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Sample records for innovative coke oven

  1. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  2. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  3. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  4. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  5. Coke oven door seal

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrych, G.

    1984-01-17

    A coke oven door seal in which a leaf spring is fixed to the inner end of a continuous concave seating structure which is peripherally mounted on the door frame. A terminally convex ridge structure extends endwise from the door jamb to flex the leaf spring sufficiently so as to form a continuous gas tight seal around the door. The leaf spring is flexed by the ridge by an amount that is greater than the deflection which would result only from the application of pressure on the leaf spring by coke oven gases. The leaf spring is also flexed by an amount that is less than the amount which would surpass its elastic limit. In an alternate embodiment, the leaf spring and seat structure are mounted on the door jamb while the ridge is mounted on the door frame.

  6. Vented coke oven door apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H. B.; Gerding, C. C.

    1980-08-12

    A vented coke oven door includes a door frame having a vertical face surface carrying a plug assembly having a central vertical internal opening to conduct coke oven gas generated at the bottom of a coal charge in a coke oven chamber. The plug assembly includes a plurality of u-shaped refractory plug segments arranged in an end-to-end aligned relation with leg sections of each u-shaped segment extending horizontally into an abutting relation with the face surface of the door frame. Each leg section carries either an embedded hooked end or a t-shaped head of a threaded fastener which is supported by the door frame so that the leg sections are unrestrained against movement toward and away from each other in response to a thermal gradient across the wall thickness of the refractory plug segment. A backing plug plate is fitted into a recess in the leg sections of each plug segment to provide a closure wall to the u-shaped configuration of the segments and forms the vertical passageway for conducting coke oven gas. The backing plug plate has an exposed layer of cast refractory overlying a layer of insulation used to protect the door frame. A seal strip extends about the outer periphery of the door frame to prevent emission of coke oven gas from the coking chamber.

  7. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate environmental issues associated with a project that will be cost-shared by DOE and private industry under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program. The proposed action is a coke oven gas cleaning technology demonstration project proposed to be installed and operated at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows Point Plant, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Alternatives to the proposed action, which include no action, delayed action, and the use of alternate sites or technologies, are discussed. Three basic steel manufacturing operations are carried out at the Sparrows Point Plant: (1) pyrolytic conversion of coal to coke (carbon) in coke ovens; (2) combination of coke, iron ore, and limestone in a blast furnace to produce iron; and (3) refinement of iron to steel in oxygen or open-hearth furnaces. The Coke Works at the plant consists of three operational coke batteries and two Coal Chemicals plants. Bituminous coal is heated in a coke oven in the absence of air to remove its volatile components. About 70% of the coal feed is converted to coke; the remaining 30% consists of by-product gases and vapors. These by-product gases are treated in the Coal Chemicals plants to recover usable and marketable products, including coke oven gas, which is used to fuel the ovens and furnaces within the plant. The analysis concluded that no significant, environmental impacts would result from the proposed project. 12 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

  11. Preventing the overcharging of coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C. A.

    1981-05-19

    A metod is described for preventing the overcharging of coal into a coke oven system in which preheated coal is transported from a storage container to the coke ovens by means of a substantially enclosed continuous conveyor system filled with inert gas. A portion of inert gas within the enclosed conveyor system is carried along with the coal into the coke oven itself. During filling of the oven, this inert gas is carried up and out of the oven standpipes. When the oven becomes filled, however, the standpipe escape route becomes blocked resulting in a rapid pressure buildup within the system. This rapid pressure build-up is utilized to generate a signal to stop further filling of the oven. The instant method may be employed as a primary regulating system, but is more preferably employed as a back-up to conventional sensor probes used for regulating the level of coal.

  12. Method of charging coke ovens with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Azimov, A.A.; Davydenko, V.M.; Dorfman, G.A.; Gromov, N.F.; Kulakov, N.K.; Likhogub, E.P.; Marapulets, G.N.; Minasov, A.N.; Shestakov, V.A.; Silka, A.N.

    1982-11-23

    A method is claimed for charging coke ovens with coal by: passage of coal through charging holes and simultaneously withdrawing gases evolving from the coal charge through the middle charging holes thereof; holding the coal charge over a period of time sufficient for a coal-charging machine to deliver a next batch of said coal charge for charging the next successive coke oven; completely charging said coke oven while simultaneously charging the next successive coke oven through its extreme charging holes; withdrawing through said middle charging holes of said coke oven being completely charged, said coke-oven gases; and introducing a gas inert to said cokeoven gas in an amount of 15-20% of the total amount of the cokeoven gas being withdrawn. There is also provided a coal-charging machine for carrying out this method comprising a frame with undercarriages, hoppers for containing the coal charge, the number of hoppers corresponding to the number of the charging holes of the coke oven, coal feed devices disposed in the upper portion of the hoppers.

  13. Modern outline for a recuperator coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Proetzl, M.; Rohde, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a demonstration plant, and the results obtained in this, for the testing of Didier Engineering's 2-stage recuperative system. The two stages are: (I) partial recuperation using a metallic heat exchanger and making special use of radiation; (II) direct heat exchange between coke oven waste gas and coking coal for thermal treatment making special use of convection. It is concluded that this type of oven meets the requirements for economic production of coke in chamber-type ovens even after the year 2000. 4 references.

  14. EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. Pratt Coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Coke Ovens & Railroad, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  16. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An import...

  17. Process for the recovery of coke oven waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1981-01-20

    This invention is directed to a process for making coke and recovering the heat therefrom for preheating the firing gas to the coke oven. The process involves the use of the coke oven firing gas to extract the sensible heat from the hot coke from the coking oven to both preheat the firing gas for the coke oven and cool the hot coke. Significant economies are achieved in the two-fold function of coke production and heat recovery in accordance with the method disclosed.

  18. Method of operating horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, M.; Thiersch, F.B.

    1981-09-22

    A horizontal coke oven battery construction in which a pusher is mounted to extend into the batteries from one side and push coke out of the batteries on the opposite side, comprises a plurality of coke oven batteries disposed in a row. A first waste gas flue extends along the pusher side of the batteries and a second waste gas flue extends along the coke side. A stack flue at one end of the batteries is connected to the first and second waste gas flues. The construction includes means for directing the heating gases into each oven battery during operation so that, in respect to the pusher and coke size, approximately one-half of the batteries is heated by upward burning and the other half is heated by downward burning. For example, all odd numbered batteries may be heated in the same direction and all even numbered batteries heated in the same direction. The invention also comprises a two-section regenerative heating system having reversing winches wherein the heating on one-half or approximately one-half of the oven chambers is equipped for upward burning and the heating of the other half is equipped with downward burning. Between the two halves, a center head maybe be provided, or only one reversing winch may be provided at the end of the battery.

  19. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mortality when duration and location of employment at the coke ovens are considered. Dose-response models fitted to these same data indicate that, while excess risks may still occur under the OSHA standard, the predicted levels of increased relative risk would be about 30-50% if a linear dose-response model is assumed and 3-7% if a quadratic model is assumed. Lung cancer mortality data for other steelworkers suggest the predicted excess risk has probably been somewhat overestimated, but lack of information on important confounding factors limits further dose-response analysis. PMID:6653539

  20. Carcinogen assessment of coke oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An important finding of this study was the dose-response found by both length of exposure and intensity of exposure (top or side of the ovens) for mortality from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea. A study of Japanese coke oven workers also found them to be at an excess risk of lung cancer mortality. British studies of cancer mortality in coke oven workers have generally been negative, but there were weaknesses in these studies. Coke oven emissions produce positive results in mutagenicity studies. Coal tar, a condensate of coke oven emissions, and various constituents of coke oven emissions have been found to be positive in both mutagenicity and animal carcinogenicity studies.

  1. Zone control of lean gas underfiring for coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Corbman, P.; Faber, P.V.

    1982-02-09

    A coke oven battery is disclosed of the type that is underfired with coke oven gas. A system of horizontal bus flues and valve controls is provided for controlling the supply of lean gas fuel, such as blast furnace gas or any other lean gas, selectively to the gas flues in heating zones of the coke oven chamber walls and the recirculation of waste gas therefrom, so as to achieve the optimum fuel consumption under varying bulk density conditions of the coal mass in the coke oven chamber from the coke side to the pusher side.

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS IN FOREGROUND, LARRY CAR TIPPLE TO THE RIGHT, AND COAL TIPPLE IN CENTERGROUND - Lucernemines Coke Works, 0.2 mile East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  3. 2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, coal bunker, coke stack, brick quencher, gas holder, view framed by bracing for overhead conveyor. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  4. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN OF ALVERTON, CONSTRUCTED OF YELLOW REFRACTORY BRICK. "WOODLAND M2" AND "BENEZETT - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING EAST. THE OVENS LIE TO THE EAST OF THE MINE BUILDINGS. BEEHIVE OVENS FORM THE ROW ON THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE RECTANGULAR OVENS ARE ON THE RIGHT. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  8. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  9. 76 FR 77020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven Emissions ACTION... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coke Oven Emissions,'' to the...: The purpose of Coke Oven Emissions Standard and its information collection requirements, codified...

  10. An engineered method for the repair of coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dohle, H.; Ehmke, R.

    1996-12-31

    Improved sales figures in steel making industry and the consequently higher demand for blast furnace coke more recently not only led to a lot of new plant construction projects but also to a vivid growth in repair projects. Sales problems experienced in the past combined with the reluctant attitude to invest in new battery construction projects exerted a negative influence on the age structure of coke plants worldwide. In the US, for example, 58% of the steel companies` coke ovens and 72% of the merchant coke ovens are over 20 years old. The structural status and thus the service life expectancy of a coke oven battery surely do not alone depend on the coke oven battery`s age, but in particular on its total coke production and on the operating and maintenance practice of its operators. More stringent pollution control codes and regulations call for optimum maintenance, particularly for older coke oven plants, considering both technical and economic aspects. The target is to maintain the operability of coke ovens for a lot more years by implementing the best suitable maintenance and repair methods. On condition that appropriate maintenance and repair methods are initiated in time and with care and diligence, the service life of a coke oven battery can be prolonged substantially. A selection of repair and modernization programs developed by TSOA is described and explained.

  11. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1910.1029 Section 1910.1029 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1029 Coke oven emissions. (a) Scope...

  13. Analytical methods used in a study of coke oven effluent.

    PubMed

    Schulte, K A; Larsen, D J; Hornung, R W; Crable, J V

    1975-02-01

    In a coke oven study conducted by NIOSH, selected chemical analyses of airborne particulates, vapors, and metals in the emissions from five coke ovens were done. Eight sampling procedures and seven analytical techniques were used to analyze samples collected for the study. Six of the analytical methods used are discussed. PMID:1146677

  14. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  15. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Work on the coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-11) this quarter has focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. The project Milestone Schedule and Log is shown. Planned Baseline Supplemental Monitoring activities described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan were completed. Testing of the mechanical systems began in June, 1991. The cold commissioning date has been moved back from October 1, 1991 to November 1, 1991 to allow float for miscellaneous finish-up items beyond the electrical contractor`s projected completion date of October 31, 1991.

  16. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  17. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  18. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  19. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  20. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  1. 14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars on right, hot gas pipes on left and overhead; pulverized coal bunker is tall, vertical structure on left. looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  2. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  3. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF COKE-OVEN DOOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of extensive tests of selected fractions of samples of emissions generated by leakage from a coke oven door during a 16-hour coking cycle. The tests included: particulate emissions determination; trace metal analyses; gas analyses; organic analyses by IR ...

  4. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS (REVISED DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea, kidney, and prostate. An im...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  7. Improving effectiveness of coke oven patching

    SciTech Connect

    Withrow, J.A.; McCollum, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    An effective patching program is essential to protect the battery against severe damage which would result from air, foul gas, and fuel gas leaks; and to keep it in operating condition for a reasonable life span. In addition to that basic purpose of patching, other areas such as heating efficiency, coke quality, and emissions performance can benefit from an effective program. Clairton Works and US Steel Research have made improvements in the patching program in several broad categories: equipment used for application of patching material, the patching material itself, and practices used in administration of the patching program. The equipment changes include a pusher machine ram-mounted roof patching unit and a new type of patching buggy for use with materials which tend to settle or cake. New materials have been formulated which develop a ceramic bond on the oven refractories and provide superior adherance. Battery Temperature Profiles, Charging Surveys, and Stack Observation Reports are used on a regular basis to identify critical areas for patching beyond those which can be identified by operating personnel on an incidental basis. This paper reviews each of these improvements in Clairton's patching program in terms of the equipment, materials, and practices per se and also discusses the results of implementing these changes.

  8. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN FORESTED OVERGROWTH (BOTTOM LEFT), COKE TAILINGS PILE (BOTTOM RIGHT THROUGH CENTER TOP LEFT), FORMER BIRMINGHAM SOUTHERN RAILWAY SHOPS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT). CONVICT CEMETERY IS JUST WEST OF THE TAILINGS PILE (TOP LEFT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH). - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Convict Cemetery, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place & Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  10. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  11. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  16. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1993-01-01

    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and 1987) and smoking habits were determined for all the subjects. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (SMR = 238, p < 0.001). It showed an excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 141, p < 0.001), overall cancers (SMR = 133, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 133, p < 0.05). A significant excess of deaths was found for subjects who worked near the ovens for all causes (145, p < 0.01), lung cancer (SMR = 252, p < 0.01), colon cancer (SMR = 381, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 155, p < 0.05). A significant excess mortality was also found from all causes (176, p < 0.05) and stomach cancer (SMR = 538, p < 0.01) in subjects who worked in byproducts, from lung cancer (SMR = 433, p < 0.001) in those in the workshops, and from cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism (SMR = 360, p < 0.01) in those underground; but, due to small numbers, these figures were not robust. An excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 163, p<001), lung cancer (SMR = 228, p<0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 179, p<0.01) was shown also for non-exposed or slightly exposed subjects. The fact that, on the whole, mortality of various exposed groups was similar to that of non-exposed or slightly exposed workers may be explained in part by the selection at hiring and the healthy worker effect. As an increased risk of lung cancer was noted among subjects who worked in the old generations of plant compared with the other workers (although the relative risk was not significant

  17. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Use of a scale model for coke oven charging practice development

    SciTech Connect

    Case, E.R.; Pendergras, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A 1/8 scale model coke oven was designed and built for use as a tool to improve coke oven charging practice. Major goals of the program were to increase coke oven productivity and decrease charging emissions. The material used to simulate coal in the model was chosen on the basis of angle of repose. the proper choice of media to simulate the coke oven charge, under a given set of operating conditions, was essential to obtain correspondence between the model and the production oven. Oven profiles were very similar after individual larry car hoppers were dropped and after leveling. Improved coke oven charging practices developed with the coke oven model, in combination with close control by operating personnel, have resulted in increased coke oven charge weights of over 1.0 ton/oven without increased charging emissions.

  19. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  20. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  1. Method for recovering and utilizing heat of coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioka, K.; Nishio, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Shimotsuma, T.

    1981-06-02

    A method is described for recovering and utilizing heat of coke- oven gas is eliminated. Through heat exchange with a high-temperature coke-oven gas generated from a coke oven battery and containing vaporized coal tar, vaporized low boiling point substances and dust. By drying and preheating a blended raw material coal fine to be charged into coking ovens of said coke oven battery, and causing most of said coal tar contained in said coke-oven gas to condense and deposit onto the particle surfaces of said coal fine. During the process of said heat exchange, sensible heat and condensation heat of said coke-oven gas and substances contained therein are recovered and utilized, and at the same time, most of the contained coal tar from said coke-oven gas.

  2. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  3. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  4. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  5. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  6. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-m...

  8. The development of analytical methodologies for characterizing coke oven emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Currently, coke oven operators are required by law to monitor worker's exposure to coke oven emissions for coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) by measuring the benzene soluble fraction of particulates. However, it is not universally accepted that CTPV are a good measure of health effects. Consequently, better methods for analyzing coke oven emissions that relate to worker's health is needed. Sampling apparatus designed to measure particulates and vapor organics, employing high volume (hi-vol) pumps and personal pumps were field tested. The analytical scheme developed was more efficient in extracting PAHs than the benzene soluble fraction method. Both filter and florisil plugs were extracted with methylene chloride using an ultrasonic bath. The extract volumes were reduced and solvent exchanged with iso-octane in a Kuderna-Danish (KD) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Qualitative analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/mass spectrometer. A total of 68 compounds were identified. Sixteen PAHs selected were selected for quantitative analysis and their concentrations ranged from 0.02 ug/m{sup 3} to 5100 ug/m{sup 3}. The relative concentrations of the PAHs were compared with other processes in which PAHs are emitted, such as paving and roofing operations and were found to be unique enough that finger printing coke oven emissions may be possible.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  13. 29. Coke oven byproduct building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Coke oven by-product building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse with 8 sisters (stacks) in background; conveyor #20 (with break) on right, pulevrized coal storage bunker on left. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  14. Improved coke ovens thermal control at Italsider Taranto Works

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, L.; Castelli, M.; Gibellieri, E., De Franco, F.; Santis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The right determination of the flue temperatures shifting, according to coke ovens working cycle, has been carried out at Italsider Taranto Works with the cooperation of Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico by using an original method of elaboration and comparison of temperature data collected according to the usual ways by the operators. The results are immediately used for the appropriate control interventions. This technique, after the first experimental application, has been gradually extended to all eleven batteries for a total amount of 485 ovens and it is being used since more than four years. The data are processed out by a 1100 UNIVAC computer to which the access is possible through a remote terminal located in the cokeplant offices. In this way it has been possible to improve the batteries thermal state control with the result of improving considerably the temperatures uniformity both in the transverse and longitudinal axis of the ovens. These positive results had good effects on the stabilization of coke quality, on energy savings and on improvements of working conditions in the coke ovens area. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  15. High strength coke oven wall having gas flues therein

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, R.W. III.

