

Gennaro, M C; Marengo, E; Gianotti, V; Maurino, V

2001-02-23

161

Cleaning of uranium vs machine coolant formulations  

SciTech Connect

This study compares methods for cleaning uranium chips and the residues left on chips from alternate machine coolants based on propylene glycol-water mixtures with either borax, ammonium tetraborate, or triethanolamine tetraborate added as a nuclear poison. Residues left on uranium surfaces machined with perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolant and on surfaces machined with the borax-containing alternate coolant were also compared. In comparing machined surfaces, greater chlorine contamination was found on the surface of the perchloroethylene-mineral oil machined surfaces, but slightly greater oxidation was found on the surfaces machined with the alternate borax-containing coolant. Overall, the differences were small and a change to the alternate coolant does not appear to constitute a significant threat to the integrity of machined uranium parts.

Cristy, S.S.; Byrd, V.R.; Simandl, R.F.

1984-10-01

162

Numerical study of innovative scramjet inlets coupled to combustors using hydrocarbon-air mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research objective is to use high-fidelity multi-physics Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to characterize 3-D scramjet flowfields in two novel streamline traced circular configurations without axisymmetric profiles. This work builds on a body of research conducted over the past several years. In addition, this research provides the modeling and simulation support, prior to ground (wind tunnel) and flight experiment programs. Two innovative inlets, Jaws and Scoop, are analyzed and compared to a Baseline inlet, a current state of the art rectangular inlet used as a baseline for on/off-design conditions. The flight trajectory conditions selected were Mach 6 and a dynamic pressure of 1,500 psf (71.82 kPa), corresponding to a static pressure of 43.7 psf (2.09 kPa) and temperature of 400.8 R (222.67 C). All inlets are designed for equal flight conditions, equal contraction ratios and exit cross-sectional areas, thus facilitating their comparison and integration to a common combustor design. Analysis of these hypersonic inlets was performed to investigate distortion effects downstream in common generic combustors. These combustors include a single cavity acting as flame holder and strategically positioned fuel injection ports. This research not only seeks to identify the most successful integrated scramjet inlet/combustor design, but also investigates the flow physics and quantifies the integrated performance impact of the two novel scramjet inlet designs. It contributes to the hypersonic air-breathing community by providing analysis and predictions on directly-coupled combustor numerical experiments for developing pioneering inlets or nozzles for scramjets. Several validations and verifications of General Propulsion Analysis Chemical-kinetic and Two-phase (GPACT), the CFD tool, were conducted throughout the research. In addition, this study uses 13 gaseous species and 20 reactions for an Ethylene/air finite-rate chemical model. The key conclusions of this research are: (1) Flow distortion in the innovative inlets is similar to some of the distortion in the Baseline inlet, despite design differences. In both innovative inlets, the resulting flowfield distortions were due to shock boundary layer interactions similar to those found in the Baseline. The Baseline and Jaws performance attributes are stronger than Scoop, but Jaws accomplishes this while eradicating the cowl lip interaction, and lessening the total drag and spillage penalties. (2) The innovative inlets work best on-design, whereas for off-design, the traditional inlet yields a higher performance. Although the innovative inlets' designs mitigated some of the issues encountered in traditional configurations, they underperform at off-design conditions. The strategy used in Jaws was less prone to interaction with the near wall flow, and yields lesser pressure losses and higher efficiency at on-design conditions compared to the others. In general, the overall values for Scoop seem lowest of all due to lesser entrainment. Its drag coefficient and thrust to mass capture ratios are higher than the Baseline configuration. (3) Early pressure losses and flow distortions actually aid downstream combustion in all cases. Although interactions captured by the viscous simulations for the on-design conditions increase losses in the inlets, they enhance turbulence in the isolator, favoring the mixing of air and fuel, and improving the overall factor of the system. Jaws inlet demonstrates the most valuable design with higher performance, but its factor later in the combustor drops relative to its rectangular counterpart. (4) A parametric study of the location and direction of injection is conducted to select the configuration for fuel penetration, mixing factor (factor) and other combustion qualities. Although the trends observed with and without chemical reactions are the same, the former yields roughly 10% higher mixing factor. Unlike at frozen conditions, when chemical reactions are considered, a high compression area was observed upstream of the cavity, not presen

Malo-Molina, Faure Joel

163

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

164

Thoracic inlet compression due to amiodarone induced goitre.  

PubMed Central

We report a case of amiodarone induced toxic goitre, presenting with thoracic inlet obstruction which required surgical intervention. Though thyrotoxicosis caused by amiodarone is recognised, to our knowledge thoracic inlet compression has not been previously described.

Samanta, A.; Jones, G. R.; Burden, A. C.; Barrie, W. W.

1985-01-01

165

33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. 334.1310 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.1310 Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. (a) The areas...Army Engineer District, Anchorage, Alaska, and such agencies as he may...

2013-07-01

166

Numerical Computation of Transonic Potential Flow About 3-Dimensional Inlets,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A highly efficient computer algorithm was developed for prediction of transonic nacelle/inlet flow fields. This algorithm can compute the three-dimensional transonic flow field about axisymmetric or asymmetric nacelle/inlet configurations with or without ...

T. Nakamura

1987-01-01

167

East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

168

Inlet Flow Field Investigation. Part 1: Transonic Flow Field Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the local inlet flow field characteristics of an advanced tactical supersonic cruise airplane. A data base for the development and validation of analytical codes directed at the analysis of inlet flow...

J. A. Yetter V. Salemann M. B. Sussman

1984-01-01

169

Active Control of Secondary Flow in Engine Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the next generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAV) are being developed, the need for highly compact inlet diffusers is increasing quickly. In order to design and evaluate such inlets, additional flow proper...

J. P. Sullivan

2002-01-01

170

46 CFR 45.155 - Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. 45.155 Section 45.155 Shipping...155 Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...have (1) An automatic nonreturn valve with a positive means for closing;...

2012-10-01

171

Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications. Semiannual report, September 29, 1978March 31, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

As high temperature solar energy systems are developed for applications such as refrigeration, heating, cooking, electrical power generation, and industrial processes, the need for inexpensive, reliable heat transfer media (liquid coolants) will become more intense. At present petroleum distillates and synthetic coolants are being utilized for these purposes. Since the use of these substances represents a drain on our natural

Ingley

1979-01-01

172

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor) gas-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of coolant is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into modular gas-cooled reactor designs, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests were conducted with the 15-MW(electric), 46-MW(thermal), pebble-bed, high-temperature Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been

K. Krueger; J. Cleveland

1989-01-01

173

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR gas-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landmark safety test has been conducted at the AVR-reactor, a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the Federal Republic of Germany owned by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor, AVR in Juelich. The 46-MW(t), 15-MW(e) AVR reactor was subjected to a simulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), a very severe occurrence in which the coolant escapes from the reactor core and no emergency system provides

K. Krueger; J. Cleveland

1990-01-01

174

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM BERM OVER START OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL (6/96), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

175

The performance characteristics of Borda inlet air flowmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters which govern the discharge coefficient of Borda inlets when used as flowmeters are investigated. Specifically considered are: (1) the constancy of discharge coefficient, (2) the shape of the inlet edge, (3) the effect of pipe roughness, (4) the effect of pipe wall thickness, (5) the effect of the Borda inlet diameter, (6) the effect of position of pressure

F. C. Kinghorn; A. McHugh

1978-01-01

176

76 FR 63840 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Strathmere, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 14, 2011)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 63840-63841...Operation Regulation; Corson Inlet, Strathmere, NJ AGENCY: Coast...the operation of the Corson Inlet Bridge (County Route 619), at mile 0.9, across Corson Inlet, in Strathmere, NJ. The...

2011-10-14

177

Flow Analysis and Control in a Transonic Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional aerodynamic inlet design tends to optimize the shape of the duct for the cruise condition. However, during manoeuvres both the external conditions and interaction with the forebody can create drastic losses. In particular, separation can occur inside the inlet duct and generate compressor face distortion leading to instabilities, especially in compact air inlets such as those used on missiles.

Serge E. Tournier; James D. Paduano

178

Aerodynamic performance of a transonic turbine guide vane with trailing edge coolant ejection. Part 1: Experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inlet guide vanes (IGV) of high-temperature gas turbines require an effective trailing edge cooling. But this cooling significantly influences the aerodynamic performance caused by the unavoidable thickening of the trailing edge and the interference of the cooling flow with the main flow. As part of a comprehensive research program, an inlet guide vane was designed and manufactured with two different

C. Kapteijn; J. Amecke; V. Michelassi

1996-01-01

179

Coolant mass flow equalizer for nuclear fuel  

DOEpatents

The coolant mass flow distribution in a liquid metal cooled reactor is enhanced by restricting flow in sub-channels defined in part by the peripheral fuel elements of a fuel assembly. This flow restriction, which results in more coolant flow in interior sub-channels, is achieved through the use of a corrugated liner positioned between the bundle of fuel elements and the inner wall of the fuel assembly coolant duct. The corrugated liner is expandable to accommodate irradiation induced growth of fuel assembly components.

Betten, Paul R. (Windsor, CT)

1978-01-01

180

Site-specific air inlet systems for combustion turbines  

SciTech Connect

Each combustion turbine installation has peculiar to it site-related characteristics that, if considered carefully, will define the type of inlet system that best fits the turbine`s operational requirements. Turbine performance and component service life greatly depend on the ability of an air inlet system to reduce or eliminate contaminants entering the system. If these contaminants are not effectively removed, then fouling, erosion, and low- and high-temperature corrosion will occur. High-efficiency air filtration and low resistance is important from the initial start-up to the recommended filter change out. Users and operators are fast coming to the conclusion that a single component/filter house design cannot be used successfully for all geographic regions and for all gas turbine duties and specific site conditions. Additionally, any well-designed filter house should provide an economical solution for initial cost, as well as continued operating cost, and through the use of modular design accommodate the addition of evaporative coolers and future upgrades in air filter components. New high and ultra-high filter efficiencies also have lower initial resistance and, when combined with a pleated panel prefilter, have the highest system dust holding capacity available today.

Goulding, C.H.; Gidley, D.S. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

181

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

182

40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards...other coolants that will be used in your engine in use. (b) For laboratory...

2013-07-01

183

Evaluation of alternate secondary (and tertiary) coolants for the molten-salt breeder reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most promising coolant selections for an MSBR have been identified and evaluated in detail from the many coolants considered for application either as a secondary coolant in 1000-MW(e) MSBR configurations using only one coolant, or as secondary and tertiary coolants in an MSBR dual coolant configuration employing two different coolants. These are, as single secondary coolants: (1) a

A. D. Kelmers; C. F. Baes; E. S. Bettis; J. Brynestad; S. Cantor; J. R. Engel; W. R. Grimes; H. E. McCoy; A. S. Meyer

1976-01-01

184

CFD simulation and experimental validation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse tube refrigerator has the advantages of long life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as GM and stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) vertically aligned, operating under a variety of thermal

Y. P. Banjare; R. K. Sahoo; S. K. Sarangi

2010-01-01

185

Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced circulation (LOFC) even with failure to scram. Significant natural convection of the coolant salt occurs, resulting in fuel temperatures below steady-state values and nearly uniform temperature distributions during the transient.

Ingersoll, DT

2005-12-15

186

Vortex tube can increase liquid hydrocarbon recovery at plant inlet  

SciTech Connect

Use of a vortex-tube device yields improved inlet gas-liquid separation, when compared with a Joule-Thomson system, but is less costly and complex than a true isentropic system, such as a turboexpander. Because the vortex-tube unit provides separation as well as pressure reduction, the capital cost of a Joule-Thomson system with valve and separator will be similar to that of the vortex-tube system. Future applications of vortex-tube units will be concentrated where performance improvements over Joule-Thomson units, at low capital cost, are required. The operating characteristics of a vortex tube permit gas, in part, to be reduced in temperature to less than that normally achievable through isenthalpic expansion. The following three examples show how vortex technology can be applied to achieve these aims.

Hajdik, B. [CBS Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Lorey, M. [Filtan Anlagenbau GmbH, Langenselbold (Germany); Steinle, J. [BEB Erdoel and Erdgas GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Thomas, K. [Falk and Thomas Engineering GmbH, Wettenberg (Germany)

1997-09-08

187

Physics analysis of the LS-VHTR: Salt coolant and fuel block design  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR), also known as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new, large [>2400 MW(t)], passively safe, high-temperature reactor concept. It uses a graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel and a graphite moderator similar to the fuel used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, but with a clean liquid-fluoride salt coolant. The neutronics properties of various salt coolant options are considered with respect to their coefficients of reactivity for various reactor configurations. In addition, several variations on the basic graphite block design of the AHTR are considered that would simplify refueling. The results show that the coolant coefficients of reactivity are negative or very small relative to other reactivity feedbacks, such as the fuel Doppler feedback. This allows several salt-coolants, even some with a positive coolant density coefficient, to be considered for use in the AHTR. In addition, parametric studies of assembly-type clustered rod configurations show that there is minimal impact on the reactivity coefficients and multiplication factors with appropriate cluster design choices. (authors)

Clarno, K. T.; Gehin, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States)

2006-07-01

188

Thermal hydraulic characteristics during ingress of coolant and loss of vacuum events in fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal hydraulic characteristics in the vacuum vessel (VV) of a fusion reactor under an ingress of coolant event (ICE) and a loss of vacuum event (LOVA) were investigated quantitatively using preliminary experimental apparatuses. In the ICE experiments, pressure rise characteristics in the VV were clarified for experimental parameters of the wall temperature and water temperature and for cases with

K. Takase; T. Kunugi; Y. Seki; H. Akimoto

2000-01-01

189

Fuel-Coolant Interactions: Preliminary Experiments on the Effect of Gases Dissolved in the ''Coolant''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple apparatus has been used to study Fuel-Coolant Interactions under reasonably well controlled conditions. Preliminary experiments have used water as the ''coolant'' and molten tin at 800 exp 0 C as the ''fuel'' and have investigated how the violenc...

R. C. Asher D. Davies P. G. Jones

1976-01-01

190

High-speed inlets for air in chemical equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical calculations of chemical equilibrium flows using the equivalent gamma are used to analyze flows ingested into an inlet placed in a hypersonic flow at a Mach number of 15. The chemical equilibrium flow field around the high-speed air inlet is shown. The chemical equilibrium flow has a very complicated flow field for large ratios of inlet radius to duct wall thickness; this is not observed for a perfect gas flow.

Nishida, Michio; Fujisaki, Akira

191

Modelled channel patterns in a schematized tidal inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal inlets in the Dutch Wadden Sea show typical morphological features, i.e. westward oriented main inlet channel and ebb-tidal delta. The objective of this study is to find the governing physical processes of these morphological features. The study uses a 2DH process-based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) on a schematized model domain, with dimensions similar to the Ameland inlet in the Dutch

D. M. P. K. Dissanayake; J. A. Roelvink; M. van der Wegen

2009-01-01

192

Handpiece coolant flow rates and dental cutting.  

PubMed

High-speed handpieces incorporate water coolant sprays to remove cutting debris and minimize thermal insult to the pulp. Little data exists on optimal coolant flow rates during clinical procedures. This study compared the effect of different coolant flow rates on diamond stone cutting efficiency. Cutting studies were performed on Macor machinable ceramic using a previously developed test regimen--a KaVo high-speed handpiece at a cutting force of 91.5 g (0.9 N). Cutting was performed with round end tapered medium grit diamond stones under cooling water flow rates of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 44 ml/min, with cutting rates determined as the time to transect the 13 mm square cross-section of the Macor bar. Each bur was used for five cuts, with six burs used for each flow rate, for a total of 150 measurements. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Scheff test. The cutting studies indicated that diamond stone cutting rates increased with higher coolant flow rates over the range of 15-44 ml/min. The data suggest that higher coolant flow rates promote cutting efficiency. PMID:11203868

von Fraunhofer, J A; Siegel, S C; Feldman, S

193

Temperature response of turbulent premixed flames to inlet velocity oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flameturbulence interactions are at the heart of modern combustion research as they have a major influence on efficiency,\\u000a stability of operation and pollutant emissions. The problem remains a formidable challenge, and predictive modelling and the\\u000a implementation of active control measures both rely on further fundamental measurements. Model burners with simple geometry\\u000a offer an opportunity for the isolation and detailed study

B. Ayoola; G. Hartung; C. A. Armitage; J. Hult; R. S. Cant; C. F. Kaminski

2009-01-01

194

Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

SciTech Connect

It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

Ingley, H A

1980-02-01

195

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination.

Ingley, H. A.

1980-02-01

196

Experimental study on the inlet fogging system using two-fluid nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-capacity compressors in industrial plants and the compressors in gas turbine engines consume a considerable amount of power. The compression work is a strong function of the ambient air temperature. This increase in compression work presents a significant problem to utilities, generators and power producers when electric demands are high during the hot months. In many petrochemical process industries and gas turbine engines, the increase in compression work curtails plant output, demanding more electric power to drive the system. One way to counter this problem is to directly cool the inlet air. Inlet fogging is a popular means of cooling the inlet air to air compressors. In the present study, experiments have been performed to investigate the suitability of two-fluid nozzle for inlet fogging. Compressed air is used as the driving working gas for two-fluid nozzle and water at ambient conditions is dragged into the high-speed air jet, thus enabling the entrained water to be atomized in a very short distance from the exit of the two-fluid nozzle. The air supply pressure is varied between 2.0 and 5.0 bar and the water flow rate entrained is measured. The flow visualization and temperature and relative humidity measurements are carried out to specify the fogging characteristics of the two-fluid nozzle.

Suryan, Abhilash; Kim, Dong Sun; Kim, Heuy Dong

2010-04-01

197

Lead Coolant Test Facility Development Workshop  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on May 25, 2005, to discuss the development of a next generation lead or lead-alloy coolant test facility. Attendees included representatives from the Generation IV lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) program, Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, and several universities. Several participants gave presentations on coolant technology, existing experimental facilities for lead and lead-alloy research, the current LFR design concept, and a design by Argonne National Laboratory for an integral heavy liquid metal test facility. Discussions were focused on the critical research and development requirements for deployment of an LFR demonstration test reactor, the experimental scope of the proposed coolant test facility, a review of the Argonne National Laboratory test facility design, and a brief assessment of the necessary path forward and schedule for the initial stages of this development project. This report provides a summary of the presentations and roundtable discussions.

Paul A. Demkowicz

2005-06-01

198

Experimental comparison of carbon-dioxide and liquid nitrogen cryogenic coolants in turning of AISI 1045 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental work is carried out to investigate the performance and influence of cryogenic coolants such as CO2 (carbon dioxide) and LN2 (liquid nitrogen) on cutting temperature, cutting force, tool wear, surface finish and chip morphology in machining of AISI 1045 steel compared to wet machining. The results proved that the application of cryogenic coolants reduced the cutting temperature drastically which resulted in appreciable improvement in surface finish of the product and reduced tool wear. The use of cryogenic LN2 reduced the cutting temperature about 3-17% when compared to CO2 coolant. Application of CO2 reduced the cutting forces and improved the surface finish of the machined part to an extent about 2-12% and 2-14% respectively when compared to the use of cryogenic LN2 coolant. Tool wear was found to be less on the application of CO2 compared to the wet and LN2 machining conditions.

Dilip Jerold, B.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

2012-10-01

199

Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

2011-09-30

200

On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level.

LM Bachman

2006-07-19

201

Coolant monitoring apparatus for nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring coolant conditions within a pressurized vessel. A length of tubing extends outward from the vessel from an open end containing a first line restriction at the location to be monitored. The flowing fluid is cooled and condensed before passing through a second line restriction. Measurement of pressure drop at the second line restriction gives an indication of fluid condition at the first line restriction. Multiple lengths of tubing with open ends at incremental elevations can measure coolant level within the vessel.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

202

The Effect of Nonuniform Inlet Conditions on Annular Diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most practical diffusers have complex 3D geometries and may have highly disturbed inlet flows. The performance of diffusers designed for optimum pressure recovery is governed by flow separation which can be very sensitive to inlet perturbations. We are examining the effect of upstream disturbances on the performance of practical annular diffusers. Experiments are conducted in an annular diffuser sector containing

Angelina Padilla; Chris Elkins; John Eaton

2010-01-01

203

The performance of a centrifugal compressor with high inlet prewhirl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance requirements of centrifugal compressors usually include a broad operating range between surge and choke. This becomes increasingly difficult to achieve as increased pressure ratio is demanded. In order to suppress the tendency to surge and extend the operating range at low flow rates, inlet swirl is often considered through the application of inlet guide vanes. To generate high

A. Whitfield; A. H. Abdullah

1998-01-01

204

76 FR 14803 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Townsend Inlet, Avalon, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. USCG-2011-0079] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Townsend Inlet, Avalon, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...need open only if at least two hours notice is given. The Townsend Inlet Bridge, mile 0.3, in Avalon, NJ, has a...

2011-03-18

205

Numerical and experimental studies of 3D hypersonic inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of numerical and experimental studies of a new configuration of 3D hypersonic inlet with the minimum throat area, which was called a convergent inlet, are presented in this paper. It is shown that the use of this inlet configuration allows one to reduce the drag and thermal protection of surfaces of a hypersonic engine within the entire range of flight velocities. The calculations were performed within the framework of inviscid gas model by the method of finite volumes. The flow and inlet characteristics, taking account of viscosity, were also calculated using the boundary layer equations. The experimental studies were performed within the Mach number range from 2 to 10.7 and Reynolds number based on the model inlet height of Re=1 5106. The results included the flow parameters on the external compression surface and in the inlet duct, the Mach number in the throat, the air flow rate, the total pressure recovery coefficient, the inlet drag, and the boundary layer characteristics on compression surfaces were determined, including the skin friction coefficients. These results are also compared with the data for traditional 2D inlets.

