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Sample records for innovative cloning method

  1. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies. PMID:24395368

  2. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  3. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. Development of an in vitro cloning method for Cowdria ruminantium.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, J M; Martinez, D; Debus, A; Sheikboudou, C; Bensaid, A

    1997-01-01

    Cowdria ruminantium is a tick-borne rickettsia which causes severe disease in ruminants. All studies with C. ruminantium reported so far were carried out with stocks consisting of infective blood collected from reacting animals or from the same stocks propagated in vitro. Cloned isolates are needed to conduct studies on immune response of the host, on genetic diversity of the parasite, and on mechanisms of attenuation and the development of vaccines. A method of cloning based on the particular chlamydia life cycle of Cowdria was developed. Instead of cloning extracellular elementary bodies, it appeared more convenient to clone endothelial cells infected by one morula resulting from the infection of the cell by one elementary body of Cowdria. Two hundred and sixteen clones were obtained by limiting dilution of infected cells. The method was experimentally validated by comparing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints from individual clones obtained from endothelial cell cultures coinfected with two different stocks of C. ruminantium. PMID:9302217

  5. [A brief introduction to the methods for novel gene cloning].

    PubMed

    Sun, C X; Yu, A C

    2000-01-01

    There are a lot of methods for novel gene cloning, but how to clone candidate gene(s) quickly and correctly? This is a brief introduction to methods of novel gene cloning, these methods includes: differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(DD RT-PCR), suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH), RNA arbitrarily primed PCR(RAP-PCR), representational difference analysis(RDA), yeast two-hybrid system, cDNA capturation, et al. We not only introduced these methods, but also discussed the advantages and disadvantages of them. However, no single method is omnipotent, one should pick up the method most suitable for a special purpose. PMID:12532765

  6. Methods in molecular cardiology: in silico cloning

    PubMed Central

    Passier, R.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Advancements in sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain more information about the DNA sequence, structure and the transcript products of the genome from different species. This information is collected in DNA databases. These databases contain many genes of which the functions have not yet been discovered. By using online biotechnology tools novel genes and their transcripts can be identified. The identification of novel genes using DNA database analysis is referred to as in silico cloning. In silico cloning may not only provide new information on genes and their biological function, it may also lead to identification of molecular targets for drug discovery activities. In this review we describe the process of in silico cloning and its application in biomedical research. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:25696371

  7. A ligation-independent cloning method using nicking DNA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xin A; Luo, Qingming

    2010-11-01

    Using nicking DNA endonuclease (NiDE), we developed a novel technique to clone DNA fragments into plasmids. We created a NiDE cassette consisting of two inverted NiDE substrate sites sandwiching an asymmetric four-base sequence, and NiDE cleavage resulted in 14-base single-stranded termini at both ends of the vector and insert. This method can therefore be used as a ligation-independent cloning strategy to generate recombinant constructs rapidly. In addition, we designed and constructed a simple and specific vector from an Escherichia coli plasmid back-bone to complement this cloning method. By cloning cDNAs into this modified vector, we confirmed the predicted feasibility and applicability of this cloning method. PMID:21091446

  8. Innovative methods for knowledge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    At this time, learning takes place, either with classic books on paper support or using books scanned or drawn and further converted into PDF or PPT files that are printed on type support CD / DVD. The latter modern means of learning, the study adds live on the Internet using search engines and not least e-learning method, which allows the study of bibliographic related materials in PDF or PPT, stacked and grouped on the basis of a curriculum imposed which can be accessed on a website via a user name and password. Innovative methods come to successfully use other file types than those mentioned above. The graphics in teaching technical subjects such as descriptive geometry can be achieved using animated PowerPoint files, allowing for visualization of steps to be taken, in the case of solving by drawing a descriptive geometry. Another innovative method relies on the use of HTML files, inspired by related sites help design software packages that can be used when teaching descriptive geometry that the technical design. Through this work, the author has proposed to present a new innovative method, which is inspired by the methods listed above, but involves using AVI files to teaching of computer-assisted type graphics or info graphics. In general this new author's method lends itself particularly well to the teaching of the use of software packages because the student actually see the place from where the delivered command is accessed and contextual options of right button of the mouse. These laboratory courses or mentoring can be freestanding cards support CD / DVD or can be posted on websites with restricted access based on user name and password. Practically paper presents the methodology of creating courses and tutorials in AVI format, and how to monitor the degree of accessing the website, on which there were posted mentioned teaching materials, using the tools offered by Google Analytics. The results consist of graphical work, about the degree of access to

  9. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  10. Tissue-Culture Method of Cloning Rubber Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Guayule plant, a high-yield rubber plant cloned by tissue-culture method to produce multiple new plants that mature quickly. By adjusting culture medium, excised shoot tip produces up to 50 identical guayule plants. Varying concentration of cytokinin, single excised tip produces either 1 or several (up to 50) new plants.

  11. Outstanding Examples of Innovative Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, David R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The author describes a conference on exploring some educational methods that have proved effective in other fields and at other levels of medical education to see if they have application to continuing medical education. (SSH)

  12. Innovative Techniques for Teaching Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbie, Earl

    An explanation of three innovative techniques the author has used successfully to introduce undergraduate and graduate students to sociological methodology. The three methods are: (1) body-learning, which involves moving students around physically in ways analogous to the data manipulations being taught; (2) experimental learning, which involves…

  13. Restriction-ligation-free (RLF) cloning: a high-throughput cloning method by in vivo homologous recombination of PCR products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Chen, J; Tang, M J; Zhang, S L; Wei, L N; Li, C H; Wei, D B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we optimized a restriction-ligation-free (RLF) method to save time and cost of constructing multiple plasmids with the same gene insert, and examined the efficacy of RLF on high-throughput multi-plasmid cloning. This method utilizes the precise DNA repair and recombination systems within Escherichia coli, which allows to bypass the in vitro restriction and ligation enzyme reactions commonly included in routine cloning procedures. A homologous arm is linked to the 5'-end of the forward primer used to amplify both the target gene and vector. A different homologous arm is linked to the 5'-end of the reverse primer. Therefore, genes can be cloned into the vectors by homologous recombination after co-transformation of the amplified target gene and the linearized vector, which bear the same homologous arm on either end. More than twenty-four different plasmids were generated by this method, which uses two simple polymerase chain reaction steps. This method is highly efficient in cloning any gene of interest into any vector at any site without sequence constraints, as no restriction and ligation reactions are required. PMID:26505379

  14. Method enabling fast partial sequencing of cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Nordström, T; Gharizadeh, B; Pourmand, N; Nyren, P; Ronaghi, M

    2001-05-15

    Pyrosequencing is a nonelectrophoretic single-tube DNA sequencing method that takes advantage of cooperativity between four enzymes to monitor DNA synthesis. To investigate the feasibility of the recently developed technique for tag sequencing, 64 colonies of a selected cDNA library from human were sequenced by both pyrosequencing and Sanger DNA sequencing. To determine the needed length for finding a unique DNA sequence, 100 sequence tags from human were retrieved from the database and different lengths from each sequence were randomly analyzed. An homology search based on 20 and 30 nucleotides produced 97 and 98% unique hits, respectively. An homology search based on 100 nucleotides could identify all searched genes. Pyrosequencing was employed to produce sequence data for 30 nucleotides. A similar search using BLAST revealed 16 different genes. Forty-six percent of the sequences shared homology with one gene at different positions. Two of the 64 clones had unique sequences. The search results from pyrosequencing were in 100% agreement with conventional DNA sequencing methods. The possibility of using a fully automated pyrosequencer machine for future high-throughput tag sequencing is discussed. PMID:11355860

  15. Innovation Policies from the European Union: Methods for Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Victor; Montalvo, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on taxonomic and typological methods of innovation policies in the European institutional context. Although many types of policies affect innovation, no universally accepted criteria exist to classify them. As innovation policy in a myriad of thematic areas--systemic model--has become pluralized, this article offers a method for…

  16. An accurate clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Cao, Changchang; Tu, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome-long haplotyping of human genomes is important to identify genetic variants with differing gene expression, in human evolution studies, clinical diagnosis, and other biological and medical fields. Although several methods have realized haplotyping based on sequencing technologies or population statistics, accuracy and cost are factors that prohibit their wide use. Borrowing ideas from group testing theories, we proposed a clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing. The clones from a single individual were pooled combinatorially and then sequenced. According to the distinct pooling pattern for each clone in the overlapping pool sequencing, alleles for the recovered variants could be assigned to their original clones precisely. Subsequently, the clone sequences could be reconstructed by linking these alleles accordingly and assembling them into haplotypes with high accuracy. To verify the utility of our method, we constructed 130 110 clones in silico for the individual NA12878 and simulated the pooling and sequencing process. Ultimately, 99.9% of variants on chromosome 1 that were covered by clones from both parental chromosomes were recovered correctly, and 112 haplotype contigs were assembled with an N50 length of 3.4 Mb and no switch errors. A comparison with current clone-based haplotyping methods indicated our method was more accurate. PMID:27095193

  17. An accurate clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Cao, Changchang; Tu, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome-long haplotyping of human genomes is important to identify genetic variants with differing gene expression, in human evolution studies, clinical diagnosis, and other biological and medical fields. Although several methods have realized haplotyping based on sequencing technologies or population statistics, accuracy and cost are factors that prohibit their wide use. Borrowing ideas from group testing theories, we proposed a clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing. The clones from a single individual were pooled combinatorially and then sequenced. According to the distinct pooling pattern for each clone in the overlapping pool sequencing, alleles for the recovered variants could be assigned to their original clones precisely. Subsequently, the clone sequences could be reconstructed by linking these alleles accordingly and assembling them into haplotypes with high accuracy. To verify the utility of our method, we constructed 130 110 clones in silico for the individual NA12878 and simulated the pooling and sequencing process. Ultimately, 99.9% of variants on chromosome 1 that were covered by clones from both parental chromosomes were recovered correctly, and 112 haplotype contigs were assembled with an N50 length of 3.4 Mb and no switch errors. A comparison with current clone-based haplotyping methods indicated our method was more accurate. PMID:27095193

  18. Evaluation of seamless ligation cloning extract preparation methods from an Escherichia coli laboratory strain.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Motohashi, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) is a simple and efficient method for DNA cloning without the use of restriction enzymes. Instead, SLiCE uses homologous recombination activities from Escherichia coli cell lysates. To date, SLiCE preparation has been performed using an expensive commercially available lytic reagent. To expand the utility of the SLiCE method, we evaluated different methods for SLiCE preparation that avoid using this reagent. Consequently, cell extracts prepared with buffers containing Triton X-100, which is a common and low-cost nonionic detergent, exhibited sufficient cloning activity for seamless gene incorporation into a vector. PMID:26133399

  19. Cross-screening: a new method to assemble clones rapidly and unambiguously into contigs.

    PubMed

    Locke, J; Rairdan, G; McDermid, H; Nash, D; Pilgrim, D; Bell, J; Roy, K; Hodgetts, R

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new procedure that relies on an array of cross-hybridization tests to order a set of random clones into a contig. The method, called cross-screening, uses each clone as a target and its end sequences as probes, in a matrix of reciprocal cross-hybridization tests performed on a single blot. The relationships among the clones are determined rapidly from the pairwise tests, allowing clone order to be determined directly. We have applied this technique to DNAs from a set of overlapping lambda clones from Drosophila chromosome 4. The location and orientation of each clone derived from the cross-screening data was that expected from the map assembled from overlapping restriction sites and chromosomal walking. The procedure provided additional information on a previously unknown, internally repeated DNA sequence. To demonstrate the general utility of the procedure, we have applied it to a previously described clone set within a contig in region 22q12 of human chromosome 22. The correct relative position and orientation of these clones were derived from the cross-screening data without knowledge of, or reference to, any nucleotide sequence or restriction site analysis of the DNA concerned. The cross-screening procedure is fast, economical, and robust and allows clone overlaps to be determined efficiently, with minimal interference from repeated DNA sequences. This new procedure is specifically designed for small groups of overlapping clones (tens to hundreds) and should facilitate the ordering of subclone libraries derived from small chromosomes or the large cloned inserts carried in YAC, BAC, and P1 vectors. PMID:8919694

  20. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  1. IRDL Cloning: A One-Tube, Zero-Background, Easy-to-Use, Directional Cloning Method Improves Throughput in Recombinant DNA Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and efficient construction of expression vectors and subsequent transformation are basic recombinant methods for the investigation of gene functionality. Although novel cloning methods have recently been developed, many laboratories worldwide continue to use traditional restriction digestion-ligation methods to construct expression vectors owing to financial constraints and the unavailability of appropriate vectors. We describe an improved restriction digestion-ligation (IRDL) cloning method that combines the advantage of directional cloning from double digestion-ligation with that of a low background observed by using a positive selection marker gene ccdB to facilitate digestion and ligation in a single tube. The IRDL cloning overcomes the time-consuming and laborious limits of traditional methods, thereby providing an easy-to-use, low-cost, and one-step strategy for directional cloning of target DNA fragments into an expression vector. As a proof-of-concept example, we developed two yeast vectors to demonstrate the feasibility and the flexibility of the IRDL cloning method. This method would provide an effective and easy-to-use system for gene cloning and functional genomics studies. PMID:25243603

  2. Innovating Method of Existing Mechanical Product Based on TRIZ Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cunyou; Shi, Dongyan; Wu, Han

    Main way of product development is adaptive design and variant design based on existing product. In this paper, conceptual design frame and its flow model of innovating products is put forward through combining the methods of conceptual design and TRIZ theory. Process system model of innovating design that includes requirement analysis, total function analysis and decomposing, engineering problem analysis, finding solution of engineering problem and primarily design is constructed and this establishes the base for innovating design of existing product.

  3. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination in soil and wa...

  4. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  5. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  6. Cloning of complete genome sets of six dsRNA viruses using an improved cloning method for large dsRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, A C; Steele, A D; van Dijk, A A

    2002-09-01

    Cloning full-length large (>3 kb) dsRNA genome segments from small amounts of dsRNA has thus far remained problematic. Here, a single-primer amplification sequence-independent dsRNA cloning procedure was perfected for large genes and tailored for routine use to clone complete genome sets or individual genes. Nine complete viral genome sets were amplified by PCR, namely those of two human rotaviruses, two African horsesickness viruses (AHSV), two equine encephalosis viruses (EEV), one bluetongue virus (BTV), one reovirus and bacteriophage Phi12. Of these amplified genomes, six complete genome sets were cloned for viruses with genes ranging in size from 0.8 to 6.8 kb. Rotavirus dsRNA was extracted directly from stool samples. Co-expressed EEV VP3 and VP7 assembled into core-like particles that have typical orbivirus capsomeres. This work presents the first EEV sequence data and establishes that EEV genes have the same conserved termini (5' GUU and UAC 3') and coding assignment as AHSV and BTV. To clone complete genome sets, one-tube reactions were developed for oligo-ligation, cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification. The method is simple and efficient compared to other methods. Complete genomes can be cloned from as little as 1 ng dsRNA and a considerably reduced number of PCR cycles (22-30 cycles compared to 30-35 of other methods). This progress with cloning large dsRNA genes is important for recombinant vaccine development and determination of the role of terminal sequences for replication and gene expression. PMID:12185276

  7. Innovative Methods for Providing Instruction to Distance Students Using Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pival, Paul R.; Tunon, Johanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines three innovative methods tried at Nova Southeastern University for providing quality bibliographic instruction to distance students: one synchronous, one asynchronous, and one that combined features from both synchronous and asynchronous methods of delivering instruction. Topics include compressed video, collaborative groupware, streaming…

  8. A new method to customize protein expression vectors for fast, efficient and background free parallel cloning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and purification of correctly folded proteins typically require screening of different parameters such as protein variants, solubility enhancing tags or expression hosts. Parallel vector series that cover all variations are available, but not without compromise. We have established a fast, efficient and absolutely background free cloning approach that can be applied to any selected vector. Results Here we describe a method to tailor selected expression vectors for parallel Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning. SLIC cloning enables precise and sequence independent engineering and is based on joining vector and insert with 15–25 bp homologies on both DNA ends by homologous recombination. We modified expression vectors based on pET, pFastBac and pTT backbones for parallel PCR-based cloning and screening in E.coli, insect cells and HEK293E cells, respectively. We introduced the toxic ccdB gene under control of a strong constitutive promoter for counterselection of insert less vector. In contrast to DpnI treatment commonly used to reduce vector background, ccdB used in our vector series is 100% efficient in killing parental vector carrying cells and reduces vector background to zero. In addition, the 3’ end of ccdB functions as a primer binding site common to all vectors. The second shared primer binding site is provided by a HRV 3C protease cleavage site located downstream of purification and solubility enhancing tags for tag removal. We have so far generated more than 30 different parallel expression vectors, and successfully cloned and expressed more than 250 genes with this vector series. There is no size restriction for gene insertion, clone efficiency is > 95% with clone numbers up to 200. The procedure is simple, fast, efficient and cost-effective. All expression vectors showed efficient expression of eGFP and different target proteins requested to be produced and purified at our Core Facility services. Conclusion This new

  9. DNA methods: critical review of innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Kok, Esther J; Aarts, Henk J M; Van Hoef, A M Angeline; Kuiper, Harry A

    2002-01-01

    The presence of ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products in the market place is subject to a number of European regulations that stipulate which product consisting of or containing GMO-derived ingredients should be labeled as such. In order to maintain these labeling requirements, a variety of different GMO detection methods have been developed to screen for either the presence of DNA or protein derived from (approved) GM varieties. Recent incidents where unapproved GM varieties entered the European market show that more powerful GMO detection and identification methods will be needed to maintain European labeling requirements in an adequate, efficient, and cost-effective way. This report discusses the current state-of-the-art as well as future developments in GMO detection. PMID:12083278

  10. Innovative methods for inorganic sample preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1992-04-01

    Procedures and guidelines are given for the dissolution of a variety of selected materials using fusion, microwave, and Parr bomb techniques. These materials include germanium glass, corium-concrete mixtures, and zeolites. Emphasis is placed on sample-preparation approaches that produce a single master solution suitable for complete multielement characterization of the sample. In addition, data are presented on the soil microwave digestion method approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Advantages and disadvantages of each sample-preparation technique are summarized.

  11. Successful completion of a semi-automated enzyme-free cloning method.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Stefano; Buccato, Scilla; Maione, Domenico; Petracca, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in scientific fields such as Structural Biology or Vaccinology, there is an increasing need of fast, effective and reproducible gene cloning and expression processes. Consequently, the implementation of robotic platforms enabling the automation of protocols is becoming a pressing demand. The main goal of our study was to set up a robotic platform devoted to the high-throughput automation of the polymerase incomplete primer extension cloning method, and to evaluate its efficiency compared to that achieved manually, by selecting a set of bacterial genes that were processed either in the automated platform (330) or manually (94). Here we show that we successfully set up a platform able to complete, with high efficiency, a wide range of molecular biology and biochemical steps. 329 gene targets (99 %) were effectively amplified using the automated procedure and 286 (87 %) of these PCR products were successfully cloned in expression vectors, with cloning success rates being higher for the automated protocols respect to the manual procedure (93.6 and 74.5 %, respectively). PMID:27507291

  12. Methods to Enhance Reflective Behaviour in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Suzanne G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to trace methods that help to develop the reflective behaviour that is necessary for identifying and describing learning processes in organisations that focus on improvement and innovation. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review results in the characteristics of reflection when reflection is used to…

  13. Reality Research Methods: An Innovative Teaching Strategy for Generation Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Walsh, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Those who teach research methods courses may struggle to engage students who are anxious or apprehensive about taking the course. Thus, it becomes the obligation of the instructor to develop innovative approaches so that students overcome their apprehension, learn the material, and, it is hoped, develop a passion for research. The authors present…

  14. Construction of mutant alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without cloning: overview and the delitto perfetto method.