    1993-07-20

    In a nonrecovery coke oven battery including a plurality of coke ovens constructed in side-by-side relation with adjacent ovens in the battery being separated by a common sidewall having a face exposed in each said adjacent oven, and a plurality of generally rectangular flues formed in and extending generally vertically upward through each said common sidewall in spaced relation to one another, said flues having internal end surfaces generally parallel to said sidewall faces and side surfaces generally perpendicular to said sidewall faces, said sidewall being constructed of refractory brick separated by mortar joints and arranged in alternate odd and even courses with each course of brick including a plurality of groups of brick each cooperating to form a core having a rectangular opening extending there through defining a portion of one of said flues, the improvement is described wherein the refractory brick defining said cores in said even numbered courses comprise bricks of at least two shapes and the bricks defining the cores in the odd number of courses comprises bricks of at least two shapes, and wherein the shapes of the brick forming the core in said odd and in said even courses are different from one another, the refractory brick in each said core being shaped and arranged such that no mortar joint between two adjacent bricks defining any core is contained in a single vertical plane from a flue to the adjacent oven.

  16. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  17. Copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Sun, C.

    1997-12-31

    To improve the economy of the hydropyrolysis process by reducing hydrogen cost, it has been suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gas (such as coke-oven gas) instead of pure hydrogen. Pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite has been carried out with real coke-oven gas (COG) as reactive gases at 0.1--5 MPa and the final temperature of 650 C with heating rate of 5--25 C/min in an 10 g fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pressure on product yields under COG were investigated in detail and compared with coal pyrolysis with hydrogen at the same conditions. The results indicate that it is possible to use COG instead of pure hydrogen in hydropyrolysis. To optimize the yields of the valuable chemicals, the experimental conditions must be adjusted.

  18. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling crossflow in a double collector main coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-07-08

    A method is described of controlling the crossflow of gases given off by a coal mass during the production of coke in a coke oven having a coke side collector main and a pusher side collector main comprising the steps of: (a) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the coke side standpipe and the temperature in the pusher side standpipe, (b) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the freespace adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature in the freespace adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, (c) determining the temperature difference between the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, and (d) opening the coke side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper and the pusher side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper, if they are not in the open position, if the temperature difference of step (b) is substantially the same as the temperature difference of step (c) and the temperature difference of step (a) is greater than about 50/sup 0/F in order to control crossflow.

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Mao, I. F.; Ho, C. K.; Wypij, D.; Lu, P. L.; Smith, T. J.; Chen, M. L.; Christiani, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation of individual occupational exposure to total particulates benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of ambient air with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations among coke oven workers in Taiwan. METHODS: 80 coke oven workers and 50 referents were monitored individually for the BSF of breathing zone air over three consecutive days. Exposures were categorised as high, medium, or low among coke oven workers based on exposure situations. The high exposure group (n = 18) worked over the oven. The medium and low exposure groups (n = 41 and n = 21) worked at the side of the oven for > 4 hours and < 4 hours a day, respectively. Urine was collected before the shift on the morning of day 1 and after the shift on the afternoon of day 3 to find the change of 1-OHP concentrations across the shift. RESULTS: The median (range) changes of urinary 1-OHP concentrations across the shift for various exposure situations (microgram/g creatinine) were as follows: high 182 (7 to 3168); medium 9 (-8 to 511); low 7 (-6 to 28); and referents 0.2 (-2 to 72). This change of urinary 1-OHP was highly associated with individual occupational exposure to the BSF in air (r = 0.74 and 0.64, p < 0.001). The regression model showed significant effects of individual exposures to the BSF and alcohol consumption on urinary postshift 1-OHP after adjusting for preshift 1-OHP in the total population (n = 130). More exposure to the BSF led to higher postshift 1-OHP (p < 0.001); current drinkers of > 120 g/week had lower urinary postshift 1-OHP than never and former drinkers (p = 0.01). A 10-fold increase in the average BSF in air resulted in about a 2.5-fold increase in postshift 1-OHP among the 80 coke oven workers. CONCLUSION: Urinary 1-OHP concentrations can be used as a good biomarker to assess individual exposure to the BSF in air. Alcohol drinking may modify the toxicokinetic pathway of the BSF; the effects of alcohol should be investigated further in occupational

  1. Method and apparatus for processing filling gas from a coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polenz, J.; Wagner, H.

    1981-08-11

    An improved coke oven battery and an improved method for production of coke and byproducts are provided. The filling gas escaping during the filling of the oven chambers with coal is initially rendered inert by admixing flue gas. Then the resulting gas mixture of filling gas and flue gas is withdrawn via a conduit fed with flushing liquor from the coke oven gas off-take main and is added to the raw coke oven gas after the coke oven gas off-take main. The tar and coal containing flushing liquor coming from the filling gas conduit is fed back to the coke oven gas off-take main after removal of the tar.

  2. Method for determining the end of devolatilizing in a coke oven and adjusting the coke cycle based thereon

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing coke in a by-product coke oven battery. Each oven is operated over a coking cycle; each coking cycle having an aim total coke cycle time defined by a charging time and an aim push time. The aim push time has a permitted plus or minus deviation. Between the charging time and aim push time there is: (1) a devolatilizing period of estimated length, and (2) a coke soaking period immediately following the devolatilizing period. The method of determining the end of the devolatilizing period consists of: (a) in a first coking cycle, during a devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch condensed volatiles specimens from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; (1) determining a reference light-transmitting value of the catch specimens for the devolatilizing period; (b) in a second coking cycle, as the coking cycle approaches an estimated end of the devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch specimens having condensed volatiles from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; and (1) determining when an individual light-transmitting value of one of the specimens varies by a pre-selected amount from the reference light-transmitting value.

  3. Determining the sulfuric acid fog concentration in coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zin'kovskaya, S.I.; Okhrimenko, E.L.; Sobko, L.V.

    1982-11-06

    A volumetric method for the analysis of sulfuric acid aerosols at levels of acid greater (25-40 g/m/sup 3/) than those (1 g/m/sup 3/) analyzable by current methods is described. Coke oven gas after acid scrubbing and electrofiltration is passed through a Schott filter (pressure drop 100 mm Hg), the sulfuric acid aerosol being condensed on the filter which is washed with water and the washings filtered with NaOH (0.01 N after electrofilter, 1.0 N after the acid towers) to methyl orange end point. The error is +/- 2%.

  4. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  5. Process for dissolving coke oven deposits comprising atomizing a composition containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone into the gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.L.; Nicholson, G.M.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for cleaning gas lines in coke oven batteries comprising atomizing a composition into the gas lines of coke oven batteries, where the composition comprises N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  6. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Coke Oven Emissions (29... requirements in the Coke Oven Emissions Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  12. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  13. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. |

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  14. Apparatus for leveling coal in a coke oven chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Spindeler, H.; Wackerbarth, F.

    1985-01-01

    A coal-leveling apparatus includes a leveling rod supported by a pressing machine for movement through a leveling opening into a mushroom-shaped gas-collecting space to level the coal charged in the coking chamber of a coke oven. The leveling rod includes a head element that carries two support members that can move on pivot levers between an operative position wherein the support members are extended from the head element for support by upwardly-inclined wall surfaces in the mushroom-shaped gas-collecting space. In the inoperative position, the support members are retracted toward both sides of the head element. An actuating rod extends through the leveling rod to the head element. In one embodiment, the actuating rod can be moved in opposite directions of its length. An end of each of the first pivot levers is connected to the actuating rod and the opposite ends of the first levers are connected to second pivot levers. The second pivot levers are connected at one end to the head element and carry the support members. The connection between the pivot levers and the actuating rod, in one embodiment, is by a pivot connection, and in another embodiment by rollers that can move along an inclined surface on an end of the actuating rod. In a third embodiment a nut is threadedly engaged with threads on the end portion of the actuating rod to move the levers.

  15. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of coke oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is Sufficient. The potency factor (F) for coke oven emissions are estimated to be 1.53 (mg/kg/day)(-1), placing it in potency group 2 according to the CAG`s methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, coke oven emissions are assigned a HIGH hazard ranking.

  16. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  17. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  18. Chemistry of HCN removal from coke-oven gas using ethylenethiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Markhovskii, L.F.; Brodovich, A.I.; Proicheva, A.G.; Shmyreva, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    An ethylenediamine (EDA) process developed for the purification of coke-oven gas of acid components is a cyclic process. The process can recover H/sub 2/S and HCN simultaneously. Laboratory and pilot plant data on the removal of HCN from coke-oven gas using this process and on the processing of the spent scrubber liquor are presented. Ethylenethiourea is recoverable from the spent liquor.

  19. Improvement on heating efficiency of fuel in coke oven at CSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, M.T.; Chen, C.W.; Shen, J.F.; Hsiao, C.H.; Hsieh, D.L.; Chung, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    A heat input management of coke oven, consisting of two subsystems respectively for setting proper coking time, diagnosing thermal state of coke oven in horizontal and longitudinal direction, was developed. It aimed to control the average oven temperature to the suitable level and to diminish the deviations of temperature between each heating walls. In subsystem 1, the measured flue temperature was corrected by a reversed cooling curve and compared with an ideal transversal profile. A precise thermal state of battery heating was therefore induced. In subsystem 2, with the measurement of gas temperature at ascending pipe, a coking completion table composed of production ratio, coal moisture and flue temperature was established for setting the target flue temperature. Since this coke oven combustion management system was adopted, the remarkable heating improvement has been achieved, for an example at Phase III, the average temperature of coke oven was decreased from 1,262 C to 1,240 C, the fuel was thus saved, the wall temperature was more even and the coke qualities were also improved.

  20. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1992-01-01

    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was, however negatively linked with smoking and with the presence of a respiratory symptom or discrete abnormalities visible on pulmonary x ray films. The functional values were mostly slightly lower than predicted values and the most reduced index was the mean expiratory flow, FEF25-75%. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was often parallel to that in forced vital capacity (FVC), but it was more pronounced for subjects who had worked underground, for smokers of more than 30 pack-years, and for subjects having a respiratory symptom. Pulmonary function indices were probably overestimated because of the exclusion of deceased subjects and the bias of the participants. PMID:1599869

  1. Causes of {open_quotes}undercut{close_quotes} development in coke-oven brickwork

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoshein, V.T.

    1992-12-31

    By no means the least important fault that can develop in coke-oven refractories, and which lowers the productivity and shortens the life of coke-oven batteries is the development of so-called {open_quotes}undercuts,{close_quotes} whereby longitudinal fissures of variable depth and length appear in the first one or two rows of bricks form the floor. On the other hand, large-scale undercutting only develops in individual batteries, and many coking plant workers employed in the servicing and upkeep of the coke ovens are unfamiliar with the problem. No convincing explanation has yet been forthcoming, and consequently no effective measures have been laid down for its prevention. The first large-scale outbreak of undercutting in this country occurred in 1956-1957, in No. 1-4 batteries (side heating) at the Kuznetsk and Magnitogorsk II & SW-plants. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  3. Catalytic hydrogenation of polyaromatic compounds using coke-oven gas instead of pure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Braekman-Danheux, C.E.; Fontana, A.H.; Laurent, Ph.M.; Lolivier, Ph.

    1995-12-31

    In order to improve the economy of the conversion process of polyaromatic molecules to their hydroaromatics analogs, catalytic hydrogenation of phenanthrene has been carried out under pressure of different simulated coke-oven gases instead of pure hydrogen. The influence of reaction time, temperature and pressure on the hydrogenation yields and on the nature of the obtained products has been studied. Comparisons have been made with reaction with pure hydrogen in the same conditions. The influence of the different components of a real coke-oven gas has also been pointed out. The results indicate that coke-oven gas can be used if the goal is not to obtain perhydroaromatics compounds for a thermal cracking, but to give partly hydrogenated compounds to be used as hydrogen donor solvent in a coal liquefaction process. The results have been applied to coal-tar highly aromatic fractions.

  4. [Investigation on the immune function of coke-oven workers in a gas factory].

    PubMed

    Wang, J

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports a study on the immune function of coke-oven workers in a gas factory. The results of immunological examination for coke oven workers exposed to pollutants from coal combustion showed that contents of lysozyme in the saliva, total complement and IgG, IgA in serum and T lymphocytes transformation activity in peripheral blood were all significantly lower than those in the control population. After the workers had separated themselves from heavy air pollution environment for 3 years, only the contents of lysozyme were higher than before, the other immune functions did not return to normal. PMID:1303348

  5. The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  6. Relationship of exposure to coke-oven emissions and urinary metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene in coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Simpson, Christopher D; Christiani, David C; Hecht, Stephen S

    2002-03-01

    Coke-oven workers are occupationally exposed to a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). r-7,t-8,9,c-10-Tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (trans-anti-BaP-tetraol) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) are urinary metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene, respectively. In this study, we investigated the relationship among individual air exposure to benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulates, as a surrogate marker of ambient PAH exposures, and urinary trans-anti-BaP-tetraol and 1-OHP concentrations in coke-oven workers at a steel plant in Taiwan. Fifty-seven subjects, including 41 male workers who work in one coke-oven plant and 16 men (referents) from an administrative area, were studied. The mean trans-anti-BaP-tetraol and 1-OHP concentrations (mean +/- SD) were 0.4 +/- 0.3 nmol/mol creatinine and 9.7 +/- 21.6 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, in coke-oven workers. These levels were significantly higher than those in referents (0.03 +/- 0.03 nmol/mole creatinine, P < 0.001 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/mol creatinine, P < 0.01, respectively). Urinary trans-anti-BaP-tetraol concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with individual average BSF and urinary 1-OHP concentrations. That is, the higher the urinary trans-anti-BaP-tetraol concentrations, the more ambient BSF exposure and urinary 1-OHP concentrations (Spearman correlation coefficients r = 0.68 and 0.70, respectively; P < 0.0001; n = 57). These findings suggest that urinary 1-OHP and trans-anti-BaP-tetraol might be considered as potential biomarkers for the assessment of uptake of known PAH carcinogens in the air. PMID:11895883

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF CONCEPTS FOR IMPROVING COKE-OVEN DOOR SEALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, laboratory scale tests, construction, and field tests of an improved metal-to-metal seal for coke-oven end doors. Basic features of the seal are: high-strength temperature-resistant steel capable of 3 times the deflection of current seals without ...

  8. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure. PMID:24040626

  9. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou

    2013-01-15

    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm. PMID:23314003

  10. Coke-oven by-product modifications at National Steel's Great Lakes Div

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowsky, R.P. . Great Lakes Division); Platts, M. )

    1994-10-01

    The rebuilt by-products plant, and coal and coke material handling facilities began operation in Nov. 1992. Coal handling facilities were reused with repairs and modifications, such as new vibrating bin bottoms, bin blasters and variable-speed belts with weigh scales for an accurate coal blend. Coke handling consists of two new fixed-blade rack and pinion drive coke plows, new conveyors and screening station. The by-products plant processes 48 million cu ft of coke-oven gas per day through two rehabilitated primary coolers, one of two rehabilitated exhausters, two new tar precipitators in parallel, two new ammonia scrubbers with secondary cooling in series and two rehabilitated light oil scrubbers in series. Environmental facilities include ammonia stills, catalytic ammonia destruction reactors with waste heat boilers and complete gas blanketing for benzene control. All facilities are PLC and DCS controlled with data trending capability. The by-product plant met all performance guarantees without any problems.

  11. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Acme jumper pipe system for coke-oven charging

    SciTech Connect

    Medved, P.D.; Thomas, H.

    1996-08-01

    Acme Steel has operated larry cars with an attached jumper pipe since 1977 and had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan (SIP). With the advent of the Clean Air Act (CAA), Acme considered that it could not meet these new standards without modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications, boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. These modifications showed that the Clean Air Act standards could be met, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. The company decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connection to the assist oven through an additional hole in the roof of each oven. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables the company to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

  13. Cytological detection of a peripheral lung carcinoma in a coke oven worker

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, R.L.; Belman, M.J.; Nathwani, B.; Valco, Z.; Yokota, S.

    1980-06-01

    OSHA mandated programs of pulmonary cytology among coke oven workers have resulted in detection of a number of unsuspected tumors. While it is too early to determine the eventual impact of these programs, this report describes the detection of a 0.3 cm peripheral lesion, believed to be the smallest identified by cytology. In addition to being diminutive, the tumor proved to be of the epidermoid type, unusual for the location. Further investigation is required to determine whether peripheral epidermoid neoplasms are associated with exposure to coke vapors.