Goldfeld, Marat A.; Nestoulia, Roman V.

2002-08-01

206

Self-cleaning inlet screen to an ocean riser pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long, vertically disposed ocean water upwelling pipe, such as a cold water riser in an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, is fitted at its lower inlet end with a self-cleaning inlet screen. The screen includes a right conical frustum of loose metal netting connected at its larger upper end to the lower end of the pipe. A heavy, negatively

S. B. Wetmore; A. Person

1980-01-01

207

On the Design of Hypersonic InwardTurning Inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent re-emphasis in the exploration of hypersonic inlets utilizing circular or elliptical cross sections due to advantages in structural integrity, flow distortion and propulsive eciencies as compared with similar rectangular devices. A family of dual axis compression, high contraction ratio inward-turning inlets has been designed to achieve a desired shock structure and aerodynamic performance at Mach

A. Croker

208

Experimental Investigation of Actuators for Flow Control in Inlet Ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attractive to aircraft designers are compact inlets, which implement curved flow paths to the compressor face. These curved flow paths could be employed for multiple reasons. One of which is to connect the air intake to the engine embedded in the aircraft body. A compromise must be made between the compactness of the inlet and its aerodynamic performance. The aerodynamic

John Vaccaro; Yossef Elimelech; Michael Amitay

2010-01-01

209

FIELD COMPARISON OF PM10 INLETS AT FOUR LOCATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive field study was conducted comparing the performance of PM(sub 10) inlets under a variety of field conditions. Inlets for low flow, medium flow, and high flow samplers were evaluated at four sampling locations providing a range of concentrations and particle sizes....

210

Inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps.  

PubMed

The purposes of inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps, including inducers and diffusers for axial pumps, inlet and exit volutes for centrifugal pumps, and inlet and outlet cannulas, are to guide the blood into the impeller, where the blood is accelerated, and to convert the high kinetic energy into pressure after the impeller discharge, respectively. The designs of the inlet and outlet devices have an important bearing on the pump performance. Their designs are highly dependent on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, guided by intuition and experience. For inlet devices, the design objectives are to eliminate separated flow, to minimize recirculation, and to equalize the radial components of velocity. For outlet devices, the design goals are to reduce speed, to minimize energy loss, and to avoid flow separation and whirl. CFD analyses indicate the velocity field and pressure distribution. Geometrical optimization of these components has been implemented in order to improve the flow pattern. PMID:15384997

Song, Xinwei; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Antaki, James F; Olsen, Don B

2004-10-01

211

Coolant quality for magnetic resonance imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As radiologists demand increased power, speed and duty cycle from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, thermal management of the gradient sub-system becomes more challenging. A heat exchanger in the MRI system cools heat-generating components by pumping water through hollow copper tubing, which also carries high electrical currents. Water is used as a coolant because of its high specific heat

Julie Wong; Garron K Morris

2008-01-01

212

NGNP Reactor Coolant Chemistry Control Study  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this paper is to identify the most desirable ranges of impurity levels in the primary coolant to optimize component life in the primary circuit of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which will either be a prismatic block or pebble bed reactor.

Brian Castle

2010-11-01

213

An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air  

SciTech Connect

Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

1992-12-01

214

Experimental interaction of magma and "dirty" coolants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water at volcanic vents can have dramatic effects on fragmentation and eruption dynamics, but little is known about how the presence of particulate matter in external water will further alter eruptions. Volcanic edifices are inherently "dirty" places, where particulate matter of multiple origins and grainsizes typically abounds. We present the results of experiments designed to simulate non-explosive interactions between molten basalt and various "coolants," ranging from homogeneous suspensions of 0 to 30 mass% bentonite clay in pure water, to heterogeneous and/or stratified suspensions including bentonite, sand, synthetic glass beads and/or naturally-sorted pumice. Four types of data are used to characterise the interactions: (1) visual/video observations; (2) grainsize and morphology of resulting particles; (3) heat-transfer data from a network of eight thermocouples; and (4) acoustic data from three force sensors. In homogeneous coolants with <~10% bentonite, heat transfer is by convection, and the melt is efficiently fragmented into blocky particles through multiple thermal granulation events which produce associated acoustic signals. For all coolants with >~20% sediment, heat transfer is by forced convection and conduction, and thermal granulation is less efficient, resulting in fewer blocky particles, larger grainsizes, and weaker acoustic signals. Many particles are droplet-shaped or/and "vesicular," containing bubbles filled with coolant. Both of these particle types indicate significant hydrodynamic magma-coolant mingling, and many of them are rewelded into compound particles. The addition of coarse material to heterogeneous suspensions further slows heat transfer thus reducing thermal granulation, and variable interlocking of large particles prevents efficient hydrodynamic mingling. This results primarily in rewelded melt piles and inefficient distribution of melt and heat throughout the coolant volume. Our results indicate that even modest concentrations of sediment in water will significantly limit heat transfer during non-explosive magma-water interactions. At high concentrations, the dramatic reduction in cooling efficiency and increase in mingling help to explain globular peperite, and provide information relevant to analyses of premixing associated with highly-explosive molten fuel-coolant interactions in debris-filled volcanic vents.

Schipper, C. Ian; White, James D. L.; Zimanowski, Bernd; Bttner, Ralf; Sonder, Ingo; Schmid, Andrea

2011-03-01

215

Experimental Investigation of Coolant Mixing in the RPV of PWR in the Late Phase of a SBLOCA Event  

SciTech Connect

Partial depletion of the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor during a postulated small break loss of coolant accident can lead to interruption of one-phase flow natural circulation. In this case, the decay heat is removed from the core in the reflux-condenser mode. In this operation mode, slugs of lower borated water can accumulate in the cold legs. After refilling of the primary circuit, the natural circulation in the two loops not receiving emergency core cooling injection (ECC) re-establishes and the lower borated slugs are shifted towards the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Entering the core, the lower borated water causes a reactivity insertion. Mixing inside the RPV is an important phenomenon limiting the reactivity insertion and preventing a re-criticality. The mixing of these lower borated slugs with the ambient coolant in the RPV was investigated at the 1:5 scaled coolant mixing test facility ROCOM. Wire mesh sensors based on electrical conductivity measurement are used in ROCOM to measure in detail the spreading of a tracer solution in the facility. The mixing in the downcomer was observed with a sensor which spans a measuring grid of 64 azimuthal and 32 positions over the height. The resulting distribution of the boron concentration at the core inlet was measured with a sensor integrated into the lower core support plate providing one measurement position at the entry into each fuel assembly. The boundary conditions for the mixing experiment were taken from an experiment at the thermal-hydraulic test facility PKL operated by FANP Germany. The slugs, which have a lower density, accumulate in the upper part of the downcomer after shifting into the RPV. The ECC-water injected into the RPV falls almost straight down through the lower borated water and accelerates. On the outer sides of the ECC-streak, lower borated coolant admixes and flows together with the ECC-water downwards. This is the only mechanism of transporting the lower borated water into the lower plenum. All these effects could be visualized and quantified by the downcomer sensor. On the way to the core, the lower borated water is effectively mixing with the ambient, high borated water. Therefore, in the core inlet plane, lower borated water is detected only in the outer part. The minimum boron concentration, measured at one fuel element inlet position at one certain time point, was 71% of the initial 2500 ppm. There is no change of the initial boron concentration in the inner part of the core inlet plane during the whole transient at all. (authors)

Kliem, Soren; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Hansen, Asmus [RWE Power AG (Germany)

2006-07-01

216

Study of inlet materials for sampling atmospheric nitric acid  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) from a flowing gas stream is studied for a variety of wall materials to determine their suitability for use in atmospheric sampling instruments. Parts per billion level mixtures of HNO{sub 3} in synthetic air flow through tubes of different materials such that >80% of the molecules interact with the walls. A chemical ionization mass spectrometer with a fast time response and high sensitivity detects HNO{sub 3} that is not adsorbed on the tube walls. Less than 5% of available HNO{sub 3} is adsorbed on Teflon fluoropolymer tubing after 1 min of HNO{sub 3} exposure, whereas >70% is lost on walls made of stainless steel, glass, fused silica, aluminum, nylon, silica-steel, and silane-coated glass. Glass tubes exposed to HNO{sub 3} on the order of hours passivate with HNO{sub 3} adsorption dropping to zero. The adsorption of HNO{sub 3} on PFA Teflon tubing (PFA) is nearly temperature-independent from 10 to 80 C, but below {minus}10 C nearly all HNO{sub 3} that interacts with PFA is reversibly adsorbed. In ambient and synthetic air, humidity increases HNO{sub 3} adsorption. The results suggest that Teflon at temperatures above 10 C is an optimal choice for inlet surfaces used for in situ measurements of HNO{sub 3} in the ambient atmosphere.

Neuman, J.A.; Huey, L.G.; Ryerson, T.B.; Fahey, D.W. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado/NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

1999-04-01

217

Effect of a 180 Deg-Extent Inlet Pressure Distortion on the Internal Flow Conditions of a TF30-p-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measured effects of inlet pressure distortion on the internal flow temperatures and pressures of a TF30-P-3 afterburning turbofan engine are reported. Extensive inner-stage instrumentation combined with stepwise rotation of pressure distortion provide...

C. E. Debogdan J. H. Dicus D. G. Evans R. H. Soeder

1975-01-01

218

A new gas inlet system for an isotope ratio mass spectrometer improves reproducibility  

PubMed

We have developed a new inlet system for a gas sample isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). It is based on the well-known open split design from the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system due to its simplicity. The advantages over the conventional double inlet system with the metal bellows design include an improved reproducibility mainly due to a highly controllable pressure and temperature adjustment, a markedly lowered memory effect due to an uninterrupted gas flow through the ion source which limits adsorption/desorption processes on surfaces, and a single inlet capillary circumventing problems of asymmetrical behavior of sample and reference inlet paths. Furthermore, sample consumption is of the same order as for conventional measurements (i.e. about 0.4 mmol per hour), of which however only 2 &mgr;mol/h is used for the actual isotope ratio determination since the major gas amount acts as a gas flow seal against the atmosphere, corresponding to a 100-200 fold overkill. This may be improved in future systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10931551

Leuenberger; Nyfeler; Moret; Sturm; Huber

2000-01-01

219

Effect of Variable Inlet Guide Vanes on the Operating Characteristics of a Tilt Nacelle Inlet/Powered Fan Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of a variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) assembly on the operating characteristics of a V/STOL inlet and on the performance of a 20-in. (0.508-m) diameter fan engine were investigated. The data indicate that the VIGVs are effective thrust modulat...

R. R. Woollett H. C. Pontonides

1987-01-01

220

EFFECTS OF CHOKING ON THE AEROACOUSTICS OF AN AXISYMMETRIC SUPERSONIC INLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of choking on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a supersonic inlet. The investigated inlet was a prototype model of a mixed compression, axisymmetric supersonic inlet designed for the high speed civil transport aircraft. A 104 cm (41 in) turbofan engine simulator was used in conjunction with the inlet. The inlet

K. C. Miller; W. F. Ng

1997-01-01

221

Automated system for indicating presence of impurities in sodium coolant stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a human operator to participate in the process in order to bring about proper conditions for indication of impurities, or to record the time of flow stoppage, and also the inadequate monitoring precision due to difficulties in lowering the temperature of the coolant smoothly by manual means, are some of the disadvantages of presently available impurity content

A. N. Mitropol'skii; M. S. Pinkhasik; A. A. Petrenko; I. Kh. Tsukerman; V. D. Tarantin

1970-01-01

222

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

Loss-of-coolant is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into small High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests have been conducted with the German pebble-bed High-Temperature Reactor AVR. The AVR is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCA conditions. The LOCA test was planned to create conditions that would exist if a rapid LOCA occurred with the reactor operating at full power. The tests demonstrated this reactor's safe response to an accident in which the coolant escapes from the reactor core and no emergency system is available to provide coolant flow to the core. The test is of special interest because it demonstrates the inherent safety features incorporated into modular HTGR designs. The main LOCA test lasted for 5 d. After the test began, core temperatures increased for {approximately}13 h and then gradually and continually decreased as the rate of heat dissipation from the core exceeded accident levels of decay power. Throughout the test, temperatures remained below limiting values for the core and other reactor components. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Cleveland, J.; Krueger, K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor)

1989-01-01

223

ENHANCEMENT OF COOLANT SIDE HEAT TRANSFER IN WATER COOLED ENGINES BY USING FINNED CYLINDER HEADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out for almost the first time to examine the heat transfer by forced convection and subcooled boiling from a finned water-cooled engine cylinder head using steady state technique. Cast iron and cast steel specimens with and without fins have been used in the present work. The effects of flow velocity, coolant bulk temperature, fin

Mohamed Y. E. Selim; A. H. B. Helali

224

AN IN-PILE LOOP STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF POLYPHENYL REACTOR COOLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-pile loop experiment was performed to evaluate several promising ; polyphenyl materials for use as reactor moderator coolants. Isopropyl diphenyl, ; diphenyl, a mixture of Santowax O and Santowax M, and Santowax R were circulated ; in an in-pile loop containing a uranium heater, at bulk fluid temperatures of 500 ; to 700 F and at fluid velocities of

Bley

1958-01-01

225

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRADIATED POLYPHENYL COOLANTS. PART II. ENTHALPY AND SPECIFIC HEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erthalpy and specific heat values were determined over the temperature ; range of 300 to 850 deg F with a Southard drop type calorimeter for polyphenyl ; organic materials of interest as urganic reactor coolants. The enthalpy ; determinations, which form the basis for the specific heat values, were performed ; in duplicate at 50 to 100 deg F intervals.

G. Asanovich; R. H. J. Gercke; R. S. Moore

1963-01-01

226

THE PROPERTIES OF SANTOWAX-R (MIXED TERPHENYL ISOMERS) AS ORGANIC MODERATOR COOLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of mixed isomeric terphenyls were assembled to make ; available to those concerned with the organic reactor concept a single source of ; evaluated information on this organic coolant. Values for 31 physical, chemical, ; and electrical properties are given wherever possible as a function of ; temperature and extent of radiolytic decomposition Many of the properties were

R. H. J. Gercke; F. C. Silvey; G. Asanovich

1959-01-01

227

The performance of a centrifugal compressor with high inlet prewhirl  

SciTech Connect

The performance requirements of centrifugal compressors usually include a broad operating range between surge and choke. This becomes increasingly difficult to achieve as increased pressure ratio is demanded. In order to suppress the tendency to surge and extend the operating range at low flow rates, inlet swirl is often considered through the application of inlet guide vanes. To generate high inlet swirl angles efficiently, an inlet volute has been applied as the swirl generator, and a variable geometry design developed in order to provide zero swirl. The variable geometry approach can be applied to increase the swirl progressively or to switch rapidly from zero swirl to maximum swirl. The variable geometry volute and the swirl conditions generated are described. The performance of a small centrifugal compressor is presented for a wide range of inlet swirl angles. In addition to the basic performance characteristics of the compressor, the onsets of flow reversals at impeller inlet are presented, together with the development of pressure pulsations, in the inlet and discharge ducts, through to full surge. The flow rate at which surge occurred was shown, by the shift of the peak pressure condition and by the measurement of the pressure pulsations, to be reduced by over 40%.

Whitfield, A. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Abdullah, A.H. [Univ. Technology Malaysia, Johore Baharu (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-07-01

228

Tidal inlet response to sediment infilling of the associated bay and possible implications of human activities: the Marennes-Olron Bay and the Maumusson Inlet, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal inlet characteristics are controlled by wave energy, tidal range, tidal prism, sediment supply and direction and rates of sand delivered to the inlet. This paper deals with the relations between inlet and lagoon evolutions, linked by the tidal prism. Our study is focused on the Maumusson Inlet and the Marennes-Olron Bay (first oyster farming area in Europe), located on

Xavier Bertin; Eric Chaumillon; Aldo Sottolichio; Rodrigo Pedreros

2005-01-01

229

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor) gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

Loss of coolant is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into modular gas-cooled reactor designs, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests were conducted with the 15-MW(electric), 46-MW(thermal), pebble-bed, high-temperature Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCa conditions. Oak Ridge National Laboratory participation in the preparation and conduct of the tests was carried out within the U.S./FRG Agreement for Cooperation in Gas-Cooled Reactor Development.

Krueger, K. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor, Juelich (West Germany)); Cleveland, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1989-11-01

230

High-speed inlet research program and supporting analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology challenges faced by the high speed inlet designer are discussed by describing the considerations that went into the design of the Mach 5 research inlet. It is shown that the emerging three dimensional viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow codes, together with small scale experiments, can be used to guide larger scale full inlet systems research. Then, in turn, the results of the large scale research, if properly instrumented, can be used to validate or at least to calibrate the CFD codes.

Coltrin, Robert E.

1990-02-01

231

Results of analyzing accidents with core meltdown in fast reactors with sodium as the coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

cross section is completely blocked at the inlet. The sodium temperature reaches the saturation point first in the center of the core's height about 0.5 sec after the time of blocking and the zone of boiling extends upward and downward thereafter. Evaporation of the liquid sodium film in the center lasts 0.3 sec. Evaporation begins in the upper core portion

G. B. Usynin; G. N. Vlasichev; Yu. I. Anoshkin; M. A. Semenychev; S. V. Boldin

1992-01-01

232

Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

2012-06-01

233

78 FR 54668 - Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guard has recertified the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory...voluntary advisory group for Cook Inlet, Alaska. This certification...activities of terminal facilities and crude oil tankers under the Cook Inlet Program established by...

2013-09-05

234

76 FR 62428 - Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guard has recertified the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory...voluntary advisory group for Cook Inlet, Alaska. This certification...activities of terminal facilities and crude oil tankers under the Cook Inlet Program established by...

2011-10-07

235

76 FR 42134 - Application for Recertification of Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Recertification of Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory...announces the availability of, and seeks comments on, the application...recertification submitted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory...Advisory Council for Cook Inlet, Alaska. This advisory...

2011-07-18

236

Parametric Inlet Tested in Glenn's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Parametric Inlet is an innovative concept for the inlet of a gas-turbine propulsion system for supersonic aircraft. The concept approaches the performance of past inlet concepts, but with less mechanical complexity, lower weight, and greater aerodynam...

J. W. Slater D. O. Davis P. A. Solano

2005-01-01

237

36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section...Visitor Services § 13.320 Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in...

2013-07-01

238

40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

239

36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section...Visitor Services § 13.320 Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in...

2009-07-01

240

36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section...Visitor Services § 13.320 Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in...

2010-07-01

241

Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with th...

C. H. Gerhold L. R. Clark

2004-01-01

242

Sea Salt Aerosol Collector for Marine Turbine Inlet Air Ducts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new design for a sea salt aerosol collector is described. It is specifically intended to collect aerosol samples from marine gas turbine air inlet ducts. Samples are deposited on 13 mm diameter filter membranes suitable for chloride determination using ...

J. B. Hoover T. B. Warner

1983-01-01

243

Integrated Analysis of Scramjet Flowpath with Innovative Inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the second year of this challenge effort, combustion simulations were employed to provide significant insight into the relative impact of flow distortion arising in the different inlet designs: rectangular, scoop and \\

Datta V. Gaitonde; F. Joel Malo-Molina; H. B. Ebrahimi; D. Risha

2008-01-01

244

10. VIEW OF COMPLETED PUMP PLANT, SHOWING FOREBAY, INLET AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF COMPLETED PUMP PLANT, SHOWING FOREBAY, INLET AND STANDPIPE, LOOKING WEST, December 3, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

245

28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

246

CULVERT INLET SHOWING THREE CORRUGATED METAL STAND PIPES. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CULVERT INLET SHOWING THREE CORRUGATED METAL STAND PIPES. VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. 18 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision , Structure 58.1X, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

247

Jones Inlet, Nassau County, New York. (Maintenance Dredging).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes maintenance action consisting of dredging the existing Federal channel in Jones Inlet, Nassau County, New York to its authorized project dimentions. The work will be done by a contractor or government owned dredge with spoil disposal ...

1974-01-01

248

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway up the wall - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

249

46 CFR 153.354 - Venting system inlet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.354 Venting system inlet. A venting system must terminate in the vapor space above the cargo when the tank is filled to a 2 percent ullage and the tankship has no heel or...

2011-10-01

250

46 CFR 153.354 - Venting system inlet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.354 Venting system inlet. A venting system must terminate in the vapor space above the cargo when the tank is filled to a 2 percent ullage and the tankship has no heel or...

2012-10-01

251

Baseline Data on the Oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this investigation was to compile baseline information pertaining to the ocean circulation, especially the extent and patterns of tidal currents and tidal flushing, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, utilizing aircraft and satellite imagery w...

L. W. Gatto

1976-01-01

252

LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

253

INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

254

INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

255

STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

256

A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet

David Leonard Rodriguez

2001-01-01

257

AERIAL SURVEYS OF BELUGAS IN COOK INLET, ALASKA, JUNE 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducted surveys of the beluga population in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 2-9 June 2009. The aerial surveys (39.4 flight hours) were flown in a twin-engine, high-wing Aero Commander aircraft at an altitude of 244 m (800 ft) and speed of 185 km\\/hr (100 kt), consistent with NMFS' surveys of Cook Inlet conducted each year since

Kim E. W. Shelden; David J. Rugh; Kimberly T. Goetz; Christy L. Sims; Linda Vate Brattstrom; Roderick C. Hobbs

258

Utilizing numerical techniques in turbofan inlet acoustic suppressor design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical theories in conjunction with previously published analytical results are used to augment current analytical theories in the acoustic design of a turbofan inlet nacelle. In particular, a finite element-integral theory is used to study the effect of the inlet lip radius on the far field radiation pattern and to determine the optimum impedance in an actual engine environment. For some single mode JT15D data, the numerical theory and experiment are found to be in a good agreement.

Baumeister, K. J.