    PubMed

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Geisberg, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, methods for introducing specific new mutations at target loci in the yeast genome have involved the preparation of disruption or gene-replacement cassettes via multiple cloning steps. Sequences used for targeting these cassettes or integrating vectors are typically several hundred base pairs long. A variety of newer methods rely on the design of custom PCR oligonucleotides containing shorter sequence tails (∼50 nt) for targeting the locus of interest. These techniques obviate the need for cloning steps and allow construction of mutagenesis cassettes by PCR amplification. Such cassettes may be used for gene deletion, epitope tagging, or site-specific mutagenesis. The strategies differ in several ways, most notably with respect to whether they allow reuse of the selection marker and whether extra sequences are left behind near the target locus. This unit presents a summary of methods for targeted mutagenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae loci without cloning, including PCR-based allele replacement, delitto perfetto, and MIRAGE. Next, a protocol is provided for the delitto perfetto PCR- and oligonucleotide-based mutagenesis method, which offers particular advantages for generating several different mutant alleles of the same gene. PMID:24510296

  15. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  16. Prescribing Activities that Engage Passive Residents. An Innovative Method

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dementia are often passive, which places them at risk for further cognitive and functional decline. Recreational activities have been used in research to reduce passive behaviors, but systematic reviews of these studies have found modest effect sizes for many activities. In this article, we describe the further theoretical development of an innovative method for prescribing activities that have a high likelihood of engaging nursing home residents who are passive and present examples for research application and clinical practice. This method may increase the effect size of activity interventions and encourage more widespread adoption of nonpharmacological interventions in practice. PMID:18274300

  17. Different Donor Cell Culture Methods Can Influence the Developmental Ability of Cloned Sheep Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shan; Li, WenDa

    2015-01-01

    It was proposed that arresting nuclear donor cells in G0/G1 phase facilitates the development of embryos that are derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Full confluency or serum starvation is commonly used to arrest in vitro cultured somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. However, it is controversial as to whether these two methods have the same efficiency in arresting somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, it is unclear whether the cloned embryos have comparable developmental ability after somatic cells are subjected to one of these methods and then used as nuclear donors in SCNT. In the present study, in vitro cultured sheep skin fibroblasts were divided into four groups: (1) cultured to 70–80% confluency (control group), (2) cultured to full confluency, (3) starved in low serum medium for 4 d, or (4) cultured to full confluency and then further starved for 4 d. Flow cytometry was used to assay the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, and cell counting was used to assay the viability of the fibroblasts. Then, real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to determine the levels of expression of several cell cycle-related genes. Subsequently, the four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT, and the developmental ability and the quality of the cloned embryos were compared. The results showed that the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, the viability of fibroblasts, and the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes was different among the four groups of fibroblasts. Moreover, the quality of the cloned embryos was comparable after these four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT. However, cloned embryos derived from fibroblasts that were cultured to full confluency combined with serum starvation had the highest developmental ability. The results of the present study indicate that there are synergistic effects of full confluency and serum starvation on arresting fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase

  18. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  19. CLoNe is a new method to target single progenitors and study their progeny in mouse and chick

    PubMed Central

    García-Moreno, Fernando; Vasistha, Navneet A.; Begbie, Jo; Molnár, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Cell lineage analysis enables us to address pivotal questions relating to: the embryonic origin of cells and sibling cell relationships in the adult body; the contribution of progenitors activated after trauma or disease; and the comparison across species in evolutionary biology. To address such fundamental questions, several techniques for clonal labelling have been developed, each with its shortcomings. Here, we report a novel method, CLoNe that is designed to work in all vertebrate species and tissues. CLoNe uses a cocktail of labelling, targeting and transposition vectors that enables targeting of specific subpopulations of progenitor types with a combination of fluorophores resulting in multifluorescence that describes multiple clones per specimen. Furthermore, transposition into the genome ensures the longevity of cell labelling. We demonstrate the robustness of this technique in mouse and chick forebrain development, and show evidence that CLoNe will be broadly applicable to study clonal relationships in different tissues and species. PMID:24644261

  20. CLoNe is a new method to target single progenitors and study their progeny in mouse and chick.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Fernando; Vasistha, Navneet A; Begbie, Jo; Molnár, Zoltán

    2014-04-01

    Cell lineage analysis enables us to address pivotal questions relating to: the embryonic origin of cells and sibling cell relationships in the adult body; the contribution of progenitors activated after trauma or disease; and the comparison across species in evolutionary biology. To address such fundamental questions, several techniques for clonal labelling have been developed, each with its shortcomings. Here, we report a novel method, CLoNe that is designed to work in all vertebrate species and tissues. CLoNe uses a cocktail of labelling, targeting and transposition vectors that enables targeting of specific subpopulations of progenitor types with a combination of fluorophores resulting in multifluorescence that describes multiple clones per specimen. Furthermore, transposition into the genome ensures the longevity of cell labelling. We demonstrate the robustness of this technique in mouse and chick forebrain development, and show evidence that CLoNe will be broadly applicable to study clonal relationships in different tissues and species. PMID:24644261

  1. MEGAWHOP cloning: a method of creating random mutagenesis libraries via megaprimer PCR of whole plasmids.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    MEGAWHOP allows for the cloning of DNA fragments into a vector and is used for conventional restriction digestion/ligation-based procedures. In MEGAWHOP, the DNA fragment to be cloned is used as a set of complementary primers that replace a homologous region in a template vector through whole-plasmid PCR. After synthesis of a nicked circular plasmid, the mixture is treated with DpnI, a dam-methylated DNA-specific restriction enzyme, to digest the template plasmid. The DpnI-treated mixture is then introduced into competent Escherichia coli cells to yield plasmids carrying replaced insert fragments. Plasmids produced by the MEGAWHOP method are virtually free of contamination by species without any inserts or with multiple inserts, and also the parent. Because the fragment is usually long enough to not interfere with hybridization to the template, various types of fragments can be used with mutations at any site (either known or unknown, random, or specific). By using fragments having homologous sequences at the ends (e.g., adaptor sequence), MEGAWHOP can also be used to recombine nonhomologous sequences mediated by the adaptors, allowing rapid creation of novel constructs and chimeric genes. PMID:21601687

  2. Auto Bone Banking: Innovative Method for Bone Preservation

    PubMed Central

    M, Desai Mohan; R, Biraris Sandeep; M, Wade Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bone grafting is an integral part of orthopaedic surgery; the use of bone graft is increasing consistently in traumatology and also in complex revision surgeries of hip and knee arthroplasties. Considering this fact there is a need for some way to find solution for a bone graft which has more osteoinduction, osteoconduction as well as osteogenecity and also reduced rates of graft rejection and transmission of infections. All these qualities are found in autogenous bone graft. We hereby put forward a innovative method of bone preservation by using patients own femoral head and preserving it in patients own iliac pouch and making it available for future use. Case Report: From 2008 to 2012, total 17 numbers of operated sides were included in this method; patients had femoral neck fracture, osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis of femoral head and who underwent either hemi or total hip arthroplasty. Intraoperatively the resected femoral head was preserved in iliac pouch on ipsilateral side. This integrates with the native bone and additional bone graft would be made available for future use. We did not get opportunity to use the stored auograft. Conclusion: This is very innovative concept for preserving patient’s autogenous femoral head for future use. As conventional allograft relies upon screening procedure for infections, proper storage facilities and are expensive. PMID:27298993

  3. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  4. Simple and versatile molecular method of copy-number measurement using cloned competitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Hwang, Hai-Li; Park, Seong-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Man; Park, Won Cheol; Kim, Han-Seong; Um, Tae-Hyun; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung; Joo, Sun-Young; Seoh, Ju-Young; Song, Yeong-Wook; Kim, Soo-Youl; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2013-01-01

    Variations and alterations of copy numbers (CNVs and CNAs) carry disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness implications. Although there are many molecular methods to measure copy numbers, sensitivity, reproducibility, cost, and time issues remain. In the present study, we were able to solve those problems utilizing our modified real competitive PCR method with cloned competitors (mrcPCR). First, the mrcPCR for ERBB2 copy number was established, and the results were comparable to current standard methods but with a shorter assay time and a lower cost. Second, the mrcPCR assays for 24 drug-target genes were established, and the results in a panel of NCI-60 cells were comparable to those from real-time PCR and microarray. Third, the mrcPCR results for FCGR3A and the FCGR3B CNVs were comparable to those by the paralog ratio test (PRT), but without PRT's limitations. These results suggest that mrcPCR is comparable to the currently available standard or the most sensitive methods. In addition, mrcPCR would be invaluable for measurement of CNVs in genes with variants of similar structures, because combination of the other methods is not necessary, along with its other advantages such as short assay time, small sample amount requirement, and applicability to all sequences and genes. PMID:23936009

  5. Governing Methods: Policy Innovation Labs, Design and Data Science in the Digital Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Policy innovation labs are emerging knowledge actors and technical experts in the governing of education. The article offers a historical and conceptual account of the organisational form of the policy innovation lab. Policy innovation labs are characterised by specific methods and techniques of design, data science, and digitisation in public…

  6. Thermal conductance measurement of windows: An innovative radiative method

    SciTech Connect

    Arpino, F.; Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.

    2008-09-15

    Heat transfer through window surfaces is one of the most important contributions to energy losses in buildings. Therefore, great efforts are made to design new window frames and glass assemblies with low thermal conductance. At the same time, it is also necessary to develop accurate measurement techniques in thermal characterisation of the above-mentioned building components. In this paper the authors show an innovative measurement method mainly based on radiative heat transfer (instead of the traditional convective one) which allows window thermal conductance measurements with corresponding uncertainty budget evaluation. The authors used the 3D finite volume software FLUENT {sup registered} to design the experimental apparatus. The numerical results have been employed for the system optimisation and metrological characterisation. (author)

  7. An innovative lossless compression method for discrete-color images.

    PubMed

    Alzahir, Saif; Borici, Arber

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative method for lossless compression of discrete-color images, such as map images, graphics, GIS, as well as binary images. This method comprises two main components. The first is a fixed-size codebook encompassing 8×8 bit blocks of two-tone data along with their corresponding Huffman codes and their relative probabilities of occurrence. The probabilities were obtained from a very large set of discrete color images which are also used for arithmetic coding. The second component is the row-column reduction coding, which will encode those blocks that are not in the codebook. The proposed method has been successfully applied on two major image categories: 1) images with a predetermined number of discrete colors, such as digital maps, graphs, and GIS images and 2) binary images. The results show that our method compresses images from both categories (discrete color and binary images) with 90% in most case and higher than the JBIG-2 by 5%-20% for binary images, and by 2%-6.3% for discrete color images on average. PMID:25330487

  8. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  9. Methods to Implement Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    The physics community is beginning to become aware of the benefits of entrepreneurship and innovation education: greater enrollments, improved students satisfaction, a wider range of interesting research problems, and the potential for greater return from more successful alumni. This talk will suggest a variety of mechanisms by which physics departments can include entrepreneurship and innovation content within their programs - without necessarily requiring earth-shattering changes to the curriculum. These approaches will thus make it possible for departments to get involved with entrepreneurship and innovation, and grow those components into vibrant activities for students and faculty.

  10. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are key databases for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollutants. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions, and techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are critical to ...

  11. General method for cloning Neurospora crassa nuclear genes by complementation of mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Akins, R A; Lambowitz, A M

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a sib selection procedure for cloning Neurospora crassa nuclear genes by complementation of mutants. This procedure takes advantage of a modified N. crassa transformation procedure that gives as many as 10,000 to 50,000 stable transformants per microgram of DNA with recombinant plasmids containing the N. crassa qa-2+ gene. Here, we describe the use of the sib selection procedure to clone genes corresponding to auxotrophic mutants, nic-1 and inl. The identities of the putative clones were confirmed by mapping their chromosomal locations in standard genetic crosses and using restriction site polymorphisms as genetic markers. Because we can obtain very high N. crassa transformation frequencies, cloning can be accomplished with as few as five subdivisions of an N. crassa genomic library. The sib selection procedure should, for the first time, permit the cloning of any gene corresponding to an N. crassa mutant for which an appropriate selection can be devised. Analogous procedures may be applicable to other filamentous fungi before the development of operational shuttle vectors. Images PMID:2942762

  12. An Alternative Method to Facilitate cDNA Cloning for Expression Studies in Mammalian Cells by Introducing Positive Blue White Selection in Vaccinia Topoisomerase I-Mediated Recombination.

    PubMed

    Udo, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    One of the most basic techniques in biomedical research is cDNA cloning for expression studies in mammalian cells. Vaccinia topoisomerase I-mediated cloning (TOPO cloning by Invitrogen) allows fast and efficient recombination of PCR-amplified DNAs. Among TOPO vectors, a pcDNA3.1 directional cloning vector is particularly convenient, since it can be used for expression analysis immediately after cloning. However, I found that the cloning efficiency was reduced when RT-PCR products were used as inserts (about one-quarter). Since TOPO vectors accept any PCR products, contaminating fragments in the insert DNA create negative clones. Therefore, I designed a new mammalian expression vector enabling positive blue white selection in Vaccinia topoisomerase I-mediated cloning. The method utilized a short nontoxic LacZα peptide as a linker for GFP fusion. When cDNAs were properly inserted into the vector, minimal expression of the fusion proteins in E. coli (harboring lacZΔM15) resulted in formation of blue colonies on X-gal plates. This method improved both cloning efficiency (75%) and directional cloning (99%) by distinguishing some of the negative clones having non-cording sequences, since these inserts often disturbed translation of lacZα. Recombinant plasmids were directly applied to expression studies using GFP as a reporter. Utilization of the P2A peptide allowed for separate expression of GFP. In addition, the preparation of Vaccinia topoisomerase I-linked vectors was streamlined, which consisted of successive enzymatic reactions with a single precipitation step, completing in 3 hr. The arrangement of unique restriction sites enabled further modification of vector components for specific applications. This system provides an alternative method for cDNA cloning and expression in mammalian cells. PMID:26422141

  13. An Innovative Cloning Platform Enables Large-Scale Production and Maturation of an Oxygen-Tolerant [NiFe]-Hydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Johannes; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Schelden, Maximilian; Aboulnaga, El-Hussiny A. A.; Baumann, Marcus E. M.; Selmer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Expression of multiple heterologous genes in a dedicated host is a prerequisite for approaches in synthetic biology, spanning from the production of recombinant multiprotein complexes to the transfer of tailor-made metabolic pathways. Such attempts are often exacerbated, due in most cases to a lack of proper directional, robust and readily accessible genetic tools. Here, we introduce an innovative system for cloning and expression of multiple genes in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Using the novel methodology, genes are equipped with individual promoters and terminators and subsequently assembled. The resulting multiple gene cassettes may either be placed in one vector or alternatively distributed among a set of compatible plasmids. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed tool by production and maturation of the NAD+reducing soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase (SH) from Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha H16) in E. coli BL21Star™ (DE3). The SH (encoded in hoxFUYHI) was successfully matured by co-expression of a dedicated set of auxiliary genes, comprising seven hyp genes (hypC1D1E1A2B2F2X) along with hoxW, which encodes a specific endopeptidase. Deletion of genes involved in SH maturation reduced maturation efficiency substantially. Further addition of hoxN1, encoding a high-affinity nickel permease from C. necator, considerably increased maturation efficiency in E. coli. Carefully balanced growth conditions enabled hydrogenase production at high cell-densities, scoring mg·(Liter culture)−1 yields of purified functional SH. Specific activities of up to 7.2±1.15 U·mg−1 were obtained in cell-free extracts, which is in the range of the highest activities ever determined in C. necator extracts. The recombinant enzyme was isolated in equal purity and stability as previously achieved with the native form, yielding ultrapure preparations with anaerobic specific activities of up to 230 U·mg−1. Owing to the combinatorial power exhibited by the

  14. An improved method for oriT-directed cloning and functionalization of large bacterial genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Kvitko, Brian H; McMillan, Ian A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2013-08-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  15. An Improved Method for oriT-Directed Cloning and Functionalization of Large Bacterial Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Brian H.; McMillan, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  16. Innovative Methods in Technological Education. Studies in Engineering Education 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, W., Ed.

    This book presents 16 papers on problems and innovations in postsecondary engineering education. An introduction discusses the major issues currently facing engineering education. Chapter 2 briefly reviews the papers which are grouped under topics. Three of thee papers comment on teaching non-technical matters and attitudes. Two papers point out…

  17. Changing Methods and Mindsets: Lessons from Innovate NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As schools and classrooms explore technology-based, student-centered, personalized approaches to teaching and learning, their efforts to innovate can be hamstrung by archaic district operating systems that do not allow them to take advantage of new technologies, to work with smaller startup companies, or to quickly make and implement decisions.…

  18. Analysis of flood modeling through innovative geomatic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, Santiago; Molina, José-Luis; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    A suitable assessment and management of the exposure level to natural flood risks necessarily requires an exhaustive knowledge of the terrain. This study, primarily aimed to evaluate flood risk, firstly assesses the suitability of an innovative technique, called Reduced Cost Aerial Precision Photogrammetry (RC-APP), based on a motorized technology ultra-light aircraft ULM (Ultra-Light Motor), together with the hybridization of reduced costs sensors, for the acquisition of geospatial information. Consequently, this research generates the RC-APP technique which is found to be a more accurate-precise, economical and less time consuming geomatic product. This technique is applied in river engineering for the geometric modeling and risk assessment to floods. Through the application of RC-APP, a high spatial resolution image (orthophoto of 2.5 cm), and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of 0.10 m mesh size and high density points (about 100 points/m2), with altimetric accuracy of -0.02 ± 0.03 m have been obtained. These products have provided a detailed knowledge of the terrain, afterward used for the hydraulic simulation which has allowed a better definition of the inundated area, with important implications for flood risk assessment and management. In this sense, it should be noted that the achieved spatial resolution of DEM is 0.10 m which is especially interesting and useful in hydraulic simulations through 2D software. According to the results, the developed methodology and technology allows for a more accurate riverbed representation, compared with other traditional techniques such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), with a Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE ± 0.50 m). This comparison has revealed that RC-APP has one lower magnitude order of error than the LiDAR method. Consequently, this technique arises as an efficient and appropriate tool, especially in areas with high exposure to risk of flooding. In hydraulic terms, the degree of detail achieved in the 3D model

  19. Why Clone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice. Often, animal models are ...

  20. Comprehensive census of bacteria in clean rooms by using DNA microarray and cloning methods.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Spry, J A; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-10-01

    A census of clean room surface-associated bacterial populations was derived from the results of both the cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and DNA microarray (PhyloChip) analyses. Samples from the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Multiple Testing Facility (LMA-MTF), the Kennedy Space Center Payload Hazard and Servicing Facility (KSC-PHSF), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF) clean rooms were collected during the various assembly phases of the Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft. Clone library-derived analyses detected a larger bacterial diversity prior to the arrival of spacecraft hardware in these clean room facilities. PhyloChip results were in agreement with this trend but also unveiled the presence of anywhere from 9- to 70-fold more bacterial taxa than cloning approaches. Among the facilities sampled, the JPL-SAF (MSL mission) housed a significantly less diverse bacterial population than either the LMA-MTF or KSC-PHSF (Phoenix mission). Bacterial taxa known to thrive in arid conditions were frequently detected in MSL-associated JPL-SAF samples, whereas proteobacterial lineages dominated Phoenix-associated KSC-PHSF samples. Comprehensive bacterial censuses, such as that reported here, will help space-faring nations preemptively identify contaminant biomatter that may compromise extraterrestrial life detection experiments. The robust nature and high sensitivity of DNA microarray technologies should prove beneficial to a wide range of scientific, electronic, homeland security, medical, and pharmaceutical applications and to any other ventures with a vested interest in monitoring and controlling contamination in exceptionally clean environments. PMID:19700540

  1. Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education in an Innovative Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Hestness, Emily; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We investigated curricular and pedagogical innovations in an undergraduate science methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Maryland. The goals of the innovative elementary science methods course included: improving students' attitudes toward and views of science and science teaching, to model innovative science teaching…

  2. Innovative methods of managing environmental releases at mine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The report describes source reduction and recycling practices and innovative techniques for waste management currently used in mining. EPA's intent is the identification of these practices and the fostering of technology and information transfer throughout the mining industry. Source reduction can include process control to produce a purer product while reducing hazardous constituents in the waste stream and production of a new saleable product while reducing hazardous constituents in the waste stream. Recycling opportunities unique to mining are slag reprocessing, tailings reprocessing, pipe recycling/reuse, and recycling mine tires. The other practices section addresses topics of a more general nature and includes a description of best management practices for water management and the facility pollution prevention plan prepared by the cyprus baghdad mine. To assist with technical questions and issues, a list of technical contacts familiar with each technology is provided.