  14. Considerations concerning the physical heat-recovery of raw coke-oven gas in an industrial pilot-station

    SciTech Connect

    Paunescu, L.; Gaba, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents the conception and realization obtained by the research team at the Metallurgical Researches Institute in an industrial pilot-station on the field of the physical heat-recovery of raw coke-oven gas.

  15. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme. PMID:14723281

  16. Research on coke-oven heating technology and the properties of coke as a blast-furnace fuel. [UKhIN

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Semisalov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    A fundamentally novel coke-oven system was designed at Giprokoks (underjet, with bottom gas and air regulation) on the basis of data from model experiments. In particular, when batteries of 41.6 m/sup 3/ coke ovens were developed, the results of model tests led to major modifications to the original designs for the regenerator zones, sloping ducts and flues. UKhIN investigations on hot and hydraulic models, using modern mathematical procedures and computers, were used to study the details of heat exchange and gas flow in the regenerator packings under coke ovens. Criterial equations were derived for the coefficients of heat transfer by convection and of hydraulic resistance, covering the specific features of regenerator performance in coke-oven heating systems. Much useful information for the advance of coke-oven technology has been obtained from laboratory, pilot and fullscale plant studies of the thermal properties of coals and blends. Investigations (including blast-furnace trials) in connection with the commercial adoption of dry coke cooling established that during its soaking in the storage chamber the coke undergoes changes in molecular structure, to an extent dependent on the time and temperature. Recommendations based on this research significantly improve the coke strength properties and extended the range of usable coal supplies. Traditionally, the Institute is greatly interested in the problem of coke yields, which has now become very urgent in connection with the use of higher proportions of grade G and other coals with high volatile matters. Detailed studies have been made of the effects of various processing factors on the yields of saleable and metallurgical coke.

  17. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. )

    1993-01-01

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  18. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  20. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Siwinska, E; Mielzynska, D; Kapka, L

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected immediately after a shift at the end of a working week from 50 coke oven workers and 50 control workers not exposed to PAHs. Methods included: (1) biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HpU), urinary mutagenicity by the plate Salmonella test with strains TA98 and YG1024 after metabolic activation, expressed as mutagenic rate (MR98 and MR1024, respectively), urinary cotinine; and (2) biomarkers of biological effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL): sister chromatid exchanges (SCE/cell), cells of high frequency of SCE (% HFC), micronuclei (MN/1000 cells), chromosomal aberrations (CA/100 cells), and DNA damage by the Comet assay. Results: Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in significantly increased levels of HpU and mutagenic effect of urine. Median values of these biomarkers in coke oven workers were: 9.0 µmol/mol creatinine for HpU, 2.7 for MR98, and 8.2 for MR1024, compared to the controls: HpU = 0.6 µmol/mol creatinine, MR98 = 1.2, and MR1024 = 5.5. Occupational exposure caused significant induction of SCE, HFC, and MN in coke oven workers: median SCE = 5.9, HFC = 12.0%, MN = 6.0 compared to the controls: 3.9, 5.0%, and 3.0, respectively. No effect of occupational exposure was found in relation to CA and DNA damage measured with the Comet assay. HpU concentration was positively associated with SCE and HFC. The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene corresponding to a 5% probability of increased SCE was 1.0 µmol/mol creatinine. Conclusions: The occupational exposure to PAHs resulted in measurable biological effects (SCE, HFC, MN). In coke oven workers an increased level of SCE was not observed below the level of 1.0 µmol HpU/mol creatinine. PMID:14985527

  1. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks. PMID:12598665

  2. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  3. Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.

    1985-05-21

    An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

  4. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W.

    1996-02-01

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  5. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:22522113

  6. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

  7. [Aerosol size distribution of organic carbon and elemental carbon on the top of coke oven and in the plant area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Lin; Bai, Hui-Ling; Mu, Ling; Song, Chong-Fang

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the characteristic of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particles on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, the particle matter samples of five size fraction including < or = 1.4 microm, 1.4-2.1 microm, 2.1-4.2 microm, 4.2-10.2 microm and > or = 10.2 microm were collected using Staplex234 cascade impactor, and OC and EC were analyzed by Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH vario EL cube. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with TSP on the top of coke oven were 291.6 microg x m(-3) and 255.1 microg x m(-3), while those in the plant area were 377.8 microg x m(-3) and 151.7 microg x m(-3). The mass concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in particles with size of < or = 1.4 microm was 147.3 microg x m(-3) in the plant area. The value of OC/EC in particles less than 2.1 microm was 1.3 on the top of coke oven. The mass concentration of EC in TSP in the plant area was lower than that on the top of coke oven, while the mass concentration of OC in the plant area was significantly higher than that on the top of coke oven. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with particles less than 10.2 microm in the plant area were far higher than those in the atmosphere of area where the coke plant is located. The OC and EC in particles, which were collected both on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, were mainly enriched in fine particles. The size distribution of OC showed a clear distinction between the coke oven top and the plant area, which revealed that OC in the plant area was more preferably enriched in fine particles than that on the top of coke oven, and the same size distribution of EC was found on the top of coke oven and in the plant area. In the plant area, the mass concentration of SOC and the contribution of SOC to OC increased with the decreasing diameter in particles with diameter of less than 10.2 microm. PMID:24191535

  8. Coke-oven back pressure and its effect on door leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Sundholm, J.L. )

    1993-07-01

    In anticipation of more stringent door leaks standards mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, LTV has conducted three studies at the Pittsburgh coke plant: door evaluations; back pressure system study and reduced back pressure operation. This paper will discuss the investigations and results of the pressure related studies. Raw coke-oven gas from the five batteries in operation is evacuated via three suction mains to a common set of primary coolers and exhausters. At any pint in time it is possible to have up to three ovens being charged which significantly increases the load on the suction system. The back pressure system study was conducted to determine the effect of charging practice on the collecting main pressure, system suction pressure and exhausted response, and the effect on collecting main pressure on a battery when charging other batteries for the purpose of defining operational and facility changes necessary to reduce collecting main pressure variation. Observations at normal collecting main pressure and at reduced pressure indicate that door leaks can be appreciably lowered at the reduced pressure. However, conventional operation at the lower back pressure will invariably cause a suction condition within the oven resulting in undesirable air infiltration. To avoid this suction condition, a partial dampening procedure has been tested successfully on several ovens operating at reduced back pressure. Based upon this result, a decision has been made to implement the technique on all ovens on one battery. During this test, the effect of the modified operations on wall condition, end temperature, stack appearance, and topside leaks, as well as door leaks will be assessed.

  9. Evaluation of the KIDC (Kress Indirect Dry Cooling) system for coke oven pushing and quench tower emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Vajda, S.

    1988-09-23

    The KIDC system, as observed at Granite City Steel on June 21, 1988, eliminates both pushing and quenching emissions. The coke is pushed into a container that is slightly wider and longer than the oven. The container is sealed at the oven door jamb, a guillotine door on the container is opened at the oven for the push and is closed and sealed after the push. A slightly negative pressure is maintained in the container during the push to prevent any pollutants from exiting into the oven or escaping to the atmosphere. The pushing force is only slightly higher than the normal push. No volatile gas mixtures are in the container box since oxygen is effectively absent. Coke yield is improved. Coke quality is improved similarly to existing dry quench systems. Since the system is environmentally sealed, some coking can take place in the container, ovens could be pushed slightly earlier, improving the production of the battery. The production of the blast furnace could be expected to improve, when the improved quality KIDC coke is used. 13 refs.

  10. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Ho, C. K.; Huang, S. L.; Yeh, Y. F.; Liu, C. L.; Mao, I. F.; Christiani, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideoven workers. Liver function profiles including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (BIL) were examined in the morning after personal exposure measurements. The MspI polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). RESULTS: Five of 23 (22%) topside oven workers and seven of 65 (11%) sideoven workers had the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant genotype. With sideoven workers with the combined wild type and heterozygous variant as the reference group in multiple regression models, it was found that topside oven workers with the combined traits had mean AST and ALT activities that were 21% and 46% higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4% to 42% and 12% to 91%, respectively) than the reference group after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Also, topside oven workers with the homozygous variant trait had mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities that were 59%, 68%, and 157% higher (95% CI 21% to 109%, 6% to 168%, and 39% to 374%, respectively) than the reference group. The prevalence of an abnormal hepatocellular pattern (AST > 37 IU/l or ALT > 39 IU/l) was more common in the topside oven workers with the homozygous variant than in the sideoven workers with the other combined genotypes (adjusted odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 82.3) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism

  11. Lung function changes in coke oven workers during 12 years of follow up

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Griffiths, D; Kreis, I; Darling, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of exposure to coke oven emissions on the lung function of coke oven workers. Methods: The study population, followed from 1978 and 1990, was 580 male workers with at least two sets of lung function measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75%). An annual rate of change (time slope) for age and height adjusted lung function index was estimated for each subject. This "time slope" was then treated as the response variable in a weighted multiple regression analysis with selected predictors. Results: For all 580 subjects, each year of working in the "operation" group (the most exposed) was found to increase the FVC decline by around 0.7 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.3 ml/year). After the exclusion of 111 subjects without detailed work history, the above finding was confirmed and each year of exposure in "operation" was also found to increase the FEV1 decline by around 0.8 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.4 ml/year). Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the results of previous cross-sectional studies. Work duration in the most exposed position in the coke ovens was associated with increased annual decline for FVC and FEV1. The estimated effect of one year of work exposure in "operation" is equivalent, in terms of the reduction in lung function, to an estimated 2.1 pack-years of smoking for FVC and 1.2 pack-years of smoking for FEV1. PMID:15258275

  12. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  13. Apparatus and method of using a fuel gas regulator for a coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, D.M.; Filkes, R.W.

    1985-08-06

    Method and apparatus for the regulation of the flow of fuel gas in the fuel gas supply duct of a heating wall of a coke oven to assure uniform heat distribution in the oven are provided. The regulating means consists of a thin plate having a similar shape to that of a fuel gas supply duct for insertion therein. Pivotally attached to and extending perpendicularly from the outer face of the plate are twin parallel control rods with gage marks inscribed thereon. To effect the regulation of fuel gas flow, the regulating means is inserted into the fuel gas supply duct at an appropriate location and the flow rate is adjusted by pivoting the plate by the manipulation of the adjusting rods.

  14. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class IV (‘partly skilled’). Analyses based on internal comparisons within the cohorts identified statistical associations with estimates of individual exposures, up to the start of follow-up, to benzene-soluble materials (BSM), widely used as a metric for mixtures of PAHs. Some associations were also found with times spent in certain coke ovens jobs with specific exposure scenarios, but results were not consistent across the two cohorts and limitations in the exposure estimates were noted. The present study was designed to reanalyse the existing data on lung cancer mortality, incorporating revised and improved exposure estimates to BSM and to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), including increments during the follow-up and a lag for latency. Methods Mean annual average concentrations of both BSM and B[a]P were estimated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) from concentration measurements at all NSF and six BSC plants, and summarised by job and plant, with a temporal trend (for the BSM only). These were combined with subjects’ work histories, to produce exposure estimates in each year of follow-up, with a 10-year lag to allow for latency. Exposures to BSM and to B[a]P were sufficiently uncorrelated to permit analysis in relation to each variable separately. Lung cancer death risks during the follow-up were analysed in relation to the estimated time-dependent exposures, both continuous and grouped, using Cox regression models, with adjustment for age. Results Changing the exposure estimates

  15. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Terza, R.R. ); Sardesai, U.V. )

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  16. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  17. Thermal processes in the two-stage primary cooling of coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhno, R.P.; Vasil'ev, Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of a two-stage method for the cooling of coke oven gas was presented. The method employed air-cooling in a finned-tube exchanger for primary cooling, and then water cooling in a horizontal tube exchanger. Calculations showed that about 80% of the heat was removed by the air cooler. Also, the cooling water savings was about 70-75% over conventional methods using water only. The two stage concept allowed increased velocity of the gas and decreasing the sealing of the exchanger.

  18. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    PubMed

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance. PMID:24432587

  19. Organic extracts of coke oven emissions can induce genetic damage in metabolically competent HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Guo, Sifan; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2014-05-01

    Coke oven emissions (COEs) containing various carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the coal-burning pollution in the air. Organic pollutants in the aerosol and particulate matter of COEs were collected from the bottom, side, and top of a coke oven. The Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay were conducted to analyze the genetic damage of extractable organic matter (EOM) of COEs on HepG2 cells. All the three EOMs could induce significant dose-dependent increases in Olive tail moment, tail DNA, and tail length, micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds frequencies, which were mostly positively correlated with the total PAHs concentration in each EOM. In conclusion, EOMs of COEs in the three typical working places of coke oven can induce DNA strand breaks and genomic instability in the metabolically competent HepG2 cells. The PAHs in EOMs may be important causative agents for the genotoxic effects of COEs. PMID:24709322

  20. Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions as determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with diesel particulates. Results to date encourage the approach to the assessment for carcinogenic risks from diesel emissions based on the use of epidemiological data on cancer induced by coke oven emissions, roofing tar particulates and cigarette smoke with the comparative potencies of these materials determined by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. PMID:6186481

  1. Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rezunenko, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

  2. Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Pavanello, Sofia; Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2010-01-15

    Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) (from naphthalene to benzo[a]pyrene), in spot urine samples collected at the end of the workshift. U-PAHs with four or less rings were detected in all samples. In particular, median levels for urinary naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were 0.806, 0.721, 0.020, 0.032 and 0.035 microg/L. OHPAHs up to 1-hydroxypyrene were found in all samples, while high molecular-weight OHPAHs were always below quantification limit. Median level of 1-hydroxyypyrene was 15.4 microg/L. In all subjects significant correlations between OHPAHs and U-PAHs were observed (0.27 < r < 0.70, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that both hydroxylated metabolites and unmetabolized PAHs in urine are useful biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of several biomarkers permits to obtain specific excretion profiles that might help in exposure characterization and in better defining the excretion patterns. PMID:20143505

  3. MUTAGENICITY OF THE FRACTIONATED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL, CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATE, COKE OVEN, AND ROOFING TAR IN THE AMES ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven and roofing tar in the Ames a...

  4. Utilization of Coke Oven Gas and Converter Gas in the Direct Reduction of Lump Iron Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Elsayed Abdelhady; Babich, Alexander; Senk, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    The application of off-gases from the integrated steel plant for the direct reduction of lump iron ore could decrease not only the total production cost but also the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The current study investigates the efficiency of reformed coke oven gas (RCOG), original coke oven gas (OCOG), and coke oven gas/basic oxygen furnace gas mixtures (RCOG/BOFG and OCOG/BOFG) in the direct reduction of lump iron ore. The results were compared to that of reformed natural gas (RNG), which is already applied in the commercial direct reduction processes. The reduction of lump ore was carried out at temperatures in the range of 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C) to simulate the reduction zone in direct reduction processes. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the microstructure and the developed phases in the original and reduced lump iron ore. The rate-controlling mechanism of the reduced lump ore was predicted from the calculation of apparent activation energy and the examination of microstructure. At 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C), the reduction rate of lump ore was the highest in RCOG followed by OCOG. The reduction rate was found to decrease in the order RCOG > OCOG > RNG > OCOG-BOF > RCOG-BOFG at temperatures 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C). The developed fayalite (Fe2SiO4), which resulted from the reaction between wüstite and silica, had a significant effect on the reduction process. The reduction rate was increased as H2 content in the applied gas mixtures increased. The rate-determining step was mainly interfacial chemical reaction with limitation by gaseous diffusion at both initial (20 pct reduction) and moderate (60 pct reduction) stages of reduction. The solid-state diffusion mechanism affected the reduction rate only at moderate stages of reduction.