259

Effect of Inlet Conditions on Taylor Bubble Length in Microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inlet conditions on the frequency and size of the bubbles that form during gasliquid Taylor flow in microchannels is investigated in this paper. Three different inlet configurations, T-, Y-, and M- junction, and three test channels with hydraulic diameters 0.345 mm, 0.577 mm, and 0.816 mm were used. The test fluids were nitrogen and water or octane,

Nan Shao; Asterios Gavriilidis; Panagiota Angeli

2011-01-01

260

Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets,Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. This Metals Verification Study was conducted to address the 303(d) segments that are listed for metal contaminants in marine sediment, because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the Inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected. The study was designed to obtain present-day sediment metals concentrations throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, with stations spatially distributed to support 303(d) listing updates and also watershed-level water quality and contaminant transport modeling efforts. A total of 160 surface sediment samples from Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage were screened for copper, lead, and zinc using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). 40 samples (25%) were selected for confirmatory metals analysis by ICP-MS for cadmium, silver, and arsenic in addition to copper, lead, and zinc. Regression relationships between the ICP-MS and XRF datasets were developed to estimate copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in all samples. The XRF results for copper, lead, and zinc correlated well with ICP-MS results, and predicted concentrations were calculated for all samples. The results of the Metals Verification Study show that sediment quality in Sinclair Inlet has improved markedly since implementation of cleanup and source control actions, and that the distribution of residual contaminants is limited to nearshore areas already within the actively managed Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Superfund Site where further source control actions and monitoring are under way. Outside of Sinclair Inlet, the target metals met state sediment quality standards.

Kohn, Nancy P.; Miller, Martin C.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Johnston, Robert K.

2004-09-29

261

Experimental Investigation of Actuators for Flow Control in Inlet Ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For military applications, inlet designs are constrained by low observability requirements, which call for the use of an S-duct inlet. The inlets purpose is to limit the line-of-sight to the compressor and decelerate the incoming flow while minimizing total pressure loss, distortion, and unsteadiness. In addition, in unmanned aerial vehicles, the inlet length can determine the overall size of the aircraft. For this reason, aggressive inlets can have a large impact on overall system efficiency. Experiments have been conducted which evaluate the effectiveness of different actuation systems for active flow control in an aggressive S-duct inlet, L/D = 1.5 (at flow conditions representative of flight conditions). Comparisons will be made between: steady and unsteady blowing from a single 2-D tangential slit, spanwise varying injection from a tangential slit, and spanwise varying injection of a hybrid actuator that has both a coanda type injector along with vortex generator jets to eliminate vorticity developed by secondary flow inherent to S-ducts. Evaluations criteria will include total pressure recovery, AIP distortion levels, and unsteady pressure fluctuations.

Vaccaro, John; Amitay, Michael

2009-11-01

262

TBCC Engine Inlet Design and Ramp Angle Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed-compression hypersonic inlet for the combined cycle engine is designed based on aerodynamic theory and Oswatitsch best shock wave theory. Its performances are obtained using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology. Firstly, an aircraft flight trajectory is selected with its cruise condition fixed as inlet design point. Along flight trajectory, the dynamic pressure is kept constant. There are two critical points which divide the whole take-off process into three steps: only the turbo engine operation, turbo and ram combined operation, and only the ram engine operation. Secondly, two dimensional inlet design: the inlet is divided into three parts; namely, external compression part, internal compression parts and throat. The three external compression shocks have the same shock intensity and interact on cowl lip. Flow direction turns three times and before entering the throat, flow direction is in accord with the forth coming flow. Inlet throat cross section area keeps constant. The existence of boundary layer leads to reduction of flux. Therefore, the designed inlet geometry should be modified. The CFD results show that geometry modification decreases cowl lip spillage.

Zhang, J. D.; Cai, Y. H.; Wang, Z. X.

263

Inlet port positioning for a miniaturized centrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

We are developing the Baylor-Kyocera KP implantable centrifugal blood pump for small sized adult and pediatric patients. This pump eccentrically positions the inlet port, which eliminates flow stagnation around the top pivot bearing. The inlet port design is important because it may vary the inlet orifice pressure on the top housing and change hydraulic performance and hemolytic characteristics. The pressure distribution inside the KP pump was assessed by a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis with 2.7 x 10(5) elements and 3.16 x 10(5) nodes. Hydraulic performance and hemolysis were evaluated with 3 different pump housings, which had 3.8, 4.5, and 6.1 mm offset inlet ports from the center in a mock circuit. The CFD analysis revealed that the pressure gradually increased from the center toward the peripheral. The pressure difference between the 3.8 to 6.1 mm offsets was less than 600 Pa. The hydraulic performance did not drastically change at 3.8, 4.5, and 6.1 mm offset from the center. However, the hemolysis increased with the increase of the port offset from 0.0080+/- 0.0048 to 0.054 +/- 0.028 g/100 L. The inlet port positioning is important to attain less blood trauma in this small Gyro centrifugal blood pump. The preferable position of the inlet port is less than 4.5 mm offset from the center. PMID:11872011

Takano, Tamaki; Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Kawahito, Shinji; Maeda, Tomohiro; Nonaka, Kenji; Linneweber, Joerg; Glueck, Julie; Fujisawa, Akira; Makinouchi, Kenzo; Yokokawa, Michihiro; Nos, Yukihiko

2002-01-01

264

Experimental Investigation of Actuators for Flow Control in Inlet Ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attractive to aircraft designers are compact inlets, which implement curved flow paths to the compressor face. These curved flow paths could be employed for multiple reasons. One of which is to connect the air intake to the engine embedded in the aircraft body. A compromise must be made between the compactness of the inlet and its aerodynamic performance. The aerodynamic purpose of inlets is to decelerate the oncoming flow before reaching the engine while minimizing total pressure loss, unsteadiness and distortion. Low length-to-diameter ratio inlets have a high degree of curvature, which inevitably causes flow separation and secondary flows. Currently, the length of the propulsion system is constraining the overall size of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), thus, smaller more efficient aircrafts could be realized if the propulsion system could be shortened. Therefore, active flow control is studied in a compact (L/D=1.5) inlet to improve performance metrics. Actuation from a spanwise varying coanda type ejector actuator and a hybrid coanda type ejector / vortex generator jet actuator is investigated. Special attention will be given to the pressure recovery at the AIP along with unsteady pressure signatures along the inlet surface and at the AIP.

Vaccaro, John; Elimelech, Yossef; Amitay, Michael

2010-11-01

265

Improved core design of the high temperature supercritical-pressure light water reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new coolant flow scheme has been devised to raise the average coolant core outlet temperature of the High Temperature Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Reactor (SCLWR-H). A new equilibrium core is designed with this flow scheme to show the feasibility of an SCLWR-H core with an average coolant core outlet temperature of 530C.In previous studies, the average coolant core outlet temperature

A. Yamaji; K. Kamei; Y. Oka; S. Koshizuka

2005-01-01

266

Technical Note: Evaporation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, in situ, in a heated inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2001 and 2002 in situ aerosol measurements were made from balloon-borne platforms within polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) which contained particles of supercooled ternary solution (STS), nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice. Particle size and number concentrations were measured with two optical particle counters. One of these included an ~80cm inlet heated to K to evaporate the PSC particles and thus to obtain measurements, within PSCs, of the size distribution of the particles upon which the PSCs condensed. These measurements are compared to models, described here, that calculate the evaporation of PSC particles at and for an inlet transition time of about 0.1s. The modeled evaporation for STS agrees well with the measurements. For NAT the modeled evaporation is less than the evaporation measured. The primary uncertainty concerns the phase and morphology of NAT particles as they are brought to temperatures >50K above equilibrium temperatures for NAT at stratospheric partial pressures. The slow evaporation of NAT in heated inlets could be used to identify a small NAT component within a mixed phase PSC dominated by STS.

Eidhammer, T.; Deshler, T.

2005-01-01

267

Enhanced reactivity of graphene wrinkles and their function as nanosized gas inlets for reactions under graphene.  

PubMed

Formation of wrinkles at graphene/Pt(111) surface was investigated by low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Reversible wrinkling and unwrinkling of graphene sheets were observed upon cycled heating and cooling treatments, exhibiting a hysteresis effect with the temperature. In situ LEEM studies of graphene oxidation show preferential oxidation of the wrinkles than flat graphene sheets and graphene edges. The function of the wrinkles as one-dimensional (1D) nanosized gas inlets for oxygen and the strain at the distorted sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms of the wrinkle sites can be attributed to the enhanced reactivity of wrinkles to the oxidation. Meanwhile, wrinkles also served as nanosized gas inlets for oxidation of CO intercalated between graphene and Pt(111). Considering that wrinkles are frequently present in graphene structures, the role of wrinkles as 1D reaction channels and their enhanced reactivity to reactions may have an important effect on graphene chemistry. PMID:24096681

Zhang, Yanhong; Fu, Qiang; Cui, Yi; Mu, Rentao; Jin, Li; Bao, Xinhe

2013-10-16

268

Preparation, conduct, and experimental results of the AVR loss-of-coolant accident simulation test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into small high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design, LOCA simulation tests have been conducted at the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR), the German pebble-bed-high-temperature reactor plant. The AVR is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to

K. Kruger; A. Bergerfurth; S. Burger; P. Pohl; M. Wimmers; J. C. Cleveland

1991-01-01

269

Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal  

DOEpatents

An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

1988-01-01

270

Reactor coolant pump shaft seal behavior during station blackout  

SciTech Connect

A testing program designed to provide fundamental information pertaining to the behavior of reactor coolant pump (RCP) shaft seals during a postulated nuclear power plant station blackout has been completed. One seal assembly, utilizing both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic types of seals, was modeled and tested. Extrusion tests were conducted to determine if seal materials could withstand predicted temperatures and pressures. A taper-face seal model was tested for seal stability under conditions when leaking water flashes to steam across the seal face. Test information was then used as the basis for a station blackout analysis. Test results indicate a potential problem with an elastomer material used for O-rings by a pump vendor; that vendor is considering a change in material specification. Test results also indicate a need for further research on the generic issue of RCP seal integrity and its possible consideration for designation as an unresolved safety issue.

Kittmer, C.A.; Wensel, R.G.; Rhodes, D.B.; Metcalfe, R.; Cotnam, B.M.; Gentili, H.; Mings, W.J.

1985-04-01

271

Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of

D. P. Abraham; L. Leibowitz; V. A. Maroni; S. M. McDeavitt; A. G. Raraz

2000-01-01

272

Porous coolant tube holder for fuel cell stack  

DOEpatents

A coolant tube holder for a stack of fuel cells is a gas porous sheet of fibrous material adapted to be sandwiched between a cell electrode and a nonporous, gas impervious flat plate which separates adjacent cells. The porous holder has channels in one surface with coolant tubes disposed therein for carrying coolant through the stack. The gas impervious plate is preferably bonded to the opposite surface of the holder, and the channel depth is the full thickness of the holder.

Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT)

1981-01-01

273

Investigation of the effects of inlet shapes on fan noise radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inlet shape on forward radiated fan tone noise directivities was investigated under experimentally simplified zero flow conditions. Simulated fan tone noise was radiated to the far field through various shaped zero flow inlets. Baseline data were collected for the simplest baffled and unbaffled straight pipe inlets. These data compared well with prediction. The more general inlet shapes

T. L. Clark; D. R. Slotboom; P. G. Vaidya

1981-01-01

274

Response of a turbofan engine compression system to disturbed inlet conditions  

SciTech Connect

A generic code DYNTECC has been adapted to perform a parametric study of the effect of inlet flow distortion on the stability of the Pratt and Whitney TF30 engine. This code was developed at Arnold Engineering Development Center, USA, for single and dual spool systems. It was modified at AMRL to accommodate the particular geometry of the TF30 engine. The stage characteristics needed to operate DYNTECC were derived from experimental data for the fan and low-pressure compressor. For the high-pressure compressor they were derived using the STGSTK code developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This program was modified at AMRL to include real flow effects that were in turn derived using yet another adapted code, CASCAD. The code was primarily used at AMRL to predict the onset of system instability due to simulated full-face rapid inlet temperature ramps typical of those caused during armament firings. It was also run with sinusoidal total pressure oscillations of varying amplitudes and frequencies at the inlet. The code predictions were compared with available data whenever possible, and were found to be consistent with the observed experimental trends.

Abdel-Fattah, A.M. [Defense Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne (Australia). Aeronautical and Maritime Research Lab.

1997-10-01

275

Evaluation of main coolant pump shaft cracking  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of reactor main coolant pump shaft failures which have occurred in various types of plants and pump designs. The objective of the review was to identify common metallurgical, design and operational considerations which may have contributed to the failures, and which might provide insight into potential repairs and monitoring practices. The review considered Westinghouse PWR main coolant pumps, Byron-Jackson pumps for both BWR and PWR applications, KSB pumps in a US PWR, and Sulzer-Bingham pumps in a US BWR application. All of the above have experienced at least one shaft cracking event, and some have experienced multiple shaft cracking events or total shaft failures. Common factors involved in essentially all of the failures include thermal effects due to purge flow and/or seal cooling, and asymmetric (radial) impeller thrust loads. These have been aggravated in some instances by extended periods of off-design operation; holes, keyways and other stress concentration factors; and less-than-optimal manufacturing processes such as chrome plating and poor surface machining conditions. As a result of this review, several recommendations have been identified for potential industry programs to help resolve the shaft cracking problem and/or to qualify potential remedies. These include programs aimed at reducing the susceptibility of the shafts to the basic failure mechanisms identified as well as programs aimed at improving the industry's basic understanding of the primary loading conditions responsible for the failures.

Brose, W.R.; Chen, K.L.; Kuo, A.Y.; Riccardella, P.C. (Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

276

Numerical and Test Investigation on an Aircraft Inlet Distortion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subscale wind tunnel test of an aircraft vehicle is performed at different Mach number, mass-flow and angle of attack. CFD model, corrected by test results, is also presented to predict inlet performance and total pressure distortion. The result shows total pressure recovery decreases and distortion level rises when Mach number increases from subsonic to supersonic speed, AOA is negative and mass-flow value is too large or too small. Compared linear interpolation based on test result of discrete probes, numerical simulation has advantages in showing inlet flow field predicting actual surface distortion level in AIP plane. Swirl distortion is induced by vortex near the fuselage and adjustable ramp and can strengthen total pressure distortion in AIP at negative AOA. And appropriate suction mass-flow coefficient (1.7% to 3%) is beneficial for inlet performance and total pressure distortion control.

Zhang, Zhang; Hou, Anping; Chen, Yinxiu; Tuo, Wei; Xia, Aiguo

2013-09-01

277

Loss-of-coolant accident experiment at the AVR gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

A landmark safety test has been conducted at the AVR-reactor, a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the Federal Republic of Germany owned by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor, AVR in Juelich. The 46-MW(t), 15-MW(e) AVR reactor was subjected to a simulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), a very severe occurrence in which the coolant escapes from the reactor core and no emergency system provides coolant flow to the core. The test, which demonstrated the inherently safe response of this reactor to a LOCA, marked the first time ever that a reactor has been intentionally subjected to loss-of-coolant conditions without emergency cooling. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Atomics participated in the test by working with AVR staff by jointly performing the analyses needed to obtain the license to conduct the test and by performing post test analyses. This participation was carried out under the cooperative AVR Subprogram which is conducted within the US/FRG Agreement for Cooperation in Gas-Cooled Reactor Development. 7 figs.

Krueger, K. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs-Reaktor GmbH, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)); Cleveland, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

278

Operating method for gas turbine with variable inlet vanes  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of operating a gas turbine engine having a centrifugal compressor which is driven by a high-pressure turbine, and wherein the centrifugal compressor is the only compressor of the engine, comprising the steps of: positioning a variable inlet guide vane at an inlet air passage of the centrifugal compressor for adjusting the air flow rate through the engine; and changing the orientation of the guide vane while keeping the speed of rotation of the engine at a high level near its rated value to control the output of the engine by controlling the air flow rate through the engine.

Morishita, Susumu; Miyake, Yoshiyaki; Uchida, Seishi.

1993-07-06

279

On-line distortion analysis system inlet-engine test  

SciTech Connect

A system for near-real-time distortion analysis support of aircraft turbine engine-inlet altitude testing is described. Target applications include both subscale and full-scale inlet-engine compatibility testing in wind tunnel, direct-connect, and free-jet configurations. The system digitizes analog-format, time-dependent data and combines it with digital-format, steady-state data. A high-speed data bus and multiple array processors provide for on-line execution of complex distortion analysis algorithms to compute and display distortion indices, histograms, isobar plots, and surge margin consumption. Analysis algorithms are programmed using a high-level language (FORTRAN 77).

Morton, W.K.; Lazalier, G.R.; Rose, C.D.; Lauer, R.F.

1991-06-01

280

Hypersonic aircraft and inlet configurations derived from axisymmetric flowfields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveriders and inlets derived from the stream surfaces of axisymmetric Newtonian flows past slender pointed-nose parabolic bodies at high Mach numbers are constructed. The flowfield of the waverider including pressure distribution, velocity components, and the attached shock wave are all known in closed-form. Thus, the variation of lift and drag forces with the various parameters and the mass flow rate through the inlet are found. It is shown that adding some longitudinal curvature to the surfaces of the cone-derived waverider, considerably increases the lift-to-drag ratio but decreases the lifting force.

Hemdan, Hamdi T.

281

Assessment of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Fragmentation in Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction With Simulant System  

SciTech Connect

In the Safety analysis of Fast Breeder Reactor, assessment of Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) assumes importance for two aspects, namely the characterization of the debris and severity of pressure pulses generation. An attempt has been made to investigate the debris generation characteristics with molten Woods Metal (Alloy of Bi 50% Pb 25% Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% and melting point of 346 K) - Water simulant system. Liquid Woods metal and liquid Uranium dioxide physical properties (Density, Surface tension and Kinematic viscosity) are similar. Experimental studies were conducted for various melt temperatures covering non - boiling, convective boiling and film boiling regimes of water, to assess the debris generation resulting from both hydrodynamic and thermal interaction. Woods metal was heated to the desired temperature and poured through a hot funnel having a nozzle of 8 mm release diameter into a water column of height up to 140 cm. Experiments were repeated for different coolant temperature and melt inventory up to 5 kg. The melt entry velocity was determined from video recordings. The debris is analyzed on the basis of interface temperature, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin - Helmholtz instabilities. It is observed that Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is the dominant fragmentation phenomena. Contribution due to coolant boiling resulted in more debris generation in the size less than 4 mm. (authors)

Narayanan, K.S.; Das, S.K.; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Lydia, G.; Murthy, S.S.; Kumareshan, M.; Harvey, J.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

2006-07-01

282

Preparation, conduct, and experimental results of the AVR loss-of-coolant accident simulation test  

SciTech Connect

A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into small high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design, LOCA simulation tests have been conducted at the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR), the German pebble-bed-high-temperature reactor plant. The AVR is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCA conditions without emergency cooling. This paper presents the planning and licensing activities including pretest predictions performed for the LOCA test are described, and the conduct of the test and experimental results. The LOCA test was planned to create conditions that would exist if a rapid LOCA occurred with the reactor operating at full power. The test demonstrated this reactor's safe response to an accident in which the coolant escapes from the reactor core and no emergency system is available to provide coolant flow to the core. The test is of special interest because it demonstrates the inherent safety features incorporated into optimized modular HTGR designs. The main LOCA test lasted for 5 days. After the test began, core temperatures increased for {approx}13 h and then gradually and continually decreased as the rate of heat dissipation from the core exceeded the simulated decay power. Throughout the test, temperatures remained below limiting values for the core and other reactor components.

Kruger, K.; Bergerfurth, A.; Burger, S.; Pohl, P.; Wimmers, M. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor AVR GmbH, Duesseldorf (DE)); Cleveland, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-02-01

283

Impact of tidal inlet and its geomorphological changes on lagoon environment: A numerical model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological changes of a tidal inlet are governed by complex interactions of tidal currents, waves and sediments. Tidal inlet(s) of the Chilika lagoon (19 28?-19 54? N; 85 06?-85 35? E) on the east coast of India and its geomorphological changes is linked to the contemporary phase of lagoon transformation such as sedimentation (from riverine discharge, land drainage and decay of macrophytes), choking of the outer channel, northward shifting, closing and opening of inlet(s). These transformations are responsible for decrease in salinity, depth and weak lagoon-sea interaction, which in turn are responsible for decline in water area, increase in vegetated area (macrophyte growth) and decrease in fish productivity. The present study investigates the past and present geomorphological changes of Chilika inlet(s) using historical data, satellite data, field observations and numerical modelling techniques. A numerical model was used to simulate the hydrodynamic conditions and salinity distribution in the lagoon for one inlet and multiple inlets and the results are calibrated with observations. The study suggests that tidal inlet(s) and its geomorphological changes have significant impacts on ebb and flood currents at the inlet(s), salinity distribution in the lagoon, sediment and water exchange between the lagoon and sea. Possible impacts of inlet(s) on ecological conditions of the lagoon environment are discussed.

Panda, U. S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Samal, R. N.

2013-01-01

284

High pressure coolant effect on PVD coated inserts during end milling of Ti-6AL-4V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium alloys are being employed extensively in engineering and aerospace applications for their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical strength and ability to withstand high temperatures. Out of the different alloys of titanium available, the most commonly used alloy is Ti-6Al-4V. It is also called `Grade-5 titanium alloy' or '?+? titanium alloy'. High speed machining of titanium alloys generates high temperatures in the cutting zone, promoting accelerated tool wear and reducing the efficiency in metal cutting. Consequently, the ability of the coolant to remove heat from the cutting zone plays an increasingly important role in the economics of the process as well as on the life of tool inserts. With the introduction of thru-tool coolant delivery, the coolant can now be delivered directly at the point of machining without having to flood the area of machining. This research tries to address the effects that high pressure and thru-tool coolant has on insert wear while end milling Ti-6Al-4V. The parameters used in this study are speed, feed, axial depth of cut, radial depth of cut and coolant pressure. A structured design of experiments along with a central composite design approach is used to determine the main effects of coolant pressure and its interactions with the remaining parameters. The results show that, within the parameters of this experiment, coolant pressure was not a significant main effect. However, pressure seems to react positively with feed rate. Contributions from this research can be used to recommend settings of the cutting factors in order to obtain the minimal tool wear.