  3. A novel sandwich hybridization method for selecting cDNAs from large genomic regions: Identification of cDNAs from the cloned genomic DNA spanning the XLRP locus

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; McHenry, C.; Fujita, R.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed an efficient hybridization-based cDNA-selection method. A sandwich of three species - single-stranded cDNA, tagged RNA derived from genomic DNA, and biotinylated RNA complementary to the tag - allows specific retention of hybrids on an avidin-matrix. Previously, using model experiments, we demonstrated highly specific and efficient selection of a retinal gene, NRL, from complex mixtures of cDNA clones, using a sub-library from a 5 kb NRL genomic clone. We have now applied this selection strategy to isolate cDNAs from human adult retina and fetal eye libraries, with the {open_quotes}genomic RNA{close_quotes} derived from two YAC clones (OTC-C and 55B) spanning the region of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) locus RP3 at Xp21.1. Effectiveness of the selection-method was monitored by enrichment of TCTEX-1L gene that maps within the 55B YAC. Of the 15 selected cDNA clones that hybridized to the 55B YAC DNA, five appear to the map to specific cosmid clones derived from the 55B YAC. Inserts in these selected cDNA clones range from 0.5 to 2.3 kb in size. Additional clones are now being isolated and characterized. This procedure should be independent of the size or complexity of genomic DNA being used for selection, allow for the isolation of full-length cDNAs, and may have wider application.

  4. Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory to implement the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Constance Mary; Stanton, Marietta; Manno, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Routine screening of mechanically ventilated patients for delirium is essential for prompt recognition and management; however, this represents a change in practice. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory can be useful as a strategy to facilitate adoption of a practice change. This case study describes the effectiveness of identifying barriers to a change in practice and developing strategies, specific to Rogers' innovation decision process, for implementing the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit. PMID:22367153

  5. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  6. Single-step cloning-screening method: a new tool for developing and studying high-titer viral vector producer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Formas-Oliveira, A S; Guerreiro, M R; Tomás, H A; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a novel method merging the cloning of viral vector producer cells with vector titer screening, allowing for screening 200-500 clones in 2 weeks. It makes use of a GFP separated into two fragments, S10 and S11 (Split GFP), fluorescing only upon transcomplementation. Producer cells carrying a S11 viral transgene are cloned in 96-well plates and co-cultured with target cells stably expressing S10. During the period of clone expansion, S11 viruses infect S10 target cells reconstituting the GFP signal. Transcomplemented fluorescence data provide direct estimation of the clone's productivity and can be analyzed in terms of density distribution, offering valuable information on the average productivity of the cell population and allowing the identification of high-producing clones. The method was validated by establishing a retrovirus producer from a nude cell line, in <3 months, inserting three vector constructs without clone selection or screening in between. Clones producing up to 10(8) infectious particles per ml were obtained, delivering optimal ratios of infectious-to-total particles (1 to 5). The method was additionally used to evaluate the production performance of HEK 293 and HEK 293T cell lines demonstrating that the latter sustains increased titers. Finally, it was used to study genetic manipulation of glutathione metabolism in retrovirus production showing that changing cell metabolism steers higher vector expression with titer increases of more than one order of magnitude.This method is a valuable tool not only for cell line development but also for genetic manipulation of viral vector and/or producer cells contributing to advancing the field of viral gene therapy. PMID:25938191

  7. Implementation of optimal phase-covariant cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2007-07-15

    The optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (PQCM) broadcasts the information associated to an input qubit into a multiqubit system, exploiting a partial a priori knowledge of the input state. This additional a priori information leads to a higher fidelity than for the universal cloning. The present article first analyzes different innovative schemes to implement the 1{yields}3 PQCM. The method is then generalized to any 1{yields}M machine for an odd value of M by a theoretical approach based on the general angular momentum formalism. Finally different experimental schemes based either on linear or nonlinear methods and valid for single photon polarization encoded qubits are discussed.

  8. Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Jens; Abraham, Marion; Amelung, Wulf; Baum, Christel; Bol, Roland; Kühn, Oliver; Lewandowski, Hans; Niederberger, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Rüger, Christopher; Santner, Jakob; Siebers, Meike; Siebers, Nina; Spohn, Marie; Vestergren, Johan; Vogts, Angela; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, 33P isotopic exchange, 18O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations. PMID:26167132

  9. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF GRAVITY STORM SEWER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for optimizing the design of urban storm sewer systems. Previous efforts to optimize gravity sewers have met with limited success because classical optimization methods require that the problem be well behaved, e.g. describ...

  10. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  11. [Investigation of bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor for treating high salinity wastewater by the 16S rDNA cloning method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Guo; Liang, Cun-Zhen; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Ping; Liu, Miao-Miao

    2013-02-01

    The bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor operated continuously for 1 year was studied by the 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing method. Forty clones were randomly selected and their partial 16S rDNA genes (ca. 1,400 bp) were sequenced and blasted. The results indicated that there were dominant bacterias in the biological desulfurization reactor, where 33 clones belonged to 3 different published phyla, while 1 clone belonged to unknown phylum. The dominant bacterial community in the system was Proteobacteria, which accounted for 85.3%. The bacterial community succession was as follows: the gamma-Proteobacteria(55.9%), beta-Proteobacteria(17.6%), Actinobacteridae (8.8%), delta-Proteobacteria (5.9%) , alpha-Proteobacteria(5.9%), and Sphingobacteria (2.9%). Halothiobacillus sp. ST15 and Thiobacillus sp. UAM-I were the major desulfurization strains. PMID:23668153

  12. What Discourages Students from Engaging with Innovative Instructional Methods: Creating a Barrier Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    When faculty members choose to implement instructional methods that are learning-centred, this may represent a change for students; and some resist engaging. In this exploratory case study research, 172 students shared what discourages them from being willing to engage with these innovative methods that aim to facilitate their learning.…

  13. Farmers' Preferences for Methods of Receiving Information on New or Innovative Farming Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Gor, Christopher Obel

    1989-01-01

    Survey of 386 Idaho farmers (response rate 58 percent) identified preferred methods of receiving information on new or innovative farming practices. Analysis revealed preference for interpersonal methods (demonstrations, tours, and field trips) over mass media such as computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and home study, although younger farmers,…

  14. New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient chromosomal integration of cloned genes for Methanosarcina species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guss, Adam M.; Rother, Michael; Zhang, Jun Kai; Kulkkarni, Gargi; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A highly efficient method for chromosomal integration of cloned DNA into Methanosarcina spp. was developed utilizing the site-specific recombination system from the Streptomyces phage φC31. Host strains expressing the φC31 integrase gene and carrying an appropriate recombination site can be transformed with non-replicating plasmids carrying the complementary recombination site at efficiencies similar to those obtained with self-replicating vectors. We have also constructed a series of hybrid promoters that combine the highly expressed M. barkeri P mcrB promoter with binding sites for the tetracycline-responsive, bacterial TetR protein. These promoters are tightly regulated by the presence or absence of tetracycline inmore » strains that express the tetR gene. The hybrid promoters can be used in genetic experiments to test gene essentiality by placing a gene of interest under their control. Thus, growth of strains with tetR -regulated essential genes becomes tetracycline-dependent. A series of plasmid vectors that utilize the site-specific recombination system for construction of reporter gene fusions and for tetracycline regulated expression of cloned genes are reported. These vectors were used to test the efficiency of translation at a variety of start codons. Fusions using an ATG start site were the most active, whereas those using GTG and TTG were approximately one half or one fourth as active, respectively. The CTG fusion was 95% less active than the ATG fusion.« less

  15. An Innovative Method for Exosome Quantification and Size Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Mehdiani, Arash; Maier, Anatol; Pinto, Antonio; Barth, Mareike; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Although the biological importance of exosomes has recently gained an increasing amount of scientific and clinical attention, much is still unknown about their complex pathways, their bioavailability and their diverse functions in health and disease. Current work focuses on the presence and the behavior of exosomes (in vitro as well as in vivo) in the context of different human disorders, especially in the fields of oncology, gynecology and cardiology. Unfortunately, neither a consensus regarding a gold standard for exosome isolation exists, nor is there an agreement on such a method for their quantitative analysis. As there are many methods for the purification of exosomes and also many possibilities for their quantitative and qualitative analysis, it is difficult to determine a combination of methods for the ideal approach. Here, we demonstrate nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a semi-automated method for the characterization of exosomes after isolation from human plasma by ultracentrifugation. The presented results show that this approach for isolation, as well as the determination of the average number and size of exosomes, delivers reproducible and valid data, as confirmed by other methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25650897

  16. An Innovative Method to Study Stokes' Law in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    A new method is introduced to study the behaviour of the falling spherical ball in a viscous liquid using the well known Stokes' law. Experimental results are compared with those obtained by numerical calculations. Upper limits on the size and mass of the spherical balls of different materials used in the experiment are presented. (Contains 5…

  17. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  18. [Advances in Molecular Cloning].

    PubMed

    Ashwini, M; Murugan, S B; Balamurugan, S; Sathishkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    "Molecular cloning" meaning creation of recombinant DNA molecules has impelled advancement throughout life sciences. DNA manipulation has become easy due to powerful tools showing exponential growth in applications and sophistication of recombinant DNA technology. Cloning genes has become simple what led to an explosion in the understanding of gene function by seamlessly stitching together multiple DNA fragments or by the use of swappable gene cassettes, maximizing swiftness and litheness. A novel archetype might materialize in the near future with synthetic biology techniques that will facilitate quicker assembly and iteration of DNA clones, accelerating the progress of gene therapy vectors, recombinant protein production processes and new vaccines by in vitro chemical synthesis of any in silico-specified DNA construct. The advent of innovative cloning techniques has opened the door to more refined applications such as identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. In this review, we will examine the major breakthroughs in cloning techniques and their applications in various areas of biological research that have evolved mainly due to easy construction of novel expression systems. PMID:27028806

  19. An innovative method for simulating microgravity effects through combining electromagnetic force and buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhanxia; Ming, Zhenfeng; Luo, Qiuyue

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an innovative method for simulating space microgravity effects. The new approach combines the neutral buoyancy and the electromagnetic force on the tested-body to balance the gravity and simulate the microgravity effects. In the paper, we present in some detail the magnetism-buoyancy hybrid microgravity simulation system, its components, functions and verification. We describe some key techniques such as ground-space similarity, the homogenization of electromagnetic field, the precise control of microgravity effects in dynamic environment, measurement in the hybrid suspension system. With this innovative microgravity simulation system, we prove through experiments and tests that our innovative method is feasible and effective and that the simulation fidelity is even higher than the neutral buoyancy system.

  20. The Elnady Technique: An innovative, new method for tissue preservation.

    PubMed

    Elnady, Fawzy A

    2016-01-01

    At the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, there is an increasing number of students but a limited availability of animal cadavers used for dissection, and student exposure to formalin is a known hazard. In order to address these challenges, a new method for tissue preservation was developed, the "Elnady Technique." This method is a modified form of plastination, where the chemicals used are not patented, are inexpensive and locally available, and the process is performed at room temperature. The produced specimens are realistic, durable, have no offensive odor, and are dry, soft and flexible. They can be used to replace the use of animals killed for teaching basic anatomy, embryology, pathology, parasitology and forensic medicine. They have great potential to support training in clinical skills and surgery, including for clinical examination, endoscopy, surgical sutures, and obstetrics simulation. PMID:26821550

  1. Recombinant expression and reconstitution of multiprotein complexes by the USER cloning method in the insect cell-baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Barford, David

    2016-02-15

    The capacity to reconstitute complex biological processes in vitro is a crucial step in providing a quantitative understanding of these systems. It provides material for structural, biochemical and biophysical analyses and allows the testing of biological hypotheses and the introduction of chemical probes and tags for single molecule analysis. Reconstitution of these systems requires access to homogenous components, usually through their over-production in heterologous over-expression systems. Here we describe the application of the USER (Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent) ligation-free cloning method to assemble recombinant MultiBac transfer vectors for the generation of recombinant baculovirus suitable for the expression of multi-protein complexes in insect cells. PMID:26454197

  2. An Innovative Operative Method for Correction of Tracheal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dakshesh R; Mungutwar, Varsha

    2016-09-01

    This is a case of failed attempt of hanging, resulted into cervical injury & injury to the trachea. Patient was put on the ventilator for respiratory support for long period. Poor recovery of the patient resulted into prolong tracheostomy tube. Combine effect of all resulted into suprastomal tracheal stenosis. Due to complexity of the problem a novel method was customized to correct the tracheal stenosis. Strap muscle (Sternohyoid & Sternothyroid) was raised as a flap; free cartilage was sandwiched in between and sutured to the created tracheal defect. Bovine collagen was placed over a stent and placed in the tracheal lumen. Good result was achieved post operatively in the form of adequate lumen, rigid anterior wall during respiration, good mucosal lining without fibrosis and normal speech. PMID:27508127

  3. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  5. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  6. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  7. Innovative methods for optimization and characterization of multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, M. G.; Suman, M.; Monaco, G.; Windt, D. L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2009-05-01

    A numerical method to design multilayer coating (ML) is presented. The mathematical tool is based on an "evolutive strategy" algorithm which provides aperiodic solutions by maximizing input merit functions. It allows the optimization of any kind of structures, comprising interlayers and capping layers, and modelling also inter-diffusion and interface roughness. It has been applied to the design of MLs for different applications, as photolithography, space instrumentation and short pulse preservation/compression. The optimization allows the control of the standing wave distribution inside the ML. When the EUV radiation interacts with the structure, the superposition of the incident and reflected electromagnetic wave generates a standing wave field distribution in the ML. An aperiodic design allows the regulation of the distribution of this field, attributing specific properties to the ML. An experimental technique to recover standing wave intensity on top of the ML is also cited. The technique is based on electron photoemission measurements, which allow to determine both reflectivity as well as phase on top of ML. Thanks to this technique, both tests of the ML performances compliance with expected theoretical ones and of degradation through time can be carried on.

  8. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and

  9. Combined megaplex TCR isolation and SMART-based real-time quantitation methods for quantitating antigen-specific T cell clones in mycobacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Du, George; Qiu, Liyou; Shen, Ling; Sehgal, Probhat; Shen, Yun; Huang, Dan; Letvin, Norman L.; Chen, Zheng W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in measuring cellular immune responses, the quantitation of antigen-specific T cell clones in infections or diseases remains challenging. Here, we employed combined megaplex TCR isolation and SMART-based real-time quantitation methods to quantitate numerous antigen-specific T cell clones using limited amounts of specimens. The megaplex TCR isolation covered the repertoire comprised of recombinants from 24 Vβ families and 13 Jβ segments, and allowed us to isolate TCR VDJ clonotypic sequences from one or many PPD-specific IFNγ-producing T cells that were purified by flow cytometry sorting. The SMART amplification technique was then validated for its capacity to proportionally enrich cellular TCR mRNA/cDNA for real-time quantitation of large numbers of T cell clones. SMART amplified cDNA was shown to maintain relative expression levels of TCR genes when compared to unamplified cDNA. While the SMART-based real-time quantitative PCR conferred a detection limit of 10−5 to 10−6 antigen-specific T cells, the clonotypic primers specifically amplified and quantitated the target clone TCR but discriminated other clones that differed by ≥2 bases in the DJ regions. Furthermore, the combined megaplex TCR isolation and SMART-based real-time quantiation methods allowed us to quantitate large numbers of PPD-specific IFNγ-producing T cell clones using as few as 2×106 PBMC collected weekly after mycobacterial infection. This assay system may be useful for studies of antigen-specific T cell clones in tumors, autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:16403511

  10. Molecular Profiling of Microbial Communities from Contaminated Sources: Use of Subtractive Cloning Methods and rDNA Spacer Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Frank T.

    2001-04-10

    The major objective of this research was to provide appropriate sequences and assemble a DNA array of oligonucleotides to be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas and other areas of interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array were chosen from cloned genomic DNA taken from groundwater sites having well characterized pollutant histories at Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300. Glass-slide arrays were made and tested; and a new multiplexed, bead-based method was developed that uses nucleic acid hybridization on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences. The test data revealed considerable strain variation between sample sites showing a striking distribution of sequences. It also suggests that diversity varies greatly with bioremediation, and that there are many bacterial intergenic spacer region sequences that can indicate its effects. The bead method exhibited superior sequence discrimination and has features for easier and more accurate measurement.