  5. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M; Hara, K; Zhang, S; Hanaoka, T; Pan, G; Yamano, Y; Takahashi, K; Tomokuni, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employed at the largest iron and steel factory in China. Personal data were collected at the interview. 1-OHP in urine was measured with high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Genetic polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
RESULTS—A positive association between excretion of urinary 1-OHP and the levels of exposure to PAHs was confirmed. Those people who consumed ⩾50 g/day ethanol had significantly higher 1-OHP excretion than did other coke oven workers (p<0.01). No significant difference in urinary 1-OHP was found between smokers and non-smokers, in both controls and exposed subjects. The variant homozygotes at exon 7 of the CYP1A1 gene had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than other CYP1A1 genotypes among the exposed workers (p=0.03). There was less association between the concentrations of 1-OHP and the GSTM1, GSTP1, or GSTT1 polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS—The present study confirmed that urinary 1-OHP is a good biomarker for exposure to PAHs. Alcohol consumption affected urinary 1-OHP excretion. The variant genotypes of the CYP1A1 gene may result in the enhancement of PAH metabolites. It is helpful to understand the role of individual susceptibility on metabolism of carcinogens. These findings suggest that the modulating effect of individual lifestyle factors or genetic nature should be considered in future studies on occupational exposure to PAHs and in evaluating the health risk

  6. Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, F; Renier, A; Ettlinger, J; Iwatsubo, Y; Letourneux, M; Haguenoer, J M; Jaurand, M C; Pairon, J C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted in coke oven workers to evaluate the biological consequences of the exposure of these workers, particularly production of potential genotoxic factors. METHODS: 60 coke oven workers and 40 controls were recruited in the same iron and steel works. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by job and measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) in urine samples. An unscheduled DNA synthesis assay was performed on rat pleural mesothelial cells used as a test system to evaluate the effect of the workers' filtered urine on the DNA repair capacity of rat cells to determine whether DNA damaging agents are present in the urine of these workers. RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of 1OHP ranged from 0.06 to 24.2 (mean (SD) 2.1 (3.6)) mumol/mol creatinine in exposed coke oven workers, and from 0.01 to 0.9 in controls (0.12 (0.15)). These high concentrations in coke oven workers reflected recent exposure to PAHs and were in agreement with the assessment of exposure by job. No significant difference was found between coke oven workers and controls in the DNA repair level of rat cells treated with urine samples. However, the rat cell repair capacity decreased with increasing 1OHP concentrations in the exposed population (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As high concentrations of 1OHP were found in the urine of some workers, a more stringent control of exposures to PAHs in the workplace is required. Exposure to PAHs was not associated with a clear cut modification of the urinary excretion of DNA damaging factors in this test, as shown by the absence of increased unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat cells. However, impairment of some repair mechanisms by urinary constituents is suspected. PMID:9470892

  7. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-04-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  8. A mortality study of coke oven workers in two South Wales integrated steelworks.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, G M

    1977-01-01

    Six hundred and ten coke oven personnel were studied retrospectively over a period of 11 years (1954-65). During this time 82 died, 88 retired and 80 left, but all were treated. The Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) have been calculated for four principal causes which have then been further analysed into 30 subgroups. The work was limited because the population was small and the records not detailed enough to analyse the mortality rates according to environmental exposures. Differences between SMRs obtained at the two works were quite marked (73 and 98) and the overall SMR of 85% was better than expected. The observed number of deaths from respiratory disease, malignant neoplasms and all other causes excluding cardiovascular, was very near that expected, but the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular disease and in particular arteriosclerotic disease, showed a significant deficit. PMID:588485

  9. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  10. Using Lymphocyte and Plasma Hsp70 as Biomarkers for Assessing Coke Oven Exposure among Steel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Jinping; Bai, Yun; Tian, Fengjie; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Jianya; Liang, Huashan; Guo, Liang; Tan, Hao; Chen, Weihong; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Background Hsp70, an early-response protein induced when organisms are confronted with simple or complicated environmental stresses, can act as either a cellular protector or a danger signal. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate levels of lymphocyte and/or plasma Hsp70 as biomarkers for assessing exposure response to complex coke oven emissions (COEs). Methods We recruited 101 coke oven workers and determined levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), genotoxic damage by comet assay and micronuclei test, and other markers of damage, including plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These were compared to levels of lymphocyte (intra-cellular) and plasma (extracellular) Hsp70 using Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), respectively. Results We observed a COEs-related dose-dependent increase in levels of DNA damage, micronuclei rate, MDA concentration, and LDH activity. Lymphocyte Hsp70 levels increased in the intermediate-exposure group (1.39 ± 0.88) but decreased in the high-exposure group (1.10 ± 0.55), compared with the low-exposure group. In contrast, plasma Hsp70 levels progressively increased as the dose of exposure increased. Negative correlations were seen between lymphocyte Hsp70 levels and olive tail moment and LDH activity in the intermediate- and high-exposure groups. However, we observed positive correlations between plasma Hsp70 levels and LDH activity in the low and intermediate groups. Conclusions In workers exposed to COEs, high lymphocyte Hsp70 levels may provide protection and high plasma Hsp70 levels may serve as a danger marker. Larger validation studies are needed to establish the utility of Hsp70 as a response marker. PMID:18007987

  11. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  12. A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao

    2007-12-15

    About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

  13. [Semi-malignant pitch-acanthoma on the hand of a coke oven worker].

    PubMed

    Take, N; Kiryu, H

    1989-06-01

    We experienced a case of pitch-acanthoma which had developed on the hand of a coke worker after 15 years from his retirement. The patient was a 75-year-old male, who had worked mainly as a coke-oven worker for 24 years. In the spring of 1988, after 15 years from his retirement, he noticed a small nodule on the dorsal aspect of his right hand. He visited our clinic on June 1988 because the nodule was rapidly growing larger. The diagnosis of pitch-acanthoma was obvious from his occupational history and the characteristic poikilodermatous outlook of his skin. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with horn-pearl formation. Moreover, a pack of atypical cells was observed within the lesion, suggesting an early malignant change. The patient was heavily exposed to a tar-gas-containing atmosphere in his workplace for quite a long period. As tar or pitch remains within the skin in spite of careful cleansing, workers in this atmosphere have a relatively high risk of developing skin cancer. Our present case shows that such malignant change can occur after long years and we would emphasize the necessity of a long term follow-up, perhaps throughout the lifetime of these workers. PMID:2772436

  14. Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    VanRooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F J

    1993-01-01

    Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied between 0.5 and 32.2 micrograms/day. Based on the estimates of the dermal and respiratory pyrene uptake it is concluded that an average 75% (range 28%-95%, n = 12) of the total absorbed amount of pyrene enters the body through the skin. Because of the difference in the pyrene:benzo(a)pyrene ratio between the air samples and the skin contamination samples, the dermal uptake of benzo(a)pyrene was also estimated. This was about 51% of the total absorbed amount (range 8%-92%, n = 12). The total excreted amount of urinary 1-OH-pyrene as a result of exposure to PAHs during the five consecutive workshifts varied between 36 and 239 nmol. A multiple regression model of the mass balance between pyrene dose (both dermal and respiratory) and 1-OH-pyrene excretion confirmed the relevance of the dermal exposure route. The variation in urinary 1-OH-pyrene excretion was determined more by the dermal pyrene dose than by the respiratory dose. The model showed an estimate of the percentage of

  15. Ambient air quality and emission characteristics in and around a non-recovery type coke oven using high sulphur coal.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Saikia, Prasenjit; Boruah, Ratan; Saikia, Binoy K

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of gaseous species and aerosols in and around a non-recovery type coke making oven using high sulphur coals. In this paper, physico-chemical properties of the feed coal sample are reported along with the collection and measurement of the emitted gases (SO2, NO2, and NH3) and aerosol particles (PM2.5, PM10) during the coal carbonization in the oven. The coals used are from northeast India and they are high sulphur in nature. The concentrations of the gases e.g., SO2, NO2 and NH3 emitted are observed to be within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 24h. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are found to be 125.4 μg/m(3) and 48.6 μg/m(3) respectively, as measured during three days of coke oven operations. About 99% of the SO2 in flue gases is captured by using an alkali treatment during the coke oven operation. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after Centred Log Ratio (clr) transformation is also performed to know the positive and negative correlation among the coal properties and the emission parameters. PMID:26047865

  16. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  17. Increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in coke oven workers: interaction between occupational exposure and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Y; Chen, B; Yin, Z; Jia, L; Zhou, Y; Jin, T

    2006-01-01

    Background Coke oven workers are regularly exposed to coke oven emissions (COE) and may be at risk of developing lung diseases. There is limited evidence for the link between exposure to COE and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore the dose‐response relationship between COE exposure and COPD and to assess the interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods Seven hundred and twelve coke oven workers and 211 controls were investigated in southern China. Benzene soluble fraction (BSF) concentrations as a surrogate of COE were measured in representative personal samples and the individual cumulative COE exposure level was quantitatively estimated. Detailed information on smoking habits and respiratory symptoms was collected and spirometric tests were performed. Results The mean BSF levels at the top of two coking plants were 743.8 and 190.5 μg/m3, respectively, which exceed the OSHA standard (150 μg/m3). After adjusting for cigarette smoking and other risk factors, there was a significant dose‐dependent reduction in lung function and increased risks of chronic cough/phlegm and COPD in coke oven workers. The odds ratio for COPD was 5.80 (95% confidence interval 3.13 to 10.76) for high level cumulative COE exposure (⩾1714.0 μg/m3‐years) compared with controls. The interaction between COE exposure and smoking in COPD was significant. The risk of COPD in those with the highest cumulative exposure to COE and cigarette smoking was 58‐fold compared with non‐smokers not exposed to COE. Conclusion Long term exposure to COE increases the risk of an interaction between COPD and cigarette smoking. PMID:16467069

  18. Fugitive coke oven gas emission profile by continuous line averaged open-path Fourier transform infrared monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chitsan; Liou, Naiwei; Chang, Pao-Erh; Yang, Jen-Chin; Sun, Endy

    2007-04-01

    Although most coke oven research is focused on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, well-known carcinogens, little has been done on the emission of volatile organic compounds, some of which are also thought to be hazardous to workers and the environment. To profile coke oven gas (COG) emissions, we set up an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) system on top of a battery of coke ovens at a steel mill located in Southern Taiwan and monitored average emissions in a coke processing area for 16.5 hr. Nine COGs were identified, including ammonia, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, cyclohexane, and O-xylene. Time series plots indicated that the type of pollutants differed over time, suggesting that different emission sources (e.g., coke pushing, quench tower, etc.) were involved at different times over the study period. This observation was confirmed by the low cross-correlation coefficients of the COGs. It was also found that, with the help of meteorological analysis, the data collected by the OP-FTIR system could be analyzed effectively to characterize differences in the location of sources. Although the traditional single-point samplings of emissions involves sampling various sources in a coke processing area at several different times and is a credible profiling of emissions, our findings strongly suggest that they are not nearly as efficient or as cost-effective as the continuous line average method used in this study. This method would make it easier and cheaper for engineers and health risk assessors to identify and to control fugitive volatile organic compound emissions and to improve environmental health. PMID:17458466

  19. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  20. Mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, coke oven, and roofing tar in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, A.C.; Claxton, L.D.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mobile and stationary sources emit particle-bound organics that have demonstrated mutagenicity. The objective of this study was to measure the mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke ovens and roofing tar in the Ames assay. This study demonstrated significant biological differences among the four emission sources. Within each source, the relative mutagenicity of each fraction was significantly different in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation. In the diesel sample, over 90% of the mutagenic activity is located in the aromatic and polar neutral (PN) fractions, and a significant portion of this activity can be accounted for by nitro-PNAs. Most of the mutagenicity of the coke-oven main sample was found in the BASE and PN fractions which contained aromatic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. The CSC sample also had a high percent of the mutagenic activity in the BASE fraction. Chemical analysis however, indicates that the components in the CSC differed significantly from those of the coke-oven main sample. The roofing-tar sample contained aromatic and polar mutagenic constituents that were not NO/sub 2/-PNAs. Although the specific mutagens in these different sources are not identical, they all cause frameshift mutations and appear to be compounds that could be classified as polycyclic organic matter (POM).

  1. Association of HSP70 and genotoxic damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Chen, Sheng; Li, Jizhao; Hai, Tao; Lu, Qiaofa; Sun, Enling; Wang, Ruibo; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been reported to protect cells, tissues, and organisms against damage from a wide variety of stressful stimuli. Whether they protect against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in individuals exposed to environmental stresses and chemical carcinogens is unknown. In the study, we investigated the association between Hsp70 levels (the most abundant mammalian Hsp) and genotoxic damage in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission using Western dot blot and 2 DNA damage assays, the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The data show that there is a significant increase in Hsp70 levels, DNA damage score, and micronucleus rates in lymphocytes of workers exposed to coke-oven emission as compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation of Hsp70 levels with DNA damage scores in the comet assay (r = −0.663, P < 0.01) and with micronucleus rates (r = −0.461, P < 0.01) in the exposed group. In the control group, there was also a light negative correlation between Hsp70 with DNA damage and micronuclei rate (r = −0.236 and r = 0.242, respectively), but it did not reach a statistically significant level (P > 0.05). Our results show that individuals who had high Hsp70 levels generally showed lower genotoxic damage than others. These results suggest a role of Hsp70 in the protection of DNA from genotoxic damage induced by coke-oven emission. PMID:12653484

  2. Hybrid neural prediction and optimized adjustment for coke oven gas system in steel industry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Quanli; Wang, Wei; Pedrycz, Witold; Cong, Liqun

    2012-03-01

    An energy system is the one of most important parts of the steel industry, and its reasonable operation exhibits a critical impact on manufacturing cost, energy security, and natural environment. With respect to the operation optimization problem for coke oven gas, a two-phase data-driven based forecasting and optimized adjusting method is proposed, where a Gaussian process-based echo states network is established to predict the gas real-time flow and the gasholder level in the prediction phase. Then, using the predicted gas flow and gasholder level, we develop a certain heuristic to quantify the user's optimal gas adjustment. The proposed operation measure has been verified to be effective by experimenting with the real-world on-line energy data sets coming from Shanghai Baosteel Corporation, Ltd., China. At present, the scheduling software developed with the proposed model and ensuing algorithms have been applied to the production practice of Baosteel. The application effects indicate that the software system can largely improve the real-time prediction accuracy of the gas units and provide with the optimized gas balance direction for the energy optimization. PMID:24808550

  3. Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li

    2009-01-15

    Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

  4. Copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B.

    1998-12-31

    A way for increasing oil and decreasing water (IODW) in copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas (COG) by adding waste plastics was suggested and the effects of pressure, heating rate and final temperature on the yields of char, oil and water obtained from copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under COG were investigated in detail. Copyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite and waste plastics under COG were carried out in a 10g fixed-bed reactor under pressures of 0.1--3MPa, heating rate from 5--25 K/min and final temperatures of 723--923K. The results indicated that by adding 5% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), the oil yield increased 4.5% (excluding the oil yield from HDPE pyrolysis) more than that of coal pyrolysis without HDPE, and water decreased about 2.2%. The yields of increased oil and decreased water accounted for 21.2% and 13% of Xianfeng lignite pyrolysis alone, respectively. With increasing pressure and final temperature, the total conversion, oil yields and water increased in varying degrees. Decreasing heating rate is beneficial to improve oil yield and reduce water. Adding waste plastics in copyrolysis of coal with COG not only improves the economic interest but also creates a way for high effective treatment of waste plastics.

  5. Determining the characteristics of the direct coke oven gas tar fog

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vshivtsev, G.; Simonov, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    In the cooling of coke oven gas, the principal part of the tar in the gas main condenses and is discharged to the mechanical clarifiers with the water. The remaining part of the tar is present chiefly in the form of fog. The vapor phase of the tar is insignificant and consists primarily of fractions boiling below 300/sup 0/C. Separation of the tar from the direct gas in the primary gas coolers is determined principally by the conditions of precipitation of the aerosols and absorption of the low-boiling fractions of tar, naphthalene and crude benzol on the drops of tar fog. The particle size of the aerosols in the direct gas is described by a log normal distribution curve. The diameter of the principal part of the particles is 0.8 to 7.0 microns. In the direct gas after the primary gas coolers with vertical tubes at temperatures below 40/sup 0/C there are three condensed phases: naphthalene crystals, water droplets and tar. (JMT)

  6. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3). PMID:27039363

  7. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis and detection of mutagenicity in ambient air of the coke oven.

    PubMed

    Dobiás, L; Kůsová, J; Gajdos, O; Vidová, P; Gajdosová, D; Havránková, J; Fried, M; Binková, B; Topinka, J

    1999-09-30

    In the present study, we summarize the results of studies on the mutagenic potential of the main fractions and subfractions of extractable organic material (EOM) in the ambient air at the workplaces of the coke oven. The objective of our experiments was to apply the Bioassay-Directed Chemical Analysis (with the use of the Ames test) for the identification of the differences in the mutagenicity of these fractions, in relationship to the complex mixture of EOM in occupational air. From the evaluation of results, it is possible to deduce the following conclusions: (1) The comparison of the mutagenicity in the main fractions (basic, acidic, neutral) demonstrates the existence of differences in mutagenic potential. Of the total mutagenicity, 20.4% is in the basic fraction, 25.4% in the acidic fraction and 54.2% in the neutral fraction. (2) In general, 90.1% of the mutagenicity found in the basic, acidic and neutral fractions together was associated with the requirement of metabolic activation in vitro (+S9). In the case of the neutral fraction, it was 51.8%. (3) These results also suggest that frameshift mutations are the major component (53.8%) of the total mutagenicity of the main fractions. (4) With regards to the mutagenicity of organic compounds in the neutral fraction it appeared that genotoxicants of its subfractions (slightly and moderately polar and aromatic) play the main role. Carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genotoxic nitrocompounds play an important role as determinants of the mutagenic potential of complex mixtures of harmful compounds in ambient air. This is confirmed first by the results of short-term bacterial tests. PMID:10575437

  8. Association between plasma BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Chen, Weihong; Zheng, Hongyan; Guo, Liang; Liang, Huashan; Yang, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Sun, Jianya; Su, Yougong; Chen, Yongwen; Yuan, Jing; Bi, Yongyi; Wei, Qingyi; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can induce both benzo[a]pyrene‐r‐7, t‐8, t‐9,c‐10‐tetrahydotetrol‐albumin (BPDE‐Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. Methods In this study, the authors recruited 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE in the same steel plant in northern China. They measured BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations in plasma with reverse‐phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes with alkaline comet assay. Results The results showed that the median concentration of BPDE‐Alb adducts in the exposed group (34.36 fmol/mg albumin) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.90 fmol/mg albumin, p = 0.012). The mean Olive tail moment (Olive TM) of DNA damage in the exposed and control groups were 1.20 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM associated with the exposure were 1.72 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.81) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.19), respectively. These results show significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed group (r = 0.235, p = 0.001) but not in control group (r = 0.093, p = 0.353). Conclusion The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE–Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace. PMID:17449561

  9. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  10. Comparative characterization of organic emissions from diesel particles, coke oven mains, roofing tar vapors, and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Sparacino, C.; Petersen, B.; Bumgarner, J.; Jungers, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the characterization of the extractable organics from diesel particle emissions compared to other complex organics which have been reported to increase the risk of human lung cancer. Class fractions of diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, roofing tar, and coke oven extracts were obtained using liquid/liquid partitioning and silica gel chromatography. Capillary GC/MS was used to identify compounds in each extract fraction. The manuscript reports the mass distribution after fractionation of each extract, all identified fraction components and quantification of selected mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds.