Sridharan, Arvind

285

Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant pumps and valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors contains one reactor coolant pump, one PUMP suction side motor operated valve, and other smaller valves. The pumps me double suction, double volute, and radially split type pumps. The valves are different size shutoff and control valves rated from ANSI B16.5 construction class 150

N. K. Gupta; R. F. Miller; R. L. Sindelar

1993-01-01

286

Prediction of film cooling with a liquid coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method of analyzing film cooling with a liquid coolant is presented. The model assumes a turbulent boundary-layer flow for the hot gas stream and a Couette flow in the liquid coolant film. A marching procedure is employed for solution of the equations of mass, momentum, enthalpy and species conservation. Numerical results for an air-water system are presented. The

T. R. Shembharkar; B. R. Pai

1986-01-01

287

Two-zone model for combustion of a composite solid propellant with a coolant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for combustion of a propellant with a coolant taking into account the two-zone structure of the combustion\\u000a front due to condensed- and gas-phase reactions was developed and examined. Formulas for the burning rate, reaction-zone temperature,\\u000a and burning-rate sensitivity to internal and external parameters of the system were derived in analytical form. The burning\\u000a rate was examined numerically

V. A. Strunin; A. V. Fedorychev; S. V. Gunin; A. N. Klyuchnikov; Yu. M. Milekhin; G. B. Manelis

2010-01-01

288

A probabilistic method for determining effluent temperature limits for flow instability for SRS reactors  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the uncertainty analysis used to determine the effluent temperature limits for a Mark 22 charge in the Savannah River Site production reactors. The postulated accident scenario is a DEGB/LOCA resulting from a coolant pipe break at the plenum inlet accompanied by the safety rod failure described in the previous chapter. The analysis described in this manual is used to calculate the limits for the flow instability phase of the accident. For this phase of the accident, the limits criterion is that the Stanton number does not exceed 0.00455 [1]. The limits are determined for a specified 84% probability that the Stanton number will not exceed 0.00455 in any assembly in the core.

Hardy, B.J.; White, A.M.

1990-06-01

289

Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume I. Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume I of this report describes the results of a 30-month program to design and evaluate integral engine inlet separators in 2, 5, and 15 lb/sec sizes. The separators are designed to remove sand, dust, and single foreign objects from the air entering a ...

R. J. Duffy B. F. Shattuck

1975-01-01

290

Critical flashing flows in nozzles with subcooled inlet conditions  

SciTech Connect

Examination of a large number of experiments dealing with flashing flows in converging and converging-diverging nozzles reveals that knowledge of the flashing inception point is the key to the prediction of critical flow rates. An extension of the static flashing inception correlation of Jones (16) and Alamgir and Lienhard (17) to flowing systems has allowed the determination of the location of flashing inception in nozzle flows with subcooled inlet conditions. It is shown that in all the experiments examined with subcooled inlet regardless of the degree of inlet subcooling, flashing inception invariably occurred very close to the throat. A correlation is given to predict flashing inception in both pipes and nozzles which matches all data available, but is lacking verification in intermediate nozzle geometries where turbulence may be important. A consequence of this behavior is that the critical mass flux may be correlated to the pressure difference between the nozzle inlet and flashing inception, through a single phase liquid discharge coefficient and an accurate prediction of the flashing inception pressure at the throat. Comparison with the available experiments indicate that the predicted mass fluxes are within 5 percent of the measurements.

Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Wu, B.J.C.

1983-05-01

291

Tidally Generated Turbulence over the Knight Inlet Sill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high turbulent dissipation rates (above 5 1024 Wk g 21) were observed in the nonlinear internal lee waves that form each tide over a sill in Knight Inlet, British Columbia. This turbulence was due to both shear instabilities and the jumplike adjustment of the wave to background flow conditions. Away from the sill, turbulent dissipation was significantly lower (

Jody M. Klymak; Michael C. Gregg

2004-01-01

292

Integrated Analysis of Scramjet Flowpath with Innovative Inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of fundamental and practical insights obtained on scramjet flowpaths during a three year Challenge Project utilizing high fidelity methodologies and advanced post-processing techniques. Simulations are employed to analyze the principal phenomena, including inlet distortion, fuel-air mixing, ignition and thrust generation at freestream Mach numbers between 6 and 8. In addition to guiding the evolution and execution

Datta V. Gaitonde; F. Joel Malo-Molina; D. Risha; H. Ebrahimi

2009-01-01

293

Efficiency of air inlet wells in vapor extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor extraction is often used to remove volatile organic chemicals from unsaturated soils. Air inlet wells, which are left open to atmospheric pressure, are commonly installed around the extraction well to accelerate the removal of volatile contaminants. We employ the method of images in radial coordinates and the principle of superposition to develop an analytical solution for calculating the amount

Benjamin Ross; Ning Lu

1994-01-01

294

Hypersonic Inlet for a Laser Powered Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propulsion within the lightcraft concept is produced via laser induced detonation of an incoming hypersonic air stream. This process requires suitable engine configurations that offer good performance over all flight speeds and angles of attack to ensure the required thrust is maintained. Stream traced hypersonic inlets have demonstrated the required performance in conventional hydrocarbon fuelled scramjet engines, and has been

Alan Harrland; Con Doolan; Vincent Wheatley; Dave Froning

2011-01-01

295

Improvements in spectral wave modeling in tidal inlet seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the spectral wind wave model SWAN in tidal inlet seas was assessed on the basis of extensive wave measurements conducted in the Amelander Zeegat tidal inlet and the Dutch Eastern Wadden Sea, as well as relevant data from other inlets, lakes, estuaries and beaches. We found that the 2006 default SWAN model (version 40.51), the starting point of the investigation, performed reasonably well for measured storm conditions, but three aspects required further attention. First, over the near-horizontal tidal flats, the computed ratio of integral wave height over water depth showed an apparent upper limit using the default depth-limited wave breaking formulation and breaker parameter, resulting in an underprediction of wave heights. This problem has been largely solved using a new breaker formulation. The second aspect concerns wave-current interaction, specifically the wave age effect on waves generated in ambient current, and a proposed enhanced dissipation in negative current gradients. Third, the variance density of lower-frequency wind waves from the North Sea penetrating through the inlets into the Wadden Sea was underpredicted. This was improved by reducing the bottom friction dissipation relative to that of the default model. After a combined calibration, these improvements have resulted in a relative bias reduction in Hm0 from -3% to -1%, in Tm-1,0 from -7% to -3%, and in Tm01 from -6% to -2%, and consistent reductions in scatter, compared to the 2006 default model.

Westhuysen, A. J.; Dongeren, A. R.; Groeneweg, J.; Vledder, G. Ph.; Peters, H.; Gautier, C.; Nieuwkoop, J. C. C.

2012-11-01

296

Flow structure at a trifurcation near a North Florida inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrier island estuarine systems are common along the East and Gulf coasts of Florida. While some information regarding these systems is available in report form, detailed observational studies of their hydrodynamic properties are scarce in existing literature. Hydrography and current velocity were observed at a tidally driven coastline trifurcation, adjacent to the St. Augustine Inlet, Florida, in the GuanaTolomatoMatanzas Estuary.

Bret M. Webb; Jeffrey N. King; Bilge Tutak; Arnoldo Valle-Levinson

2007-01-01

297

Flow structure at a trifurcation near a North Florida inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrier island estuarine systems are common along the East and Gulf coasts of Florida. While some information regarding these systems is available in report form, detailed observational studies of their hydrodynamic properties are scarce in existing literature. Hydrography and current velocity were observed at a tidally driven coastline trifurcation, adjacent to the St. Augustine Inlet, Florida, in the Guana Tolomato

Bret M. Webb; Jeffrey N. King; Bilge Tutak; Arnoldo Valle-Levinson

2007-01-01

298

High-Speed Inlet Research Program and Supporting Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mach 5 cruise aircraft was studied in a joint program effort. The propulsion system chosen for this aircraft was an over-under turbojet/ramjet system. The ramjet portion of the inlet is to be tested in NASA Lewis' 10 x 10 SWT. Goals of the test program ...

R. E. Coltrin

1987-01-01

299

Final Report on Marine Biofouling Studies at Admiralty Inlet, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the marine biofouling communities of Admiralty Inlet, Washington during the period August 1963 to June 1968. This is one of a series of biofouling studies being made by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) at selected locations t...

J. R. DePalma

1976-01-01

300

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLER INLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are presented on the wind tunnel performances of two prototype Inhalable Particulate Matter (IPM) inlets designed for use with a dichotomous sampler. One was developed at the Aerosol Science Laboratory (ASL) Colorado State University, while the other was developed in an inde...

301

Hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of a seasonally forced tidal inlet system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of a seasonally forced tidal inlet system are investigated using numerical models. The ocean forcing including tidal and wave actions and sediment transport is simulated using Delft3D model. Fluvial processes in Delft3D are taken into account as results from SOBEK RURAL model. Analysis of the numerical simulation results allows enhancing insight the mechanisms behind the behaviours of

Nghiem Tien Lam; Marcel J. F. Stive; Zheng Bing Wang; Henk Jan Verhagen; V. T. T. Thuy

2008-01-01

302

Operation of TETs water inlet in moving sludge period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water intake for the steam condensers of a combined heat and power plant was fitted with a screen-type water inlet head. Full-scale tests of a pneumatic screen, used to protect the power plant water intake from sludge clogging were conducted. The screen proved to be both reliable and effective in protecting the water intake from ice-sludge clogging.

Kolesnikova

1982-01-01

303

MULTIPLE INLET APPROACH TO REDUCE WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR RICE PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional flooded rice production consists of a well or riser in the highest-elevation portion of the field, and water spills into lower paddies as the upper paddies are filled. In an alternative method, known as multiple-inlet irrigation, rather than discharging directly into the highest paddy, a...

304

Axial flow fan noise caused by inlet flow distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow distortions at the inlet of an axial flow fan will cause discrete tone noise generation at shaft rotational frequencies. Controlled experiments have been carried out to check the validity of existing theories to predict these tone levels. The results have shown satisfactory agreement at low frequencies for a concentrated force representation of the blade chordwise load distribution. Both tone

B. D. Mugridge

1975-01-01

305

Analysis of the SSME HPOTP Bearing Inlet Cavity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of the flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) bearing no. 1 inlet cavity was completed in support of return-to-flight. With the incorporation of several design changes in the Phase 2 turbopump, rotordy...

P. K. Mcconnaughey

1989-01-01

306

Sea Level Rise and Consequences for Navigable Coastal Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global sea level is expected to rise over the next 100 years. Changes in sea level will alter the functioning of coastal inlet navigation channels and structures such as jetties designed to stabilize the channel and improve navigability. Threats to naviga...

J. D. Rosati N. C. Kraus

2009-01-01

307

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE GEOMORPHIC INVESTIGATION OF ENGINEERED TIDAL INLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, numerous technological advances have made field studies and laboratory analyses of tidal inlets more time efficient while also substantially improved data qual- ity. Mapping channel bathymetry was once a labor-intensive task that was accomplished by measuring water depths along a detailed network of channel profiles. Now aircraft- operated Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) can accurately map the

DUNCAN M. FITZGERALD; GARY A. ZARILLO

308

Distribution of coolant flow rate in a steam generator in natural coolant circulation regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConclusionsThe large hydraulic nonuniformity of steam generator pipes operating in parallel in the natural coolant circulation regime\\u000a results in a lower efficiency of the heat-transfer surface during emergency cooldown of the reactor plant, and it limits the\\u000a operational possibilities, specifically, for using this regime at partial power levels. It is obvious that circulation reversal\\u000a in the pipes of steam generators

A. Ya. Blagoveshchenskii; V. L. Leont'eva; A. G. Mitryukhin

1997-01-01

309

The effect of aircraft inlets on the behaviour of aero engine axial flow compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air inlet and its effect on turbocompressors are described, covering the following: the engine aircraft operating envelopes, inlet loading, interaction between inlet and compressor, compression distortion tolerance, response of compressor to inlet total pressure distortion, inlet and outlet static pressure distribution, and other threats to compressor stability due to inlet. The following conclusions are made: the aircraft operating envelope is demanding of the inlet when the pressures to reduce size cost, weight, and drag are obvious; the inlet separates at the edges of the envelope; the separation can be reduced by applying well known scaling laws; this asymmetric separation can degrade the compressor surge margin; and the stability margin of the engine can be affected by other features of the inlet.

Freeman, Christopher J.

310

Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance affected by spiral inlet and outlet in a positive displacement blower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow in the positive displacement blower is very complex. The existing two-dimensional numerical simulation cannot provide the detailed flow information, especially flow characteristics along the axial direction, which is unfavorable to improve the performance of positive displacement blower. To investigate the effects of spiral inlet and outlet on the aerodynamic performance of positive displacement blower, three-dimensional unsteady flow characteristics in a three-lobe positive displacement blower with and without the spiral inlet and outlet are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equations coupled with RNG k-? turbulent model. In the numerical simulation, the dynamic mesh technique and overset mesh updating method are used. The computational results are compared with the experimental measurements on the variation of flow rate with the outlet pressure to verify the validity of the numerical method presented. The results show that the mass flow rate with the change of pressure is slightly affected by the application of spiral inlet and outlet, but the internal flow state is largely affected. In the exhaust region, the fluctuations of pressure, velocity and temperature as well as the average values of velocity are significantly reduced. This illustrates that the spiral outlet can effectively suppress the fluctuations of pressure, thus reducing reflux shock and energy dissipation. In the intake area, the average value of pressure, velocity and temperature are slightly declined, but the fluctuations of them are significantly reduced, indicating that the spiral inlet plays the role in making the flow more stable. The numerical results obtained reveal the three-dimensional flow characteristics of the positive displacement blower with spiral inlet and outlet, and provide useful reference to improve performance and empirical correction in the noise-reduction design of the positive displacement blowers.

Liu, Xiaomin; Lu, Jun; Gao, Renheng; Xi, Guang

2013-09-01

311

The BLOW-3A: A theoretical model to describe transient two phase flow conditions in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) coolant channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical background of the BLOW-3A program is reported, including the basic equations used to determine temperature fields in the fuel, clad, coolant and structure material as well as the coolant dynamics in single and two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow model assumes an annular flow regime. Special aspects to calculate two-phase pressure drops for these conditions are discussed. Examples of the experimental validation of the program are given.

Bottoni, M.; Struwe, D.

312

CFD modeling of a gas turbine combustor from compressor exit to turbine inlet  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine combustor CFD modeling has become an important combustor design tool in the past few years, but CFD models are generally limited to the flow field inside the combustor liner at the diffuser/combustor annulus region. Although strongly coupled in reality, the two regions have rarely been coupled in CFD modeling. A CFD calculation for a full model combustor from compressor diffuser exit to turbine inlet is described. The coupled model accomplishes the following two main objectives: (1) implicit description of flow splits and flow conditions for openings into the combustor liner, and (2) prediction of liner wall temperatures. Conjugate heat transfer with nonluminous gas radiation (appropriate for lean, low emission combustors) is utilized to predict wall temperatures compared to the conventional approach of predicting only near wall gas temperatures. Remaining difficult issues such as generating the grid, modeling swirler vane passages, and modeling effusion cooling are also discussed.

Crocker, D.S.; Nickolaus, D.; Smith, C.E. [CFD Research Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

1999-01-01

313

Reclamation and disposal of water-based machining coolants  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which is operated by the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division for the Department of Energy under US government contract W-7405-eng-26, currently uses about 10{sup 6} L/yr (260,000 gal/yr) of water-based coolants in its machining operations. These coolants are disposed of in a 110,000-L (29,000-gal) activated sludge reactor. The reactor has oxidized an average of 38.6 kg of total organic carbon (TOC) per day with an overall efficiency of 90%. The predominant bacteria in the reactor have been identified once each year for the past three years. Six primary types of water-based coolants are currently used in the machine shops. In order to reduce the coolant usage rate, efforts are being made to introduce one universal coolant into the shops. By using a biocide to limit bacterial deterioration and using a filter and centrifuge system to remove dirt and tramp oils from the coolant, the coolant discard rate can be greatly reduced. 1 tab.

Taylor, P.A.

1982-01-01

314

The impact of radiolytic yield on the calculated ECP in PWR primary coolant circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A code, PWR ECP, comprising chemistry, radiolysis, and mixed potential models has been developed to calculate radiolytic species concentrations and the corrosion potential of structural components at closely spaced points around the primary coolant circuits of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The pH(T) of the coolant is calculated at each point of the primary-loop using a chemistry model for the B(OH)3 + LiOH system. Although the chemistry/radiolysis/mixed potential code has the ability to calculate the transient reactor response, only the reactor steady state condition (normal operation) is discussed in this paper. The radiolysis model is a modified version of the code previously developed by Macdonald and coworkers to model the radiochemistry and corrosion properties of boiling water reactor primary coolant circuits. In the present work, the PWR ECP code is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculated electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) to the set of radiolytic yield data adopted; in this case, one set had been developed from ambient temperature experiments and another set reported elevated temperatures data. The calculations show that the calculated ECP is sensitive to the adopted values for the radiolytic yields.

Urquidi-MacDonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan; MacDonald, Digby D.

2007-05-01

315

Limits of sympathetic cooling of fermions: The role of heat capacity of the coolant  

SciTech Connect

The sympathetic cooling of an initially degenerate Fermi gas by either an ideal Bose gas below T{sub c} or an ideal Boltzmann gas is investigated. It is shown that the efficiency of cooling by a Bose gas below T{sub c} is by no means reduced when its heat capacity becomes much less than that of the Fermi gas, where efficiency is measured by the decrease in the temperature of the Fermi gas per number of particles evaporated from the coolant. This contradicts the intuitive idea that an efficient coolant must have a large heat capacity. In contrast, for a Boltzmann gas a minimal value of the ratio of the heat capacities is indeed necessary to achieve T=0 and all of the particles must be evaporated.

Carr, L.D.; Castin, Y. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris CEDEX 05 (France)

2004-04-01

316

Modulation of the neutron field in the multiplying condensed matter and coolant  

SciTech Connect

The spatial damping of acoustic, neutron and thermal branches of oscillations are found in neutron multiplying medium with coolant. All three branches give additive contribution to the neutron density oscillations. However, their wave numbers and coefficients of spatial damping (at the same frequency) differ greatly from the sound with its high phase velocity and small attenuation to the neutron wave with the damping length, which is comparable with its wavelength. A spatial growth of neutron density oscillations is found in the case of large frequency of neutron capture and weak coupling of neutron density and temperature branches of oscillations. This fact is of importance for the noise diagnostics of the multiplying medium with coolant. The results can be applied to the development of the methods of noise diagnostics of the in core reactor equipment.

Vodyanitskii, A. A.; Slyusarenko, Yu. V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, NSC KIPT, 1 Akademicheskaya Str., 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

2009-12-14

317

A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet performance can offset and even overwhelm this potential advantage. For both designs, the tight coupling between the aircraft aerodynamics and the propulsion system poses a difficult design integration problem. This dissertation presents a design method that solves the problem using multidisciplinary optimization. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, an engine analysis method, and a nonlinear optimizer are combined into a design tool that correctly addresses the tight coupling of the problem. The method is first applied to a model 2D problem to expedite development and thoroughly test the scheme. The low computational cost of the 2D method allows for several inlet installations to be optimized and analyzed. The method is then upgraded by using a validated 3D Navier-Stokes solver. The two candidate engine installations are analyzed and optimized using this inlet design method. The method is shown to be quite effective at integrating the propulsion and aerodynamic systems of the Blend-Wing-Body for both engine installations by improving overall performance and satisfying any specified design constraints. By comparing the two optimized designs, the potential advantages of ingesting boundary layer flow for this aircraft are demonstrated.

Rodriguez, David Leonard

2001-07-01

318

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

319

An Excess 226Ra Geochronology for Saanich Inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When examining past environmental and climatic change the ability to date both freshwater and marine sediments is essential. Numerous methods are currently available, however where present techniques fail, novel dating techniques are required to overcome these obstacles. In particular the use of 14C to date sediments over the Holocene period can be severely limited where there are significant hard-water and reservoir effects and where reworking of organic matter occurs. The use of unsupported or excess 226Ra offers a potential dating tool in such depositional contexts over the Holocene time period as a result of its half-life of 1600 years. Indeed, the technique has been applied to a number of environments since first being proposed by Koide et al. (1976). However, numerous question marks still surround the application of the technique, particularly with reference to the dating of sub-aqueous sediment deposits. As part of wider research into the applicability of excess 226Ra to date lake sedimentary environments, deep-sea samples from Saanich Inlet were obtained from the ODP (Leg 169S) in order to validate the dating technique. Saanich Inlet is an anoxic fjord located on the coastline of Vancouver Island, British Colombia, the sediments of which have been shown to be comprised of lamina-scale alternations between diatom-rich and diatom-poor clays and silts representing annual. Using digital sediment colour analysis Nederbragt and Thurow (2001) constructed a varve chronology for the last 6000 years. Alpha-spectrometry was successfully used to measure 226Ra, 230Th and 234U in sediment samples collected from Saanich Inlet during ODP Leg 169S. These activities were used to determine an excess 226Ra geochronology for Saanich Inlet. This radiometric chronology compares well with dates obtained from the varve record, and spans two different phases of sediment accumulation.