  11. Application of the ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method for rapid construction of a minigenome rescue system for Newcastle disease virus VG/GA strain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Hu, Haixia; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong; Yang, Zengqi

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause serious diseases and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. To gain a better understanding of NDV pathogenesis, several reverse genetics systems for different NDV strains have been established. However, the construction of infectious cDNA clone by conventional restriction digestion/ligation cloning methods is a time-consuming process and has many drawbacks by its nature. To address the problems, we employed a novel and robust ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method for efficient assembly of multiple DNA fragments. Using this method, we successfully generated a NDV minigenome construct within three weeks by assembling RT-PCR products of the VG/GA strain genomic termini and a cDNA coding for the green fluorescence protein (GFP), as a reporter, into a modified pBluescript vector. Co-transfection of the NDV minigenome with three supporting plasmids expressing the N, P, and L proteins into MVA-T7 infected HEp-2 cells and followed by infection with NDV VG/GA resulted in the minigenome replication, transcription, and packaging as evidenced by the reporter gene GFP expression. These results suggest that this LIC approach is a powerful tool for all sequence-independent DNA cloning and multi-DNA fragment assembly, which has a potential application for rapid development of gene therapy and recombinant vaccines. PMID:23928042

  12. A Novel Cloning Template Designing Method by Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Edge Detection of CNN Based Imaging Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Parmaksızoğlu, Selami; Alçı, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs) have been widely used recently in applications such as edge detection, noise reduction and object detection, which are among the main computer imaging processes. They can also be realized as hardware based imaging sensors. The fact that hardware CNN models produce robust and effective results has attracted the attention of researchers using these structures within image sensors. Realization of desired CNN behavior such as edge detection can be achieved by correctly setting a cloning template without changing the structure of the CNN. To achieve different behaviors effectively, designing a cloning template is one of the most important research topics in this field. In this study, the edge detecting process that is used as a preliminary process for segmentation, identification and coding applications is conducted by using CNN structures. In order to design the cloning template of goal-oriented CNN architecture, an Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired from the foraging behavior of honeybees is used and the performance analysis of ABC for this application is examined with multiple runs. The CNN template generated by the ABC algorithm is tested by using artificial and real test images. The results are subjectively and quantitatively compared with well-known classical edge detection methods, and other CNN based edge detector cloning templates available in the imaging literature. The results show that the proposed method is more successful than other methods. PMID:22163903

  13. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  14. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics. PMID:25956244

  15. An innovative simplified method for assessing available bone in mandible for implant.

    PubMed

    Binsu, S; Nair, K Chandrasekharan; Nayar, Sanjana; Tella, Suchita

    2016-01-01

    The primary factor that determines the success of implant is the amount of available bone in the edentulous site. Diagnostic imaging and techniques help to develop and implement a cohesive and comprehensive treatment plan according to the available bone. In the following case report an innovative simplified method (poor man CT) is used to fabricate a three dimensional model to assess the available bone for implant placement in mandible. PMID:27141175

  16. Excision of DNA segments introduced into cloning vectors by the poly(dA-dT) joining method.

    PubMed Central

    Goff, S P; Berg, P

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for excising cloned DNA segments that have been inserted into their vectors by poly(dA-dT) joins. The recombinant DNA is cleaved within the vector DNA portion by one or more restriction endonucleases to generate a linear DNA molecule with the insert DNA sequence flanked by the poly(dA-dT) joins. After denaturation, the single strands "snap back" because of the intrastrand poly(dA) and poly(dT) sequences to form circular structures with "tails" of vector DNA. The vector portion of the DNA is then digested by Escherichia coli exonuclease VII, while the insert portion remains resistant to attack. The resistant strands are annealed and purified by electrophoresis in agarose. The insert DNA segment free of contaminating vector sequences can be used as a hybridization probe and for insertion into a new vector since suitable cohesive termini are generated from the retained poly(dA) and poly(dT) tails by an appropriate exonuclease. Images PMID:347445

  17. To clone or not to clone--a Jewish perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Lipschutz, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many new reproductive methods such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation, freezing of human embryos, and surrogate motherhood were at first widely condemned but are now seen in Western society as not just ethically and morally acceptable, but beneficial in that they allow otherwise infertile couples to have children. The idea of human cloning was also quickly condemned but debate is now emerging. This article examines cloning from a Jewish perspective and finds evidence to support the view that there is nothing inherently wrong with the idea of human cloning. A hypothesis is also advanced suggesting that even if a body was cloned, the brain, which is the essence of humanity, would remain unique. This author suggests that the debate should be changed from "Is cloning wrong?" to "When is cloning wrong?". PMID:10226913

  18. Innovative Methods of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention—Getting the Right Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hargreave, Timothy; Ridzon, Renee; Farley, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: World Health Organization recommends that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics implement voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. Innovative methods of male circumcision including devices have the potential to simplify the procedure, reduce time and cost, increase client acceptability, enhance safety, and expand the numbers of providers who may perform circumcision. We describe work led by World Health Organization and supported by global partners to define a pathway for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of male circumcision devices, to set priority criteria, and to establish a process to guide the use of devices in publicly funded voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. A device classification scheme, an expert Technical Advisory Group on Innovations in Male Circumcision, and a formal prequalification program have also guided considerations on safe use of devices. A rigorous approach was deemed appropriate given the intervention is for use among healthy men for public health purposes. The pathway and processes led to coordinated research, better standardization in research outcomes, and guidance that informed the research, introduction and implementation phases. The lessons learnt from this case study can inform evaluation and use of future public health innovations. PMID:27331591

  19. Innovative Methods of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention-Getting the Right Evidence.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Julia; Hargreave, Timothy; Ridzon, Renee; Farley, Tim

    2016-06-01

    World Health Organization recommends that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics implement voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. Innovative methods of male circumcision including devices have the potential to simplify the procedure, reduce time and cost, increase client acceptability, enhance safety, and expand the numbers of providers who may perform circumcision. We describe work led by World Health Organization and supported by global partners to define a pathway for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of male circumcision devices, to set priority criteria, and to establish a process to guide the use of devices in publicly funded voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. A device classification scheme, an expert Technical Advisory Group on Innovations in Male Circumcision, and a formal prequalification program have also guided considerations on safe use of devices. A rigorous approach was deemed appropriate given the intervention is for use among healthy men for public health purposes. The pathway and processes led to coordinated research, better standardization in research outcomes, and guidance that informed the research, introduction and implementation phases. The lessons learnt from this case study can inform evaluation and use of future public health innovations. PMID:27331591

  20. A QuikChange-like method to realize efficient blunt-ended DNA directional cloning and site-directed mutagenesis simultaneously.

    PubMed

    An, Yingfeng; Lv, Anguo; Wu, Wenfang

    2010-06-25

    Here we present a QuikChange-like method to efficiently realize blunt-ended DNA cloning and conveniently introduce a site-directed mutation to recombinant plasmid at the same time. After blunt-ended DNA ligation and transformation, the plasmid DNA mixture is extracted from pooled transformants and directly used as template for PCR amplification with a pair of complementary mutagenic primers. With this method, sam1 gene was inserted into pUC19 vector by blunt-end ligation, and a unique restriction site Spe I was introduced to the recombinant plasmid at the same time. The randomly selected transformants were analyzed by DNA sequencing, and most of the clones were found to have correct sequences. However, no correct construct was found from randomly selected transformants after traditional blunt-ended DNA ligation and transformation. PMID:20471367

  1. Comparison of Unsupervised Vegetation Classification Methods from Vhr Images after Shadows Removal by Innovative Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movia, A.; Beinat, A.; Crosilla, F.

    2015-04-01

    The recognition of vegetation by the analysis of very high resolution (VHR) aerial images provides meaningful information about environmental features; nevertheless, VHR images frequently contain shadows that generate significant problems for the classification of the image components and for the extraction of the needed information. The aim of this research is to classify, from VHR aerial images, vegetation involved in the balance process of the environmental biochemical cycle, and to discriminate it with respect to urban and agricultural features. Three classification algorithms have been experimented in order to better recognize vegetation, and compared to NDVI index; unfortunately all these methods are conditioned by the presence of shadows on the images. Literature presents several algorithms to detect and remove shadows in the scene: most of them are based on the RGB to HSI transformations. In this work some of them have been implemented and compared with one based on RGB bands. Successively, in order to remove shadows and restore brightness on the images, some innovative algorithms, based on Procrustes theory, have been implemented and applied. Among these, we evaluate the capability of the so called "not-centered oblique Procrustes" and "anisotropic Procrustes" methods to efficiently restore brightness with respect to a linear correlation correction based on the Cholesky decomposition. Some experimental results obtained by different classification methods after shadows removal carried out with the innovative algorithms are presented and discussed.

  2. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    PubMed Central

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  3. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  4. Secure the Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Thomas; Kirchner, Florent; Pichardie, David

    Exchanging mutable data objects with untrusted code is a delicate matter because of the risk of creating a data space that is accessible by an attacker. Consequently, secure programming guidelines for Java stress the importance of using defensive copying before accepting or handing out references to an internal mutable object. However, implementation of a copy method (like clone()) is entirely left to the programmer. It may not provide a sufficiently deep copy of an object and is subject to overriding by a malicious sub-class. Currently no language-based mechanism supports secure object cloning. This paper proposes a type-based annotation system for defining modular copy policies for class-based object-oriented programs. A copy policy specifies the maximally allowed sharing between an object and its clone. We present a static enforcement mechanism that will guarantee that all classes fulfill their copy policy, even in the presence of overriding of copy methods, and establish the semantic correctness of the overall approach in Coq. The mechanism has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on clone methods from several Java libraries.

  5. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  7. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  8. Application of Innovative Methods to Optimize the Learning Process in Physics for Medical Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Genoveva; Tsankova, Emilya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemistry and biology courses in the high schools which occupy the attention and interest of students as they need to achieve maximum results of examinations for admission in higher medical schools, physics remains away from their interest. Striving for awakening the interest of medical students to classes in physics and diversification of the learning process requires the continuous search of new forms of organization of this process in order to fulfill the main task of education: optimal development of each student, creating conditions for creative work with the highest possible productivity. Using innovations in teaching physics, aimed at the purpose of training in non-traditional way, transforms the passive learning in an active creative process. This allows rapid identification and compensation of gaps in the knowledge, which in turn leads to a rationalization and a more complete and lasting control of educational content. The aim of the study is analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of innovative educational methods to increase motivation and the quality of teaching physics to students of medicine. The discussion is based on the opinions expressed in surveys of students and results of various forms of feedback.

  9. New PCR-Based Open Reading Frame Typing Method for Easy, Rapid, and Reliable Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii International Epidemic Clones without Performing Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hosoba, Eriko; Matsui, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (−) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance. PMID:24899031

  10. An Innovative, Effective and Cost Effective Survey Method Using a Survey-Check Response Format

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Edward G.; Severson, Herbert; Taylor, Ted; Boles, Shawn; Albert, David A.; Blair, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Maximizing the response rate to surveys involves thoughtful choices about survey design, sampling and collection methods. This paper describes an innovative survey method, to provide immediate reinforcement for responding and to minimize the response cost. This method involves using a questionnaire printed as checks on security (anti-fraud) paper with questions and responses separated using a perforated tear off section. Once a participant completes the survey, the response area is detached from the questions, thus protecting the confidentiality of the subject, and the check is returned via the banking system. This report describes the survey-check methodology, the survey flow process, and the results from four research studies which have used this method. These studies include (1) a technology accessibility survey of parents with children enrolled in a low-income preschool program; (2) a parent report of their child’s behavior used as screening criteria for inclusion in a computer-mediated parent education project; (3) a follow-up questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of child behavior, covering home and classroom interventions, and service utilization, and; (4) a survey of dentists in support of efforts to recruit them to participate in a randomized control trial of tobacco cessation in dental offices. The results of using this method show great improvement in response rates over traditionally administered surveys for three of the four reported studies. Results are discussed in terms of future applications of this method, limitations, and potential cost savings. PMID:17180473

  11. An innovative, effective and cost effective survey method using a survey-check response format.

    PubMed

    Feil, Edward G; Severson, Herbert; Taylor, Ted K; Boles, Shawn; Albert, David A; Blair, Jason

    2007-06-01

    Maximizing the response rate to surveys involves thoughtful choices about survey design, sampling and collection methods. This paper describes an innovative survey method, to provide immediate reinforcement for responding and to minimize the response cost. This method involves using a questionnaire printed as checks on security (anti-fraud) paper with questions and responses separated using a perforated tear off section. Once a participant completes the survey, the response area is detached from the questions, thus protecting the confidentiality of the subject, and the check is returned via the banking system. This report describes the survey-check methodology, the survey flow process, and the results from four research studies which have used this method. These studies include (1) a technology accessibility survey of parents with children enrolled in a low-income preschool program; (2) a parent report of their child's behavior used as screening criteria for inclusion in a computer-mediated parent education project; (3) a follow-up questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of child behavior, covering home and classroom interventions, and service utilization, and; (4) a survey of dentists in support of efforts to recruit them to participate in a randomized control trial of tobacco cessation in dental offices. The results of using this method show great improvement in response rates over traditionally administered surveys for three of the four reported studies. Results are discussed in terms of future applications of this method, limitations, and potential cost savings. PMID:17180473

  12. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  13. An innovative method and experiment for fabricating bulgy shape nanochannel using AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Jheng, Hao-Yuan; Ding, Hao-Yang

    2015-08-01

    The paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish an innovative offset cycle cutting method for fabricating a bulgy shape nanochannel on a single-crystal silicon substrate. In the offset cycle cutting method, cutting is performed at a constant down force in all cutting passes. After the first cutting pass, the AFM probe is offset rightward for the second pass and subsequently offset leftward to the middle (i.e., between the positions of the first two cutting passes) for the third cutting pass. Applying a step-by-step method to modify the offset distance and approach the defined SDFE value, this study determined the depth of the middle cutting pass and smaller values of upward bulginess and downward indentation at the bottom of the nanochannel. The nanochannel width can be increased by increasing the number of offset cycle cutting passes. In addition, by applying the proposed method, this study involved a simulation and experiment concerning the cutting path plan of bulgy shape nanochannels. Furthermore, using a small down force along the burr path is proposed for reducing burr height. The results of the simulation and experiment were compared to verify the feasibility of the method.

  14. Eliminating Health Disparities: Innovative Methods to Improve Cervical Cancer Screening in a Medically Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R.; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  15. PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative geometric calibration methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greslou, Daniel; de Lussy, Françoise; Amberg, Virginie; Dechoz, Cécile; Lenoir, Florie; Delvit, Jean-Marc; Lebègue, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    PLEIADES earth observing system consists of two satellites designed to provide optical 70cm resolution images to civilian and defense users. The first Pleiades satellite 1A was launched on December 2011 while the second satellite Pleiades 1B was placed on orbit, one year after, on December 2012. The calibration operations and the assessment of the image of the two satellites have been performed by CNES Image Quality team during the called commissioning phase which took place after each launch and lasted each time less than 6 months. The geometric commissioning activities consist in assessing and improving the geometric quality of the images in order to meet very demanding requirements. This paper deals with the means used and methods applied, mainly the innovative ones, in order to manage these activities. It describes both their accuracy and their operational interest. Finally it gives the main results for geometric image quality performances of the PHR system.

  16. Eliminating health disparities: innovative methods to improve cervical cancer screening in a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; León, Casey K; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  17. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  18. Clonal analysis of the T-cell response to in vivo expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv2034, using a CD154 expression based T-cell cloning method.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Susanna; Coppola, Mariateresa; Dijkman, Karin; Friggen, Annemieke H; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Wilson, Louis; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J; Franken, Kees L M C; Geluk, Annemieke; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of death worldwide. A better understanding of the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which are both important to TB protection, is essential to unravel the mechanisms of protection and to identify the key antigens seen by these T cells. We have recently identified a set of in vivo expressed Mtb genes (IVE-TB) which is expressed during in vivo pulmonary infection in mice, and shown that their encoded antigens are potently recognized by polyclonal T cells from tuberculin skin test-positive, in vitro ESAT-6/CFP10-responsive individuals. Here we have cloned T cells specific for one of these newly identified in vivo expressed Mtb (IVE-TB) antigens, Rv2034. T cells were enriched based on the expression of CD154 (CD40L), which represents a new method for selecting antigen-specific (low frequency) T cells independent of their specific function. An Rv2034-specific CD4+ T-cell clone expressed the Th1 markers T-bet, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and the cytotoxicity related markers granzyme B and CD107a as measured by flow cytometry. The clone specifically recognized Rv2034 protein, Rv2034 peptide p81-100 and Mtb lysate. Remarkably, while the recognition of the dominant p81-100 epitope was HLA-DR restricted, the T-cell clone also recognized a neighboring epitope (p88-107) in an HLA-DR- as well as HLA-DQ1-restricted fashion. Importantly, the T-cell clone was able to inhibit Mtb outgrowth from infected monocytes significantly. The characterization of the polyfunctional and Mtb inhibitory T-cell response to IVE-TB Rv2034 at the clonal level provides detailed further insights into the potential of IVE-TB antigens as new vaccine candidate antigens in TB. Our new approach allowed the identification of T-cell subsets that likely play a significant role in controlling Mtb infection, and can be applied to the analysis of T-cell responses in patient populations. PMID:24905579

  19. Clonal Analysis of the T-Cell Response to In Vivo Expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Rv2034, Using a CD154 Expression Based T-Cell Cloning Method

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Susanna; Coppola, Mariateresa; Dijkman, Karin; Friggen, Annemieke H.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Wilson, Louis; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Geluk, Annemieke; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of death worldwide. A better understanding of the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which are both important to TB protection, is essential to unravel the mechanisms of protection and to identify the key antigens seen by these T cells. We have recently identified a set of in vivo expressed Mtb genes (IVE-TB) which is expressed during in vivo pulmonary infection in mice, and shown that their encoded antigens are potently recognized by polyclonal T cells from tuberculin skin test-positive, in vitro ESAT-6/CFP10-responsive individuals. Here we have cloned T cells specific for one of these newly identified in vivo expressed Mtb (IVE-TB) antigens, Rv2034. T cells were enriched based on the expression of CD154 (CD40L), which represents a new method for selecting antigen-specific (low frequency) T cells independent of their specific function. An Rv2034-specific CD4+ T-cell clone expressed the Th1 markers T-bet, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and the cytotoxicity related markers granzyme B and CD107a as measured by flow cytometry. The clone specifically recognized Rv2034 protein, Rv2034 peptide p81–100 and Mtb lysate. Remarkably, while the recognition of the dominant p81–100 epitope was HLA-DR restricted, the T-cell clone also recognized a neighboring epitope (p88–107) in an HLA-DR- as well as HLA-DQ1-restricted fashion. Importantly, the T-cell clone was able to inhibit Mtb outgrowth from infected monocytes significantly. The characterization of the polyfunctional and Mtb inhibitory T-cell response to IVE-TB Rv2034 at the clonal level provides detailed further insights into the potential of IVE-TB antigens as new vaccine candidate antigens in TB. Our new approach allowed the identification of T-cell subsets that likely play a significant role in controlling Mtb infection, and can be applied to the analysis of T-cell responses in patient populations. PMID:24905579

  20. A rapid and efficient method for cloning genes of type II restriction-modification systems by use of a killer plasmid.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Iwona; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2007-07-01

    We present a method for cloning restriction-modification (R-M) systems that is based on the use of a lethal plasmid (pKILLER). The plasmid carries a functional gene for a restriction endonuclease having the same DNA specificity as the R-M system of interest. The first step is the standard preparation of a representative, plasmid-borne genomic library. Then this library is transformed with the killer plasmid. The only surviving bacteria are those which carry the gene specifying a protective DNA methyltransferase. Conceptually, this in vivo selection approach resembles earlier methods in which a plasmid library was selected in vitro by digestion with a suitable restriction endonuclease, but it is much more efficient than those methods. The new method was successfully used to clone two R-M systems, BstZ1II from Bacillus stearothermophilus 14P and Csp231I from Citrobacter sp. strain RFL231, both isospecific to the prototype HindIII R-M system. PMID:17468281

  1. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE's results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database-steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs' estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, -8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of -79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients. PMID:27618096

  2. Optimisation steps of an innovative air sampling method for semi volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Goelen, Eddy; Stranger, Marianne; Desmet, Gilbert; Wauters, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This work describes optimisation steps of an innovative method for the measurement several groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air, collecting both gaseous and particulate air fractions. It is based on active air sampling on sorption tubes (consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Tenax TA), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (TD-GC-MS). The optimised method was validated in the laboratory for the measurement of selected target compounds from the following chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalate esters (PEs). It was applied in different Belgian urban outdoor as well as indoor environments. The new method is characterised by limits of detection in the range of 0.003-0.3 ng m-3 for PAHs, 0.004-0.2 ng m-3 for PCBs, 0.113-0.201 ng m-3 for PBDEs and 0.002-0.2 ng m-3 for PEs, a linearity of 0.996 and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds.

  3. Hybrid Sequencing Approach Applied to Human Fecal Metagenomic Clone Libraries Revealed Clones with Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Džunková, Mária; D’Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be “domesticated” for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7–15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts. PMID:23082187

  4. Quality improvement of transgenic cloned bovine embryos using an aggregation method: Effects on cell number, cell ratio, embryo perimeter, mitochondrial distribution, and gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Bang, J I; Jin, J I; Ghanem, N; Choi, B H; Fakruzzaman, M; Ha, A N; Lee, K L; Uhm, S J; Ko, D H; Koo, B C; Lee, J G; Kong, I K

    2015-09-01

    The production of cloned embryos using conventional methods has extremely low success rates owing to low embryo quality. To improve the quality of cloned bovine embryos expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we applied an aggregation culture method. The EGFP gene was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts using a retroviral vector system. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was performed using these cells, and the resulting embryos were cultured in aggregates or individually. Gene expression was analyzed by a microarray, and differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The total number of cells per blastocyst and the ratio of inner cell mass cells to trophectoderm cells were higher in aggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (agBL; 368.7 ± 109.6 and 1:4.8, respectively) than in in vitro-fertilized blastocysts (ivfBL; 189.8 ± 65.8 and 1:2.6, respectively) and nonaggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (sBL; 113.1 ± 36.3 and 1:1.5, respectively; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, the blastocyst perimeter was larger in the agBL group than in the ivfBL and sBL groups (1168.8 ± 200.23 vs. 887.33 ± 187.62 and 678 ± 226.1 μm; P < 0.05). In addition, mitochondrial fluorescence intensity was higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL and sBL groups (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic cells per blastocyst was lower in the ivfBL and agBL groups than in the sBL group (3.7 ± 2.2 and 3.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.7 ± 6.8; P < 0.05). The genes identified in the microarray belonged to 18 categories. Expression of the Krüppel-like factor 4 gene, which is associated with cell proliferation, development, and transcription, was 7.2-fold higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL group (P < 0.05) but did not differ between the sBL and ivfBL groups (P > 0.05). Expression of the heat shock 70-kDa protein 1A gene, which is associated with apoptosis, was 12-fold higher in the s

  5. Comments on "Comparison of Mann-Kendall and innovative trend method for water quality parameters of the Kizilirmak River, Turkey (Kisi and Ay, 2014)" and "An innovative method for trend analysis of monthly pan evaporations (Kisi, 2015)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güçlü, Yavuz Selim

    2016-07-01

    Şen (2012) proposed the innovative trend analysis methodology and gave its fundamentals in a simple way based on logical deductions. Later, this methodology has been applied by many writers to different data as mentioned by Kisi and Ay (2014) and Kisi (2015), who also implemented the same methodology. In one of illustrations in their paper (Kisi and Ay, 2014) there are incorrectly scattered data and this comment includes the correction for the illustration. Additionally, Kisi's (2015) application of innovative trend method, as explained in detail by Şen (2012, 2014, 2015), has invalid confidence limits (bands) and the invalidation is explained in the comment.