  11. Comparative characterization of organic emissions from diesel particles, coke oven mains, roofing tar vapors and cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Sparacino, C; Petersen, B; Bumgarner, J; Jungers, R H; Lewtas, J

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the extractable organics from diesel particulate emissions compared to other complex organics which have been reported to increase the risk of human lung cancer. Class fractions of diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, roofing tar, and coke oven extracts were obtained using liquid/liquid partitioning and silica gel chromatography. Capillary GC/MS was used to identify compounds in each extract fraction. This manuscript reports the mass distribution after fractionation of each extract, all identified fraction components and quantification of selected mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. PMID:3804556

  12. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes on cytokinesis-block micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Yufei Dai; Yong Niu; Zufei Pan; Xiaohua Li; Juan Cheng; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2004-10-15

    Exploring the associations between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced chromosomal damage is of great significance for understanding PAH carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and N-acetyltransferase are PAH-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we genotyped for the polymorphisms of these genes and assessed their effects on cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes among 141 coke-oven workers and 66 non-coke-oven worker controls. The geometric means of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke-oven workers and the controls were 12.0 and 0.7 {mu}mol/mol creatinine, respectively. The CBMN frequency (number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes) was significantly higher in coke-oven workers (9.5 {+-} 6.6) than in the controls. Among the coke-oven workers, age was positively associated with CBMN frequency; the mEH His{sup 113} variant genotype exhibited significantly lower CBMN frequency than did the Tyr{sup 113}/Tyr{sup 113} genotype; the low mEH activity phenotype exhibited a lower CBMN frequency than did the high mEH activity phenotype; the GSTP1 Val{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotype exhibited a higher CBMN frequency than did the GSTP1 Ile{sup 105}/Ile{sup 105} or Ile{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotypes; the joint effect of high mEH activity phenotype and GSTM1 null genotype on CBMN frequencies was also found. Gene-environment interactions between occupational PAH exposure and polymorphisms of mEH and/or GSTM1 were also evident. These results indicate that the mEH, GSTP1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms may play a role in sensitivity or genetic susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure in the coke-oven workers.

  13. Adsorption dynamics of a layered bed PSA for H{sub 2} recovery from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Lee, C.H.

    1998-06-01

    The adsorption dynamics of a layered bed packed with activated carbon and zeolite 5A were studied experimentally and theoretically through breakthrough experiments and two-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes by using coke oven gas (56.4 vol.% H{sub 2}; 26.6 vol.% CH{sub 4}; 8.4 vol.% CO; 5.5 vol.% N{sub 2}; and 3.1 vol.% CO{sub 2}). The results of breakthrough curves of a layered bed showed an intermediate behavior of those of zeolite-5A bed and activated carbon bed, because each concentration front propagates with its own wavefront velocity in each layer by a different adsorption equilibrium. Since a fast and dispersed mass-transfer zone of CO in the zeolite layer of a layered bed leads to a long leading front of the N{sub 2} wavefront, controlling the leading wavefront of the N{sub 2} plays a very important role in obtaining a high-purity product and in determining the optimum carbon ratio of a PSA process for H{sub 2} recovery from coke oven gas. The layered bed PSA process was simulated in a simplified form of two single-adsorbent beds linked in series. The dynamic model incorporating mass, energy, and momentum balances agreed well with the experimental data. Concentration profiles inside the adsorption bed were also investigated.

  14. Mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, coke oven, and roofing tar in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, A.C.; Claxton, L.D.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mobile and stationary combustion sources emit particle-bound organics that, after extraction, are mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, the organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven, and roofing tar were fractionated and compared for mutagenicity in the Ames assay. This study demonstrated major differences in the distribution of mutagenicity among the four emission sources. Within each source, the relative mutagenicity of each fraction was significantly different in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation. In the diesel sample, over 90% of the mutagenic activity is located in the aromatic and polar neutral (PN) fractions. Most of the mutagenicity of the coke oven main sample was found in the organic base (BASE) and PN fractions, which contained aromatic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. The CSC sample also has a high percentage of the mutagenic activity in the BASE fraction. The roofing tar sample, which was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, contained several components that were very mutagenic after fractionation. Although the specific mutagens in these different sources are not identical, they all cause frameshift mutations and appear to be compounds that could be classified as polycyclic organic matter.

  15. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-10-01

    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema and hydrogenotrophic genus Methanoculleus in the liquid, which indicated that H2 were converted to methane by both direct (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) and indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) pathways in the liquid. However, the aceticlasitic genus Methanosaeta was dominant for archaea in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm. PMID:23941705

  16. Metabolic activation of organic extracts from diesel, coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke emissions in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of metabolic activation in the difference between a microbial and mammalian bioassays in the ranking of genotoxic potency of several environmental emissions was investigated. Although the relative potency in the Ames assay correlated well with the relative potency in mammalian cell and mouse skin for a series of automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline), this was not the case for the coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) emissions. The study examined several parameters of the metabolic activation with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 including S9 concentration and a comparison of Aroclor-1254 induced with uninduced S9 from both rat and hamster liver. The diesel-emissions sample was direct acting while the other samples required activation. The standard S9 concentration (approximately 1.25 mg protein/plate) also produced the maximum mutagenic activity. Induced S9s produced higher mutagenic activity than uninduced. The hamster S9 gave significantly higher mutagenic activies than rat S9 for the coke oven and CSC.

  17. Simultaneous determination of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3- and 9-phenanthrols, and 1-pyrenol in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Berrin; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous quantification of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3- and 9-phenanthrols and 1-pyrenol using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method was applied to urine samples from coke oven workers (n=28) and controls (n=22) from Northern China. Geometric mean levels of urinary 1-naphthol (58.8 microg l(-1)), 2-naphthol (34.1 microg l(-1)), 3-phenanthrol (7.35 microg l(-1)), 9-phenanthrol (1.28 microg l(-1)) and 1-pyrenol (25.4 microg l(-1)) were significantly higher among coke oven workers than controls. All the substances tested were highest among top-of-oven workers, who had 15-fold higher 1-naphthol, eight-fold higher 2-naphthol and 20-fold higher 1-pyrenol levels compared with controls. Using multiple linear regression models, 72.5% of the variation in 1- and 2-naphthol and 82.8% of the variation in 1-pyrenol were explained by the concentration of naphthalene or pyrene in the urine, the work category and the smoking intensity. Cigarette consumption significantly contributed to levels of urinary 1-pyrenol and naphthols, particularly 2-naphthol. A negative relationship between work category and the ratio of naphthols/1-pyrenol was observed among smokers. Our results suggest that urinary naphthols and phenanthrols reflect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure as well as the widely used 1-pyrenol, and that interactions between cigarette smoking and PAH exposure result in different patterns of metabolism for individual PAHs. PMID:12775495

  18. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  19. SEALING COKE-OVEN CHARGING LIDS, CHUCK DOORS, AND STANDPIPE ELBOW COVERS: SURVEY OF CURRENT U.S. STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the current U.S. state-of-the-art approach and methodology for sealing coke-oven charging lids, chuck doors, and standpipe elbow covers. The study was part of the program, 'Technical Support for U.S./USSR Task Force on Abatement of Air Poll...

  20. Mortality due to respiratory cancers in the coke oven plants of the Lorraine coalmining industry (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine).

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J P; Chau, N; Patris, A; Mur, J M; Pham, Q T; Moulin, J J; Morviller, P; Auburtin, G; Figueredo, A; Martin, J

    1987-01-01

    The main activity of the Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine (Lorraine Collieries), employing 23,000 operatives and executives, is coalmining. The coke production is carried out by two coke oven plants with a workforce of respectively 747 and 552 workers. The coal coking process entails the emission of noxious products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the ovens. The influence of occupational exposure on mortality due to respiratory cancers, and particularly to lung and upper respiratory and alimentary tracts cancer, was investigated among a cohort of 534 male workers from the two coke oven plants who had retired from work between 1963 and 1982. The job history of each subject has been precisely reconstructed by indicating the duration of exposure on the ovens, close to the ovens, and in maintenance occupations. The cohort mortality has been analysed according to the method of indirect standardisation with reference to the French male population and by a case-control study concerning the consumption of tobacco per cohort. The mortality due to lung cancer is 2.51 times higher than expected. This excess of mortality differs, but not significantly, between the two coke oven plants (standardised mortality ratio equals 3.05 and 1.75 respectively). It is not significantly higher among subjects exposed for more than five years, directly exposed on the ovens or working near the ovens or at maintenance occupations on the ovens (SMR = 2.78), than among those exposed for less than five years (SMR = 2.35) or those not exposed at all. Even taking into account the excess of mortality due to lung cancers in the Moselle district (1.6 time that of France), the excess of lung cancers does not seem to be explained by the regional factor, or by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Although no significant relation was offered between lung cancer and the duration of exposure to PAH, even when taking smoking habits into account, the carcinogenic role of occupational nuisances

  1. Effects of carbon-to-zeolite ratio on layered bed H{sub 2} PSA for coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Yang, J.; Ahn, H.

    1999-03-01

    Effects of carbon-to-zeolite ratio on a layered bed H{sub 2} PSA using activated carbon and zeolite 5A were studied experimentally and theoretically. Coke oven gas (56.,4 vol.% H{sub 2}, 26.6 vol.% CH{sub 4}, 8.4 vol.% CO, 5.5 vol. % N{sub 2}, and 3.1 vol.% CO{sub 2}) was used as a feed gas for the seven-step two-bed PSA process incorporating a backfill step. In these experiments, the effects of three operating variables such as adsorption pressure, feed rate and purge rate on the performance of a layered bed PSA were investigated. The layered bed gave better purity than the single-adsorbent bed at the same operating condition, except at low purge rate. Since every component had its own front velocity at each layer, a carbon-to-zeolite ratio affected product purity at a given recovery or throughput. Moreover, for a high-purity H{sub 2} product from coke oven gas, an optimum carbon-to-zeolite ratio had to be determined to control a leading wavefront of N{sub 2}. In layered bed PSA processes, the temperature variations inside the bed reflected a kind of inflection or plateau at which a roll-up phenomenon occurred and showed the dynamics of adsorption well at each step during a cycle. Simulated results of the dynamic model incorporating mass, energy and momentum balances agreed well with the PSA experimental results.

  2. Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Dan; Zhang, Wangzhen; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Kun; Guan, Lei; Hu, Die; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2013-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress levels have not been established. In this study, we recruited 1333 male coke oven workers, monitored the levels of environmental PAHs, and measured internal PAH exposure biomarkers including 12 urinary PAH metabolites and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, as well as the two oxidative biomarkers urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). We found that the total concentration of urinary PAH metabolites and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were both significantly associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α in both smokers and nonsmokers (all p < 0.05). This exposure-response effect was also observed for most PAH metabolites (all p(trend) < 0.01), except for 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 8-OHdG (p(trend) = 0.108). Furthermore, it was shown that only urinary 1-hydroxypyrene has a significant positive association with both 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α after a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.005). Our results indicated that urinary ΣOH-PAHs and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts can result in significant dose-related increases in oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Furthermore, when a multianalyte method is unavailable, our findings demonstrate that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful biomarker for evaluating total PAHs exposure and assessing oxidative damage in coke oven workers. PMID:23745771

  3. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater. PMID:25380632

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS COMPARING KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING WITH CONVENTIONAL COKE OVEN PUSHING AND QUENCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process and gives results of an evaluation through baseline and demonstration emission testing. he KIDC process offers a technology that has the potential to reduce emissions from coke pushing and quenching at existing cok...

  5. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers. PMID:24837742

  6. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of sister chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting sister chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than

  7. Elevated Levels of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Lymphocytic Micronuclei, and Serum Glutathione S-Transferase in Workers Exposed to Coke Oven Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Yuan, Jing; Nan, Pei-Hong; Sun, Jian-Ya; Zou, Ya-Lin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Tang-Chun

    2006-01-01

    To investigate associations among occupational exposure to coke oven emissions (COEs), oxidative stress, cytogenotoxic effects, change in the metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), and internal levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke oven workers, we recruited 47 male coke oven workers and 31 male control subjects from a coke oven plant in northern China. We measured the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine, micronucleated binucleated cells (BNMNs) in peripheral blood lymphocyte, and GST in serum. Our results showed that the group exposed to COEs had significantly increased levels of 1-OHP [median 5.7; interquartile range (IQR), 1.4–12.0 μmol/mol creatinine] compared with the control group (3; 0.5–6.4 μmol/mol creatinine). In addition, the median levels (IQR) of 8-OHdG, BNMNs, and GST were markedly increased in the exposed [1.9 (1.4–15.4) μmol/mol creatinine; 6 (2–8) per thousand; 22.1 (14.9–31.2) U/L, respectively] compared with controls [1.3 (1.0–4.0) μmol/mol creatinine, 2 (0–4) per thousand; and 13.1 (9.5–16.7) U/L, respectively]. These results appeared to be modified by smoking. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to COEs had the highest odds ratio among variables analyzed and that smoking was not a significant confounder of the levels of studied biomarkers. Overall, the present findings suggest that COE exposure led to increased internal PAH burden, genetic damage, oxidative stress, and GST activity. The consequences of the changes in these biomarkers, such as risk of cancer, warrant further investigations. PMID:16675419

  8. Production of syngas via partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas over a Ni catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jianzhong Guo; Zhaoyin Hou; Jing Gao; Xiaoming Zheng

    2008-05-15

    The partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas (COG) to syngas was investigated on differently sized Ni catalysts in a fluidized-bed reactor. It was found that the catalytic performance of Ni depends strongly on its particle size. The small-sized Ni catalyst exhibited higher activity and higher selectivity in the partial oxidation of COG. The conversion of CH{sub 4} was kept at 80.7% at a lower temperature (750{sup o}C) and a wide space velocity (from 8000 to 80 000 h{sup -1}). CO{sub 2} reforming of COG is also an efficient route for syngas production. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the COG-derived syngas could be controlled by manipulating the concentration of O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} added in the feed. The yield of produced syngas increases with an increase in temperature. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Potential energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas in U.S. Steel Mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseck, F.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Energy Systems; DOE

    2008-02-01

    For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that could potentially be fueled with the hydrogen produced from COG. Our analysis shows that this production pathway can achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. This pathway is especially worth considering because first, the sources of COG are concentrated in the upper Midwest and in the Northeast United States, which would facilitate relatively cost-effective collection, transportation, and distribution of the produced hydrogen to refueling stations in these regions. Second, the amount of hydrogen that could be produced may fuel about 1.7 million cars, thus providing a vital near-term hydrogen production option for FCV applications.

  10. Metabolic activation of organic extracts from diesel, coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke emissions in the Ames Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Four environmental emissions samples were ranked by their genotoxic potency in several bioassays. Although the relative potency of a series of automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline) in the Ames assay correlated well with the relative potency in mammalian cell and mouse skin, this was not the case for the coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) emissions. This study examines the role of metabolic activation in determining the difference between a microbial and a mammalian bioassay in ranking the genotoxic potency of these environmental emissions. Uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced S9 from both rat and hamster liver were compared as the metabolic activator in the Ames assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. The diesel emissions sample was direct-acting while the other samples required activation. The standard S9 concentration also produced the maximum mutagenic activity. The relative potency of these four samples was not significantly different between the microbial (Ames), mammalian cell (mouse lymphoma), and tumor initiation (mouse skin) assays. These results suggest that the differences observed between the relative mutagenic activity of these emissions in the mammalian cell and microbial assays was not due to a lack of optimization of the S9 system but may be inherent in the different response of the indicator cells to different chemical classes.