Grayson, R. P.; Plater, A. J.; Boyle, J. F.; Appleby, P. G.

2004-12-01

320

The effect of inlet air vitiation on combustion efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of the effect of inlet air vitiation produced by a vitiating preheater on combustion efficiency of a turbojet combustor and a model ramjet combustor are presented in this paper. An empirical correlation and a calculation method based on stirred reactor theory are derived to correct the vitiation effect. Results obtained by means of these two methods are in good agreement with test data.

Zuomin, F.; Yijun, J.

1985-01-01

321

Optical condensation measurement in gas turbine engine inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-intrusive optical system for the measurement of air inlet condensation in gas turbine engines is presented. The system uses a technique in which a linear relationship between the liquid water content (LWC) and the optical extinction coefficient exists. The extinction coefficient was determined by measuring the extinction of a 10.6 micrometers CO2 laser beam due to Mie scattering from

Jason Potter; Ralph P. Tatam

1997-01-01

322

Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

Hiester, T.R.

1980-06-01

323

Numerical and experimental investigation of a serpentine inlet duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the flow inside an ultra-compact, serpentine inlet duct. The numerical analysis used two flow solvers: FLUENT, a commercial code, and UNS3D, an in-house code. The flow was modelled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence effects were modelled by using the shear-stress transport k? model. The numerical investigation was compared against

Aaron M. Kirk; Joaquin I. Gargoloff; Othon K. Rediniotis; Paul G. A. Cizmas

2009-01-01

324

AERIAL SURVEYS OF BELUGAS IN COOK INLET, ALASKA, AUGUST 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducted an aerial survey of the beluga population in northern Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1-2 August 2007. The 13.1 hour survey covered the coastal areas north of Moose Point and the Native Village of Tyonek. Consistent with NMFS surveys conducted since 1993, the August 2007 survey was flown in a high-wing, twin-engine aircraft (NOAA Twin

Kim E. W. Shelden; Kimberly T. Goetz; Julie A. Mocklin

325

Comparison of the Aeroacoustics of Two Small-Scale Supersonic Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aerodynamic and acoustic investigation was performed on two small-scale supersonic inlets to determine which inlet would be more suitable for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft during approach and takeoff flight conditions. The comparison was...

W. Ng

1996-01-01

326

Computer Program for the Calculation of Three-Dimensional Transonic Nacelle/Inlet Flowfields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A highly efficient computer analysis was developed for predicting transonic nacelle/inlet flowfields. This algorithm can compute the three dimensional transonic flowfield about axisymmetric (or asymmetric) nacelle/inlet configurations at zero or nonzero i...

J. Vadyak E. H. Atta

1983-01-01

327

Characterisation and Airborne Deployment of a New Counterflow Virtual Impactor Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet is introduced with details of its design, laboratory characterisation tests and deployment on an aircraft during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE). The CVI inlet addresses thr...

A. Sorooshian F. J. Brechtel S. Dey T. Shingler Z. Wang

2012-01-01

328

Theoretical Surface Velocity Distributions on Acoustic Splitter Geometries for an Engine Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential-flow velocity distributions on several splitter geometries in an engine inlet and their variation with different splitter leading-edge shapes and distances from the inlet highlight were analyzed. The velocity distributions on the inner and o...

J. A. Albers D. C. Breunlin

1974-01-01

329

33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla....

2010-07-01

330

33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla....

2009-07-01

331

A review of inlet air-cooling technologies for enhancing the performance of combustion turbines in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak demand for electric power in Saudi Arabia occurs during the middle of the day in summer and is almost double the off-peak demand. The demand profile is ill-matched to the performance profile of combustion turbines as their power output decreases with increased inlet-air temperature. Approximately 42% of the Saudi Electric Companys (SEC) annual energy sales are generated by combustion

Abdulrahman M. Al-Ibrahim; Abdulhadi Varnham

2010-01-01

332

The Effect of Nonuniform Inlet Conditions on Annular Diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most practical diffusers have complex 3D geometries and may have highly disturbed inlet flows. The performance of diffusers designed for optimum pressure recovery is governed by flow separation which can be very sensitive to inlet perturbations. We are examining the effect of upstream disturbances on the performance of practical annular diffusers. Experiments are conducted in an annular diffuser sector containing a single NACA 0015 airfoil shaped support strut. Three component, time averaged velocities are measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry and static pressure data are measured with conventional wall taps. We are testing four inlet conditions: a uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layers and relatively low turbulence intensity, a similar case with higher turbulence levels, a mean profile with uniform velocity except for a high velocity wall jet at the outer radius, and a nonuniform profile in which the mean velocity decreases with increasing radius. Generally, the results show that the diffuser acts to increase flow distortion. For the case with the radial velocity gradient, passing through the diffuser strongly increases the velocity gradient. The wall jet on the outer (diffusing) wall eliminates flow separation resulting in higher pressure recovery and thicker wall boundary layers on the other three walls. Interestingly, the separated wake of the support strut closes more rapidly for the case with the radial velocity gradient.

Padilla, Angelina; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

2010-11-01

333

Flame structure in a compact inlet/scramjet combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OH PLIF is used to investigate the flame structure in an inlet/scramjet combustor model tested in the Stanford 6-Inch expansion tube. The model is characterized by a compression inlet that generates a shock train confined within the constant area combustor. The inlet flow is maintained at M=2.8, p=40 kPa and T1250 K. Hydrogen is injected through a single transverse injector at equivalence ratios up to 0.44. Optical access along the combustor allows flow imaging on orthogonal planes. Global effects of fuel injection are quantified by wall-pressure measurements with oxidizing and non-oxidizing freestreams. It is found that mass addition alone does not significantly impact the flowfield. Fuel injection and combustion effects manifest well downstream even under conditions where combustion is stabilized at the injector. The general flame structure in the near-field of the jet shares many similarities with isolated transverse jets. Similarly, in spite of the shock train, the flame structure in the wake region behaves as an undisturbed shear layer where a laminar-like structure typical of low-speed nonpremixed combustion is observed. Finally, the results suggest that the shock train may favor flame stability and anchoring at the shock reflection points.

Gamba, Mirko; Miller, Victor A.; Godfrey Mungal, M.; Hanson, Ronald K.

2011-11-01

334

Evaporation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, in situ, in a heated inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2001 and 2002 in situ aerosol measurements were made from a balloonborne platform within a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) containing liquid (supercooled ternarry solutions, STS) and solid (nitric acid trihydrate, NAT) particles. Particle compositions and phases were measured with a particle mass spectrometer and a laser backscattersonde. Particle size (r > 0.15 um) and number concentrations were measured with three optical particle counters. Two of these provided PSC particle size distribution measurements while the third included a one meter inlet heated to 250 K (2001) and 300 K (2002). The heated inlet was used to obtain a measurement, within a PSC, of the size distribution of the background (sulfuric acid) particles upon which the PSC particles condensed. In PSC layers consisting of only small particles the inlet were long and warm enough to evaporate the condensed nitric acid and water and return the particles to their background state. For layers with large particles, however, the largest particles did not fully evaporate and the size distribution of evaporated particles included a second mode. The higher temperature in 2002 did evaporate all of the condensed nitric acid and water on the particles. The measurements are compared to a model to calculate the evaporation rate of STS and NAT particles. By comparing model results with the measured size distributions of evaporated PSC particles, the models and their assumptions, particularly concerning vapor pressure, were tested. The modeled evaporation rate for small STS particles is in good agreement with the measurements. The model evaporation rate for large STS particles is slower than what the measurements show. This result is complicated by the low number of large particles which leads to large counting error by the optical particle counters. The cases involving NAT are still under investigation.

Eidhammer, T.; Deshler, T.

2003-04-01

335

Heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system based on fluctuation theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model to study the heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system. Such a model introduces thermal fluctuations as well as external noises due to different mechanisms of heat interchange. A unified treatment of both kinds of noise is carried out. The stationary mean value of the channel temperature is studied, obtaining effective transport coefficients which affect the stability of the system. The effects of the different noises are visualized in a correlation length obtained from the temperature correlation function. The model has practical implications in the field of nuclear-reactor noise theory.

Daz-Guilera, A.; Rodrguez, M. A.; Rub, J. M.

1988-11-01

336

Lubricant-Coolant for Hot Working of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lubricant-coolant for hot working of metals, based on the water suspension of graphite, is distinguished by the fact that its composition includes calcium acetate, sodium acetate, and polyoxyethylated alkylphenol for added effectiveness, and that its ...

S. F. Frolov S. Y. Veiler

1971-01-01

337

Vegetable Oils: Liquid Coolants for Solar Heating and Cooling Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils s...

H. A. Ingley

1980-01-01

338

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

339

The 1994 Pickering loss-of-coolant incident  

SciTech Connect

On Saturday, December 10, 1994, the failure of an instrumented relief valve led to a loss of coolant from unit 2 of Pickering nuclear generating station. The safety systems operated, and there were no releases.

Charlebois, P.; Goodman, B.; McEwan, B. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1995-12-31

340

Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps  

SciTech Connect

Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed.

Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

1983-01-01

341

Reactor Coolant Pump Shaft Seal Behavior during Station Blackout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A testing program designed to provide fundamental information pertaining to the behavior of reactor coolant pump (RCP) shaft seals during a postulated nuclear power plant station blackout has been completed. One seal assembly, utilizing both hydrodynamic ...

B. M. Cotnam C. A. Kittmer D. B. Rhodes R. Metcalfe R. G. Wensel

1985-01-01

342

Hypersonic mixed-compression inlet shock-induced combustion ramjets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the performance and flow field features of a mixed-compression inlet shock-induced combustion ramjet (shcramjet). In a shcramjet, oncoming air is compressed with shocks in the inlet and then further compressed and mixed with hydrogen fuel in a duct prior to shock-induced combustion and expansion of the combustion products through a divergent nozzle to provide thrust. Numerical studies are undertaken using the WARP code that solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the Wilcox k-o turbulence model. Hydrogen/air combustion is solved via the twenty reaction, nine species combustion model of Jachimowski. Mixing augmentation through the use of cantilevered ramp injector arrays on opposite shcramjet inlet walls is studied and the influence of relative array locations is quantified. Increased spanwise distance between adjacent injectors on opposite walls allows for increased jet penetration and fuel distributions in the center of the engine duct. Chemically reacting studies verify an air buffer is created between the fuel and walls that suppresses premature ignition while still allowing for an air based mixing efficiency of up to 0.46-0.54. Combustion is produced over aerodynamic wedges with the spatial flow variation dictating both detonation and shock-induced combustion can be present over constant angle wedges. The initial inlet angle must be as high as possible, while avoiding premature ignition, to generate the pressure in the combustor needed for significant positive thrust. Thrust production from combustion is found to be insensitive to wedge angle if combustion is initiated across the cross-sectional area. Strong recirculation regions are formed via shock/boundary layer interactions in the confined engine duct. Mitigation of the recirculation is demonstrated with correct placement of the nozzle expansion in conjunction with air blowing in the boundary layer at a mass flow rate on the order of that of the fuel injection. For flight at Mach 11 the mixed-compression inlet shcramjet is found to generate a specific impulse of 683 s in the simulation of a realistic three-dimensional flow field.

Alexander, Derrick

343

Classifier utility modeling and analysis of hypersonic inlet start\\/unstart considering training data costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Start\\/unstart detection is one of the most important issues of hypersonic inlets and is also the foundation of protection control of scramjet. The inlet start\\/unstart detection can be attributed to a standard pattern classification problem, and the training sample costs have to be considered for the classifier modeling as the CFD numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments of hypersonic inlets

Juntao Chang; Qinghua Hu; Daren Yu; Wen Bao

2011-01-01

344

Effects of inlet and exhaust locations and emitted gas density on indoor air contaminant concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state distribution of contaminant concentrations in a workroom is a function of several factors, of which the types and relative position of air inlets and exhausts are some of the most important. Here several different inlet and exhaust locations and types (with or without diffuser) were investigated to determine the optimum inlet and exhaust positions. Room concentration patterns for

J. A. Khan; C. E. Feigley; E. Lee; M. R. Ahmed; S. Tamanna

2006-01-01

345

An analytical evaluation for airflow to inlet wells in vapor extraction systems under leaky conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air inlet wells have been employed to enhance the fresh air flushing through the target-contaminated soils in many soil vapor extraction systems. The analytical solution presented here evaluates the efficiency of the airflow to these inlet wells under the conditions of leaky surface boundary, anisotropic soils, and partially screened extraction. Using the analytical solution, the efficiency of air inlet wells

Shemin Ge; Minru Liao

1996-01-01

346

Numerical Computation of Supersonic-Subsonic Ramjet Inlets; a Design Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of three different ramjet engine inlets is numerically considered in this study. The geometries used are planar with the free stream Mach = 2.5. Inlet 1 is chosen from literature, a single oblique shock followed by a normal one, which given a low value of total pressure recovery. Inlets 2 and 3 are designed in a way to

M. Akbarzadeh; M. J. Kermani

2007-01-01

347

Comparative study among different methodologies to determine storm sewer inlet efficiency from test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm drain inlets are used to collect urban runoff and discharge it to an underground sewer system. Inadequate attention to inlet capacity can cause undue hazard to the security of many urban activities. Several agencies and manufacturers of grates have investigated inlet grate interception capacity by hydraulic tests. Actually the reference in this field is the Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.12

M. Gmez; B. Russo

2005-01-01

348

30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77...COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which employ a hot gas inlet chamber shall be equipped...

2013-07-01

349

Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a

Ugur Kesgin

2005-01-01

350

Aspiration Efficiency and Inlet Wall Deposition in the Fiber Sampling Cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 25-mm diameter sampling cassette with a 50-mm long conductive inlet (cowl) is widely used for sampling fibers. Comprehensive testing of the sampling accuracy of this device has not been carried out. Several researchers have found significant fiber deposits in the inlet rather than on the collection filter. The sampler approaches the dimensions of a thin-walled tubular inlet, which has

Chih-Chieh Chen; Paul A. Baron

1996-01-01

351

Shinnecock Inlet, New York, Site Investigation Report 1 Morphology and Historical Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shinnecock Inlet is the easternmost of six permanent inlets in the barrier island chain that follows Long Island's south shore. Shinnecock Inlet is located in eastern Long Island in Suffolk County, near the town of Southampton, and connects the Atlantic O...

A. Morang

1999-01-01

352

High temperature probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also

Swan; Raymond A

1994-01-01

353

High temperature probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature probe is described for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000 F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe

Swan

1994-01-01

354

Greenhouse warming potential of candidate gaseous diffusion plant coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary estimate has been made of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) of coolants under consideration as substitutes for CFC-114 in the gaseous diffusion plants. Coolants are not at present regulated on the basis of GWP, but may well be in the future. Use of c-CF or n-CF is estimated to have three to four times the greenhouse impact of

Trowbridge

1991-01-01

355

Technical Note: Evaporation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, in situ, in a heated inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2001 and 2002 in situ aerosol measurements were made from balloon-borne platforms within polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) consisting of supercooled ternary solutions, nitric acid trihydrate and ice. Particle size (radius >0.15 m) and number concentrations were measured with two optical particle counters. One of these included an ~80 cm inlet heated to >244 K to obtain measurements, within PSCs, of the size distribution of the stratospheric particles upon which the PSC particles condensed. These measurements are compared to models that calculate the evaporation of PSC particles. The modeled evaporation for supercooled ternary solutions is in good agreement with the measurements. For nitric acid trihydrate it is uncertain what happens to the particle as it is brought to temperatures >50 K above its equilibrium temperature at stratospheric partial pressures. Here the modeled evaporation show too low evaporation compared to the measurements.

Eidhammer, T.; Deshler, T.

2004-09-01

356

Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

Lucia, M. De; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E. (Univ. di Firenze (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica)

1994-04-01

357

Chemistry of Sodium Coolant. Impurities of Nuclear Fuel and Its Fission Products in Sodium Coolant of Fast Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of impurities of nuclear fuel and its fission products and their behaviour in sodium coolant of the primary circuit of fast reactors are considered. The impurities are classified with account of their properties, behaviour in the circuit and si...

E. E. Konovalov A. I. Lastov P. S. Otstavnov

1982-01-01

358

Commercial developments in synchrotron optical components: a novel coolant for high-heat-load optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel coolant suitable for high heat load optics called Binary-IceR. This coolant exploits the latent heat of microscopic ice particles in a water/antifreeze mixture, which confer an effective specific heat capacity up to eight times that of water. Binary-IceR has a film heat transfer coefficient several times that of water or brine which reduces the thermally induced strain in optical components compared to identical water-cooled configurations. Furthermore, the coolant temperature only increases by a few degrees under normal operating conditions, yielding uniform cooling. Finite element analysis has been used to model a thin silicon [111] crystal that is back-cooled by brine or Binary- IceR with an incident power density of 4 Wmm-2 commensurate with a modern bending magnet monochromator. Water cooling was found to be impracticable due to the thermal bump inducing a spread in the selected bandwidth which was greater than 50% worse than the intrinsic resolution of Si[111], and a downward shift in the energy by more than the intrinsic bandwidth. By comparison Binary-IceR yielded the intrinsic resolution at low energies and a shift in the energy by only 10% of the bandwidth. The application of Binary-IceR for cooling of diamonds in undulator monochromators, and for the cooling of x-ray mirrors and multilayers is also discussed.

Loeffen, Paul W.; Tingay, John M.; Gill, Timothy M.; Paul, Joachim; Pattison, Phillip

1998-12-01

359

Coherent lidar solution for the HSCT supersonic engine inlet unstart problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric turbulence environments can adversely affect the operation of both commercial and military supersonic aircraft. Future aircraft designs, such as the High Speed Civil Transport will aim to alleviate the effects of supersonic engine inlet unstart. Fluctuations in air temperature, longitudinal and transverse velocity all can trigger inlet unstarts. With fore- knowledge of the turbulence, a feed-forward control system can be used to re-configure the propulsion systems to avoid unstarts. The same technology can be used to counteract gust effects to improve ride quality and reduce gust loads. A coherent lidar sensor is being developed to demonstrate that the atmospheric turbulence can be measured with sufficient reliability, fidelity, and pre-encounter time for these feed-forward control solutions. The NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program will develop and flight test a sensor on NASA research aircraft, including the SR-71, and investigate the atmospheric environment to establish the feasibility of a lidar sensor. The paper will present an overview of the ACLAIM program including: the scope and content of the program, lidar measurement challenges, atmospheric environment, technology choices, and anticipated problem areas.

Bogue, Rodney K.; Bagley, Harold R.; Soreide, David C.; Bowdle, David A.

1995-06-01

360

Influence of coolant pH on corrosion of 6061 aluminum under reactor heat transfer conditions  

SciTech Connect

To support the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), an experimental program was conducted wherein aluminum alloy specimens were exposed at high heat fluxes to high-velocity aqueous coolants in a corrosion test loop. The aluminum alloys selected for exposure were candidate fuel cladding materials, and the loop system was constructed to emulate the primary coolant system for the proposed ANS reactor. One major result of this program has been the generation of an experimental database defining oxide film growth on 6061 aluminum alloy cladding. Additionally, a data correlation was developed from the database to permit the prediction of film growth for any reasonable thermal-hydraulic excursion. This capability was utilized effectively during the conceptual design stages of the reactor. During the course of this research, it became clear that the kinetics of film growth on the aluminum alloy specimens were sensitively dependent on the chemistry of the aqueous coolant and that relatively small deviations from the intended pH 5 operational level resulted in unexpectedly large changes in the corrosion behavior. Examination of the kinetic influences and the details of the film morphology suggested that a mechanism involving mass transport from other parts of the test loop was involved. Such a mechanism would also be expected to be active in the operating reactor. This report emphasizes the results of experiments that best illustrate the influence of the nonthermal-hydraulic parameters on film growth and presents data to show that comparatively small variations in pH near 5.0 invoke a sensitive response. Simply, for operation in the temperature and heat flux range appropriate for the ANS studies, coolant pH levels from 4.5 to 4.9 produced significantly less film growth than those from pH 5.1 to 6. A mechanism for this behavior based on the concept of treating the entire loop as an active corrosion system is presented.

Pawel, S.J.; Felde, D.K.; Pawel, R.E.

1995-10-01

361

Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

Jones, Robert D. (Irwin, PA)

1978-01-01

362

Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermometers record the temperature in a given location. Temperature is a non-living thing because it doesn't physically move or eat, for example. However, temperature is a very important factor that effects where animals live and how long they stay in that particular spot.

Luis Miguel Orta Rial (None;)

2008-03-24

363

Study of Gas Solid Flow Characteristics in Cyclone Inlet Ducts of A300Mwe CFB Boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas solid flow characteristics in cyclone's inlet duct of a 300MW CFB boiler were studied in a cold circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental setup according to a 410t/h CFB boiler with a scale of 10?1. Tracer particles were adopted in the experiment and their motion trajectories in the two kinds of cyclone's inlet ducts were photographed by a high-speed camera. By analyzing the motion trajectories of tracer particles, acceleration performance of particle phases in the two inlet ducts was obtained. Results indicate that the acceleration performance of particles in the long inlet duct is better than that in the short inlet duct, but the pressure drop of the long inlet duct is higher. Meanwhile, under the same operating conditions, both the separation efficiency and the pressure drop of the cyclone are higher when the cyclone is connected with the long inlet duct. Figs 11, Tabs 4 and refs 10.

Tang, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Lai, J.; Liu, H. Z.