  6. Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education in an Innovative Science Methods Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Randy McGinnis, J.; Hestness, Emily; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated curricular and pedagogical innovations in an undergraduate science methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Maryland. The goals of the innovative elementary science methods course included: improving students' attitudes toward and views of science and science teaching, to model innovative science teaching methods and to encourage students to continue in teacher education. We redesigned the elementary science methods course to include aspects of informal science education. The informal science education course features included informal science educator guest speakers, a live animal demonstration and a virtual field trip. We compared data from a treatment course ( n = 72) and a comparison course ( n = 26). Data collection included: researchers' observations, instructors' reflections, and teacher candidates' feedback. Teacher candidate feedback involved interviews and results on a reliable and valid Attitudes and Beliefs about the Nature of and the Teaching of Science instrument. We used complementary methods to analyze the data collected. A key finding of the study was that while benefits were found in both types of courses, the difference in results underscores the need of identifying the primary purpose for innovation as a vital component of consideration.

  7. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  8. Microelectro discharge machining: an innovative method for the fabrication of 3D microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesche, Claudia; Krah, Thomas; Büttgenbach, Stephanus

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports on the potential of microelectro discharge machining (μEDM) as an innovative method for the fabrication of 3D microdevices. To demonstrate the wide capabilities of μEDM two different high-potential 3D microsystems - a microfluidic device for the dispersion of nanoparticles and a star probe for microcoordinate metrology - are presented. For the fabrication of these microdevices a μEDM-milling machine with integrated microwire electro discharge grinding (μWEDG) module is utilized. To gain optimized process conditions as well as a high surface quality an adequate adaption of the single erosion parameters such as energy, pulse frequency and spark gap has to be carried out and are discussed below. The dispersion micromodule is used for pharmaceutical screening applications in a high pressure range up to 2000 bar. At the channel bottom a surface roughness of Ra = 80 nm is achieved. In case of the star probe it is possible to produce shaft and sphere out of one piece. The fabricated stylus elements have sphere diameters of 40-200 μm. For both applications μEDM offers a flexible, precise, effective and cost-efficient fabrication method for the machining of hard and resistant materials.

  9. Innovative sampling and extraction methods for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Shivani; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2015-03-15

    Two different innovative approaches were used for the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water: stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and passive sampling, followed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. SBSE was developed by comparing EG-Silicone and PDMS stir bars and optimizing main parameters to attain high preconcentration. Quantitative analysis was carried out by mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The SBSE-LC-MS/MS method provided satisfactory figures of merit with LOD (7.5-71 ng L(-1)) and LOQ (22.5-213 ng L(-1)). The developed method was successfully applied to real samples collected from river water and wastewater effluents. The obtained results showed the presence of all analytes at trace levels, in a wide range of concentrations. The passive sampling approach was carried out by using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS); samplers were deployed for 15 days in river and tap water, allowing to detect analytes at ultra-trace levels. Time-Weighted Average concentration of NSAIDs in river water was estimated in the range 0.33-0.46 ng L(-1), using the sampling rates previously obtained by means of a simple calibration system. PMID:25434009

  10. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  11. An Assessment of the Impact of Implementing Innovative Teaching Methods on Teaching Loads at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Gary L.

    This study examines the faculty workload policy of a community college that makes extensive use of non-traditional, innovative teaching methods. To measure workload, a mathematical equation whose sum was expressed as 100% was designed to include five factors: instructional hours, number of preparations, weekly student contact hours (WSCH), outside…

  12. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 16S rRNA gene clones (Clone-FISH) for probe validation and screening of clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Andreas; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Tonolla, Mauro; Stahl, David A

    2002-11-01

    A method is presented for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 16S rRNA gene clones targeting in vivo transcribed plasmid inserts (Clone-FISH). Several different cloning approaches and treatments to generate target-rRNA in the clones were compared. Highest signal intensities of Clone-FISH were obtained using plasmids with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter and host cells with an IPTG-inducible T7 RNA polymerase. Combined IPTG-induction and chloramphenicol treatment of those clones resulted in FISH signals up to 2.8-fold higher than signals of FISH with probe EUB338 to cells of Escherichia coli. Probe dissociation curves for three oligonucleotide probes were compared for reference cells containing native (FISH) or cloned (Clone-FISH) target sequences. Melting behaviour and calculated T(d) values were virtually identical for clones and cells, providing a format to use 16S rRNA gene clones instead of pure cultures for probe validation and optimization of hybridization conditions. The optimized Clone-FISH protocol was also used to screen an environmental clone library for insert sequences of interest. In this application format, 13 out of 82 clones examined were identified to contain sulphate-reducing bacterial rRNA genes. In summary, Clone-FISH is a simple and fast technique, compatible with a wide variety of cloning vectors and hosts, that should have general utility for probe validation and screening of clone libraries. PMID:12460279

  14. PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative radiometric calibration methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Kubik, Philippe; Lacherade, Sophie; Latry, Christophe; Lebegue, Laurent; Lenoir, Florie; Porez-Nadal, Florence

    2013-09-01

    PLEIADES is an earth observing system conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B), both designed to provide optical pushbroom imagery on five spectral bands to civilian and defense users, with ground sample distance up to 70 cm. During inflight image quality commissioning, radiometric activities included inter-detector normalization coefficients computation, refocusing operations, MTF assessment and estimation of signal to noise ratios. This paper presents inflight results for both satellites. It focuses on several innovative methods that were implemented, taking advantage of the satellite platform great agility. These methods are based on processing images obtained through dedicated exotic guidance. In particular, slow-motion steering enables an efficient estimation of the instrumental noise model, since during acquisition each detector has been viewing a stable ground target along different time samples. Conversely, rotated retina guidance is used to guarantee that all different elementary detectors have successively viewed the same set of landscape samples during acquisition. Non-uniformity of detector sensitivities can then be characterized, and on-board coefficients used prior to compression can be calibrated in order to prevent vertical striping effects on operational images. Defocus control and Point Spread Function estimation can be easily obtained through processing acquisitions of stars associated to various spectral characteristics, for different adjustments of the refocusing system. All these methods allow an accurate estimation of radiometric performance on the whole range of specified spectral radiances, while drastically reducing the number of required acquisitions on natural targets.

  15. Innovations and trends in meat consumption: an application of the Delphi method in Spain.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Antonio; Miranda, Francisco J; Rubio, Sergio; Valero, Víctor

    2012-12-01

    The meat sector in Spain is an important industry. However, traditional consumption is changing as a result of the country's economic crisis and the new structure of households. The objective of the present study was to identify trends in meat consumption in Spain extrapolated to 2016, and the main innovations that should be of interest to firms in the sector. The study was conducted in 2011 using the Delphi method with the participation of 26 experts. The results showed that, while the demand for meat will not vary significantly in amount, it will do so in composition, with chicken replacing beef as the meat of most importance in the shopping basket. In addition, significant growth is expected in certified meat, but the demand for organic meat will not take off. Neither will there be no significant changes in end purchase formats, but there will be a clear trend in consumers' purchasing decision criteria away from price, external appearance and origin towards quality certification and the attributes of the packaging. With respect to end purchase channels, the experts estimate that the current trend will be accentuated with increasing market share for large supermarkets and major distribution brands. PMID:22878051

  16. Innovative Field Methods for Characterizing the Hydraulic Properties of a Complex Fractured Rock Aquifer (Ploemeur, Brittany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Longuevergne, L.; Lavenant, N.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; De Dreuzy, J. R.; Schuite, J.; Boudin, F.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the hydraulic properties of heterogeneous and complex aquifers often requires field scale investigations at multiple space and time scales to better constrain hydraulic property estimates. Here, we present and discuss results from the site of Ploemeur (Brittany, France) where complementary hydrological and geophysical approaches have been combined to characterize the hydrogeological functioning of this highly fractured crystalline rock aquifer. In particular, we show how cross-borehole flowmeter tests, pumping tests and frequency domain analysis of groundwater levels allow quantifying the hydraulic properties of the aquifer at different scales. In complement, we used groundwater temperature as an excellent tracer for characterizing groundwater flow. At the site scale, measurements of ground surface deformation through long-base tiltmeters provide robust estimates of aquifer storage and allow identifying the active structures where groundwater pressure changes occur, including those acting during recharge process. Finally, a numerical model of the site that combines hydraulic data and groundwater ages confirms the geometry of this complex aquifer and the consistency of the different datasets. The Ploemeur site, which has been used for water supply at a rate of about 106 m3 per year since 1991, belongs to the French network of hydrogeological sites H+ and is currently used for monitoring groundwater changes and testing innovative field methods.

  17. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  18. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  19. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION-INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions as well as techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are nee...

  20. Managing ground and surface water resources using innovative methods in rural and urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Magole, Lapologang; Makurira, Hodson; Mazvimavi, Dominic; Meck, Maideyi; Mul, Maloes

    2016-06-01

    Management of water resources across the world is becoming more challenging as a result of population increase and the changes in climatic patterns that are now evident across the globe, especially so in Southern Africa. It is therefore imperative that water researchers begin to apply innovative methods that are accurate and reliable. In this editorial we highlight some of the methods that have been applied in this changing environment.

  1. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  2. Innovative method and apparatus for the deep cleaning of soluble salts from mortars and lithic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Laura; Ferretti, Maurizio; Torrielli, Giulia; Caratto, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    demonstrated by conducibility tests on the juxtaposed Japanese paper. In addition, after the conventional treatment, a considerable amount of soluble salts was further extracted demonstrating that traditional wraps operate just a shallow cleaning, and soluble salts are liable to emerge later as efflorescence affecting the conservation after restoration. The optimum cleaning was obtained by finishing the innovative extraction with sepiolite/cellulose wraps. As a whole, the novel method and apparatus enhance the time for restoration and the final quality before consolidation and protection. [1] "Apparatus and method for treating porous materials" - M. Ferretti, L. Gaggero, G. Torrielli, PCT/IB2015/055129 (2015)

  3. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M{sub A} clones with fidelity F{sup A} and another set of M{sub B} clones with fidelity F{sup B}, the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N{yields}M{sub A}+M{sub B} cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1{yields}1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized.

  4. Aristotle and headless clones.

    PubMed

    Mosteller, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Cloned organisms can be genetically altered so that they do not exhibit higher brain functioning. This form of therapeutic cloning allows for genetically identical organs and tissues to be harvested from the clone for the use of the organism that is cloned. "Spare parts" cloning promises many opportunities for future medical advances. What is the ontological and ethical status of spare parts, headless clones? This paper attempts to answer this question from the perspective of Aristotle's view of the soul. Aristotle's metaphysics as applied to his view of biological essences generates an ethic that can contribute to moral reasoning regarding the use of headless spare parts clones. The task of this paper is to show the implications that Aristotle's view of the soul, if it is true, would have on the ethics of headless, spare parts cloning. PMID:16180113

  5. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc

    2004-03-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions from certified reference materials (CRMs) are most often used as calibrators for GMO quantification by means of real-time PCR. However, due to some intrinsic features of these CRMs, errors may be expected in the estimations of DNA sequence quantities. In this paper, two new real-time PCR methods are presented for Roundup Ready soybean, in which two types of plasmid DNA fragments are used as calibrators. Single-target plasmids (STPs) diluted in a background of genomic DNA were used in the first method. Multiple-target plasmids (MTPs) containing both sequences in one molecule were used as calibrators for the second method. Both methods simultaneously detect a promoter 35S sequence as GMO-specific target and a lectin gene sequence as endogenous reference target in a duplex PCR. For the estimation of relative GMO percentages both "delta C(T)" and "standard curve" approaches are tested. Delta C(T) methods are based on direct comparison of measured C(T) values of both the GMO-specific target and the endogenous target. Standard curve methods measure absolute amounts of target copies or haploid genome equivalents. A duplex delta C(T) method with STP calibrators performed at least as well as a similar method with genomic DNA calibrators from commercial CRMs. Besides this, high quality results were obtained with a standard curve method using MTP calibrators. This paper demonstrates that plasmid DNA molecules containing either one or multiple target sequences form perfect alternative calibrators for GMO quantification and are especially suitable for duplex PCR reactions. PMID:14689155

  6. The CALERIE Study: design and methods of an innovative 25% caloric restriction intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal studies have shown that life span is extended by caloric restriction (CR). This manuscript describes the design and methodology of an innovative CR intervention, which is the treatment arm of the CALERIE Study. This study is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial examining the effects o...

  7. An Innovative Method for Preparing Semiconductor Change Used in Crystal Growth and Shear Cell Diffusion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anrold, William A.; Matthiesen, David; Benett, Robert J.; Jayne, Douglas T.

    1997-01-01

    An innovative technique for machining semiconductors has been developed. This technique was used to prepare semiconductor charges for crystal growth and shear cell diffusion experiments. The technique allows brittle semiconductor materials to be quickly and accurately machined. Lightly doping the semiconductor material increases the conductivity enough to allow the material to be shaped by an electrical discharge machine (EDM).

  8. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored BEopt software, which ensures a consistent analysis platform and accurate simulations. Many BEopt algorithms have been adopted by private-sector HERS software tools that have helped improve the energy efficiency of tens-of-thousands of ENERGY STAR-certified homes.

  9. Innovation in Postgraduate Teaching: Mixed Methods to Enhance Learning and Learning about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Carolyn; Jay, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    Growing pressure to restructure and reform tertiary education is encouraging university academics to use innovative practices that assist students to develop "employable" skills. The hybrid approach described in this paper stimulated students to be self-directed adult learners who maximized their learning of content and skills by means of…

  10. Integrating Teacher- and Peer-Assessments of Group Coursework Assignments in Business Education: Some Innovative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyia, Okey Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to an earlier one that examines "the efficacy of two innovative peer-assessment templates ("PET" and "PACT") introduced to enable students provide evidence of their fairness in evaluating peer contributions to group project work" (Onyia, O. P. and Allen, S., 2012). In the present paper, three…

  11. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  12. Innovative Teaching Ideas. A Sharing of Teaching Tips, Ideas and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Richard W., Ed.; And Others

    Compiled from materials collected from 150 teachers of agriculture across New York State who participated in a series of 11 regional agriculture inservice workshops, this resource guide contains innovative techniques for classroom operation as well as suggestions for using available resources. The ideas have been organized into the following eight…

  13. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

  14. Comments on "validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater" by Goltz et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kerang

    2014-12-01

    I wish to comment on the paper published by Goltz et al. on this journal, titled Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater (Goltz et al., 2009). The paper presents the results of experiments Goltz et al. conducted on an artificial aquifer for the purpose of validating two recently developed methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater, the tandem circulation well (TCW) method and the modified integral pumping test (MIPT) method. Their experiment results showed that the TCW method implemented using both the multi-dipole technique and the tracer test technique successfully estimated the mass fluxes with respective accuracies within 2% and 16% of the known values. The MIPT method, on the other hand, underestimated the mass flux by as much as 70%. My comments focus on the MIPT method.

  15. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Hannes M.; Gonschorek, Patrick; Samodelov, Sophia L.; Meier, Matthias; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly), a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date. PMID:26360249

  16. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hannes M; Gonschorek, Patrick; Samodelov, Sophia L; Meier, Matthias; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D

    2015-01-01

    Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly), a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date. PMID:26360249

  17. MOLECULAR PROFILING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES FROM CONTAMINATED SOURCES: USE OF SUBTRACTIVE CLONING METHODS AND RDNA SPACER SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addresses the development and testing of molecular methods that will allow rapid characterization of microbial communities in perturbed or contaminated ecosystems. The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density...

  18. Evaluation of Students’ Perceptions Towards An Innovative Teaching-Learning Method During Pharmacology Revision Classes: Autobiography of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ganjiwale, Jaishree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various studies in medical education have shown that active learning strategies should be incorporated into the teaching–learning process to make learning more effective, efficient and meaningful. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate student’s perceptions on an innovative revision method conducted in Pharmacology i.e. in form of Autobiography of Drugs. The main objective of study was to help students revise the core topics in Pharmacology in an interesting way. Settings and Design Questionnaire based survey on a newer method of pharmacology revision in two batches of second year MBBS students of a tertiary care teaching medical college. Materials and Methods Various sessions on Autobiography of Drugs were conducted amongst two batches of second year MBBS students, during their Pharmacology revision classes. Student’s perceptions were documented with the help of a five point likert scale through a questionnaire regarding quality, content and usefulness of this method. Statistical analysis used Descriptive analysis. Results Students of both the batches appreciated the innovative method taken up for revision. The median scores in most of the domains in both batches were four out of five, indicative of good response. Feedback from open-ended questions also revealed that the innovative module on “Autobiography of Drugs” was taken as a positive learning experience by students. Conclusions Autobiography of drugs has been used to help students recall topics that they have learnt through other teachings methods. Autobiography sessions in Pharmacology during revision slots, can be one of the interesting ways in helping students revise and recall topics which have already been taught in theory classes. PMID:26393138

  19. Self-Cloning CRISPR.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Mandana; Sherwood, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-gene editing has emerged as a revolutionary technology to easily modify specific genomic loci by designing complementary sgRNA sequences and introducing these into cells along with Cas9. Self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR) uses a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid (sgPal) that recombines with short PCR-amplified site-specific sgRNA sequences within the target cell by homologous recombination to circumvent the process of sgRNA plasmid construction. Through this mechanism, scCRISPR enables gene editing within 2 hr once sgRNA oligos are available, with high efficiency equivalent to conventional sgRNA targeting: >90% gene knockout in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells and cancer cell lines. Furthermore, using PCR-based addition of short homology arms, we achieve efficient site-specific knock-in of transgenes such as GFP without traditional plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette (2% to 4% knock-in rate). The methods in this paper describe the most rapid and efficient means of CRISPR gene editing. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27532819

  20. Best practices: implementation of a glucose screening program based on diffusion of innovation theory methods.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ginger E; Morrato, Elaine H; Johnson, Mark C; Campagna, Elizabeth; Yingling, Michael D; Pham, Victor; Newcomer, John W

    2011-01-01

    There is public health interest in the identification and treatment of modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among patients treated with antipsychotic medications. However, best-practice screening recommendations endorsed by multiple medical organizations have not translated into real-world clinical practice. Quality improvement strategies may help to address the gap between policy and implementation. This column describes the successful implementation of a best-practice glucose screening program in a large network of community mental health centers that was based on Six Sigma and diffusion of innovation theory. PMID:21209293

  1. An Innovative Method for Low Cost, Autonomous Navigation for Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Harman, Rick; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1998-01-01

    An innovative approach to autonomous attitude, trajectory, and rate estimation is presented for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites which relies on magnetometers and sun sensors. These two sensors are reliable, inexpensive, and are used routinely in LEO missions for attitude determination and control. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is developed from two existing systems, one which uses an EKF to estimate attitude and trajectory using magnetometer and gyro data and a second pseudo-linear filter which estimates rotation rate using magnetometer and sun sensor data. The theoretical background of the combined system is presented along with test results from noisy, simulated sensor data.