  11. Removal of phenol from coke-oven wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the phenol rejection characteristics of some nanofiltration membranes during treatment of coke wastewater. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial nanofiltration membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure, pH and recovery rate. When pressure was increased from 4 to 16 bars, the percentage of rejection of phenol in the permeate increased from 72.5% to 97.7% while yielding a high flux of 118 litres per square meter per hour(LMH) at a volumetric cross flow rate of 800 litres per hour at pH 10 (in recirculation mode) in case of NF1 membrane. The effect of recovery rate on the rejection coefficient of phenol and flux was also studied in concentrated mode and found that a recovery rate of up 55% nanofiltration was successfully operated without much decline of flux and rejection coefficient. Finally, nanofiltration had great efficiency in phenol removal from industrial wastewater and was considered suitable regarding its operation. PMID:23789574

  12. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  13. The Dose–Response Decrease in Heart Rate Variability: Any Association with the Metabolites of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coke Oven Workers?

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huaxin; Zhang, Wangzhen; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Xin, Lili; He, Yunfeng; Huang, Kun; He, Meian; Guo, Huan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-01-01

    Background Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and decreased heart rate variability (HRV). However, it is unclear whether coke oven emissions (COEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with HRV. Objectives Our goal in the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to COEs and the urinary metabolite profiles of PAHs with HRV of coke oven workers. Methods We measured benzene soluble matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matters, and PAHs at different workplaces of a coke oven plant. We determined 10 urinary PAH metabolites and HRV indices of 1333 workers using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and a 3-channel digital Holter monitor, respectively. Results Our results showed that there was a significant COEs-related dose-dependent decrease in HRV, and an inverse relationship between the quartiles of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and five HRV indices (ptrend<0.01 for all). After adjustment for potential confounders, elevation per interquartile range (IQR) (1.81 µg/mmol creatinine) of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene was associated with a 5.46% (95% CI, 2.50–8.32) decrease in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). As workers worked more years, SDNN gradually declined in the same quartiles of 2-hydroxynaphthalene levels (ptrend = 1.40×10−4), especially in workers with the highest levels of 2-hydroxynaphthalene. Conclusions Occupational exposure to COEs is associated with a dose-response decrease in HRV. In particular, increased exposure to 2-hydroxynaphthalene is associated with significantly decreased HRV. Increase of working years and exposure levels has resulted in a gradual decline of HRV. PMID:23024753

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine of coke oven workers by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2003-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a complex mixture of toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. We investigated the utility of head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to measure the following surrogate PAHs in urine: naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (BAP), representing classes of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-ring compounds, respectively. We then applied the method to urine from 28 coke oven workers (median levels (microg/l) were: NAP=3.65, PHE=1.51, PYR=0.003, BAP not detected) and 22 controls (median (microg/l) NAP=0.859, PHE=0.062, PYR=0.001, BAP not detected). Urinary levels of NAP, PHE, and PYR were all associated with exposure category (controls, side- and bottom-workers, and top-workers) but not with smoking status. Strong correlations were observed between urinary levels of NAP, PHE, and PYR in coke-oven workers. Our results indicate that unmetabolized 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs can be measured in urine by HS-SPME. Such measurements can be used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of complex PAH mixtures in humans. PMID:12686493

  15. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.J.; Burns, C.L.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a solar oven. It comprises: an oven chamber having an open end and defining an interior cooking chamber; means providing a flat-back interior surface on the cooking chamber for absorbing sunlight and converting the absorbed sunlight into heat; an oven door hingedly mounted over the open end and movable between open and closed positions relative to the open end; means for pivotably supporting the oven chamber about a first substantially horizontal pivot axis; user-actuable latch means for selectively retaining the oven chamber in selected positions around the first horizontal axis, the user-actuable latch means including a user releasable ratchet mechanism including a plurality of ratchet teeth formed on the oven chamber and ratchet pawl pivoted to the support means in a position to engage selective ones of the ratchet teeth to retain the over chamber in selected orientations around the horizontal axis, the latch means further including means for pivoting the pawl into and out of the path of movement of the ratchet teeth to thereby achieve the selective positioning; a tray disposed within the interior cooking chamber for supporting foodstuffs during coking; pivot means for pivotally mounting the tray within the interior cooking chamber for movement around a second substantially horizontal pivot axis such that the tray can be positioned so as to maintain the foodstuffs in a substantially level position independently of the position of the oven chamber around the first pivot axis.

  16. Improved emission calculations for PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from coke oven battery fugitive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; McCollum, H.R.

    1995-12-01

    National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) specify the allowable limit of particulate matter in ambient air. Particulate Matter, under 10 micron size (PM{sub 10}), is the inhalable part of total suspended particulate in air with direct adverse impact on human health and environment. To have a better understanding of fugitive emissions from coke oven doors, lids, offtakes, pushing, hot car travel and quenching, EPA has conducted studies and published factors for emissions from most of those sources. Unfortunately, many of those field tests were performed in the 70`s and 80`s, and the developed emission factors may no longer be valid for present day coke plant operation. To identify the sources of PM{sub 10}, H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} and to account for their loading in ambient air samplers, fugitive emission estimation from Clairton Works battery sources, such as decarbonization, soaking, guide machine leaks during pushing and hot car travel were included in the emissions inventory. With the idea of developing accurate emissions rates from those sources, Clairton personnel took a different approach. They went to the basics of coal carbonization. The authors of the paper gathered operating data regarding average flue temperature in batteries, tons of coal charged, coking time, decarbonization and soaking time in all the batteries of Clairton for a month and estimated the fugitive emissions from soaking, decarbonization, pushing, hot car travel and quenching. They used information from published literature to calculate these emissions. This paper includes all of the calculations and assumptions used in these estimates. The references are also included. This study is a demonstration of a pilot effort to consider a new approach for estimating fugitive emissions from coke battery sources. The authors acknowledge that further effort from agencies and industry is required to fine tune this approach.

  17. Hydrogen production by reforming of simulated hot coke oven gas over nickel catalysts promoted with lanthanum and cerium in a membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hongwei Cheng; Xionggang Lu; Yuwen Zhang; Weizhong Ding

    2009-05-15

    Catalysts of Ni/Mg(Al)O promoted with lanthanum and cerium were tested in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor by catalytic partial oxidation of simulated hot coke oven gas (COG) with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. Analysis of the catalysts suggested that the hydrotalcite precursor after thermal treatment lead to a good dispersion of nickel forming the solid solution NiO-MgO and spinel (Ni,Mg)Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The promoted catalysts had higher oxygen permeation flux, better catalytic activity, and better resistance to carbon formation, which will be promising catalysts in the catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hot COG. 29 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of DNA damage induction on human pulmonary cells exposed to PAHs from organic extract of PM10 collected in a coke-oven plant.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia L; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Maiello, Raffaele; Petyx, Marta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure of coke oven workers, classified by IARC as human carcinogen, is characterized by the presence of PAHs emitted during pyrolysis of coal. We aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of complex mixtures of PAHs and to identify biomarkers of early biological effect, evaluating on lung epithelial cells (A549) genotoxic and oxidative damage of airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant. Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extract and analysed by GC/MS. Direct/oxidative DNA damage induced by exposure to extract were evaluated by Fpg comet assay. The cells were exposed for 30 min, 2h and 4h to extract of half filter diluted at 0.004%, 0.008% and 0.02%. We evaluated comet percentage and analysed tail moment values of cells treated with Fpg enzyme (TMenz) and untreated (TM) that indicate respectively oxidative and direct DNA damage. Air sample contained 0.328 microg/m3 of pyrene, 0.33 microg/m3 of benzo(a)anthracene, 1.073 microg/m3 of benzo(b)fluoranthene, 0.22 microg/m3 of benzo(k)fluoranthene, 0.35 microg/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene, 0.079 microg/m3 of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and 0.40 microg/m3 of benzo(g,h,i)perylene. The dose-dependent increase of TM and TMenz in exposed cells was not significant, indicating only a slight direct and oxidative DNA damage in exposed cells. A small dose-time dependent increase of comet percentage was found. The study shows the high sensitivity of comet assay to measure early DNA damage also at low doses suggesting its use on lung epithelial cells to evaluate the effects of complex mixtures of genotoxic substances on target organ. PMID:18924315

  19. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Zheng, Aqun; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Kong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions. PMID:25136686

  20. Lymphocyte oxidative stress/genotoxic effects are related to serum IgG and IgA levels in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Zheng, Aqun; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Kong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions. PMID:25136686

  1. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  2. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM - BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  3. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  4. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM - BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  5. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts in serum from coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C C; Vahakangas, K; Newman, M J; Trivers, G E; Shamsuddin, A; Sinopoli, N; Mann, D L; Wright, W E

    1985-01-01

    Coke oven workers are exposed to high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and are at increased risk of lung cancer. Since B[a]P is enzymatically activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy(9 alpha, 10 alpha)epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE) that forms adducts with DNA, the presence of these adducts was measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and enzyme radioimmunoassay. Approximately two-thirds of the workers had detectable levels of B[a]PDE-DNA adducts. Antibodies to the DNA adducts were also found in the serum of 27% of the workers. B[a]PDE-DNA adducts were not detectable in lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts were not detected in sera from a control group of nonsmoking laboratory workers. DNA adducts and/or antibodies to the adducts indicate exposure to B[a]P and its metabolic activation to the carcinogenic metabolite that covalently binds to and damages DNA. Detection of adducts and antibodies to them may also be useful as internal dosimeters of the pathobiological effective doses of chemical carcinogens. PMID:2413443

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-associated microRNAs and their interactions with the environment: influences on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Guo, Huan; Huang, Suli; Kuang, Dan; Feng, Jing; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Wangzhen; Huang, Kun; Hu, Die; Deng, Huaxin; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2014-04-01

    We previously identified five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and found they were associated with chromosome damage. As oxidative damage is the common contributory cause of various PAHs-related diseases, we further investigated the influences of these miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. We measured PAHs internal exposure biomarkers [urinary monohydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs) and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts], the expression levels of PAHs-associated plasma miRNAs (miR-24-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-28-5p, and miR-150-5p), and urinary biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)] and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α)] in 365 healthy male coke oven workers. These miRNAs were associated with a dose-response increase in 8-OH-dG (β > 0), and with a dose-response decrease in 8-iso-PGF2α (β < 0), especially in workers with lower PAHs exposure levels, in nonsmokers, and in nondrinkers. These miRNAs interacted antagonistically with ΣOH-PAHs and BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction < 0) and synergistically with drinking status (βinteraction > 0) to influence 8-OH-dG, while they interacted synergistically with BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction > 0) and antagonistically with smoking status (βinteraction < 0) to influence 8-iso-PGF2α. Our results suggested that miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors might be novel mechanisms mediating the effects of PAHs exposure on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:24555497

  7. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P(interaction)≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. PMID:25956561

  8. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan; Weihong Chen; Jianya Sun; Hong Wang; Huashan Liang; Liang Guo; Xiaobo Yang; Hao Tan; Yougong Su; Qingyi Wei; Tangchun Wu

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformed Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.

  9. Cytogenetic damage in Turkish coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Association with CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ada, Ahmet Oguz; Demiroglu, Canan; Yilmazer, Meltem; Suzen, Halit Sinan; Demirbag, Ali Eba; Efe, Sibel; Alemdar, Yilmaz; Iscan, Mumtaz; Burgaz, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Turkish coke oven workers and the influence of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on these biomarkers. Cytogenetic analysis showed that occupational exposure significantly increased the CA and CBMN frequencies. Gene polymorphisms, on the other hand, did not affect CA or CBMN in either exposed or control subjects. However, due to the limited sample size, our findings need to be verified in future studies with a larger sample. PMID:24084344

  10. Process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Breidenbach, D.; Galow, M.; Hackler, E.; Meckel, J.; Smieskol, S.; Wagener, D.

    1983-10-04

    A process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke involves the provision of a vessel having therein first and second zones in full communication with each other. Hot coke from a coking operation is introduced into the first zone and is passed through the first and second zones. Raw coke oven gas from the coking operation is introduced into the first zone, thereby reducing the temperature of the coke, while cleaning the raw coke oven gas to form cleaned coke oven gas. The cleaned coke oven gas is removed from the first zone, cooled, and then directly or indirectly utilized as a heat carrier gas introduced into the second zone to therein further reduce the temperature of the coke. The thereby further cooled coke is removed from the second zone.

  11. Coke pushing emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

    1980-07-08

    A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

  12. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  13. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  14. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  15. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants (some in German, some in English) is presented: Ancit hot briquetting (including blast furnace tests), by-products of Ancit process, coal preparation, high volatile coking coals, preheating, briquetting blending, compacting and preheating, short coking time, wet charges, temperature control and heat consumption, supplies of coke, Solmer coke oven complex at Fos-sur-Mer, etc. (LTN)

  16. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  17. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants is presented (some in German; some in English): heat recovery in coke ovens and in coke cooling (both dry and wet methods); use of recovered heat to preheat charge, stamping techniques, blending coals, binders, briquetting, etc. (LTN)

  18. Application of quality improvement techniques to meet coke battery environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility operates three coke oven batteries, producing both foundry coke and blast furnace coke, under the trade name Indianapolis Coke. Active participation in the regulation negotiation process by the Vice President of Indianapolis Coke allowed the company to accurately anticipate the environmental regulations, long before they were set in law. Several improvements were put into motion that helps them meet the new environmental regulations. Better trained operators with new job positions dedicated solely to environmental compliance, an extensive environmental training program, and two innovations, a portable oven door milling and cleaning machine and three new computer applications are the result of team efforts. The focus of this paper is development of the computer applications designed to enhance three areas of environmental compliance. The three areas addressed by the applications are documentation and information deployment, problem solving, and resource allocation. Through quality improvement techniques and team oriented problem solving, new approaches to environmental data collection and analysis have helped Indianapolis Coke meet the ever tightening environmental regulations.

  19. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF OVEN NO. 7 LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF OVEN NO. 7 LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REFRACTORY BRICK OF ARCHED OPENING READING 'H-W 8-61 48 ARCH' (HARBISON-WALKER) - Lucernemines Coke Works, Coke Ovens, 0.5 mile East of Lucerne, adjacent, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  20. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE TIPPLE (RIGHT), AND OVENS - Shoaf Mine & Coke Works, East side of Shoaf, off Township Route 472, Shoaf, Fayette County, PA

  1. APPLICABILITY OF COKE PLANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO COAL CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comparisons of process and waste stream characteristics from the Byproduct coke over process with selected gasification and liquefaction processes. It includes recommendations regarding control technologies for air, water, and solid wastes. Coke oven c...

  2. Coking partially briquetted coal charge under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, V.I.; Bezdvernyi, G.N.; Kopeliovich, L.V.; Mishchikhin, V.G.; Berkutov, A.N.; Stepanov, Y.; Abramicheva, A.I.; Topchii, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The partial briquetting of low grade coals ordinarily unsuitable for coking, has been found to allow use of these materials in the coking process under industrial conditions, with an improvement in coke quality. Coke oven capacity is increased. The binder used is medium temperature coal tar.

  3. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  4. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  5. Clairton B battery: new technology in coke production

    SciTech Connect

    DiCola, R.F.; McCollum, H.R.

    1983-08-01

    A new 800,000 ton/year, 75-oven coke battery has been constructed at US Steels' Clairton plant. The 6 m ovens have a computerized feed-forward underfiring control system, a unique coke pushing sequence and a fully-automated single-position catch car, as well as optical targets for positioning the charging car and pushing and door machines.

  6. Effects of preheating and highly heat-conductive brick on coke quality

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, K.; Arima, T.

    1995-12-31

    In replacing the coke ovens available currently, the introduction of a combined technique of a preheated coal charging method (preheating temperature:175 C) and the use of highly heat-conductive brick is under examination for raising the productivity of coke ovens. With such background, a study of the effects of this combined technique on the coke quality, especially the coke size was conducted. The experimental results revealed that the primary size of coke produced by the combined technique is noticeably larger than that of the coke made from wet coal and after five revolutions of drum (equivalent to mechanical impact given at a time of dropping from coke oven chamber to wharf), the coke size reduces even compared with an ordinary coke. This may be due to the fact that the coke produced by the combined technique includes a lot of fissures inside the coke lump.

  7. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Golder, J.C.

    1981-10-06

    A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

  8. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Clevett, M.L.; Clevett, M.L.

    1984-05-08

    A hemispherical oven body is formed from two concentric, spaced apart hemispherical shells having thermal insulation between and with spacing maintained by thermally insulating spacers in a triangular array. A single elongated fastener through the center point of each shell holds the shells together and provides a sighting point for aiming the oven at the sun. The shell edges at the oven face are closed by a resilient seal ring that extends above the shell edges and contacts a cover disk of glazing material. Combination hinge/handles are located at diametrically opposite sides of the cover disk, and a hinge pin on an edge of the oven body engages one of the handle/hinges. A reflector panel assembly includes a closed geometric figure formed by hinge rods connected at opposite ends to common anchors, which connect the hinge rods to the cover disk. The reflector panels pivot on the hinge rods to fold against the cover disk. A cross member formed from intersecting rods holds the reflector panels in operative position and cooperates with the fastener between the shells in providing a sighting aid for aiming the oven. A frusto-conical base supports the oven body for gimballed aiming and is sized to fit inside the oven cavity for storage.