364

Estuarine shore platforms in Whanganui Inlet, South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whanganui Inlet is a low mesotidal environment where wave energy at the shoreline is limited due to a small fetch, a narrow entrance and tidal flat accretion to intertidal elevations. Wave energy is therefore only an erosive force at high tide and under storm conditions. Despite this low-energy environment extensive shore platforms occur within the inlet. They are sub-horizontal and range in width from 4.1 to 185.2 m with an average of 44.9 m. All the platforms are formed in sandstone of low resistance (mean N-type Schmidt Hammer rebound value of 17 8) and have their seaward edges buried by intertidal sediment flats. The majority of platforms occur at around MHWN level, corresponding to the elevation of those flats. Where wave energy is highest, opposite the inlet's entrance and at those sites with the largest fetch, platforms develop to 0.5 1.0 m below MSL. A higher platform level is also found at MHWS elevations, however it appears to be relict with active erosion of its seaward edge occurring and therefore is most likely related to a higher mid-Holocene sea level. Apart from the location of the lowest platforms little correspondence is found between platform morphology and wave energy. Platform evolution appears to be intrinsically linked to the intertidal sediment flats which determine the degree of surface saturation of the bedrock and, hence, the number of wetting and drying cycles the platforms may undergo. As the seaward edge is buried platform development is primarily through retreat of the landward cliff. This process can, however, be complicated by the migration of intertidal water channels onto the seaward edge of the platforms or relative sea level fall which may rejuvenate landward retreat of the low-tide cliff.

Kennedy, D. M.; Paulik, R.

2007-08-01

365

Efficient SS steam trap has common inlet/outlet  

SciTech Connect

This article is an evalution of an energy efficient inverted bucket steam trap which received an Honors award in the steam traps category in the 1982 Chemical Processing Vaaler competition because it features a common centerline top inlet/bottom outlet connection which permits closer installation to discharge several traps into a manifold return, and eliminates any repiping on vertical lines to replace other types of traps that may be wasting energy. The common centerline connector with either a screwed or socket weld end fitting is made of carbon steel and welded to the corrosion-resistant Type 304L stainless steel body.

Not Available

1982-11-01

366

Critical flashing flows in nozzles with subcooled inlet conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified theory is presented for the calculation of critical mass flow rates through converging-diverging nozzles with subcooled inlets. It is shown that the correlation of flashing inception leads to the determination that flashing onset occurs virtually at the throat (plane of minimum flow area) in nozzles. It is also shown how this observation, coupled with an accurate prediction for the under-pressure at inception based on Alagmir and Lienhard (1979), leads directly to an accurate computation of the critical discharge rates in nozzles. The mass fluxes predicted on the basis of the proposed theory are within 5 percent of the measurements.

Abuaf, N.; Jones, O. C., Jr.; Wu, B. J. C.

1983-05-01

367

Sea flux of trace metals in Saanich Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea fluxes of trace metals, POC, and settled material were studied in anoxic seawater, Saanich Inlet, B. C., Canada with\\u000a sediment traps. This paper discusses the change of mass fluxes of sediment, trace metals and POC for various seasons and depths.\\u000a The annual mean of settled material is 1.56 g.m?2.a?1, 84.6 mg. m?2.a?1 for POC, 60.0 mg. m?2.a?1 for

Zhan Binqiu; C. S. Wong; K. W. Johnson

1989-01-01

368

SET UP AND OPERATION OF A RECIRCULATING WETTED RIGID MEDIA EVAPORATIVE COOLER INSTALLED IN A GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION INLET AIR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for setting up and operating a recirculating evaporative cooler installed in the combustion air inlet system of a gas turbine is described. The procedure includes a recommendation for selecting the ambient operating wet and dry bulb temperatures. A description of the parameters used in the procedure and calculation methods are shown. In response to frequent inquiries about the

R. S. Johnson

369

Dynamics of suspended matter concentration in Chupa Inlet (Karelian Coast, the White Sea) in summer and autumn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the water and suspended matter concentration dynamics were performed for the summer and autumn periods in Kruglaya Bay, Chupa Inlet (Karelian Coast, the White Sea). The tidal cycle appeared as the major factor defining the water salinity, temperature, and suspended matter concentration. The water temperature and suspended matter concentration increased during low tide, and the opposite pattern was observed for water salinity; all the processes were true for both surface and bottom water layers. Therefore, we conclude that major bulk of the allochtonous suspended matter is carried into the sea by the ebb stream.

Mityaev, M. V.; Gerasimova, M. V.

2010-11-01

370

Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

2010-01-01

371

Induction system for internal combustion engine having multiple inlet valves  

SciTech Connect

An internal combustion engine means defining a combustion chamber; first and second induction ports leading to the combustion chamber; first and second inlet valves for controlling fluid communication between the combustion chamber and the first and second induction ports respectively; an induction manifold including a collector section and a structure which defines first and second induction conduits which lead from the collector section to the first and second induction ports respectively; first and second control valves diesposed in the first and secontd conduits respectively, the first and second flow control valves being located upstream of the first and second inlet valves; a third flow control valve upstream of the collector, the third valve controlling the amount of air which enters the collector; a device for causing the first and second flow control valves to close independently of the third flow control valve and prevent the flow of fluid from the collector section to the combustion chamber during a predetermined first mode of engine operation and for opening the valves when the engine enters a second predetermined mode of engine operation; a third induction port, the third induction port being arranged to merge with the first port at an acute angle at a location downstream of the first flow control valve.

Urabe, S.; Iwasa, Y.

1986-09-23

372

Sediment characteristics and macrofauna distribution along a human-modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

We studied the spatial variability and within-year temporal changes in hydrological features, grain size composition and chemical characteristics of sediments, as well as macrofaunal assemblages, along a heavily modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (western Sardinia, Italy). The inlet connects the Cabras lagoon to the gulf through a series of convoluted creeks and man-made structures, including a dam and fish barriers built in the last three decades. Sediments were muddy and mainly composed of the "non-sortable" fraction (i.e., <8 microm particle size) in all four areas investigated: Lagoon, Creeks, Channel and Seaward. Along the inlet, however, the ratio between the <8 microm and the 8-64 microm fractions was highest in Creeks and Channel, between the fish barriers and the dam, suggesting impaired hydrodynamics. Consistently, steep gradients in water salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in proximity to the fish barriers. The whole inlet was characterized by a major organic enrichment of sediments, with up to an annual mean of 33.6% of organic matter and 11.7% of total organic carbon in Seaward due to the presence of seagrass leaf litter. Acid-volatile sulphide and chromium-reduced sulphur concentrations were highest throughout the year in Seaward and Lagoon, respectively, with a peak in summer. Consistently, the whole inlet supported low structured macrofaunal assemblages dominated by few opportunist species, with a relatively lower diversity in Lagoon throughout the year and the highest abundances in Seaward in summer. We infer that the presence of artificial structures along the inlet, such as fish barriers and the dam, impair the lagoon-gulf hydrodynamics, sediment exchange and animal recruitment and colonization. We suggest that the removal of these structures would favour water renewal in the Cabras lagoon, but would also increase the outflow of organic C-bonding fine particles into the gulf with serious consequences for Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows. We conclude that all possible consequences of such initiatives should be carefully considered before any action is taken. PMID:17335856

Como, S; Magni, P; Casu, D; Floris, A; Giordani, G; Natale, S; Fenzi, G A; Signa, G; De Falco, G

2007-03-01

373

Asymmetrical Flow Simulation of Icing Effects in S-Duct Inlets at Angle of Attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of flow angularity on an S-duct inlet with icing is computationally investigated. Flow angularity is simulated through angle-of-attack, and sideslip in addition to asymmetrical ice accretion on the inlet lip. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CCM+ is used for the steadystate computations with the shear-stress transport (SST) k-? turbulence model. Symmetrical and asymmetrical glaze ice shapes are computationally simulated on the inlet lip. The symmetrical glaze ice uniformly covers the entire cowl lip; whereas the asymmetrical glaze ice is simulated on a 1/4 sector of the inlet lip and is positioned on top, bottom or side of the inlet lip. The results indicate that flow angularity, whether in angle-of-attack or sideslip, aggravates the low performance of inlets with icing. The total pressure recovery suffers an additional ~2% loss and the inlet mass flow rate drops by ~7% when the inlet is at +20 angle of attack, as compared to zero angle, for flight Mach number of 0.34. The extent of loss in total pressure and a drop in mass flow rate depends on the asymmetrical icing location as well as the inlet angle-of-attack and sideslip. In addition, the ice-induced flow blockage is identified as a critical inlet performance parameter, since the symmetrical (360) glaze ice with its wider flow blockage creates a lower total pressure recovery than the asymmetrical (90) glaze ice at all angles of attack or sideslip.

Jin, Wonjin; Taghavi, Ray R.; Farokhi, Saeed

2011-04-01

374

Fission product source terms for the LWR loss-of-coolant accident  

SciTech Connect

Models for cesium and iodine release from light-water reactor (LWR) fuel rods failed in steam were formulated based on experimental fission product release data from several types of failed LWR fuel rods. The models were applied to a pressurized water reactor (PWR) undergoing a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) temperature transient. Calculated total iodine and cesium releases from the fuel rods were 0.053 and 0.025% of the total reactor inventories of these elements, respectively, with most of the release occurring at the time of rupture. These values are approximately two orders of magnitude less than releases used in WASH-1400, the Reactor Safety Study.

Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.

1980-07-01

375

The nature and behavior of particulates in PWR primary coolant  

SciTech Connect

A study of particle size distributions, nature and behavior of insoluble species carried by PWR coolants has been carried out over a four year period in Belgian reactors. Comparative data was obtained by the use of improved sampling systems designed to overcome the inadequacies of standard facilities. Coolant data is presented from commissioning and early operation of new plant to that in established PWR circuits. Results arising from reactors transients are also included, which refer to shutdown and start-up phases, power changes and scram situations. The information obtained includes chemical and radiochemical characteristics of particulates and their contribution to total activity carried by reactor coolant. The implications for plant operations are discussed. 16 refs., 55 figs., 24 tabs.

Bridle, D.A.; Butter, K.R.; Cake, P.; Comley, G.C.W.; Mitchell, C.R. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (UK))

1989-12-01

376

33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operability test; temperature range. 159.119...SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet...

2013-07-01

377

Impacts of underlying stratigraphy, inlet formation, and geomorphology on coastal sediment dynamics: Capers Inlet Quadrangle, SC (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are geologically dynamic, undergoing changes that result from an interplay between underlying and surficial geology and various physical factors including tides, waves, and wind. This study focused on gaining a better understanding of the geologic framework underlying the barrier islands, inlets, and shallow offshore marine areas encompassing the Capers Inlet Quadrangle, South Carolina. Detailed mapping of the area was accomplished using high-resolution sidescan sonar, subbottom profiler, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys supplemented with ground-truthed sediment samples. The surveys show the study area to be highly dynamic and variable in terms of both surficial and stratigraphic geology. Sorted bedform features detected through sidescan sonar surveys are similar to those identified in prior nearshore study in South Carolina as well as other areas along the East Coast of the United States. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler data are also used to identify areas that may be useful for renourishment purposes. Additionally, pre-existing knowledge of local geomorphology is used in combination with the high-resolution geophysical data collected to understand the possible influence of paleochannels identified in the offshore and backbarrier stratigraphy on the overall geologic evolution of the area. Maps created using these data incorporate geologic information into a visual format useful to geologists, policymakers, and members the general public seeking to better understand the shifting geology of the area and region.

Luciano, Katherine Elizabeth

378

Interlaminated ice-proximal glacimarine sediments in Muir Inlet, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Muir Inlet in Glacier Bay, Alaska, is a glacial fjord receiving a tremendous volume of sediment annually. The rate of sediment accumulation is greatest proximal to Muir Glacier (about 9 m yr-1) and decreases away from the glacier. The primary sediment sources are meltwater streams discharging at subglacial and ice-marginal positions to form overflows, interflows, and underflows (continuous turbidity currents). Overflows and interflows interact with diurnal tidal currents and their volume and sediment concentration varies diurnally and annually with meltwater discharge. These effects produce cyclic deposits of a thin fine-grained sand or silt lamina that grades normally to a thicker poorly to very poorly sorted mud lamina. This lamina couplet is termed a cyclopel. Underflows are suggested to occur in this glacimarine environment because of conditions unique to subglacial fluvial systems. Underflow deposits occur only in proximal positions (177 ??m) is ubiquitous, though low (<5% by weight), and occurs as isolated particles, frozen pellets, or as lenses that in cores may have a lamina appearance. Proximally, ice-rafted debris is difficult to identify because proximal sediment is often as coarse-grained. Deposited sediment may be reworked by tidal currents, and sediment gravity flows. Depositional processes operating in Muir Inlet produce interlaminated sand/silt/clay that characterizes sediment proximal to a glacier and fines seaward to mud. Sediment is classified into one of three sediment types: 1. (1) Type I sediment is very fine grained (mean 8.65-7.17 ??), low in sand (0.1-11.2%), and very poorly to poorly sorted. It is the dominant sediment type in Muir Inlet, and is transported by plumes and deposited by suspension settling. 2. (2) Type II sediment is fine- to coarse-grained (mean 6.70-3.12 ??), low to high in sand (5.1-86.6%), and very poorly to moderately sorted. It represents reworked sediment, proximal plume deposits, or coarse-grained laminae of cyclopels. 3. (3) Type III sediment is coarse-grained (mean 3.89-2.38 ??), high in sand (58.0-100.0%), and poorly to well sorted. It is deposited by sediment gravity flows or underflows. ?? 1984.

Mackiewicz, N. E.; Powell, R. D.; Carlson, P. R.; Molnia, B. F.

1984-01-01

379

Coolant monitoring apparatus for nuclear reactors. [PWR; BWR  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring coolant conditions within a pressurized vessel is described. A length of tubing extends outward from the vessel from an open end containing a first line restriction at the location to be monitored. The flowing fluid is cooled and condensed before passing through a second line restriction. Measurement of pressure drop at the second line restriction gives an indication of fluid condition at the first line restriction. Multiple lengths of tubing with open ends at incremental elevations can measure coolant level within the vessel.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-08-06

380

Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800-900C, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10 x 16 skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.

G.K. Housley; K.G. Condie; J.E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

2007-06-01

381

Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the relationship between temperature and heat and kinetic energy and it shows how to convert from degrees Fahrenheit to Centigrade. It also includes links to other resources, data, maps, and classroom activities.

2008-04-08

382

Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment  

DOEpatents

A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-14

383

Experimental and numerical studies of the aeroacoustics of axisymmetric supersonic inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted at an outdoor facility to evaluate the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a supersonic inlet with a modified auxiliary door geometry. A 1\\/14 scale model of an axisymmetric, mixed-compression, supersonic inlet designed for civil transportation (P-inlet) was used in conjunction with a 10.4 cm (4.1 in) turbofan engine simulator, to test a new auxiliary

K. P. Detwiler; Z. Yuan; W. F. Ng

1995-01-01

384

A computational study of icing effects on the performance of an S-duct inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a diffusing S-duct inlet (M2129) is computationally studied for the effects of inlet icing. Different ice accretion shapes, predicted by numerical analysis in the literature reviewed, are simulated on the inlet lip. Two commercial codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+ are used for the steady- and unsteady-state computations. The shear-stress transport (SST) kappa-o turbulence model and large eddy simulation

Wonjin Jin

2009-01-01

385

Seal-Inlet Disturbance Boundary Condition Correlations for Rotordynamics Models, Part 2: Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all seal rotordynamics models were forced to assume that the seal-inlet swirl velocity disturbance boundary condition components (W1C and W1S) are zero. The companion (Part 1) paper employs an extensive parametric study to develop a complete set of widely applicable seal-inlet disturbance boundary condition correlations that will alleviate this shortcoming. The benefits of using the new seal-inlet boundary condition

JINXIANG XI; DAVID L. RHODE

2006-01-01

386

Fan noise reduction from a supersonic inlet during simulated aircraft approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the radiation of fan noise from a supersonic inlet during a simulated aircraft approach. A scaled-down model of an axisymmetric, mixed-compression, supersonic inlet (P-inlet) was used in conjunction with a 10.4 cm (4.1 in) diameter turbofan engine simulator as the noise source. The tests were conducted at an outdoor facility under static

W. E. Nuckolls; W. F. Ng

1995-01-01

387

Design concept of three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider hypersonic inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hypersonic inlet named three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider inlet is presented in this paper to\\u000a achieve the goal of section shape geometric transition and complete capture of the upstream mass. On the basis of the association\\u000a between hypersonic waverider airframe and streamtraced hypersonic inlet, the waverider concept is extended to yield results\\u000a for the internal flows, namely internal

YanCheng You; DeWang Liang

2009-01-01

388

Field and model data analysis of sand transport patterns in Texel Tidal inlet (the Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texel inlet, the largest inlet in the Dutch Wadden Sea, has undergone drastic changes in the morphology of basin, ebb-tidal delta and adjacent coastlines after closure of a major part of its back-barrier basin. Despite intensive monitoring and analysis, present observation-based conceptual models lack the subtle physics necessary to explain the sand exchange between inlet, ebb-tidal delta and adjacent coastlines.Fundamental

E. P. L. Elias; J. Cleveringa; M. C. Buijsman; J. A. Roelvink; M. J. F. Stive

2006-01-01

389

RCS measurements and results of an engine-inlet system design optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of papers have been published on the prediction of backscatter from engine-inlet-type structures. Measured data used to verify these predictions mostly consists of backscattered data from canonical structures, e.g., cylindrical waveguide cavities. In this paper, measured backscattered data for an unmanned aerial vehicle-type engine-inlet system is presented. The effects of the application of radar-absorbing materials to the engine-inlet

J. W. Odendaal; D. Grygier

2000-01-01

390

Effects of the reactor-coolant pumps during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident  

SciTech Connect

TRAC-PD2 calculations indicate that more coolant mass remains in the system when the reactor coolant pumps are left in operation following a small cold-leg break. The analyses were performed for a Westinghouse plant (Zion-1) to help determine whether to trip the pumps at high-pressure injection initiation (the present operator directive), to trip the pumps at some later time in the transient, or to leave the pumps running indefinitely. The loop seals' behavior and the system refill characteristics primarily determined the results. 9 figures.

Elliott, J.L.

1983-01-01

391

Lubricant-Coolant for the Cold Working of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricant-coolant for cold working of metals based on mineral oil and chlorinated paraffin is distinguished by the fact that with the goal of increasing the anticorrosion properties of the liquid, polymeric unsaturated ether acids obtained after the sep...

V. P. Barannik N. K. Zagoruyko L. A. Krasilenko A. M. Kivshits

1970-01-01

392

Advanced Mechanical Seals For Primary Coolant Pumps In PWR Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary pumps are one of the most severe applications of mechanical end face shaft seals. Flowserve has leveraged its unique position as a major Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for primary coolant pumps, backed by the in-house technology of one of the world's foremost suppliers of sealing equipment, to provide advanced mechanical seals for these stringent requirements. However, it has been

David Zagres

393

An experimental investigation on heat transfer in rotating coolant channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a facility and an experimental technique for researching the heat transfer of coolant channels in the rotating turbine blade, and presents the preliminary results of the convective coefficient of the flow parallel to the axis in the rotating conditions. The results show that the effect of rotating on heat transfer is highly enhanced by centrifugal and Coriolis forces.

Wang, Baoguan; Ding, Xiaojiang

1989-07-01

394

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

395

Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

396

Treatment of waste coolants by coagulation and membrane filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the treatment of waste coolant (mobile cut 232) from cutting tools was studied by three processes. The first pre-treatment process, coagulation was tested using four conventional industrial coagulants, aluminium sulphate hydrate, aluminium chloride, iron sulphate pentahydrate and iron chlorite. The second process was filtering the supernatant produced from the first stage using two nanofiltration membranes of 500

Nidal Hilal; Gerald Busca; Federico Talens-Alesson; Brian P Atkin

2004-01-01

397

STEAM AS A REACTOR COOLANT--A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important advantage of steam over other coolants is its ; possible direct use in a condensing turbine after being superheated in the ; reactor. Of the reactor systems discussed, that using heavy water as moderator ; appears to afford the best chance of developing a working unit and also the best ; potential for further improvement. Units employing

1960-01-01

398

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

399

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

400

Antimony tartrate corrosion inhibitive composition for coolant systems  

SciTech Connect

An automobile coolant concentrate is described comprising (a) a liquid polyhydric alcohol chosen from the group consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol and mixtures thereof, and (b) corrosion inhibitors in a corrosion inhibitory amount with respect to corrosion of lead-containing solders, the corrosion inhibitors comprising (i) an alkali metal antimony tartrate, and (ii) an azole compound.

Payerle, N.E.

1987-08-11

401

Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

402

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT COOLANT DISTRIBUTION TESTS. Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were made to determine the head loss coefficient through the inlet ; plenum of the Pathfinder reactor and to determine the now distribution among the ; fuel element nozzles for various operating conditions--with all three pumps ; operating at the same flow rate and with any combination of only two pumps ; operating at the same flow rate. A

J. Wilson; R. Styles

1959-01-01

403

10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting...Section 50.46a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided...

2013-01-01

404

Measurement of Actinide Elements in the Primary Coolant of Gundremmingen Nuclear Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary coolant, either directly or indirectly a potential source of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants, has been analysed for actinide elements. For weekly primary coolant samples from the nuclear power plant Gundremmingen, from the years 19...

G. Rosner

1979-01-01

405

Mechanism of Improvement Effect of Ultrasonically Activated Coolant on Finished Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of an ultrasonically activated coolant improves the roughness of a ground surface compared with that of an ordinary coolant. By evaluating the change in working surface conditions, it has been clarified that the ultrasonically activated coolant suppresses loading and wheel wear, and maintains a good the working surface condition. The flushing effect of the ultrasonically activated coolant, promoted by giant vibration acceleration, prevents the deposition and welding of chips on the working surface. Since the density of kinetic energy in the coolant stream increases, the activation helps the coolant to overcome the airflow due to wheel rotation and to reach the grinding point efficiently. This promotes the cooling and lubricating effects of coolant, and then protects the cutting edges from crushing, falling off and dulling. On the basis of the results, it can be said that the effects of coolant activation suppress the generation of scratches, and consequently improve the finished surface roughness.