  2. Incorporating café design principles into End-of-Life discussions: an innovative method for continuing education.

    PubMed

    Kanaskie, Mary Louise

    2011-04-01

    Café design provides an innovative method for conducting continuing education activities. This method was chosen to elicit meaningful conversation based on issues related to End-of-Life care. Café design principles incorporate the following: setting the context, creating hospitable space, exploring questions that matter, encouraging everyone's contributions, connecting diverse perspectives, listening together for insights, and sharing collective discoveries. Key discussion questions were identified from the End-of Life Nursing Education Consortium Core Curriculum. Questions were revised to incorporate the principles of appreciative inquiry, which encourage a shift from traditional methods of problem identification to creation of a positive vision. Participants rated the café design method as an effective way to share their ideas and to stimulate conversation. PMID:21656936

  3. STRU-cloning: a fast, inexpensive and efficient cloning procedure applicable to both small scale and structural genomics size cloning.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Dom; Fordham-Skelton, Anthony P; Papiz, Miroslav Z

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a Single-Tube Restriction-based Ultrafiltration (STRU) cloning procedure that updates traditional ligation-dependent cloning to challenge the newer, faster and more efficient ligation-free techniques and could make it the method of choice. STRU-cloning employs centrifugal filter units with membrane of suitable cut off to remove small unwanted DNA fragments created during restriction of plasmids or PCR products. Heat inactivation, of restriction enzymes, followed by DNA ligation is then performed on the filtrate. By removing the agarose gel electrophoresis DNA purification step from the traditional protocol, which is time consuming and is known to be the cause of ligation problems, STRU-cloning becomes fast, very efficient, inexpensive and offers the highest degree of cloning flexibility by using restriction sites and can be performed in a single tube. This novel agarose gel-free cloning procedure provides benefits for both small and large scale cloning projects. Unlike traditional cloning it can be easily implemented as a fully automated process at very low costs. PMID:21052867

  4. The Facial Contouring and Support System: An Innovative Method for Midfacial Fat Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Minimally invasive rejuvenation procedures are increasingly popular with patients. In the midface, these might involve the introduction of sutures to lift and secure the malar tissue, fat grafts, and fillers to increase volume. This article describes a new facial contouring and support system, which uses an innovative hollow, double-beveled needle to which a 2/0 polypropylene suture may be anchored. Among 102 patients there were no complications, and follow-up at 3–5 years indicates little or no loss of satisfaction with the outcome. The procedure can be combined with other modalities—including fillers and skin peels—to achieve an overall, balanced, natural look for the patient. Potential adjustability and reversibility of the procedure are reassuring for both patient and surgeon and add to the technique’s versatility. PMID:25426398

  5. An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

    2008-04-01

    Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code.

  6. Innovation in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Daniel J.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gertner, Michael; Krummel, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the field of surgical innovation from a historical perspective, applying new findings from research in technology innovation. Background: While surgical innovation has a rich tradition, as a field of study it is embryonic. Only a handful of academic centers of surgical innovation exist, all of which have arisen within the last 5 years. To this point, the field has not been well defined, nor have future options to promote surgical innovation been thoroughly explored. It is clear that surgical innovation is fundamental to surgical progress and has significant health policy implications. A process of systematically evaluating and promoting innovation in surgery may be critical in the evolving practice of medicine. Methods: A review of the academic literature in technology innovation was undertaken. Articles and books were identified through technical, medical, and business sources. Luminaries in surgical innovation were interviewed to develop further relevance to surgical history. The concepts in technology innovation were then applied to innovation in surgery, using the historical example of surgical endoscopy as a representative area, which encompasses millennia of learning and spans multiple specialties of care. Results: The history of surgery is comprised largely of individual, widely respected surgeon innovators. While respecting individual accomplishments, surgeons as a group have at times hindered critical innovation to the detriment of our profession and patients. As a clinical discipline, surgery relies on a tradition of research and attracting the brightest young minds. Innovation in surgery to date has been impressive, but inconsistently supported. Conclusion: A body of knowledge on technology innovation has been developed over the last decade but has largely not been applied to surgery. New surgical innovation centers are working to define the field and identify critical aspects of surgical innovation promotion. It is our

  7. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  8. The Trial of Drug Discovery using the In-Silico Screening Methods Developed by Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Nakanishi, Isao; Okuno, Yasushi; Minakata, Satoshi; Mikami, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masato; Fukuoka, Yoshitada; Takada, Toshikazu; Sakata, Tsuneaki

    We have recently established Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain collaborated by The SOSHO project (http://www.so-sho.jp) and The BioGrid Project (http://www.biogrid.jp/) to accelerate new drug development. The in-silico group calculated the matrices on the interaction between the proteins and chemical compounds, and developed the novel in-silico screening methods, Multiple Target Screening (MTS) and Docking score index (DSI), improving the hit rate of screening a lead compound. We have applied these methods for the two target enzymes; human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) and orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase from human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum (PfOMPDC). The optimizing of HQL-79, one of the known inhibitors for human H-PGDS and the screening of lead compounds for both enzymes are in study.

  9. The orbits--anatomical features in view of innovative surgical methods.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Mayer, Peter; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Metzger, Marc Christian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to update on anatomical key elements of the orbits in reference to surgical innovations. This is a selective literature review supplemented with the personal experience of the authors, using illustrations and photographs of anatomical dissections. The seven osseous components of the orbit can be conceptualized into a simple geometrical layout of a four-sided pyramid with the anterior aditus as a base and the posterior cone as apex. All neurovascular structures pass through bony openings in the sphenoid bone before diversification in the mid and anterior orbit. A set of landmarks such as the optic and maxillary strut comes into new focus. Within the topographical surfaces of the internal orbit the lazy S-shaped floor and the posteromedial bulge are principal determinants for the ocular globe position. The inferomedial orbital strut represents a discernible sagittal buttress. The periorbita and orbital soft tissue contents--extraocular muscles, septae, neurovasculature--are detailed and put into context with periorbital dissection. PMID:25397705

  10. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A.; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  11. A novel, rapid and efficient method of cloning functional antigen-specific T-cell receptors from single human and mouse T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hamana, Hiroshi; Shitaoka, Kiyomi; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Muraguchi, Atsushi

    2016-06-10

    T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the paired cloning and functional assays of antigen-specific TCRα and TCRβ is time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a novel, rapid and efficient antigen-specific TCR-cloning system by combining three technologies: multiplex one-step RT-PCR, transcriptionally active PCR (TAP) and luciferase reporter assays. Multiplex one-step RT-PCR with leader primers designed from leader peptide sequences of TCRs enabled us to amplify cDNAs of TCRα and β pairs from single T-cells with remarkably high efficiency. The combination of TAP fragments and HEK293T-based NFAT-luciferase reporter cells allowed for a rapid functional assay without the need to construct expression vectors. Using this system, we cloned human TCRs specific for Epstein-Barr virus BRLF-1-derived peptide as well as mouse TCRs specific for melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2) within four days. These results suggest that our system provides rapid and efficient cloning of functional antigen-specific human and mouse TCRs and contributes to TCR-based immunotherapy for cancers and infectious diseases. PMID:27155153

  12. Application of the ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method for rapid construction of a minigenome rescue system for Newcastle disease virus VG/GA strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause serious diseases and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. To gain a better understanding of NDV pathogenesis, several reverse genetics systems for different NDV strains have been established. However, the construction of infectious cDNA clone b...

  13. Concept design and hydrodynamic optimization of an innovative SWATH USV by CFD methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzolara, Stefano; Curtin, Tom; Bovio, Marco; Vernengo, Giuliano

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of an innovative platform which has been conceived and designed to extend the operational capabilities of current unmanned surface vehicles in terms of platform stability in waves and of powering requirement at a relatively high speed. The main idea which rules the project is the realization of a small autonomous surface unit (about 6 m in length) capable of undertaking several tasks in the marine environment even with moderate rough sea conditions. The designed vessel has the ability to locate, recover, and launch other members of the autonomous fleet (like AUVs or other underwater devices) and at the same time could carry out a surveillance service of the surrounding areas. To manage these tasks, the vehicle is designed to provide a fairly good autonomy which is needed to face intermediate-range missions (100 nautical miles). The choice of a small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) form has been motivated by its excellent properties of seakeeping qualities, combined with a non-conventional low resistance underwater hull shape, currently under patenting process, which is able to reduce to a minimum the resistance of the vessel especially at higher speeds. To obtain the most efficient profile of the underwater bodies, a systematic optimization with an automatic procedure based on a parametric definition of the geometry, a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver, and a differential evolution global minimization algorithm have been created and used. As expected, all the final CFD computations on the best design have demonstrated the superior efficiency of the developed unconventional SWATH technology with respect to different alternatives of current hull typologies.

  14. Structural characterization of low level degradants in aztreonam injection and an innovative approach to aid HPLC method validation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qingmei; Ding, Wei; Rinaldi, Frank; Huang, Yande; Miller, Scott A; Bolgar, Mark

    2016-05-30

    Three new degradants have been identified from drug product and active pharmaceutical ingredient stability samples of aztreonam, a marketed synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic. The degradants were detected following the implementation of a new, more selective HPLC method for the determination of impurities and degradants. The new method was developed in response to changes in the regulatory requirement for mature products. Two of the new unknown Degradants (I and II) were observed in chromatograms from stability samples of aztreonam injection. The third new Degradant (III) was observed during a stability study of the aztreonam active pharmaceutical ingredient. These degradants were structurally characterized. A small amount (ca. 1-3mg) of each degradant was isolated via preparative HPLC for structure elucidation using accurate MS, one and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The small amount of each NMR sample was then reused as a standard for HPLC purity/impurity method validation. Their exact concentrations were determined using quantitative NMR which enabled the execution of the quantitative elements of the HPLC method validation. This innovative approach eliminated the need to isolate or synthesize larger quantities of markers for HPLC/UV method validation, thus saving significant time and reducing costs. PMID:26991056

  15. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. Objective To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. Data sources We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. Study eligibility criteria, participants and interventions We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We used the constant comparative method of

  16. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF AN INNOVATIVE SEWER REHABILITATION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A benefit of trenchless methods touted by many practitioners when compared to open cut construction is lower carbon dioxide emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, tools have been developed that calculate the environmental impact of traditional open cut methods and commo...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF AN INNOVATIVE SEWER REHABILITATION METHOD - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    A benefit of trenchless methods touted by many practitioners when compared to open cut construction is lower carbon dioxide emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, tools have been developed that calculate the environmental impact of traditional open cut methods and commo...

  18. Development of an Innovative Algorithm for Aerodynamics-Structure Interaction Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Ren-Wei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Da-Zhi; Luo, Li-Shi; Rudy, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is a kinetic formulation which offers an alternative computational method capable of solving fluid dynamics for various systems. Major advantages of the method are owing to the fact that the solution for the particle distribution functions is explicit, easy to implement, and the algorithm is natural to parallelize. In this final report, we summarize the works accomplished in the past three years. Since most works have been published, the technical details can be found in the literature. Brief summary will be provided in this report. In this project, a second-order accurate treatment of boundary condition in the LBE method is developed for a curved boundary and tested successfully in various 2-D and 3-D configurations. To evaluate the aerodynamic force on a body in the context of LBE method, several force evaluation schemes have been investigated. A simple momentum exchange method is shown to give reliable and accurate values for the force on a body in both 2-D and 3-D cases. Various 3-D LBE models have been assessed in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. In general, accurate 3-D results can be obtained using LBE methods. The 3-D 19-bit model is found to be the best one among the 15-bit, 19-bit, and 27-bit LBE models. To achieve desired grid resolution and to accommodate the far field boundary conditions in aerodynamics computations, a multi-block LBE method is developed by dividing the flow field into various blocks each having constant lattice spacing. Substantial contribution to the LBE method is also made through the development of a new, generalized lattice Boltzmann equation constructed in the moment space in order to improve the computational stability, detailed theoretical analysis on the stability, dispersion, and dissipation characteristics of the LBE method, and computational studies of high Reynolds number flows with singular gradients. Finally, a finite difference-based lattice Boltzmann method is

  19. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  20. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Print Email Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  1. A method for the amplification of chemically induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells: its use as a potential screening assay.

    PubMed

    Schechtman, L M; Kiss, E; McCarvill, J; Nims, R; Kouri, R E; Lubet, R A

    1987-09-01

    A method has been developed by which to amplify expression of phenotypic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 mouse embryo cells not otherwise observed in the standard transformation assay. The expression of transformed foci was amplified by subcultivating chemically treated target cells after they had reached confluence and replating them at subconfluent cell densities. Conditions leading to the expression of the highest numbers of transformed foci include a) a cell seeding density for chemical treatment of 1 X 10(4) cells/dish, b) subculture 4 weeks after treatment, and c) replating cells at a density of 2 X 10(5) cells/-dish. Agents capable of inducing transformation in the standard assay (e.g., 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone, benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and others) also yielded transformation in the replating assay. The more marginal transforming activities of chemicals such as ethyl methanesulfonate, 7-(bromomethyl)-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were enhanced by the amplification procedure. Compounds that failed to elicit focal transformation in the standard assay (e.g., dibenz[a,h]anthracene, Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, lead acetate, benzidine, propyleneimine, N-hydroxy-2-fluorenylacetamide, and numerous other compounds of various chemical classes) induced significant levels of phenotypic transformation upon amplification. Noncarcinogens (e.g., phenanthrene, anthracene, 2-aminobiphenyl, cycloheximide, and others) failed to cause significant phenotypic transformation even when cells were replated. To further enhance the applicability of this new replating system, an exogenous source of metabolic activation was added: a 9,000 X g supernatant from Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S-9. This activation system was found a) to be only minimally cytotoxic by itself and b) to be able to mediate NADPH-dependent, dose-dependent toxicity, and transformation by activating the procarcinogens

  2. Economical phase-covariant cloning with multiclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hai; Ye, Liu

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a very simple method to derive the explicit transformations of the optimal economical 1 to M phase-covariant cloning. The fidelity of clones reaches the theoretic bound [D'Ariano G M and Macchiavello C 2003 Phys. Rev. A 67 042306]. The derived transformations cover the previous contributions [Delgado Y, Lamata L et al., 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 150502] in which M must be odd.

  3. An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

  4. New methods as alternative or corrective measures for the pitfalls and artifacts of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) in cloning chimeric or antisense-accompanied RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chengfu; Liu, Yongming; Yang, Min; Liao, D. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    We established new methods for cloning cDNA ends that start with reverse transcription (RT) and soon proceed with the synthesis of the second cDNA strand, avoiding manipulations of fragile RNA. Our 3′-end cloning method does not involve poly-dT primers and polymerase chain reactions (PCR), is low in efficiency but high in fidelity and can clone those RNAs without a poly-A tail. We also established a cDNA protection assay to supersede RNA protection assay. The protected cDNA can be amplified, cloned and sequenced, enhancing sensitivity and fidelity. We report that RT product using gene-specific primer (GSP) cannot be gene- or strand-specific because RNA sample contains endogenous random primers (ERP). The gene-specificity may be improved by adding a linker sequence at the 5′-end of the GSP to prime RT and using the linker as a primer in the ensuing PCR. The strand-specificity may be improved by using strand-specific DNA oligos in our protection assay. The CDK4 mRNA and TSPAN31 mRNA are transcribed from the opposite DNA strands and overlap at their 3′ ends. Using this relationship as a model, we found that the overlapped sequence might serve as a primer with its antisense as the template to create a wrong-template extension in RT or PCR. We infer that two unrelated RNAs or cDNAs overlapping at the 5′- or 3′-end might create a spurious chimera in this way, and many chimeras with a homologous sequence may be such artifacts. The ERP and overlapping antisense together set complex pitfalls, which one should be aware of. PMID:23618925

  5. Realization of a universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machine in separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Song Qingming; Ye Liu

    2011-04-15

    We present a scheme to realize a special quantum cloning machine in separate cavities. The quantum cloning machine can copy the quantum information from a photon pulse to two distant atoms. Choosing the different parameters, the method can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning and optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning.

  6. An Innovative Method for Rapid Identification and Detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in Different Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kaifei; Li, Jun; Wang, Yuxiao; Liu, Jianfei; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2–3 days), while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on loop-mediated Isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20–60 min) obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus infections

  7. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  8. Review of established and innovative detection methods for carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Osei Sekyere, J; Govinden, U; Essack, S Y

    2015-11-01

    The minimal antibiotic options for carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria necessitate their rapid detection. A literature review of a variety of phenotypic and genotypic methods is presented. Advances in culture methods and screening media are still subject to long incubation hours. Biochemical methods have shorter turnaround times and higher sensitivities and specificities, but cannot differentiate between various types and variants. Spectrophotometric methods are cheap and efficient, but are uncommon in many clinical settings, while the MALDI-TOF MS is promising for species identification, typing and resistance gene determination. Although next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a better platform to detect, type and characterize carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the different NGS platforms, the large computer memories and space needed to process and store genomic data and the nonuniformity in data analysis platforms are still a challenge. The sensitivities, specificities and turnaround times recorded in the various studies reviewed favours the use of the biochemical tests (Carba NP or Rapid Carb screen tests) for the detection of putative carbapenemase-producing isolates. MALDI-TOF MS and/or molecular methods like microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and real-time multiplex PCR assays could be used for further characterization in a reference laboratory. NGS may be used for advanced epidemiological and molecular studies. PMID:26251303

  9. An Improved Single-Step Cloning Strategy Simplifies the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation (ATMT)-Based Gene-Disruption Method for Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xing, Haiying; Hua, Chenlei; Guo, Hui-Shan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The soilborne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a broad range of plant species to cause severe diseases. The availability of Verticillium genome sequences has provided opportunities for large-scale investigations of individual gene function in Verticillium strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT)-based gene-disruption strategies. Traditional ATMT vectors require multiple cloning steps and elaborate characterization procedures to achieve successful gene replacement; thus, these vectors are not suitable for high-throughput ATMT-based gene deletion. Several advancements have been made that either involve simplification of the steps required for gene-deletion vector construction or increase the efficiency of the technique for rapid recombinant characterization. However, an ATMT binary vector that is both simple and efficient is still lacking. Here, we generated a USER-ATMT dual-selection (DS) binary vector, which combines both the advantages of the USER single-step cloning technique and the efficiency of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase negative-selection marker. Highly efficient deletion of three different genes in V. dahliae using the USER-ATMT-DS vector enabled verification that this newly-generated vector not only facilitates the cloning process but also simplifies the subsequent identification of fungal homologous recombinants. The results suggest that the USER-ATMT-DS vector is applicable for efficient gene deletion and suitable for large-scale gene deletion in V. dahliae. PMID:26780432

  10. An Innovative Method of Assessing the Mechanical Axis Deviation in the Lower Limb in Standing Position

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Jagannath; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Singh, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various methods of measuring mechanical axis deviation of lower limb have been described including radiographic and CT scanogram, intraoperative fluoroscopy with the use of an electrocautery cord. These methods determine the mechanical axis in a supine, non-weight bearing position. Although long cassette standing radiographic view is used for the purpose but is not available at most centres. A dynamic method of determining the mechanical axis in a weight bearing position was devised in this study. Aim The aim of the study was to describe a simpler and newer method in quantifying the mechanical axis deviation in places where full length cassettes for standing X rays are not available. Materials and Methods A pilot study was conducted on 15 patients. The deviation from the mechanical axis was measured using a manually operated, hydraulic mechanism based, elevating scissor lift table. Patient was asked to stand erect over the elevating lift table with both patellae facing forward and C-arm image intensifier was positioned horizontally. Radiological markers were tied to a radio-opaque thread and placed at the centre of head of the femur and another at the centre of the tibio-talar joint. C-arm views of the hip, ankle and knee joint were taken to confirm the correct position of the marker by varying the height of the lift table. Results The mechanical axis deviation values were recorded by measuring distance between the centre of the knee and radio-opaque thread in cm. This was measured in each case both clinically and from the image on the monitor. The two values were found to be statistically same. Pain was measured on VAS. Mechanical axis deviation values and VAS score were found to be positively significantly correlated. Conclusion This technique is dynamic, unique and accurate as compared to other methods for assessing mechanical axis deviation in a weight bearing position. PMID:27504362

  11. Pedagogical effectiveness of innovative teaching methods initiated at the Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Chandigarh.