  9. 2. VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF OVENS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF OVENS, SHOWING ROBINS CAR SHAKER (ON RIGHT) WHERE COAL WAS UNLOADED AND CONVEYED TO LARRY CAR TIPPLE - Lucernemines Coke Works, Larry Car Tipple, East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  10. 1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING OVENS IN CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING OVENS IN CENTER GROUND - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  11. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    PubMed

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations. PMID:19423583

  12. Experience in the study of coke battery heating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zernii, G.G.; Leibovich, R.E.; Nepomnyashchii, A.A.; Sulimova, E.I.; Robul, L.A.; Kardashova, E.F.; Starobinskii, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of coke oven gas to the heating flues of the heating wall was presented. The effects of the variation in the density of the charge on the resulting quality of the coke were also discussed. It was concluded that the heat flow should be distributed along the heating wall with consideration not only of the conical nature of the oven, but also the difference in the bulk density of the charge with length and height of the oven. This permitted an improvement on the quality of the coke and a decrease in the consumption of heating gas for charge heating.

  13. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  14. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  15. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F

    1991-02-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in another plant during the same period and formed a non-exposed group for comparison. The study group was followed up until 1984 for mortality. The causes of death were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Among the coke oven workers significantly higher death rates were found for lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality in the byproduct section was similar to that expected. Among workers in the tar distillery the rate for lung cancer was higher than expected. The risk for gastric cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among the workers of the coke shipping department was increased but the SMRs did not reach statistical significance. No data were collected about individual smoking habits or socioeconomic state of the study subjects and the possibility that the risk found could be attributed to these factors cannot be ruled out. It has been stated by other investigators, however, that the effect of not controlling for smoking tends to be modest. PMID:1998607

  16. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F

    1991-01-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in another plant during the same period and formed a non-exposed group for comparison. The study group was followed up until 1984 for mortality. The causes of death were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Among the coke oven workers significantly higher death rates were found for lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality in the byproduct section was similar to that expected. Among workers in the tar distillery the rate for lung cancer was higher than expected. The risk for gastric cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among the workers of the coke shipping department was increased but the SMRs did not reach statistical significance. No data were collected about individual smoking habits or socioeconomic state of the study subjects and the possibility that the risk found could be attributed to these factors cannot be ruled out. It has been stated by other investigators, however, that the effect of not controlling for smoking tends to be modest. PMID:1998607

  17. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  18. Process for calcining coke

    SciTech Connect

    Komi, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1981-05-05

    A process is described for calcining green coke in at least three heating stages, which comprises preheating the green coke in the first stage, preliminarily calcining the coke in the second stage, cooling the coke; and calcining the coke in the third stage, volatile matter from the second stage being burned during the third stage. The product coke is suitable for preparing graphite electrodes.

  19. Upgrading coke strength by a coal-blend-compaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Fun, F.; Brayton, W.E.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the continuing effort to upgrade the strength of coke made from available coal blends, US Steel is developing coal-blend compaction as an alternative method to coal preheating. In this process the coal blend is compacted to produce relatively weak compacted materials, which are subsequently degraded into controlled size fractions of intimately integrated particles of the multicomponent coal blend. The degraded blend particles are charged into conventional coke ovens for coking. Coal-blend-compaction tests conducted in the laboratory with coals from the Appalachian basin showed substantial improvement in coke strength. The encouraging laboratory results dictated a commerical scale test at US Steel's Gary Works. This plant test, in which more than 200 tons of coal blend was used, further confirmed the improvement in coke strength by the coal-blend-compaction process. Potential benefits of the process include (1) retrospective adaptation to existing coke batteries, (2) improved strength of coke from regular coal blends, (3) maintenance of same or higher coke strength with poor coal blends, and (4) economics that are competitive with or better than those of coal preheating. Continuing developments are being investigated in a compaction pilot plant and commercial coke ovens at US Steel's Clairton Works, mainly to establish engineering criteria and optimal controls for large-scale installations. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Six meter coke battery renovation at Great Lakes Division, National Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Sperner, F.A.; Kalinowsky, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, National Steel Corporation initiated the renovation of its No. 5 Battery Facility to reduce Great Lakes Division dependency on outside coke sources by producing enough coke to meet 60% of Great Lakes Division needs. The renovation of the No. 5 Coke Battery and associated By-Product Plant required work in the Battery, Oven Machinery, Coal Handling, Coke Handling and By-Product Plants No. 3 and No. 2. The paper briefly describes the scope of the renovations, then describes the equipment, modifications made, and results of modifications for the following: coal handling system, oven battery (heating, structural design, and process control), oven machinery (U-tube car, pusher machine, on spot door machine, hood car, and quench car), coke handling, and by-products plant (tar and liquor system, primary cooling, exhausters and tar precipitators, secondary gas cooling/ammonia scrubbing, light oil system, waste water treatment and benzene emission controls, and computerized control system).

  1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Haugen, A; Becher, G; Benestad, C; Vahakangas, K; Trivers, G E; Newman, M J; Harris, C C

    1986-08-01

    Workers in coke oven plants have a higher incidence of lung cancer than the general population. They are exposed to a variety of chemicals, in particular the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure, air samples and urine samples were analyzed for PAH by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Since benzo(a)pyrene is activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-(9 alpha,10 alpha)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) and binds to DNA, we have used ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA. The results show that workers were exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric PAH. However, the mean PAH exposure levels are reduced 60% when the workers wore masks during work. When compared to exposure levels, the urinary excretion of PAH was relatively low. Approximately one-third of the workers had detectable putative BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes by ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, and 10% of the samples had emission peaks at 379 nm by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry. The four most positive samples were the same in both of the assays. Antibodies to an epitope(s) on BPDE-DNA were found in the sera of approximately one-third of the workers. Detection of DNA adducts and antibodies to these adducts are internal indicators of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:3731085

  2. Enhancing the oxygen permeability of BaCo(0.7)Fe(0.2)Nb(0.1)O(3-δ) membranes by coating GdBaCo(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ) for partial oxidation of coke oven gas to syngas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongwei; Liu, Jizhong; Lu, Xionggang; Ding, Weizhong

    2011-10-01

    The dense ceramic membranes BaCo(0.7)Fe(0.2)Nb(0.1)O(3-δ) (BCFN) combined with GdBaCo(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ) (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) surface modification layers was investigated for hydrogen production by partial oxidation reforming of coke oven gas (COG). As oxygen permeation of BCFN membrane is controlled by the rate surface exchange kinetics, the GdBaCo(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ) materials improve the oxygen permeation flux of the BCFN membrane by 20-44% under helium atmosphere at 750 °C. The maximum oxygen permeation flux reached 14.4 mL min(-1) cm(-2) in the GdBaCoFeO(5+δ) coated BCFN membrane reactor at 850 °C, and a CH(4) conversion of 94.9%, a H(2) selectivity of 88.9%, and a CO selectivity of 99.6% have been achieved. The GdBaCo(2-x)Fe(x)O(5+δ) coating materials possess uniform porous structure, fast oxygen desorption rate and good compatibility with the membrane, which showed a potential application for the surface modification of the membrane reactor. PMID:21928838

  3. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    PubMed

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking. PMID:16366463

  4. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  5. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  6. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. D.; Archibald, R. M.; Attfield, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Walker, D. D., Archibald, R. M., and Attfield, M. D. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 358-363. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry. An epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of bronchitis in men employed at two of the National Coal Board's coking plants is described. Eight hundred and eighty-one men (91%) of the total working population were examined. A strong association was found between bronchitis prevalence and cigarette smoking (P < 0·001). In addition, men who smoked and who were exposed to high temperatures, dust, and fumes in the environment of the coke-ovens had more bronchitis than men who worked elsewhere in the cokeworks (P < 0·02). Both the presence of bronchitis and employment in the environment of the coke-ovens had significant and independent effects on ventilatory capacity. The combination of cigarette smoking and previous employment in a dusty industry also had a significant effect on ventilatory capacity. The investigation suggests that cigarette smoking, and the combination of smoking and pollution from the coke-ovens and previous occupation, appear to be important factors in the aetiology of bronchitis and reduced ventilatory capacity in men employed in the coke manufacturing industry. PMID:5124835

  7. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE ENCLOSED COKE PUSHING AND QUENCHING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a coke battery, placed into operation in May 1973 by National Steel's Weirton Steel Division, Weirton, WV. Consisting of 87 ovens, each 6 m tall, the battery includes features to reduce environmental discharges from the coke pushing and quenching operations. ...

  8. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF FORD/KOPPERS COKE PUSHING CONTROL SYSTEM. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a field testing and engineering evaluation of the performance of a retrofitted, mobile-hood, high-energy-scrubber control system, abating coke-side pushing emissions from a 58-oven coke battery. It documents the venturi-scrubber inlet and outlet emission rate...

  9. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF FORD/KOPPERS COKE PUSHING CONTROL SYSTEM. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a field testing and engineering evaluation of the performance of a retrofitted, mobile-hood, high-energy-scrubber control system, abating coke-side pushing emissions from a 58-oven coke battery. It documents the venturi-scrubber inlet and outlet emission rate...

  10. Oven ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, D.E.

    1987-02-17

    A ventilation system is described for venting an oven with external surfaces, the oven being located within an enclosed space, the system comprising: intake means for collecting air from the external environment of the enclosed space; means for forming a sheet of the air and passing the sheet across the external surfaces of the oven; and exhaust means for exhausting the sheet of the air to the external environment of the enclosed space after the air has been passed across the external surfaces.

  11. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  12. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  13. The release of trace elements in the process of coal coking.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  14. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    PubMed Central

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  15. A research on the thermal strength of dyad gas oven briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Dongyao; Huang Zhongcheng; Wang Peilan

    1998-12-31

    Thermal strength characteristic curve of the dyad gas oven briquette during carbonization is introduced in this paper. The cohesiveness of the raw coal exercises a strong influence on the briquette thermal compressive strength during carbonization. The briquette is to be made from coking coal, and if the briquette is produced through the usual technique, will drop down and is not suitable for dyad gasoven. Also if a briquette rends to pieces during carbonization or removal from the coke oven, the briquette is not suitable for dyad gas oven. Some techniques to eliminate the cohesiveness of the raw coal and to preserve the briquette from rending to pieces is described in this paper. The methods decreasing the cohesiveness of briquette increase the porosity of the briquette and add powdery coke through a special briquetting technique.

  16. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  17. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  18. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  19. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  20. Demountable solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, S.F.

    1983-04-05

    A demountable solar oven includes a principal base upon which is mounted a secondary supporting base collar which contains the essential operating parts and which supports two removable arms at their base whose upper end form diametrically opposed pivots for receiving the appropriately disposed pivots of the cooking chamber. The food basket provided with similarly diametrically opposed pivots is disposed interiorly of the cooking chamber and by virtue of a weight disposed at the bottom thereof the wire basket always maintains a horizontal position irrespective of the angle of the oven itself. A transparent hemispherical cover including a shadow box indicator is disposed over the oven in the direction of the sun and a series of individual plate reflectors are hinged together by means of pins, a certain number of which pins are utilized to attach the reflectors to the oven rim. Adjustable feet are disposed at the bottom of the supporting base for adjusting the vertical position of the oven and a level indicator as well as rotationally directional indicators are provided for determining the position of the oven as desired. The disassembled parts occupy a minimum space and various of the parts can be disposed together for the disassembled unit to occupy a very small space.

  1. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  2. Coke workers' exposure to volatile organic compounds in northern China: a case study in Shanxi Province.

    PubMed

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-06-01

    China is the largest coke producer and exporter in the world, and it has been a major concern that large populations of coke workers are exposed to the associated air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aimed to preliminarily quantify the potential exposure to VOCs emitted from two representative coking plants and assess the potential health risks. Air samples from various stages of coking were collected from the topside of coke ovens and various plant areas and then analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were used to quantify the coke oven emission (COE). The TWA concentrations for benzene were 705.6 and 290.4 μg m(-3) in plant A and plant B, respectively, which showed a higher exposure level than those reported in other countries. COE varied on the topside of coke ovens during charging and pushing processes, from 268.3 to 1197.7 μg m(-3) in plant A and 85.4-489.7 μg m(-3) in plant B. Our results indicate that benzene exposure from the diffusion of tar distillation also exerts significant health risks and thus should also be concerned. Charging and pushing activities accounted for nearly 70 % of benzene dose at the topside, and the benzene exposure risks to the coke oven workers in China were higher than those reported by US EPA. Compared to the reported emission sources, the weight-based ratios of average benzene to toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in different COE air samples showed unique characteristic profiles. Based on the B/T ratios from this work and from literatures on several major cities in northern China, it was evident that COE contributes significantly to the severe pollution of VOCs in the air of northern China. Future more rigorous studies are warranted to characterize VOC emission profiles in the stack gas of the coking processes in China. PMID:25975238

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers may use a filtering facepiece respirator only... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). (4) Transfer... also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers may use a filtering facepiece respirator only... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). (4) Transfer... also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers may use a filtering facepiece respirator only... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). (4) Transfer... requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h). (n) Observation of...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers may use a filtering facepiece respirator only... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). (4) Transfer... requirements involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h). (n) Observation of...

  7. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk in a coke plant.

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Ferri, G M; Tockman, M S; Poirier, M C; Schoket, B; Porro, A; Corrado, V; Strickland, P T

    1993-03-01

    To evaluate the association between an indicator of carcinogen exposure (peripheral blood leukocyte DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and an early indicator of neoplastic transformation (sputum epithelial cell membrane antigens binding by monoclonal antibodies against small cell lung cancer and against nonsmall cell lung cancer), a survey of 350 coke-oven workers and 100 unexposed workers was planned. This paper reports a pilot investigation on a subgroup of 23 coke-oven workers and 8 unexposed controls. A "gas regulator" worker with positive tumor antigen binding was identified. Results show that smokers, subjects with decreased pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity% < 80), and those with morphological dysplasia of sputum cells have higher levels of DNA adducts. The gas regulators showed the highest values for adducts; however, no significant difference of adduct levels was found between the coke-oven group and unexposed controls. PMID:8319632

  8. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk in a coke plant.

    PubMed Central

    Assennato, G; Ferri, G M; Tockman, M S; Poirier, M C; Schoket, B; Porro, A; Corrado, V; Strickland, P T

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the association between an indicator of carcinogen exposure (peripheral blood leukocyte DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and an early indicator of neoplastic transformation (sputum epithelial cell membrane antigens binding by monoclonal antibodies against small cell lung cancer and against nonsmall cell lung cancer), a survey of 350 coke-oven workers and 100 unexposed workers was planned. This paper reports a pilot investigation on a subgroup of 23 coke-oven workers and 8 unexposed controls. A "gas regulator" worker with positive tumor antigen binding was identified. Results show that smokers, subjects with decreased pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity% < 80), and those with morphological dysplasia of sputum cells have higher levels of DNA adducts. The gas regulators showed the highest values for adducts; however, no significant difference of adduct levels was found between the coke-oven group and unexposed controls. PMID:8319632

  9. Emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking processes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Huiling; Song, Chongfang; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Besides organic pollutants, coke production generates emissions of toxic heavy metals. However, intensive studies on heavy metal emissions from the coking industry are still very scarce. The current work focuses on assessing the emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking. Simultaneous sampling of coal, coke, residues from air pollution control devices (APCD), effluent from coke quenching, and fly ash from different processes before and after APCD has been performed. The total heavy metal concentration in the flue gas from coke pushing (CP) was significantly higher than that from coal charging (CC) and combustion of coke oven gases (CG). Emission factors of heavy metals for CP and CC were 378.692 and 42.783 μg/kg, respectively. During coking, the heavy metals that were contained in the feedstock coal showed different partitioning patterns. For example, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cr were obviously concentrated in the inlet fly ash compared to the coke; among these metals Cu, As, and Cr were concentrated in the outlet fly ash, whereas Zn and Pb were distributed equally between the outlet fly ash and APCD residue. Ni, Co, Cd, Fe, and V were partitioned equally between the inlet fly ash and the coke. Understanding the behavior of heavy metals during coking processes is helpful for the effective control of these heavy metals and the assessment of the potential impact of their emissions on the environment. PMID:22607524

  10. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  11. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  12. Exploiting by combustion for secondary products resulting from metallurgical coke-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ioana, A.; Gaba, A.; Paunescu, L.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the design, operation, and performance of a coke-gas burner that is capable of mitigating flow blockage of the gas to the burner when coal tars are present in the coke oven gas. This is accomplished by a flow-limiting nozzle and a three-staged combustion air flame stabilizer. A prototype was constructed and field tested on chamber furnaces at the Maintenance-Forge-Section, SIDEX-Galati.