Sakamoto, Haruhisa; Kajiwara, Kunio; Shimizu, Shinji; Ohmori, Shigetoshi

406

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

407

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

408

Water radiolysis at high temperatures and pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiolysis of water at high temperatures is very important for nuclear technology, especially in the context of gas generation and corrosion of system surfaces in the coolant circuits of nuclear power reactors. The present report summarizes the curren...

G. R. Dey K. Kishore P. N. Moorthy V. Ramshesh S. B. Srivastava

1990-01-01

409

Detailed evaluation of coolant injection into the reactor vessel with RCS depressurization for high pressure sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coolant injection into the reactor vessel with depressurization of the reactor coolant system (RCS) has been evaluated as part of the evaluation for a strategy of the severe accident management guidance (SAMG). Two high pressure sequences of a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) without safety injection (SI) and a total loss of feedwater (LOFW) accident in Optimized

Rae-Joon Park; Sang-Baik Kim; Seong-Wan Hong; Hee-Dong Kim

2009-01-01

410

Study on Difficulties Peculiar to The Water Coolants for Manned Space Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is used to collect and transfer a large amount of heat in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Pressurized Module, which adopts a water-based coolant. To use this system, it is important to control and maintain coolant properties on orbit. This paper presents improvements of the water-based coolant to maintain its properties, detailed examples of anomalies

Hiroyasu Mizuno; Ichiro Aoki; Yoshiyasu Hayakawa; Koki Oikawa; Kichiro Imagawa

2009-01-01

411

Transient flow analysis in reactor coolant pump systems during flow coastdown period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid flow transient calculation in reactor coolant pump system is important in the safety analysis of a nuclear reactor. An accurate transient analysis of flow coastdown is also important and necessary for the design and manufacture of a reactor coolant pump. Only under the reliable work of a reactor coolant pump the safety of a nuclear power plant can

Hong Gao; Feng Gao; Xianchao Zhao; Jie Chen; Xuewu Cao

2011-01-01

412

Investigating subduction earthquake geology along the southern Hikurangi margin using palaeoenvironmental histories of intertidal inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three marine inlets across the southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand, are investigated for evidence of palaeocoseismic subsidence, a signal associated with great subduction earthquakes. Microfossil analyses and radiocarbon-dated shells from core samples show that none of the sites have subsided since 2000 cal yr BP. Pauatahanui Inlet has remained at the present elevation since 7000 cal yr BP, while Big

KJ Clark; BW Hayward; UA Cochran; HR Grenfell; DC Mildenhall; LM Wallace

2011-01-01

413

NUMERICAL CALCULATION: ASPIRATION EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS INTO THIN-WALLED SAMPLING INLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aspiration efficiency of particles from a flowing airstream into a thin-walled sampling inlet is accurately predicted using a numerical model. he model combines the Boundary Integral Equation Method for predicting the velocity field into the inlet with an analytical solution to t...

414

Performance and Internal Flow of Cross-Flow Fan with Inlet Guide Vane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of angle and length of the inlet guide vane on the performance of the cross-flow fan was examined. By installing guide vane of one sheet in tongue division side in the suction region, the performance of the cross-flow fan becomes more high pressure and high efficient than the case without the guide vane. The prerotation of the inlet

Junichiro Fukutomi; Rei Nakamura

2005-01-01

415

Long-term morphological modeling of a tidal inlet: the Arcachon Basin, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arcachon Lagoon on the French Atlantic coast is a triangular shaped lagoon of 20 km on a side connected to the ocean by a 3-km wide inlet between the mainland and an elongated sand spit. This tidal inlet exhibits a particularly active morphology due to locally strong tidal currents and rough wave conditions. During the past 300 years, minimum

Florence Cayocca

2001-01-01

416

Fan noise reduction from a supersonic inlet during simulated aircraft approach  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the radiation of fan noise from a supersonic inlet during a simulated aircraft approach. A scaled-down model of an axisymmetric, mixed-compression, supersonic inlet (P-inlet) was used in conjunction with a 10.4 cm (4.1 in) diameter turbofan engine simulator as the noise source. The tests were conducted at an outdoor facility under static conditions. The main goal of the experiment was to reduce the forward radiating fan noise by modifying the auxiliary inlet doors. The modified doors are designed to reduce the inlet distortion to the fan face. In addition, the new door design also uses a converging flow passage in order to take advantage of the noise attenuation due to the choking effect at the auxiliary door. The simulator was tested at 60 percent design speed in an attempt to match the simulator noise source to that of a real aircraft engine on approach. Both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were taken in the experiments. The results show that when compared to the original design, the modified auxiliary inlet doors reduced the circumferential inlet distortion to the fan face by a factor of two. The key result is that the blade passing frequency tone has been decreased by an average of 6dB in the forward sector for the modified door design. Results from the closed auxiliary inlet door case are also presented to provide additional comparisons.

Nuckolls, W.E.; Ng, W.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-04-01

417

Conservation of threespine and ninespine stickleback radiations in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pun- gitius) are both species complexes with many unique and reproductively isolated biological species throughout their range. Both complexes exhibit phenomenal morphological and eco- logical diversity, including rare phenotypes, in the Cook Inlet Basin in Southcentral Alaska. The Cook Inlet threespine stickleback radiation has been used intensively since the early 1990s

Frank A. von Hippel

2008-01-01

418

Pond inlet, northern Baffin island: The structure of an Eskimo resource area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and yield of hunting, trapping and fishing areas around Pond Inlet in northern Baffin Land are analyzed on the basis of interviews with local Eskimos. Despite the abandonment of outlying Eskimo camps and the concentration of population in the central settlement of Pond Inlet since the 1960's, virtually all the former hunting and fishing areas continue to be

Erhard Treude

1977-01-01

419

The Late Holocene Stratigraphy of an Inlet-Dominated Barrier Island, Pea Island, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological, foraminiferal, geochemical, and geophysical data sets as well as aerial photographs have been used to investigate the natural processes (inlet dynamics, ocean\\/estuarine washover, and sea-level change) responsible for the late Holocene units preserved in the barrier island subsurface at Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. Historic nautical charts indicate that three inlets characterized Pea Island between early European exploration (1590)

C. G. Smith; D. Ames; D. R. Corbett; S. Culver; D. Mallinson; S. R. Riggs; D. Vance

2002-01-01

420

Petroleum geology and development of the Cook Inlet basin of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major oil and gas fields of Alaska are located in or adjacent to Cook Inlet, 60 - 80 miles SW. of Anchorage. Results of exploration and development work to date provide the basis for a conservative estimate of an ultimate reserve in the Cook Inlet Basin of 1.5 billion bbl of oil and 5 trillion cu ft of gas.

F. C. Osment; R. M. Morrow; R. W. Craig

1967-01-01

421

Characterization of four-inlet ducted rocket engine geometries: An optical diagnostics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops and demonstrates a methodology to characterize the mixing and flameholding potential of four-inlet ducted rocket engine geometries. Water flow visualization was performed on various four-inlet ducted rocket engine combustor models over a range of flow rates and various geometries to investigate and characterize the internal mixing and flow field structures existing for each condition. The qualitative results

Christopher Michael Brophy

1997-01-01

422

Expansion and Evaluation of an Artificial Reef off Murrell's Inlet, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a project to improve sport fishing out of Murrell's Inlet by establishing well marked artificial reefs close to the inlet, expansion of the Paradise Artificial Reef, and research on the effect of this reef on the marine environment, t...

R. B. Stone C. C. Buchanan R. O. Parker

1973-01-01

423

ON THE MODIFICATION OF THE LOW FLOW-RATE PM10 DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER INLET  

EPA Science Inventory

A popular flat-topped inlet used for the collection of atmospheric particulate matter was modified to reduce water intrusion during rain and snow events. Simple alterations in the intake region of this inlet were made, including a larger drain hole, a one piece top plate, and ...

424

A near real-time scour monitoring system at Indian River Inlet, Delaware, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian River Inlet is the only connection between the Atlantic Ocean and Rehoboth and Indian River Bays. The inlet has been problematic from an engineering standpoint since locals and state agencies first tried to make the opening permanent in the late 1920's. Localized scour is of particular concern to state officials due to its proximity to supporting bridge piers

J. A. Puleo; J. T. Hayden

2009-01-01

425

Development of an effusive inlet for mass spectrometric gas analysis of hypersonic boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a microchannel plate (MCP) as a mass spectrometer inlet device to allow nonintrusive sampling of flight vehicle boundary layers is investigated. Two possible configurations for mounting the inlet are studied: (1) flow coaxial with the channels; and (2) flow perpendicular to the channel axis. The test gases are pure Kr; pure Ne; and a mixture of 10

Kenneth G. Brown; Charles E. Fishel; David R. Brown; Beverley W. Lewis; George M. Wood Jr.

1987-01-01

426

Symptomatic gastric inlet patches in children treated with argon plasma coagulation: a case series  

PubMed Central

The pathologic potential of gastric inlet patches is now being recognized. A recent adult study has shown the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in ablating the patch and the associated symptoms. There are no reports of ablation in children. We report a case series of successful argon plasma coagulation of gastric inlet patches and their symptoms in 5 children.

Chanis, Ricardo; Khoshoo, Vikram

2012-01-01

427

CLINICAL RESEARCH CT and MR imaging for detecting neoplastic invasion of esophageal inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Direct neoplastic invasion of esophageal inlet is an uncommon but significant sequela of advanced head and neck carcinomas. The aim of this study was to seek an optimal CT or MRI criterion for determining the neoplastic esophageal inlet involvement in order to help tumor staging and surgical planning. METHODS: CT and MRI of 78 head and neck tumor cases

Bin Chen; Shan-Kai Yin; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Ying-Sheng Cheng

428

Comparison of diesel-engine inlet-valve flows under steady state and motoring conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow through the inlet valve gap of a Diesel engine cylinder head has been measured under steady flow and motored engine conditions. The excellent agreement between the swirling flows generated at maximum valve lift justifies the use of steady flow data as inlet conditions for the computational fluid dynamic modelling of engine cylinder flows.

Hoefler, T.; Pitcher, G.; Wigley, G.

1993-08-01

429

Direct Air-Sampling Inlet for Surface Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Airborne Particles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A direct air-sampling inlet for a surface ionization mass spectrometer has been developed. The inlet consists of four elements: (1) a capillary nozzle through which the ambient air is drawn generating a particle beam with small divergence; (2) a ''skimmer...

J. J. Stoffels

1976-01-01

430

Direct air-sampling inlet for surface ionization mass spectrometry of airborne particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct air-sampling inlet for a surface ionization mass spectrometer has been developed. The inlet consists of four elements: (1) a capillary nozzle through which the ambient air is drawn generating a particle beam with small divergence; (2) a ''skimmer'' which skims off the bulk of the air expanding into a vacuum of 1 Torr while simultaneously transmitting the particle

Stoffels

1976-01-01

431

Summary of investigations of the use of modified turbine inlet conditions in a binary power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter

G. L. Mines

2000-01-01

432

Summary of Investigations of the Use of Modified Turbine Inlet Conditions in a Binary Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter

Mines; Gregory Lee

2000-01-01

433

33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. 80.703 Section 80.703 Navigation and Navigable... Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from...

2013-07-01

434

33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. 80.703 Section 80.703 Navigation and Navigable... Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from...

2009-07-01

435

33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. 80.703 Section 80.703 Navigation and Navigable... Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from...

2010-07-01

436

33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. (a) The...

2013-07-01

437

33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger...

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

2010-07-01

439

40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM 2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

2013-07-01

440

40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

2009-07-01

441

Computational Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of the Helium Inlet Options for the ITER Central Solenoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 3D CFD model has been developed and applied to the hydraulic analysis of three different inlet options for the ITER Central Solenoid. From the point of view of flow repartition among the petals, it appears that shorter, more compact options have even a marginal advantage over a long slit inlet; their hydraulic impedance is larger, but always within

Roberto Zanino; Nicolai N. Martovetsky; Andrea Pasquali; Laura Savoldi Richard; Daniele Speziani

2012-01-01

442

Effect of Obstruction Near Fan Inlet on Fan Heat Sink Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact electronic enclosures requiring forced air cooling often have airflow obstructions located very close to the fan inlet. The adverse effects of these obstructions are not well understood even using modern CFD techniques. In this study a thorough experimental investigation was carried out on the thermal, airflow and acoustic effects of an obstruction very near to the fan inlet for

Vivek Khaire; Avijit Goswami; J. V. Bhandari

2006-01-01

443

ESTIMATED ABUNDANCE OF BELUGA WHALES IN COOK INLET, ALASKA, FROM AERIAL SURVEYS CONDUCTED IN JUNE 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducted aerial surveys of the beluga population in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 2-9 June 2009 as a continuum of surveys conducted since 1993. Five of the days in 2009 resulted in complete surveys of the beluga habitat in the upper inlet (north of East Foreland and West Foreland); and the remaining three days included surveys

Roderick C. Hobbs; Christy L. Sims; Kim E. W. Shelden; David J. Rugh

444

Characteristics of flow distribution in compact parallel flow heat exchangers, part I: Typical inlet header  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study experimentally and numerically investigates the single-phase flow into parallel flow heat exchangers with inlet and outlet rectangular headers having square cross section and 9 circular tubes. The effects of inlet flow condition, tube diameter, header size, area ratio, flow directions (Z and U-type), as well as the gravity are investigated. The experimental results indicate that flow distribution for

Chi-Chuan Wang; Kai-Shing Yang; Jhong-Syuan Tsai; Ing Youn Chen

2011-01-01

445

Microelectrical Mechanical Systems Flow Control Used to Manage Engine Face Distortion in Compact Inlet Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turbofan engine-face flow distortion is one of the most troublesome and least understood problems for designers of modern engine inlet systems. One concern is that there are numerous sources of flow-field distortion that are ingested by the inlet or gener...

B. H. Anderson D. N. Miller

1999-01-01

446

Sand separator efficiency calculation for the JVX tilt rotor aircraft inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational method is presented to evaluate the sand separator effectiveness of the JVX (V-22 Osprey) inertial particle separator engine inlet. State-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and patch parametric mathematical modeling of the inlet geometry are applied to compute sand particle trajectories about the inlet. Results show good sand separation characteristics of the inlet design recommended for full scale development. Detailed 3-dimensional computer graphics simulation of sand particle motion is performed which demonstrates the interactive design/analysis capability of the method. By analyzing trajectories of water droplets, instead of sand particles, this method is directly applicable to icing analysis problems of helicopter and V/STOL aircraft engine inlets.

Kim, J. J.; Breer, M. D.; Gass, J.; Kneeling, D.

447

Experimental characteristics of a supersonic three-dimensional air inlet with adjustable throat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we discuss results of an experimental study of performance characteristics of a 3D inlet with a flow-metering device at free-stream Mach numbers M = 1.75 and 2. The inlet was designed using gas-dynamic design methods. The initial external compression in the inlet is achieved using a V-shaped body called a waverider. The inlet is provided with a special device for its starting, also permitting regulation of the internal channel cross-sectional area in the throat region with the help of paired rotary panels, throat doors. The flow-rate and total-pressure loss characteristics in the throat of the model inlet were determined as functions of the degree of opening of the throat doors.

Gounko, Yu. P.; Mazhul, I. I.

2013-03-01

448

Experimental Research on Gas-Solid Flow in a Square Cyclone Separator with Double Inlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A square cyclone separator with double inlets was developed for a new type Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler arrangement scheme including two furnaces. Experiments on the performance and gas-solid flow recorded by a high-speed photography have been conducted in a cold test rig with a separator cross section 400mm400mm. Experimental results indicated that with the inlet velocity of 22.4m/s and the inlet solids concentration of 4.9g/m3, the cut size is 15 ?m, the critical size is 75?m, and the pressure drop coefficient is 1.7. The performance is also affected by the inlet velocity and solids concentration. The trajectory of particles shows that the particles swirl in the region near the wall and are easily separated. Especially, the instantaneous separation occurred at the corner is very significant for the improvement of the collection efficiency with the high inlet solids concentration for CFB boiler.

Xiong, B.; Lu, X. F.; Amano, R. S.; Shu, C.

449

Mode detection in turbofan inlets from near field sensor arrays.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the modal content of the sound field radiated from a turbofan inlet is important for source characterization and for helping to determine noise generation mechanisms in the engine. An inverse technique for determining the mode amplitudes at the duct outlet is proposed using pressure measurements made in the near field. The radiated sound pressure from a duct is modeled by directivity patterns of cut-on modes in the near field using a model based on the Kirchhoff approximation for flanged ducts with no flow. The resulting system of equations is ill posed and it is shown that the presence of modes with eigenvalues close to a cutoff frequency results in a poorly conditioned directivity matrix. An analysis of the conditioning of this directivity matrix is carried out to assess the inversion robustness and accuracy. A physical interpretation of the singular value decomposition is given and allows us to understand the issues of ill conditioning as well as the detection performance of the radiated sound field by a given sensor array. PMID:17348504

Castres, Fabrice O; Joseph, Phillip F

2007-02-01

450

Smart actuation of inlet guide vanes for small turbine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity over the past few years to become an indispensable part of aerial missions that include reconnaissance, surveillance, and communication [1]. As a result, advancements in small jet-engine performance are needed to increase the performance (range, payload and efficiency) of the UAV. These jet engines designed especially for UAV's are characterized by thrust force on the order of 100N and due to their size and weight limitations, may lack advanced flow control devices such as IGV [2]. The goal of the current study was to present a conceptual design of an IGV smart-material based actuation mechanism that would be simple, compact and lightweight. The compressor section of an engine increases the pressure and conditions the flow before the air enters the combustion chamber [3]. The airflow entering the compressor is often turbulent due to the high angle of incidence between engine inlet and free-stream velocity, or existing atmospheric turbulence. Actuated IGV are used to help control the relative angle of incidence of the flow that enters the engine compressor, thereby preventing flow separation, compressor stall and thus extending the compressor's operating envelope [4]. Turbine jet- engines which employ variable IGV were developed by Rolls Royce (Trent DR-900) and General Electric (J79).

Rusovici, Razvan; Kwok Choon, Stephen T.; Sepri, Paavo; Feys, Joshuo

2011-03-01

451

Detecting Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Current research into the function of carbonic anhydrases in cell physiology emphasizes the role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases, such as carbonic anhydrase IX that has been identified in malignant tumors and is associated with extracellular acidification as a response to hypoxia. We present here a mass spectrometric method to determine the extent to which total carbonic anhydrase activity is due to extracellular carbonic anhydrase in whole cell preparations. The method is based on the biphasic rate of depletion of 18O from CO2 measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The slopes of the biphasic depletion are a sensitive measure of the presence of carbonic anhydrase outside and inside of the cells. This property is demonstrated here using suspensions of human red cells in which external carbonic anhydrase was added to the suspending solution. It is also applied to breast and prostate cancer cells which both express exofacial carbonic anhydrase IX. Inhibition of external carbonic anhydrase is achieved by use of a membrane impermeant inhibitor that was synthesized for this purpose, p-aminomethylbenzenesulfonamide attached to a polyethyleneglycol polymer.

Delacruz, Joannalyn; Mikulski, Rose; Tu, Chingkuang; Li, Ying; Wang, Hai; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Frost, Susan C.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Silverman, David N.

2010-01-01

452

Contribution of nonlinear mechanisms in the persistence of multiple tidal inlet systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple tidal inlet stability has been modeled following either a single-inlet stability approach or a simple linear analytical approach, and the results suggest that these systems are not stable. However, there is evidence that shallow multiple tidal inlet systems are strongly nonlinear and that they can be stable on a historical time scale. Based on numerical simulations of the hydrodynamics of Ra Formosa, a shallow lagoon in the south of Portugal, in which multiple tidal inlets have persisted in a historical time scale, the effects of tidal distortion and residual circulation on the persistence of multiple inlets in the system were analyzed. Numerical simulations using a 2-D vertically averaged finite element model served (1) to identify the existence of three hydrodynamically independent sub-embayments in the system, (2) to create realistic physical disturbances (change in inlet cross-sectional area) and analyze the hydrodynamic response of the system to such disturbances, (3) to identify and quantify the existing nonlinear hydrodynamic processes (tidal distortion, ebb/flood dominance, residual flow patterns), and (4) to analyze the overall stability of the western sub-embayment using the closure curve approach. The results show the importance of the nonlinear processes in the hydrodynamics of multiple inlet systems, and the need to consider them when analyzing inlet stability in such systems, and suggest that, specifically for Ra Formosa, if the existing jetties at one of the inlets in the western sub-embayment were removed, this area of the system would reach natural stability and equilibrium with three inlets.

Salles, P.; Voulgaris, G.; Aubrey, D. G.

2005-11-01

453

Investigating the Influence of Wave Climate on Beach Morphodynamics at Matanzas Inlet, Florida Atlantic Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier island systems, common to the East coast of North America, are characterized by long, straight beaches interrupted by tidal inlets that serve to exchange fluid and sediment between estuaries and oceans. These inlets often build ebb tidal deltas that disrupt the nearshore wave field responsible for longshore sediment transport, whose gradients result in erosion, accretion, and shoreline change. The development of numerical models to simulate coastal geomorphic response to wave climate, sea level rise, and terrestrial sedimentary inputs will be aided by data sets documenting oceanic forcing and beach morphologic change at inlets. To better understand the natural seasonal variability in beach morphology at an inlet-influenced barrier island site, we have developed a field-based monitoring program at Matanzas Inlet, on the Florida Atlantic coast. This site was selected, in part, because it is the only inlet (of 19 along the Florida Atlantic coast) that has not experienced substantial anthropogenic modification. Monthly, differential GPS beach surveys (beginning in January 2009) document intertidal beach change within the ~2.5 km adjacent to the mouth of Matanzas Inlet. Time series data of volumetric beach change and shoreline position are compared to wave height, period, and direction data from a nearby NDBC buoy (Station 41012). Initial results suggest that gross beach volumetric change is correlated with deep-water wave direction; highly oblique waves correspond greatest gross morphologic variability. In addition, increasing wave periods, associated with more stable and orthogonal wave directions correspond to decreased intertidal beach erosion culminating in net accretion. Preliminary observations of changes in shoreline location render a persistent zone of accretion, during a period of mild, summer wave climate, located on the north side of the inlet. This may be due to the growth of the inlets ebb-tidal delta providing a natural trap for southward-directed longshore sediment transport.