    PubMed

    Nageswari, K Sri; Malhotra, Anita S; Kapoor, Nandini; Kaur, Gurjit

    2004-12-01

    Modern teaching trends in medical education exhibit a paradigm shift from the conventional classroom teaching methods adopted in the past to nonconventional teaching aids so as to encourage interactive forms of learning in medical students through active participation and integrative reasoning where the relationship of the teacher and the taught has undergone tremendous transformation. Some of the nonconventional teaching methods adopted at our department are learning through active participation by the students through computer-assisted learning (CD-ROMs), Web-based learning (undergraduate projects), virtual laboratories, seminars, audiovisual aids (video-based demonstrations), and "physioquiz." PMID:15149960

  12. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  13. Efficient computational methods to study new and innovative signal detection techniques in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported here is to provide a rapid computational method for computing various statistical parameters associated with overlapped Hann spectra. These results are important for the Targeted Search part of the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Microwave Observing Project.

  14. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to…

  15. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with traditional open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been d...

  17. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  18. An Innovative Non-Destructive and Computational Method for Uranium Activity and Enrichment Verification of UF{sub 6} Cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mongy, Sayed A.; Allam, K.M.; Farid, Osama M.

    2006-07-01

    Verification of {sup 235}U enrichment in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders is often achieved by destructive and non-destructive assay techniques. These techniques are time consuming, need suitable and similar standard, in addition to loss of the nuclear material in the case of destructive analysis. This paper introduce an innovative approach for verifying of {sup 235}U enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinder. The approach is based on measuring dose rate ({mu}Sv/h) resulted from the emitted gamma rays of {sup 235}U at the surface of the cylinder and then calculating the activity of uranium and enrichment percentage inside the cylinder by a three dimensional model. Attenuation of the main {sup 235}U gamma transitions due to the cylinder wall (5A Type of Ni alloy) was also calculated and corrected for. The method was applied on UF{sub 6} cylinders enriched with 19.75% of {sup 235}U. The calculated enrichment was found to be 18% with 9% uncertainty. By the suggested method, the calculated total uranium activity inside one of the investigated UF{sub 6} cylinder was found close to the target (certified) value (5.6 GBq) with 9% uncertainty. The method is being developed by taking into consideration other parameters. (authors)

  19. Diffusion of innovation: enhancing the dissemination of the Ponseti method in Latin America through virtual forums.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

  20. An innovative Source-Mask co-Optimization (SMO) method for extending low k1 imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Chen, Luoqi; Li, Zhipan; Park, Sean; Gronlund, Keith; Liu, Hua-Yu; Callan, Neal; Socha, Robert; Hansen, Steve

    2008-11-01

    The optimization of the source topology and mask design [1,2] is vital to future advanced ArF technology node development. In this study, we report the comparison of an iterative optimization method versus a newly developed simultaneous source-mask optimization approach. In the iterative method, the source is first optimized based on normalized image log slopes (NILS), taking into account the ASML scanner's diffractive optical element (DOE) manufacturability constraints. Assist features (AFs) are placed under the optimized source, and then optical proximity correction (OPC) is performed using the already placed AFs, in the last step the source is re-optimized using the OPC-ed layout with the AFs. The source is then optimized using the layout from the previous stage based on a set of user specified cost function. The new approach first co-optimizes a pixelated freeform source and a continuous transmission gray tone mask based on edge placement error (EPE) based cost function. ASML scanner specific constraints are applied to the optimized source, to match ASML's current and future illuminator capabilities. Next, AF "seeds" are identified from the optimized gray tone mask, which are subsequently co-optimized with the main features to meet the process window and mask error factor requirement. The results show that the new method offers significant process window improvement.

  1. An Innovative Method for Obtaining Consistent Images and Quantification of Histochemically Stained Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Sedgewick, Gerald J.; Ericson, Marna

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining digital images of color brightfield microscopy is an important aspect of biomedical research and the clinical practice of diagnostic pathology. Although the field of digital pathology has had tremendous advances in whole-slide imaging systems, little effort has been directed toward standardizing color brightfield digital imaging to maintain image-to-image consistency and tonal linearity. Using a single camera and microscope to obtain digital images of three stains, we show that microscope and camera systems inherently produce image-to-image variation. Moreover, we demonstrate that post-processing with a widely used raster graphics editor software program does not completely correct for session-to-session inconsistency. We introduce a reliable method for creating consistent images with a hardware/software solution (ChromaCal™; Datacolor Inc., NJ) along with its features for creating color standardization, preserving linear tonal levels, providing automated white balancing and setting automated brightness to consistent levels. The resulting image consistency using this method will also streamline mean density and morphometry measurements, as images are easily segmented and single thresholds can be used. We suggest that this is a superior method for color brightfield imaging, which can be used for quantification and can be readily incorporated into workflows. PMID:25575568

  2. John Locke's "new method of making common-place-books": tradition, innovation and epistemic effects.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 1676, the English physician and philosopher John Locke published a new method of commonplacing. He had developed this method and, in particular, a new approach to organizing and indexing the entries, in the course of 25 years of personal note-taking and it proved quite influential. This paper presents the three major approaches to commonplacing as practiced by physicians and other scholars before Locke--the systematic or textbook approach, the alphabetical approach and the sequential or index-based approach--and it analyzes the ways in which Locke himself applied them in his own commonplace books. In comparison with established approaches, his new method offered a maximum degree of flexibilitywhile facilitating the later retrieval of notes and minimising waste of space and paper. Thanks to these features, it was particularly well suited for physicians and natural philosophers who were interested in the infinite variety of natural particulars rather than in elegant quotes on a very limited set of classical topics. In conclusion, the potential epistemic impact of commonplacing on early modern medicine and natural philosophy is discussed, in particular its importance for contemporary debates about species and disease entities and for the emergence of the notion of "facts"! PMID:25581993

  3. An Innovative Method to Involve Community Health Workers as Partners in Evaluation Research

    PubMed Central

    Issel, L. Michele; Townsell, Stephanie J.; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Handler, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a process through which community outreach workers, whose role is not typically that of a trained researcher, could actively participate in collection of qualitative evaluation data. Methods. Outreach workers for a community-based intervention project received training in qualitative research methodology and certification in research ethics. They used a Voice over Internet Protocol phone-in system to provide narrative reports about challenges faced by women they encountered in their outreach activities as well as their own experiences as outreach workers. Results. Qualitative data contributed by outreach workers provided insights not otherwise available to the evaluation team, including details about the complex lives of underserved women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes and the challenges and rewards of the outreach worker role. Conclusions. Lay health workers can be a valuable asset as part of a research team. Training in research ethics and methods can be tailored to their educational level and preferences, and their insights provide important information and perspectives that may not be accessible via other data collection methods. Challenges encountered in the dual roles of researcher and lay health worker can be addressed in training. PMID:22021290

  4. Transposon-containing DNA cloning vector and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Berg, C.M.; Berg, D.E.; Wang, G.

    1997-07-08

    The present invention discloses a rapid method of restriction mapping, sequencing or localizing genetic features in a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is up to 42 kb in size. The method in part comprises cloning of the DNA segment in a specialized cloning vector and then isolating nested deletions in either direction in vivo by intramolecular transposition into the cloned DNA. A plasmid has been prepared and disclosed. 4 figs.

  5. Transposon-containing DNA cloning vector and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Claire M.; Berg, Douglas E.; Wang, Gan

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a rapid method of restriction mapping, sequencing or localizing genetic features in a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is up to 42 kb in size. The method in part comprises cloning of the DNA segment in a specialized cloning vector and then isolating nested deletions in either direction in vivo by intramolecular transposition into the cloned DNA. A plasmid has been prepared and disclosed.

  6. Closed vessel microwave assisted extraction - An innovative method for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeztan, S.; Duering, R.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Determination of metal concentrations in plant samples is important for better understanding of effects of toxic metals that are biologically magnified through the food chain and compose a great danger to all living beings. In recent years the use of microwave assisted extraction for plant samples has shown tremendous research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future. Generally conventional procedures have disadvantages including consuming of time and solvents. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare a new closed vessel microwave extraction (MAE) method with the combination of EDTA (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by ICP-OES. Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another MAE procedure (MAE-H) which is applied with the mixture of 69% nitric acid (HNO3) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, conventional plant extraction (CE) method, for which the dissolution of plant samples were handled in HNO3 after dry ashing at 420° C, was used as a reference method. Approximately 0.5 g of sample was digested in 5 ml HNO3, 3 ml H2O2, and 5 ml deionized H2O for MAE-H and in 8 ml EDTA solution for MAE-EDTA. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Thereby, the applicability of both MAE-H and MAE-EDTA procedures could be demonstrated. For 58 plant samples MAE-H showed the same extraction yields as CE in the determination of trace metal contents of the investigated elements in plant samples. MAE-EDTA gave similar values when compared to MAE-H and highly linear relationships were found for determination of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn amounts. The recoveries for the CRMs were within the range 89.6-115%. Finally, strategic characteristics of MAE-EDTA for determination metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples are: (i) applicability to a large set

  7. Investigation of an innovative method for DC flow suppression of double-inlet pulse tube coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Wu, Z. H.; Dai, W.; Zhu, S. L.

    2007-05-01

    The use of double-inlet mode in the pulse tube cooler opens up a possibility of DC flow circulating around the regenerator and the pulse tube. The DC flow sometimes deteriorates the performance of the cryocooler because such a steady flow adds an unwanted thermal load to the cold heat exchanger. It seems that this problem is still not well solved although a lot of effort has been made. Here we introduce a membrane-barrier method for DC flow suppression in double-inlet pulse tube coolers. An elastic membrane is installed between the pulse tube cooler inlet and the double-inlet valve to break the closed-loop flow path of DC flow. The membrane is acoustically transparent, but would block the DC flow completely. Thus the DC flow is thoroughly suppressed and the merit of double-inlet mode is remained. With this method, a temperature reduction of tens of Kelvin was obtained in our single-stage pulse tube cooler and the lowest temperature reached 29.8 K.

  8. An Innovative Method to Enhance the Modified DOTS for TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yekrang Sis, Hassan; Azabdaftari, Fariba; Mahdavi Poor, Behroz; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays establishing communication and educating patients to enhance their knowledge regarding disease and treatment process at home is one of the most important principles in providing patient care. Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study was done on 57 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis in two care groups namely professional – family mix directly observed treatment short- course (PFM-DOTS) and family based-DOTS (FB-DOTS). The patients were referred to the tuberculosis and lung diseases research center for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Both the patient and a family supervisor were evaluated regarding their level of knowledge of the disease and the treatment regimen. Results: A significant difference between the degree of knowledge of groups of patients and the groups of family relatives before and after the intervention was indicated, with a higher increase in PFM-DOTS group than in F-B-DOTS group (P< 0.001). In PFM- DOTS group 100% of the patients, and in the FB-DOTS group 86.8% of the patients followed the recommended drug regimen (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) for appropriate implementation of DOTS project combating TB, it seems the PFM-DOTS implementation is a more suitable method with greater effects on correct care and treatment of tuberculosis patients. PMID:26858763

  9. Innovative computer-aided methods for the discovery of new kinase ligands.

    PubMed

    Abuhammad, Areej; Taha, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence points to significant roles played by protein kinases in cell signaling and cellular proliferation. Faulty protein kinases are involved in cancer, diabetes and chronic inflammation. Efforts are continuously carried out to discover new inhibitors for selected protein kinases. In this review, we discuss two new computer-aided methodologies we developed to mine virtual databases for new bioactive compounds. One method is ligand-based exploration of the pharmacophoric space of inhibitors of any particular biotarget followed by quantitative structure-activity relationship-based selection of the best pharmacophore(s). The second approach is structure-based assuming that potent ligands come into contact with binding site spots distinct from those contacted by weakly potent ligands. Both approaches yield pharmacophores useful as 3D search queries for the discovery of new bioactive (kinase) inhibitors. PMID:27105126

  10. Innovative Adaptive Control Method Demonstrated for Active Suppression of Instabilities in Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2005-01-01

    This year, an improved adaptive-feedback control method was demonstrated that suppresses thermoacoustic instabilities in a liquid-fueled combustor of a type used in aircraft engines. Extensive research has been done to develop lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems. However, these lean-burning combustors are susceptible to thermoacoustic instabilities (high-frequency pressure waves), which can fatigue combustor components and even downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppressing the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for meeting the low-emission goals of the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project.

  11. A simple and innovative method for species identification of phytoplankton cells on minute quantities of DNA.

    PubMed

    Masseret, Estelle; Enquebecq, Marjorie; Laabir, Mohamed; Genovesi, Benjamin; Vaquer, André; Avarre, Jean-Christophe

    2010-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Alexandrium are often involved in harmful algal blooms. Their ecological exploration is thus essential to increase our knowledge on these toxic events. Yet, population genetic studies, taxonomic identification and environmental monitoring are hampered by major constraints: the necessity to establish monoclonal cultures from environmental samples and the sensitivity of available molecular tools. The present work describes a very simple and sensitive method for extraction and amplification of DNA at the infra-single-cell level. Its on-slide format allows for easy visual control of both quality and quantity of the templates. Combined with a semi-multiplex PCR protocol designed on the 18S-28S rDNA-ITS region of Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium tamarense, this procedure allowed the identification and discrimination of these species from both monoclonal cultures and natural samples. PMID:23766275

  12. Innovative educational methods and technologies applicable to continuing professional development in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Mattheos, N; Schoonheim-Klein, M; Walmsley, A D; Chapple, I L C

    2010-05-01

    Continuous professional development (CPD) in Periodontology refers to the overall framework of opportunities that facilitate a life-long learning practice, driven by the learner-practitioner and supported by a variety of institutions and individuals. CPD must address different needs for a great diversity of practitioners. It is clear that no particular methodology or technology is able to successfully accommodate the entire spectrum of CPD in Periodontology. Course designers must choose from and combine a wide array of methodologies and technologies, depending upon the needs of the learners and the objectives of the intended education. Research suggests that 'interactivity', 'flexibility', 'continuity' and 'relevance to learners' practice' are major characteristics of successful CPD. Various methods of mentoring, peer-learning environments and work-based learning have been combined with reflective practice and self-study to form the methodological backbone of CPD courses. Blended learning encompasses a wide array of technologies and methodologies and has been successfully used in CPD courses. Internet-based content learning management systems, portable Internet devices, powerful databases and search engines, together with initiatives such as 'open access' and 'open courseware' provide an array of effective instructional and communication tools. Assessment remains a key issue in CPD, providing learners with valuable feedback and it ensures the credibility and effectiveness of the learning process. Assessment is a multi-level process using different methods for different learning outcomes, as directed by current evidence and best practices. Finally, quality assurance of the education provided must follow CPD courses at all times through a structured and credible process. PMID:20415976

  13. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  14. "The Sweetness of Struggle": Innovation in Physical Education Teacher Education through "Student-Centered Inquiry as Curriculum" in a Physical Education Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Oesterreich, Heather A.; Aranda, Raquel; Archeleta, Jarrod; Blazer, Casey; de la Cruz, Kandy; Martinez, Daniel; McConnell, Jenn; Osta, Maggee; Parks, Lacie; Robinson, Rinalldo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges and benefits that emerged while using an innovative field-based student-centered inquiry as curriculum model in a secondary physical education methods course. Participants and setting: This study took place in the Southwest USA. Participants included 11 pre-service teachers who were…

  15. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M.; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. Methods We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected ‘clusters’ in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Results Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. Conclusions The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. PMID:25604764

  16. Innovative method for recovery and valorization of hydroxytyrosol from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, A; Venturini, S; Ena, A; Faraloni, C

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional properties of olive oil can be attributed to its oleic acid and phenolic compounds content, acting as natural oxidants to prevent human diseases. In particular, hydroxytyrosol has an anti-inflammatory action similar to omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil. The olive oil production was conducted by two extraction procedures: first, a two-phase extraction giving extra-virgin olive oil and humid pomace, second, a three-phase working process of humid pomace, obtaining another minimum quantity of extra-virgin olive oil, 'dry' pomace devoid of polyphenols, and mill wastewaters rich in anti-oxidant compounds. The aim of this processing was to employ water to extract the highest concentration of polyphenols from humid pomace and convey them in oil mill wastewaters for extraction. Processed olives were 37,200 kg, pomace deprived of polyphenols was equal to 20,400 kg and processing was performed with 500 kg of olives per hour. This method offers advantages of using cheap equipment and technical simplicity. PMID:27386985

  17. An innovative method to obtain porous PLLA scaffolds with highly spherical and interconnected pores.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Frochot, Céline; Rahouadj, Rachid; Wang, Xiong

    2008-07-01

    Scaffolding is an essential issue in tissue engineering and scaffolds should answer certain essential criteria: biocompatibility, high porosity, and important pore interconnectivity to facilitate cell migration and fluid diffusion. In this work, a modified solvent casting-particulate leaching out method is presented to produce scaffolds with spherical and interconnected pores. Sugar particles (200-300 microm and 300-500 microm) were poured through a horizontal Meker burner flame and collected below the flame. While crossing the high temperature zone, the particles melted and adopted a spherical shape. Spherical particles were compressed in plastic mold. Then, poly-L-lactic acid solution was cast in the sugar assembly. After solvent evaporation, the sugar was removed by immersing the structure into distilled water for 3 days. The obtained scaffolds presented highly spherical interconnected pores, with interconnection pathways from 10 to 100 mum. Pore interconnection was obtained without any additional step. Compression tests were carried out to evaluate the scaffold mechanical performances. Moreover, rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were found to adhere and to proliferate in vitro in the scaffold over 21 days. This technique produced scaffold with highly spherical and interconnected pores without the use of additional organic solvents to leach out the porogen. PMID:18098188

  18. An innovative method to assess negotiation skills necessary for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Varkey, Prathibha; Gupta, Priyanka; Bennet, Kevin E

    2008-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) initiatives require leaders who can facilitate change through negotiation. Although a few education programs teach these skills, there is no published literature on methods to assess competency in negotiation. This study's purpose was to determine the psychometric properties of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess negotiation skills. The OSCE uses an actor trained to respond to the learner in a standardized fashion. The negotiation station was part of an 8-station QI OSCE piloted in the Mayo Clinic Endocrinology and Preventive Medicine fellowship programs. External experts judged the content validity to be excellent. Interrater reliability was outstanding for the global competency assessment (0.80) and moderate for checklist scores (0.53). All participating faculty strongly agreed (33.3%) or agreed (66.7%) that the OSCE station was an authentic assessment tool. Further research is needed to study the predictive validity of such an OSCE and its application to assessing other quality improvement competencies. PMID:18820139

  19. Cement Calcaneoplasty: An Innovative Method for Treating Nonunion in Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture.

    PubMed

    Godavitarne, Charles; Fawzy, Ernest; Giancola, Giorgio; Louette, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Insufficiency type stress fractures are common in older patients with osteoporosis. Persistent pain after nonunion of these fractures can be disabling, with the management options often limited. We aimed to assess the suitability of fluoroscopic-guided injection of bone cement into a persistently symptomatic nonuniting calcaneal insufficiency fracture. To the best of our knowledge, this technique has not previously been described in the published data. After local subcutaneous anesthesia, the midpoint of the fracture site was accessed by trocar insertion under radiographic guidance, and bone cement was injected directly into the site. A preprocedure visual analog scale pain score of 90 of 100 was recorded. This had improved to 0 of 100 at the 12-month follow-up point after the procedure. The aim of the present case report was to raise awareness of percutaneous calcaneoplasty, which we believe to be a safe and well-tolerated technique for the management of osteoporotic insufficiency fracture of the calcaneus. We propose that this technique be considered when conservative methods aimed at promoting fracture healing have failed. PMID:26875768

  20. An innovative method to evaluate the suture compliance in sealing the surgical wound lips

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Farid; Palmieri, Beniamino; Lodi, Danielle; Al-Sebeih, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is capable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of having an accurate surgical wound closure is very relevant in vivo in order to prevent hemorrhage and exogenous microbial infections. This study aimed at designing a new a lab technique that could be used for evaluating the best surgical material. Using such a technique, we compared the wound-lip-sealing properties of three commonly-used suture threads, namely polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide. Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of same-size suture threads made from polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide, were compared in order to define the one that possess the best elastic properties by being able to counteract the tension-relaxation process in the first 12 hours following surgery. The tension holding capacity of the suture materials was measured in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The surface area of the scar associated with the three different suture threads was measured and compared, and the permeability of the three different suture threads was assessed at 0 minute, 2 minute, 4 minute, 6 minute, and 8 minute- interval. Results: Results showed that polyurethane suture threads had significantly (P < 0.05) better tensile strength, elongation endurance before breakage, and better elasticity coefficient as compared to polypropylene and polyamide suture threads. Moreover, polyurethane suture threads were significantly (P < 0.05) more impermeable as compared to the other two suture thread types (polypropylene and polyamide). This impermeability was also associated with a tighter wound-lip-sealing ability, and with significantly (P < 0

  1. A cloning method to identify caspases and their regulators in yeast: Identification of Drosophila IAP1 as an inhibitor of the Drosophila caspase DCP-1

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Christine J.; Wang, Susan L.; Hay, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Site-specific proteases play critical roles in regulating many cellular processes. To identify novel site-specific proteases, their regulators, and substrates, we have designed a general reporter system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which a transcription factor is linked to the intracellular domain of a transmembrane protein by protease cleavage sites. Here, we explore the efficacy of this approach by using caspases, a family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, as a model. Introduction of an active caspase into cells that express a caspase-cleavable reporter results in the release of the transcription factor from the membrane and subsequent activation of a nuclear reporter. We show that known caspases activate the reporter, that an activator of caspase activity stimulates reporter activation in the presence of an otherwise inactive caspase, and that caspase inhibitors suppress caspase-dependent reporter activity. We also find that, although low or moderate levels of active caspase expression do not compromise yeast cell growth, higher level expression leads to lethality. We have exploited this observation to isolate clones from a Drosophila embryo cDNA library that block DCP-1 caspase-dependent yeast cell death. Among these clones, we identified the known cell death inhibitor DIAP1. We showed, by using bacterially synthesized proteins, that glutathione S-transferase–DIAP1 directly inhibits DCP-1 caspase activity but that it had minimal effect on the activity of a predomainless version of a second Drosophila caspase, drICE. PMID:10077606

  2. DESI-MS2: a rapid and innovative method for trace analysis of six cytostatic drugs in health care setting.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero; Curini, Roberta

    2012-05-01

    With the aim of establishing exposure levels for hospital personnel preparing and administering cytostatic drugs (CDs), here, we present an innovative screening method based on the use of the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A rapid, simple, and sensitive procedure was developed for the simultaneous surface monitoring of cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, methotrexate, vincristine, gemcitabine, and cytarabine. Since analytes were in the solid state, a novel approach based on the use of passive samplers was combined with the direct analysis of wipes. A PTFE-printed glass slide was used as a passive sampler, while hydrophobic centers of Swiffer® cloths were judged extremely efficient as wipe samplers. After the sampling period, the CD collectors were directly processed with the DESI-MS system without any further treatment. MS/MS confirmatory analysis was conducted using selected reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode and detection limits were evaluated. Values were at the picograms per square millimeter levels on the passive collector and at the picograms per square centimeter levels for the wipe ones. Direct determination on solid-state samples combined with mass spectrometry selectivity provided a powerful tool so far unapplied to occupational hygiene. PMID:22200922

  3. Applications of quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarico, E.; Sanguinetti, B.; Sekatski, P.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Cloning Machines (QCMs) allow for the copying of information, within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. These devices are particularly interesting in the high-gain regime, i.e., when one input qubit generates a state of many output qubits. In this regime, they allow for the study of certain aspects of the quantum to classical transition. The understanding of these aspects is the root of the two recent applications that we will review in this paper: the first one is the Quantum Cloning Radiometer, a device which is able to produce an absolute measure of spectral radiance. This device exploits the fact that in the quantum regime information can be copied with only finite fidelity, whereas when a state becomes macroscopic, this fidelity gradually increases to 1. Measuring the fidelity of the cloning operation then allows to precisely determine the absolute spectral radiance of the input optical source. We will then discuss whether a Quantum Cloning Machine could be used to produce a state visible by the naked human eye, and the possibility of a Bell Experiment with humans playing the role of detectors.

  4. The Cloning of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Judith E.; Dobson, Russell L.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that the U.S. school system purports to prize human variability, but many educators are engaged in activities that seek to homogenize students. Describes these activities, including diagnosis, labeling, ability grouping, and positive reinforcement. Presents suggestions for counselors to combat sources of cloning and self-validation. (RC)

  5. Innovation Incubator Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    The document introduces a college program designed to encourage the initiation and evaluation of strategies to increase student learning through innovative teaching methods. It also contains reports on completed individual projects. The principal activity of the Innovation Incubator at the College of DuPage (Illinois) is to support specific…

  6. Detectability of Plasmodium falciparum clones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In areas of high transmission people often harbour multiple clones of Plasmodium falciparum, but even PCR-based diagnostic methods can only detect a fraction (the detectability, q) of all clones present in a host. Accurate measurements of detectability are desirable since it affects estimates of multiplicity of infection, prevalence, and frequency of breakthrough infections in clinical drug trials. Detectability can be estimated by typing repeated samples from the same host but it has been unclear what should be the time interval between the samples and how the data should be analysed. Methods A longitudinal molecular study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district in northern Ghana. From each of the 80 participants, four finger prick samples were collected over a period of 8 days, and tested for presence of different Merozoite Surface Protein (msp) 2 genotypes. Implications for estimating q were derived from these data by comparing the fit of statistical models of serial dependence and over-dispersion. Results The distribution of the frequencies of detection for msp2 genotypes was close to binomial if the time span between consecutive blood samples was at least 7 days. For shorter intervals the probabilities of detection were positively correlated, i.e. the shorter the interval between two blood collections, the more likely the diagnostic results matched for a particular genotype. Estimates of q were rather insensitive to the statistical model fitted. Conclusions A simple algorithm based on analysing blood samples collected 7 days apart is justified for generating robust estimates of detectability. The finding of positive correlation of detection probabilities for short time intervals argues against imperfect detection being directly linked to the 48-hour periodicity of P. falciparum. The results suggest that the detectability of a given parasite clone changes over time, at an unknown rate, but fast enough to regard blood samples taken one week

  7. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  8. Probabilistic Cloning and Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ting; Yan, Feng-Li; Wang, Zhi-Xi

    2004-06-01

    We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which the cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to quantum cloning. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in the states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use a state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.

  9. A method for the identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing a particular sigma factor: cloning of a developmentally regulated promoter and corresponding gene directed by the Streptomyces aureofaciens sigma factor RpoZ.

    PubMed

    Nováková, R; Sevcíková, B; Kormanec, J

    1998-02-16

    We have developed a method for the identification of promoters recognized by a particular sigma factor of RNA polymerase, based on a two-compatible plasmid system in Escherichia coli (Ec). Using the method, a DNA fragment containing the promoter, PREN40, recognized by sporulation-specific Streptomyces aureofaciens (Sa) sigma factor RpoZ, was cloned. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping using RNA prepared from Ec, and Sa from various developmental stages has shown a high degree of similarity of PREN40 to consensus sequence of flagellar and chemotaxis promoters. The promoter was induced at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and was off in the Sa strain with the rpoZ-disrupted gene. A promoter-bearing DNA fragment was inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pARC1 to give expression patterns consistent with the results of direct RNA analysis. The region downstream of the promoter was cloned in Sa. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 283 amino acids (Mr 30006), encoding a highly basic (pI 12.35) protein with high percentage of serine, threonine and alanine (41.8%). PMID:9479043

  10. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  11. Developing Communities of Innovation by Identifying Innovation Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakes, Elayne; Smith, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that a form of communities of practice (CoP), a community of innovation (CoInv), is the best support for sustainable innovation. It aims to outline a method for identifying champions of innovation in organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on extant research to argue that…

  12. Innovative non-destructive evaluation methods on HTR fuel at AREVA NP: towards a 100% non invasive control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Hermosilla Lara, S.; Piriou, M.; Bargain, R.; Guillermier, P.

    2007-07-01

    High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel consists in millimetric multilayered particles called TRISO, embedded, depending on the reactor design, in a pebble or cylinder-shaped graphite matrix called compact. Particles are typically composed of a 500 {mu}m fissile material kernel, a 95 {mu}m porous carbon layer called buffer, a 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer, a 35 {mu}m silicon carbide layer and another 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer. In order to ensure fuel qualification, as well as reactor safety, particles and compacts need to satisfy specifications concerning their physical characteristics and their integrity. In particular, geometrical parameters such as particle diameter and sphericity as well as layers thickness, but also layers density and the absence of structural defects such as cracks or de-cohesions need to be detected and characterized. In the past, a huge R and D work was carried out to build a TRISO particle characterization quality control plan, mainly based on particle sampling as well as destructive characterization methods. However, since then, development of industrial non-destructive evaluation techniques and devices contributed to envisage not only a non invasive control of HTR fuel, but also a 100% production control strategy. Since 2004, AREVA NP is engaged in a R and D program aiming at the development of innovative industrial nondestructive evaluation methods for HTR fuel. After investigating a number of potential techniques, some of them were selected based on their performances and/or their industrial potential. In particular, development has been carried out on high resolution X-Ray imaging allowing accurate layer thickness, layer density and structural defects characterization, X-Ray tomography offering the possibility to characterize fuel element homogeneity and determine the number of in-contact particles contained in a fuel element, infrared thermal imaging (ITI) allowing cracks detection, eddy currents (EC) enabling

  13. Cloning of murine ferrochelatase.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Frasier, F

    1991-01-01

    Ferrochelatase (protoheme ferro-lyase, EC 4.99.1.1) catalyzes the last step in the heme biosynthetic pathway, the chelation of ferrous iron and protoporphyrin to form heme. The activity of ferrochelatase is deficient in the inherited disease protoporphyria. In this study, murine ferrochelatase cDNAs were obtained by screening cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe. The derived amino acid sequence of murine ferrochelatase has 47% identity with the recently cloned Saccharomyces cerevisiae ferrochelatase, but it is not significantly similar to other published sequences. Results of Southern blotting are consistent with a single murine ferrochelatase gene, while Northern blotting demonstrates two ferrochelatase transcripts in all tissues examined. The ferrochelatase protein and mRNAs have different relative concentrations in different tissues. The cloning of murine ferrochelatase cDNAs provides the basis for future studies on ferrochelatase gene expression and on the identification of the molecular defect in protoporphyria. Images PMID:1704134

  14. A MultiSite Gateway Toolkit for Rapid Cloning of Vertebrate Expression Constructs with Diverse Research Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Daniel K.; Stewart, Scott; Seredick, Steve; Eisen, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination-based cloning is a quick and efficient way to generate expression vectors. Recent advancements have provided powerful recombinant DNA methods for molecular manipulations. Here, we describe a novel collection of three-fragment MultiSite Gateway cloning system-compatible vectors providing expanded molecular tools for vertebrate research. The components of this toolkit encompass a broad range of uses such as fluorescent imaging, dual gene expression, RNA interference, tandem affinity purification, chemically-inducible dimerization and lentiviral production. We demonstrate examples highlighting the utility of this toolkit for producing multi-component vertebrate expression vectors with diverse primary research applications. The vectors presented here are compatible with other Gateway toolkits and collections, facilitating the rapid generation of a broad range of innovative DNA constructs for biological research. PMID:27500400

  15. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly

    PubMed Central

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F.; Greger, Ingo H.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in <2 hours from setup to transformation. Unlike other methods, IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community. PMID:27264908

  16. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly.

    PubMed

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-01-01

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in <2 hours from setup to transformation. Unlike other methods, IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community. PMID:27264908

  17. Cloning-free CRISPR

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each target locus. We introduce a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid and a short double-stranded DNA sequence encoding the desired locus-specific sgRNA into target cells, allowing them to produce a locus-specific sgRNA plasmid through homologous recombination. scCRISPR enables efficient generation of gene knockouts (∼88% mutation rate) at approximately one-sixth the cost of plasmid-based sgRNA construction with only 2 hr of preparation for each targeted site. Additionally, we demonstrate efficient site-specific knockin of GFP transgenes without any plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (2%–4% knockin rate) through PCR-based addition of short homology arms. scCRISPR substantially lowers the bar on mouse and human transgenesis. PMID:26527385

  18. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-08-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  19. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity. PMID:15719505

  20. One-step cloning and chromosomal integration of DNA.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, François; Cui, Lun; Priest, David G; Endy, Drew; Dodd, Ian B; Shearwin, Keith E

    2013-09-20

    We describe "clonetegration", a method for integrating DNA into prokaryotic chromosomes that approaches the simplicity of cloning DNA within extrachromosomal vectors. Compared to existing techniques, clonetegration drastically decreases the time and effort needed for integration of single or multiple DNA fragments. Additionally, clonetegration facilitates cloning and expression of genetic elements that are impossible to propagate within typical multicopy plasmids. PMID:24050148

  1. Molecular profiling of microbial communities from contaminated sources: Use of subtractive cloning methods and rDNA spacer sequences. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, F.T.

    1998-06-01

    'The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density DNA array of oligonucleotides that can be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array are chosen from from cloned genomic DNA sequences (the ribosomal operon, described below) from groundwater at DOE sites containing organic solvents. The sites, Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300, have well characterized pollutant histories, which have been provided by the collaborators. At this mid-point of the project, over 60 unique sequence classes of intergenic spacer region have been idedntified from the first sample site. The use of these sequences as hybridization probes, and their frequency of occurrence, allow a clear distinction between bacterial communities before and after remediation by acetate/nitrate pumping. The authors have developed the hybridization conditions for identifying PCR products in a 96 well format, a versatile alignment and visualization program (acronym: MALIGN) developed by Dr. Dennis Maeder, has been used to align the ISRs, which are variable in length and sometimes in position of the tRNAs. Finally, in collaboration with Dr. W. Chen and Dr. J. Zhou at ORNL, they have significant evidence that mass spectrometer analysis can be used to determine the lengths of PCR amplified intergenic spacer DNA.'

  2. Bounds for state-dependent quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-11-01

    Due to the no-cloning theorem, the unknown quantum state can only be cloned approximately or exactly with some probability. There are two types of cloners: universal and state-dependent cloner. The optimal universal cloner has been found and can be viewed as a special state-dependent quantum cloner that has no information about the states. In this paper, we investigate the state-dependent cloning when the state set contains more than two states. We get some bounds of the global fidelity for these processes. This method is not dependent on the number of the states contained in the state set. It is also independent of the numbers of copying.

  3. Organizational Agility and Complex Enterprise System Innovations: A Mixed Methods Study of the Effects of Enterprise Systems on Organizational Agility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharabe, Amol T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, firms have operated in "increasingly" accelerated "high-velocity" dynamic markets, which require them to become "agile." During the same time frame, firms have increasingly deployed complex enterprise systems--large-scale packaged software "innovations" that integrate and automate…

  4. Cloning: Learning to Replay the Genetic Tape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, David J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how plants can be produced by cloning by using tissue culture methods to mass-produce rare native prairie plants and trying to transfer some of the genetic characteristics of native grasses into cultivated cereals. The experiment was conducted at South Dakota State University. (HM)

  5. Explorative and innovative dynamic flux bag method development and testing for mercury air-vegetation gas exchange fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong H.; Poissant, Laurier; Xu, Xiaohong; Pilote, Martin

    An intensive field study quantifying total gaseous mercury (TGM) and mercury speciation fluxes in a wetland ecosystem (Bay St. François wetlands, Québec, Canada) was conducted in summer 2003. This study is one of the first attempts to design and develop an innovative approach—dynamic flux bag (DFB) technique to measure in situ mercury air-vegetation exchange with a monoculture of river bulrush (S cirpus fluviatilis). Air-vegetation flux measurements were conducted under dry condition at site 1 and flood condition at site 2. TGM fluxes fluctuated from -0.91 to 0.64 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h with an average value of -0.26±0.28 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h at site 1 and ranged from -0.98 to 0.08 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h with a mean flux of -0.33±0.24 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h at site 2 (positive sign means volatilization, and negative sign indicates deposition). The data indicated that TGM air-vegetation exchange is bidirectional. However, the net flux is primarily featured by dry deposition of TGM from atmosphere to the vegetation. In mercury speciation study using the DFB approach, particulate mercury (PM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) represented less than 1% of total mercury. Ambient ozone concentrations had significant influences on RGM concentrations ( r=0.54, p<0.05), implicating oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) by ozone to form RGM. A discussion about the similarities and discrepancies between the DFB and other approaches (dynamic flux chamber and modified Bowen ratio) is presented. During the course of this study, some operational effects associated with the bag design, mainly the emergence of condensation within the bag, were encountered. Several improvements relating to the DFB design were recommended. Upon improvement, the DFB method could be one of the most promising techniques to study the role of a single plant in air-vegetation exchange of mercury.

  6. Nonoverlapping clone pooling for high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneously sequencing multiple clones using second-generation sequencers can speed up many essential clone-based sequencing methods. However, in applications such as fosmid clone sequencing and full-length cDNA sequencing, it is important to create pools of clones that do not overlap on the genome for the identification of structural variations and alternatively spliced transcripts, respectively. We define the nonoverlapping clone pooling problem and provide practical solutions based on optimal graph coloring and bin-packing algorithms with constant absolute worst-case ratios, and further extend them to cope with repetitive mappings. Using theoretical analysis and experiments, we also show that the proposed methods are applicable. PMID:24384700

  7. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  8. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive liberty.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Concern for "reproductive liberty" suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning would be prima facie unethical unless it occurred with the consent of the parents of the person being cloned. Alternatively, if therapeutic cloning is thought to be legitimate, this undermines the case for some uses of reproductive cloning by implying that the genetic relation it establishes between clones and DNA donors does not carry the same moral weight as it does in cases of normal reproduction. PMID:19240247

  9. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  10. Traditional and innovative methods applied to a crystalline aquifer for characterizing fault zone hydrology at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, O.; Ruelleu, S.; Le Borgne, T.; Boudin, F.; Moreau, F.; Durand, S.; Longuevergne, L.

    2011-12-01

    confined aquifer is relatively high, in agreement with ground-surface deformation measurements that suggest a relativity high compressibility of the fault zone. At larger scale, we show through a high-resolution gravimetric survey that the highly fractured contact between granite and micaschists, which constitutes the main path for groundwater flow, is a gently dipping structure. A 3D gravimetric model confirms also the presence of sub-vertical faults that may constitute important drains for the aquifer recharge. In addition, groundwater temperature monitoring allows to shows that the main water supply comes from a depth of at least 300 meters. Such a depth in a low relief region involves relatively deep groundwater circulation that can be achieved only thanks to major permeable fault zone. This field example shows the advantages and limitations of some traditional and innovative methods to characterize fault zone hydrology in crystalline bedrock aquifers.