Malone, K. K.; Adams, P. N.

2009-12-01

454

EXPERIMENT OPERATIONS PLAN FOR A LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACCIDENT SIMULATION IN THE NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSAL REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident phenomena are being simulated with a series of experiments in the U-2 loop of the National Research Universal Reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The first of these experiments includes up to 45 parametric thermal-hydraulic tests to establish the relationship between the reflood delay time of emergency coolant, the reflooding rate, and the resultant fuel rod cladding peak temperature. This document contains both experiment proposal and assembly proposal information. The intent of this document is to supply information required by the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), and to identify the planned procedures and data that will be used both to establish readiness to proceed from one test phase to the next and to operate the experiment. Operating control settings and limits are provided for both experimenter systems and CRNL systems. A hazards review summarizes safety issues that have been addressed during the development of the experiment plan.

Russcher, G. E.; Cannon, L. W.; Goodman, R. L.; Hesson, G. M.; King, L. L.; McDuffie, P. N.; Marshall, R. K.; Nealley, C.; Pilger, J. P.; Mohr, C. L.

1981-04-01

455

Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

1994-04-01

456

Reactor coolant pump reliability improvement through mechanical shaft seal retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The reliable operation of reactor coolant (RCPs) in pressurized water reactors is necessary for high availability of power plants and economic production of electricity. Large diameters and high differential pressures require specialized shaft seal designs to be utilized in these pumps. One operator was experiencing frequent forced outages on two 1200-MW plants caused by unacceptable leakage rates of reactor coolant through the shaft seals. After unsuccessful attempts to improve performance with the original equipment design, other alternatives were evaluated. The result of this evaluation was an industry first program to replace the existing shaft seal with a proven design from a different manufacturer. This paper chronicles the actual program to select, design, test, install, and monitor performance on the RCP seal retrofit.

Shaw, S.W.; Cummings, D.L.

1988-01-01

457

Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP-100 space nuclear power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from ENDF/B-V data via the MATXS6s master cross section library. Cross sections were self shielded assuming one homogeneous core region, and Doppler broadened to 1300 K using the cross section preparation code TRANSX. Calculations were performed using an S sub 4/P sub 1 approximation and 80 neutron energy groups. Part Two of the study consisted of a theoretical investigation into the behavior of helium gas in the primary loop of lithium cooled space reactors. The SP-100 space power system was used as a representative of such a system. Topics investigated included: (1) heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation; (2) bubble growth/collapse by diffusion, mechanical temperature/pressure effects, and coalescence; and, (3) the effects on bubble distribution of microgravity, magnetic fields, and inertially induced buoyancy.

McGhee, John Morton

1989-08-01

458

Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System  

SciTech Connect

The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from ENDF/B-V data via the MATXS6s master cross section library. Cross sections were self shielded assuming one homogeneous core region, and doppler broadened to 1300 K using the cross section preparation code TRANSX. Calculations were performed using an S{sub 4}/P{sub 1} approximation and 80 neutron energy groups. Part Two of the study consisted of a theoretical investigation into the behavior of helium gas in the primary loop of lithium cooled space reactors. The SP-100 space power system was used as a representative of such a system. Topics investigated included: (1) heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation; (2) bubble growth/collapse by diffusion, mechanical temperature/pressure effects, and coalescence; and, (3) the effects on bubble distribution of microgravity, magnetic fields, and inertially induced buoyancy. 104 refs., 78 figs., 28 tabs.

McGhee, J.M.

1989-08-01

459

High temperature hot water heat pump with non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture HCFC22\\/HCFC141b  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-to-water high temperature heat pump was studied experimentally. The performance of the system was characterized by refrigerant compositions, compressor RPM and water temperature change. For the experimental conditions of the inlet water temperature of evaporator of 40 C and the inlet and outlet water temperatures of the condenser of 70 and 80 C, respectively, the experiment shows that the

T. X. Li; K. H. Guo; R. Z. Wang

2002-01-01

460

Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps  

DOEpatents

This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

1992-12-31

461

Evaluation of organic moderator/coolants for fusion breeder blankets  

SciTech Connect

Organic coolants have several attractive features for fusion breeder blanket design. Their apparent compatibility with lithium and their ideal physical and nuclear properties allows straight-forward, high performance designs. Radiolytic damage can be reduced to about the same order as comparable fission systems by using multiplier/stripper blanket designs. Tritium recovery from the organic should be straightforward, but additional data is needed to make a better assessment of the economics of the process.

Romero, J.B.

1980-03-01

462

SURVEY OF NONMETALLIC LIQUID COOLANTS FOR NUCLEAR-POWER PILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey of the literature was made in an effort to ;\\u000a identify nonmetallic materials of possible usefulness as liquid coolants. ;\\u000a Materials having maximum melting points of 1000 deg F and boiling points of l200 ;\\u000a deg F were considered, but boiling points above 2200 deg F were preferred. ;\\u000a Melting points, boiling points, densities, heat capacities, and

H. L. Shaw; F. W. Boulger

1950-01-01

463

Rotating solid radiative coolant system for space nuclear reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RING power system described in this paper is proposed as a primary or emergency heat rejection system for advanced space reactor power applications. The system employs a set of four (4) counter-rotating, 90 degree offset, coolant-carrying rings. The rings (segmented, corrugated, finned, thin-walled pipes, filled with liquid lithium) pass through a cavity heat exchanger and reradiate the absorbed heat to the space environment.

Apley, W. J.; Babb, A. L.

1988-05-01

464

STUDIES ON THE STABILITIES AND ALLIED PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COOLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of either pure orthoterphenyl, metaterphenyl, paraterphenyl or mixtures of these as reactor coolants in a power reactor has been under investigation for some time. The thermal and radiation stabilities of Santowax-R and SantowaxOM1 to gamma-rays and reactor radiations have already been examined. The thermal stabilities of pure o-terphenyl and m-terphenyl as well as the results of some of

K. N. Rao; R. M. Iyer; K. V. S. R. Rao; M. Iyer; S. K. Dayal; M. S. Panajkar; K. N. Bhide

1965-01-01

465

Cladding embrittlement during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel burnup on the embrittlement of various cladding alloys was examined with laboratory tests conducted under conditions relevant to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The cladding materials tested were Zircaloy-4, Zircaloy-2, ZIRLO, M5, and E110. Tests were performed with specimens sectioned from as-fabricated cladding, from prehydrided (surrogate for high-burnup) cladding, and from high-burnup fuel rods which had been irradiated

M. Billone; Y. Yan; T. Burtseva; R. Daum

2008-01-01

466

Aerodynamic performance of a transonic turbine guide vane with trailing edge coolant ejection. Part 1: Experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Inlet guide vanes (IGV) of high-temperature gas turbines require an effective trailing edge cooling. But this cooling significantly influences the aerodynamic performance caused by the unavoidable thickening of the trailing edge and the interference of the cooling flow with the main flow. As part of a comprehensive research program, an inlet guide vane was designed and manufactured with two different trailing edge shapes. The results from the cascade tests show that the flow behavior upstream of the trailing edge remains unchanged. The homogeneous values downstream show higher turning and higher losses for the cut-back blade, especially in the supersonic range. Additional tests were conducted with carbon dioxide ejection, in order to analyze the mixing process downstream of the cascade.

Kapteijn, C.; Amecke, J. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Michelassi, V. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dept. of Energetics

1996-07-01

467

Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant pumps and valves  

SciTech Connect

Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors contains one reactor coolant pump, one PUMP suction side motor operated valve, and other smaller valves. The pumps me double suction, double volute, and radially split type pumps. The valves are different size shutoff and control valves rated from ANSI B16.5 construction class 150 to class 300. The reactor coolant system components, also known as the process water system (PWS), are classified as nuclear Safety Class I components. These components were constructed in the 1950`s in accordance with the then prevailing industry practices. No uniform construction codes were used for design and analysis of these components. However, no pressure boundary failures or bolting failures have ever been recorded throughout their operating history. Over the years, the in-service inspection (ISI) was limited to visual inspection of the pressure boundaries, and surface and volumetric examination of the pressure retaining bolts. Efforts are now underway to implement ISI requirements similar to the ASME Section XI requirements for pumps and valves. This report discusses the new ISI requirements which also call for volumetric examination of the pump casing and valve body welds.

Gupta, N.K.; Miller, R.F.; Sindelar, R.L.

1993-05-01

468

Long-Term Sediment Dynamics in a Tidal Salt Marsh, North Inlet, South Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt marshes along the southeastern U.S. coast are in a delicate balance between rates of sediment accretion and relative sea level rise. Short-term sediment flux studies in the region indicate a net export of suspended sediment out of salt marsh systems despite the necessity for these marshes to import sediment in order to keep pace with relative sea level rise. Long-term suspended sediment concentration data collected daily through the Long-Term Ecological Research Program (LTER) are utilized in this study. The objective of this study is to identify the relative importance of different processes including tidal range, rainfall, winds, water temperature and river discharge in effecting suspended sediment concentrations in salt marsh channels. The study area is a small {\\Spartina}- and {\\Juncus}-dominated salt marsh located at North Inlet, South Carolina. Suspended sediment concentrations were collected daily at 3 sites in the marsh basin at approximately 1000 hrs EST for a period of 10 to 15 years. The determination of how suspended sediment concentrations vary with respect to the tidal cycle required identification of the phase within the cycle that the sample was collected. This was achieved predicting tidal phases using sea surface elevation data. Suspended sediment concentrations collected during periods of different rainfall, tidal ranges, wind conditions, water temperatures and freshwater discharge were used to develop "representative" tidal cycles for each of the aforementioned forcings. Mean suspended sediment concentrations were found to be highest during the ebb tide while the lowest concentrations were found following high and low slack water. These concentrations vary spatially throughout the marsh with the highest concentrations located at the most landward site and lowest at the site nearest the inlet. A seasonal bias of suspended sediment concentrations was observed with highest concentrations in the summer months. Import of sediment in the system coincides with spring tides while export occurs during neap tidal conditions. Rainfall increases sediment concentration in the channels and appears to be associated with periods of sediment redistribution within the marsh. The impact of river discharge on suspended sediment concentrations affects the marsh over longer time intervals with years of low discharge into adjacent Winyah Bay coinciding with periods of low suspended sediment concentrations. Water discharge through each channel will be estimated using harmonic analysis of tidal current records collected over a 30-day period in order to resolve spring-neap variations in tidal velocity. The coupling of mean suspended sediment concentration and water discharge of the same phase will later be used to produce a long-term sediment budget for the marsh basin.

Murphy, S.; Voulgaris, G.

2001-05-01

469

Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel: Acoustic data report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in a wind tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a CTOL hybrid inlet, an STOL hybrid inlet, and a treated

M. T. Moore

1981-01-01

470

Induction system for internal combustion engine having multiple inlet valves per combustion chamber  

SciTech Connect

In an internal combustion engine a combustion chamber is described comprising: first and second inlet valves, the first inlet valve being arranged to open at a first predetermined timing prior the end of the exhaust phase of the engine. The second inlet valve is arranged to open essentially at the end of the exhaust phase; a first conduit leading from a source of air to the first inlet valve; a second induction conduit leading from the source of air to the second inlet valve; an engine throttle valve operatively interposed between the source of air and the first and second induction conduits; a flow control valve disposed in the first induction conduit for cutting off communication between the source of air and the first inlet valve when the engine is operating in a first mode and for permitting the communication when the engine is operating under a second mode; and an air bleed formed only in the first induction conduit at a location downstream of and proximate the flow control valve for permitting a controlled amount of air to enter the first inlet conduit.

Aoyama, S.; Fujii, H.; Kato, M.

1986-12-16

471

Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

2012-11-01

472

Classifier utility modeling and analysis of hypersonic inlet start/unstart considering training data costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Start/unstart detection is one of the most important issues of hypersonic inlets and is also the foundation of protection control of scramjet. The inlet start/unstart detection can be attributed to a standard pattern classification problem, and the training sample costs have to be considered for the classifier modeling as the CFD numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments of hypersonic inlets both cost time and money. To solve this problem, the CFD simulation of inlet is studied at first step, and the simulation results could provide the training data for pattern classification of hypersonic inlet start/unstart. Then the classifier modeling technology and maximum classifier utility theories are introduced to analyze the effect of training data cost on classifier utility. In conclusion, it is useful to introduce support vector machine algorithms to acquire the classifier model of hypersonic inlet start/unstart, and the minimum total cost of hypersonic inlet start/unstart classifier can be obtained by the maximum classifier utility theories.

Chang, Juntao; Hu, Qinghua; Yu, Daren; Bao, Wen

2011-11-01

473

Comparison of Predicted and Measured Low-Speed Performance of Two 51 Centimeter-Diameter Inlets at Incidence Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical and experimental internal flow characteristics of two 51-cm-diameter inlets are compared. Theoretical flow characteristics along the inlet surface were obtained from an axisymmetric potential flow and boundary layer analysis. The experimental ...

J. A. Albers

1973-01-01

474

A study on the rotating stall of centrifugal compressors. II - Effect of vaneless diffuser inlet shape on rotating stall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating stall induced in a vaneless diffuser is examined. Combinations of several low-specific-speed impellers and three types of diffusers with different inlet shape are tested. In the lower specific-speed stages, the critical inlet-flow angle for rotating stall depends not only on diffuser width ratio and contraction ratio, but also on the inlet shape of the diffuser. As the inlet shape parameter becomes smaller than value of 0.1, the critical inlet-flow angle becomes larger than the predicted value by the Senoo method. The empirical prediction formula of critical inlet-flow angle in the first report is corrected by considering the influence of inlet shape. Influence of inlet shape on rotating stall phenomenon is also shown.

Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nishida, Hideo; Takagi, Takeo; Fukushima, Yasuo

1990-09-01

475

49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices. (a...be equipped with one separate air connection. (b) When...bowl must be of good welding quality in conjunction with the...discharge devices, or venting and air inlet devices are...

2011-10-01

476

49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices. (a...be equipped with one separate air connection. (b) When...bowl must be of good welding quality in conjunction with the...discharge devices, or venting and air inlet devices are...

2012-10-01

477

33 CFR 100.1309 - Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA. 100.1309 Section 100.1309...100.1309 Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA. (a) Regulated area. The...

2013-07-01

478

Model Test Results of Circular, Square, and Rectangular Forms of Drop-Inlet Entrance to Closed-Conduit Spillways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory research studies were performed to develop closed-conduit spillways that have single-valued characteristics and to develop criteria for predicting the minumum hydraulic performance of drop-inlet spillways when vortex formation at the inlet is n...

H. W. Humphreys G. Sigurdsson H. J. Owen

1970-01-01

479

Investigation of Starting Techniques for Inward Turning Inlets at Flight Speeds below the On-Design Mach Number.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to create and investigate starting techniques aimed at allowing complex, three-dimensional, inward-turning inlets to start by swallowing the shock wave associated with unstarted inlets. The techniques are rooted in supersonic...

J. D. Mack

2005-01-01

480

An experiment to determine the operating envelope of an SES waterjet inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Procedures for testing flowing waterjet inlet models are discussed which have application to the study of the problems of air ingestion and broaching in SESs. Paths that allow the cushion air to escape under the sidehulls exist at several operating conditions, and the escape of cushion air can be prevented by using fences. The first regime where broaching of the inlets can occur is encountered between the secondary and primary hump speeds of the craft. It is noted that if fences are not used to overcome the effects of broaching, then means of ensuring adequate immersion of the inlets should be provided.

Durkin, John M.

1989-06-01

481

49 CFR 195.413 - Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. 195.413 ...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. (a) Except...to identify its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters...

2009-10-01

482

49 CFR 195.413 - Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. 195.413...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. (a) Except...identify its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters...

2011-10-01

483

49 CFR 192.612 - Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. 192.612...and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. (a) Each...identify its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters...

2011-10-01

484

Inlet Performance Characteristics of a Generalized 1/5.2-Scale Aircraft Model at Transonic and Supersonic Mach Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind tunnel investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.55 to 2.0 on a 1/5.2-scale composite inlet model to evaluate configuration factors which affected inlet performance. In addition, flow-field surveys were made at the inlet throat...

J. Walker

1976-01-01

485

Results from the DC8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

During May and June of 2003 NASA conducted the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE). The study was undertaken to quantify the performance of three passive, solid diffuser inlets used aboard the DC-8 aircraft to sample optically effective aerosol sizes. Aerosol optical properties measured behind the University of Hawai'i (UH) and the University of New Hampshire (UNH) inlets were within 10%

Cameron S. McNaughton; Antony D. Clarke; Steven G. Howell; Mitchell Pinkerton; Bruce Anderson; Lee Thornhill; Charlie Hudgins; Edward Winstead; Jack E. Dibb; Eric Scheuer; Hal Maring

2007-01-01

486

30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation...77.305 Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in...

2013-07-01

487

Temporary core liquid level depression during a cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident; The effect of break size and power level  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident experiments that were conducted for break areas ranging from 0.5 to 10% of the scaled cold-leg flow area using the Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1/48 volumetrically scaled simulator of a Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor. For all the experiments, the core collapsed liquid level was temporarily depressed when liquid in the primary loop U-bend (crossover leg) was being cleared by steam. For scaled break areas {lt}2.5%, the minimum core liquid level was equal to the lowest elevation of the crossover leg. For break areas {gt}5%, the minimum core level was even lower because differential pressures created by the residual liquid holdup in the steam generator (SG) upflow side affected the core liquid level adversely. This influence of SG liquid holdup on the minimum core liquid level was larger for larger break sizes within the range of these experiments; thus, a more severe core level depression was seen for larger break sizes. Also, for the same break size, the core level depression was more severe when higher core power values were used for the simulation of the postscram core power decay. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonably observed in the experiments; however, several shortcomings were found in interfacial drag calculation for the SG U-tube inlet and the hot-leg outlet to the SG inlet plenum and core.

Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.; Taska, K. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Mimura, Y. (ISL Co., Jonan, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310 (JP))

1991-12-01

488

The CMB Topography Beneath Cook Inlet And Alaskan Kenai Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that the PcP-to-P amplitude ratios demonstrate strong scatter in some regions. Rost and Revenaugh studied PcP amplitudes which sample the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath the Alaskan Kenai peninsula and the Cook inlet and found a 1 region on the CMB with very large PcP/P amplitude ratios. For some events, the ratios are several tens times larger than the theoretical ratios. After analyzing different possible mechanisms, they concluded the CMB topography is the major cause of the high amplitude ratios, but they did not give an quantitative topography model because of the lack of short period synthetic waveforms tools. We generate short period PcP synthetics using representation theorems and study the PcP phases theoretically for a core-mantle boundary (CMB) with single sinusoidal topography. After testing different combinations of the sinusoid wavelength L and amplitude H, we conclude that a dent in CMB with diameter of L=300km and height H=12km best fits the observed data and can partly explain the high amplitude ratios. The PcP reflected from the CMB dip with L=300km and H=2km will be amplified by 23 times which is smaller than the value the observed data needed. We primarily have three causes to determine L=300km and H=12km. First, a dip with L=300km and H=12km will focus the PcP significantly in a 1 region on the CMB which is consistent with the observed data. Certainly, the northern limit of the region is not clear, therefore more data are needed to constraint the northern limit and give a more reliable model. Second, there are not obvious travel time anomalies coupled with the high ratios in the observed PcP and our synthetic travel time anomalies are just about 0.4s too. Lastly, the strong similarities of P and PcP for some simple events excludes such large value of H. A dip with larger L and corresponding H surly produces stronger focusing effect, for example, a dip with L= 300km and H=3km will amplifies the PcP by 45 times, but the waveform will be distorted seriously, contradictory to the similarity of P and PcP. So we speculate that the topography and other causes are combined to produce the high amplitude ratios together.

Wu, W.; Ni, S.

2009-05-01

489

TRAC large-break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for the AP600 design  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a TRAC model of the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design which has been developed for analyzing large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) transients. A preliminary LBLOCA calculation of a 80% cold-leg break has been performed with TRAC-PF1/MOD2. The 80% break size was calculated by Westinghouse to be the most severe large-break size. The LBLOCA transient was calculated to 92 s. Peak clad temperatures (PCT) were well below the Appendix K limit of 1478 K (2200{degrees}F). Transient event times and PCT for the TRAC calculation were in reasonable agreement with those calculated by Westinghouse using their WCOBRA/TRAC code.

Lime, J.F.; Boyack, B.E.

1994-02-01

490

INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

491

INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

492

Comparison of Inlet Suppressor Data with Approximate Theory Based on Cutoff Ratio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inlet suppressor far-field directivity suppression was quantitatively compared with that predicted using an approximate linear design and evaluation method based upon mode cutoff ratio. The experimental data was obtained using a series of cylindrical poin...

E. J. Rice L. J. Heidelberg

1979-01-01

493

Vortex Generator Installation Studies on Steady State and Dynamic Inlet Distortion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theoretical and experimental work carried out under the NASA/MOD Joint Aeronautical Program has shown that CFD vortex generator installations designs successfully managed inlet duct flow distortion and that significant benefits in flow unsteadiness at...