  13. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  14. Structure of metallurgical coke

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, F.L.; Makarov, G.N.; Sidogin, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    Obtaining carboniferous coke satisfying the requirements of the metallurgical production processes constitutes a complicated problem determined by correctness in selecting a technological coking process and selecting the starting coals. Changes in coal charge composition, method, and systems of coking show a considerable effect on the properties of the metallurgical coke. Moreover, each technological process in which coke is used gives rise to quite well-defined requirements as regards its physicochemical properties. The general property of the carboniferous materials, on which their technological properties depend, is the reactive capability, which, in turn, depends to a large extent on the structure (macro-, micro-, and fine structure), the degree of order in the structure, the presence and sizes of crystals, and the extent of development of the system. Therefore, the structure can and must be one of the basic criteria of evaluating the quality when producing and using a specific metallurgical fuel and a reducing agent. A method of complex microscopic analysis of a carboniferous substance of carboniferous coke, iron and chemical etching methods, and optical and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy were used to study the structure of metallurgical coke produced by the Dnepropetrovsk Coking Plant. Coke belonging to 7 size-classes was studied microscopically: > 80, 80-60, 60-40, 40-25, 25-10, < 10, and 25-8 mm. The first size classes constitute the principal production of the plant, while the 25-8 mm class is produced to increase the quality of coke supplied to the ferroalloy plants. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Distributed control system at National Steel's Great Lakes Div. rehabilitated coke battery

    SciTech Connect

    Oliphant, M.A.; Gambert, G. . Great Lakes Division)

    1994-10-01

    The Great Lakes' No. 5 coke-oven battery and by-products plant was recently rehabilitated and substantially modified. The battery consists of 85 ovens with a design coke production level of 890,000 tons/year. It includes a complex heating system, reversing system, quench station, emissions controls and oven machinery to control the charging and pushing of the ovens. The by-products plant handles 48 million cu ft of gas per day, utilizing two primary gas coolers, two exhausters, two electrostatic tar precipitators, secondary gas cooler, ammonia scrubbers, stills and destruction plant, waste heat boilers, boiler water treatment plant, gas blanketing system, gas boosters, water cooling tower, wet surface air cooler and a phenol extraction plant located a quarter mile away. A completely integrated distributed control system has greatly facilitated the operation of a complicated process such as the rehabilitated coke-oven battery and by-products plant. Manpower requirements are reduced, with more information being generated automatically. Operators spend much less time walking the plant and considerably more time monitoring the process. Training of operating and maintenance people was time consuming but once completed, the operation became much easier and less costly to control.

  16. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  17. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  18. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  19. Technological developments in Japanese coke-making from 1950 to the 1980s -- Memories of an old researcher

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazu, Takashi

    1994-12-31

    The author will give a brief history of the technological developments in Japanese coke-making from 1950 to the 1980s. This period may be divided as follows: (a) The Mythological Age (1950--1960) when Japan imported US heavy coking coals such as Itmann, Keystone, etc. It was believed by coke plant engineers that good metallurgical coke could not be produced without such coals, because the blending of these coals with Japanese low rank high fluidity coals yielded unbelievably excellent coke. Their feeling for such US coals was so strong as to approach a kind of religious fervor. (b) The Groping Age (1960--1970) when Japan had a few means to research coke making, such as analytical data, Gieseler Plastometer and test coking ovens. Therefore, most of the studies were repeated ``trial and error``. (c) The Take-off Age (1970--1980s) when Japan introduced the very useful weapon for research into coal and coke -- ``Petrographic Studies``. It is no exaggeration to say that the application of petrographic studies was the most important factor in the technological developments of coke-making in Japan during this period. The blending design using many kinds of coal was able to achieve the minimization of the coke cost at that time, and it would have been impossible but for the studies.

  20. Industrial test coking of partially compacted charges by the method of briquetting without a binder

    SciTech Connect

    Olfert, A.I.; Taits, E.M.; Semenov, B.M.; Ruban, N.V.; Pavlov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.I.; Kovaleva, N.A.; Kalika, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of industrial test investigations on the coking of partially compacted charges by the method of briquetting without a binder it was shown that: (1) It is possible in practice to briquette coal charges without a binder to obtain small briquettes weighing about 7-8 g, with density of 1.14 to 1.15 g/cm/sup 3/, sufficiently strong that these briquettes may be used as a component of a coal charge loaded into coke ovens. (2) There ia an increase in the mechanical strength of the coke by the M40 index by 3% and a decrease in the M10 by 1.2% in the box coking of partially compacted industrial coal charge of the Moscow Coke Gas Plant. (3) There is an increase in the yield of the over 40 mm size class coke (by 5 to 10%) with a corresponding decrease in the yield of the finer size classes) depending on the caking capacity in the box coking of partially compacted charges. (4) It is possible to increase (with partial compaction of the charges) the proportion of Kuznetsk poorly-caking coal in the industrial charge of the Moscow Coke Gas Plant to 50 to 60% in comparison to the present 20%.

  1. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  2. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  3. A wireless portable high temperature data monitor for tunnel ovens.

    PubMed

    Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Víctor M; Mateos Martín, Felipe; Lopera Ronda, Juan M; Álvarez Antón, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called "eBiscuit", which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the "eBiscuit" electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the "eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  4. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    PubMed Central

    Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; González Suárez, Víctor M.; Martín, Felipe Mateos; Lopera Ronda, Juan M.; Álvarez Antón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  5. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  6. Convection automated logic oven control

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.

    1998-03-01

    For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.

  7. [Characterization of PAHs in fly ashes from coke production].

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ashes from coking, PAHs in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of PAHs and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior PAHs varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). PAH contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and PAHs in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring PAHs were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total PAHs. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of PAHs, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of PAHs. PMID:23745428

  8. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  9. Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

    Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  11. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microwave oven, the door should close and seal fully. Unsafe Microwave Oven Use If the fan, ... openings such as gaps in the microwave oven seals. However, FDA regulations require that microwave ovens are ...

  12. Briquetting of coal fines from preheat-pipeline charged coke batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Aktay, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The briquetting of coal fines generated during coal preheating and pipeline oven charging was investigated as a possible method of handling these fines for recycling in the carbonisation process. Bench-scale briquetting tests were carried out to evaluate the process variables affecting fine coal briquetting. In general, the crushing strength of the briquettes increased with thermal ageing and increasing amounts of binder. Pilot-oven tests were carried out using various amounts of briquetted coal fines in the coking blend. The results indicated that coke stability increased slightly with the addition of briquettes composed of blended metallurgical coal. This indicates that briquetted coal fines from preheating and pipeline charging can be used as a carbonisation feed material.

  13. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  14. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... after October 6, 1971. (b) Definitions. (1) Microwave oven means a device designed to heat, cook, or dry...) Cavity means that portion of the microwave oven in which food may be heated, cooked, or dried. (3)...

  15. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... after October 6, 1971. (b) Definitions. (1) Microwave oven means a device designed to heat, cook, or dry...) Cavity means that portion of the microwave oven in which food may be heated, cooked, or dried. (3)...

  16. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  17. Student concepts of microwave ovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassebaum, Thomas; May, David; Aubrecht, Gordon

    2000-05-01

    Previous surveys and student interviews have revealed that students believe microwave ovens can be a source of microwave radiation, x radiation, and gamma radiation. We have probed student ideas in recent detailed interviews and find that students believe that at least some form of what physicists call electromagnetic radiation is emitted and that x and gamma radiation can make a person radioactive. We will discuss details of these interviews, comparing the results to what we learned in previous surveys.

  18. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  19. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  20. Some physicochemical properties of petroleum pyrolysis cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Cherednik, E.M.; Butyrin, G.M.; Ibraev, S.O.; Shipkov, N.N.; Volchkova, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the structure and reactivity of cokes and fillers from petroleum. The tests were carried out with KNPS and KNPE petroleum pyrolysis cokes, KZI needle coke obtained on a delayed coking unit, and coke obtained from KO oxidized petroleum residue. The original cokes were subjected to a preliminary thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere and the calcined samples were then used to determine the reactivity, the ash content, the specific surface, the content of impurities, the porosity, and xray characteristics. The presented data show that suppression of the catalytic effect of the impurities by impreganation with manganese phosphate is effective for cokes with low TTT.

  1. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  2. lithium-ion battery during oven tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Sun, Yiqiong; Jiang, Fangming

    2014-10-01

    A three dimensional thermal abuse model for graphite/LiPF6/LiCoO2 batteries is established particularly for oven tests. To investigate the influence of heat release condition and oven temperature on battery thermal behaviors, we perform a series of simulations with respect to a unit cell during oven thermal abuses of various oven temperatures and under various heat release conditions. Simulation results enable detailed analyses to thermal behaviors of batteries. It is found that during oven thermal abuse processes that do not get into thermal runaway, the negative electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone; during oven thermal abuse processes that do get into thermal runaway, the positive electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone. The positive-solvent reaction is found to be the major heat generation source causing thermal runaway. It is also found that the heat release condition and the oven temperature are combined to dictate thermal behaviors of the battery. The critical oven temperature that causes thermal runaway rises if the heat release condition is better and the critical heat release coefficient that can effectively restrain the occurrence of thermal runaway increases with the increase of oven temperature.

  3. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  4. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to conventional cooking tops, conventional...

  5. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to conventional cooking tops, conventional...

  6. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to conventional cooking tops, conventional...

  7. Pipe burnout oven with pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1982-03-30

    A batch type pipe burnout oven is provided with improved pollution control and heat recovery features. The oven is elongated with an end opening for introduction of a movable support or cart with pipe supported thereon. The oven is brought to burnout temperature faster than prior art ovens and an improved system is provided for pollution control by incineration of hydrocarbon fumes together with recovery of heat which results in superior fuel economy. The oven is provided with a pair of oppositely positioned plenums along the sides thereof which supply heated air in large volume and high velocity through a plurality of nozzle slots to the pipe-containing chamber and are themselves supplied from a recirculation burner chamber on the top of the oven. A relatively small volume of air, laden with volatile, combustible fumes, is withdrawn from the oven at a relatively low velocity by an exhaust fan. This fume-laden air is passed through a gas-fired incinerator in a combustion chamber where the fumes are completely burned and the combustion products raised to a temperature of about 1400* F. These combustion products are passed through a heat exchanger in the burner chamber on top of the oven and then through another heat exchanger to preheat combustion air for the gas-fired burners prior to being exhausted to atmosphere.

  8. [Study on co-pyrolysis of coking-coal, plastic and dust].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rongfang; Ye, Shufeng; Xie, Yusheng; Chen, Yunfa

    2003-09-01

    The co-pyrolysis processes of different proportions of coking-coal, plastic, metallurgical dust (MD) were investigated using thermal analyzer (Setaram Labsys) under a neutral atmosphere of N2 at the sweep rate of 30 mL/min, the linear heating rate and the final pyrolysis temperature were 5 degrees C/min and 1000 degrees C respectively in this study. The experimental results indicated that both the pyrolysis process of coking-coal and that of plastic were radical mechanism. In other word, within the relatively lower temperature range, a large amount of radicals were generated during their pyrolysis processes and stabilized through the intra-radical rearrangement reactions or inter-radical combination reactions. This means that sulfur containing in coal and plastic tends to formed gaseous sulfides, such as H2S, COS, CS2, etc. When co-existing with MD, these sulfides will react with metal oxides containing in MD to form metal sulfide with high stability and the cleaner coke oven gas (COG) were obtained. Within higher temperature interval of 500 degrees C-1000 degrees C, some of the gaseous products after pyrolysis (e.g. H2, CO and C) reinforce the reduction atmosphere that the coking reaction system needs and accelerate the reduction of metal oxides in MD and gasification of metal, which were conductive to the effective removal of sulfur in coke. Therefore, it is definitely feasible to adding waste plastic and MD into coking-coal to remove the sulfur in COG and coke simultaneously. PMID:14719256

  9. Operating experience with a zinc oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Brunkow, Evan; Gay, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    A zinc oven has been constructed and tested. Atomic zinc emitted from this resistively heated oven is subsequently excited by a polarized electron beam in crossed-beam geometry. Light emitted in the decay of the (4s5s)3 S1 state to the (4s4p)3 PJ final state, where J = 0, 1, 2, is then detected by a photomultiplier tube for polarization analysis. The zinc oven apparatus and operating experience with the oven are described in detail. Measures to assure that the oven produces a stable, localized beam which does not adhere to essential components of the apparatus are addressed. Estimates of the zinc density are made. The importance of magnetic field control in the apparatus will be discussed. Funded by NSF PHY-1505794.

  10. A small, insertable oven for boronization

    SciTech Connect

    Brouchous, D.A.; Diebold, D.A.; Doczy, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    A small insertable oven for benchmarking the boronizing characteristics of solid compounds, such as decaborane and carborane, has been developed for the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Assembly and installation of the oven are relatively easy as the oven design utilizes a Langmuir probe drive assembly, which is standard equipment on most tokamaks and allows the oven to be inserted into the tokamak without requiring a vent. Films deposited by heating carborane into the vapor state with the oven are found to be spatially nonuniform in both thickness and in the ratio of boron to carbon as compared to films deposited with trimethylboron, a gaseous compound. Overall plasma performance is not found to be greatly affected by whether decaborane, carborane or trimethylboron is used for boronization in Phaedrus-T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.} {lt}ii;010512{gt}

  11. [Pathomorphological picture of various internal organs of rats after long-term exposure to toxic substances in raw coke gas].

    PubMed

    Madej, J A; Houszka, M; Peryt, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors carried out morphological evaluation of a long-term action of toxic substances at low concentrations (about 1 NDS), contained in raw coke oven gas, i.e. gases: CO, H2S, SO2, NH3 and benzene, as well as dusts containing: C, SiO2, Pb and Cd on the liver and kidneys of three-month old male rats of the Wistar strain. The animals were exposed to the above toxic substances in an experimental chamber for 24 hr, and for 8 hr every day during 12 and 18 months. It was found that pathogenic action of the substances contained in raw coke oven gas was not the total action of all chemical components, but their complicated resultant. Significant differences in the intensity of morphological changes in lungs were observed between rats exposed for 8 hr ans 24 hr/day, in favour of the former. Such a relationship was not observed between 12 and 18 month exposition. Besides the catarrh of the air passages and cellular-fibrous changes in pulmonary alveoli, focal metaplasia of cells of bronchial epithelium was observed, which suggested the possibility of carcinogenic action of coke oven gases and dusts. No distinct morphological differences were found in the liver and kidneys between 8 and 24 hr exposition, whereas great differences were found between 12 and 18 months exposition. Chronic interstitial pyelitis was observed in kidneys after 18 month exposition. PMID:3697342

  12. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  13. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  14. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  15. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. PMID:25078828

  16. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  17. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  18. Chemical profile and sensory properties of different foods cooked by a new radiofrequency oven.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana; Visconti, Attilio; Karneili, Ohad; Bernhardt, Sam; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-08-15

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been used for numerous applications in the food industry such as baking, thawing or pasteurisation. It reduces cooking time, and it helps to retain acceptable food colour and texture. In this paper, chemical and sensory data obtained from broccoli, potatoes, salmon and cocoa cakes cooked using an innovative RF oven were reported. The oven has an algorithm able to monitor the energy feedback from the cavity and to adjust the energy output accordingly. The different foods were cooked to the same end point and the concentration of phytochemicals, vitamins and acrylamide were assessed. Results demonstrated that RF oven preserved ascorbic acid and increased glucosinolates concentration in broccoli and it decreased the formation of acrylamide in roasted potatoes more than 50%. The total amount of vitamins B was 30% and 50% higher in RF cooked salmon than conventionally cooked salmon prepared at 55 and 75°C, respectively. PMID:23561139

  19. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-29

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up.

  20. Beyond the Coke Ovens: Women's Literacy in Whitney Pier, Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Seana

    2001-01-01

    In partnership with a Nova Scotia community museum, local women used folklore and culture centered on crafts, food customs, and beliefs to engage in learning. Their efforts enriched local historical knowledge as well as their own self-confidence and literacy. (SK)

  1. Use of soluble silicates for sealing coke oven chuck doors and standpipe caps

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Silicate sealant has become the standard practice for sealing standpipe caps and chuck doors on all of Clairton's batteries where it is applicable. It has resulted in improved emissions performance and other benefits which far outweigh its disadvantages. One of the major factors which has resulted in the success of the material as a sealant and at the same time attests to its value in this application is the almost universal endorsement by our machine operators. 3 figures.

  2. Physical optics for oven-plate scattering prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldauf, J.; Lambert, K.

    1991-01-01

    An oven assembly design is described, which will be used to determine the effects of temperature on the electrical properties of materials which are used as coatings for metal plates. Experimentally, these plates will be heated to a very high temperature in the oven assembly, and measured using a microwave reflectance measurement system developed for the NASA Lewis Research Center, Near-Field Facility. One unknown in this measurement is the effect that the oven assembly will have on the reflectance properties of the plate. Since the oven will be much larger than the plate, the effect could potentially be significant as the size of the plate becomes smaller. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the effect of the oven on the measurement of the plate. A method for predicting the oven effect is described, and the theoretical oven effect is compared to experimental results of the oven material. The computer code which is used to predict the oven effect is also described.

  3. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors goes to TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's three ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 19, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors is for TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 18, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. The image has been brightened to show the fine mesh.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Selection of equipment for coke processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhodenko, N.T.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Nurlygayanova, V.M.; Petrunina, O.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how the design and selection of equipment for the crushing, transportation, and storage of petroleum coke is dependent on the physicomechanical properties of the coke. The mechanical properties of petroleum coke depend on its total porosity, which is determined from true and apparent densities. Topics considered include screen composition, bulk density, the degree of compaction, coefficients of internal and external friction, segregation, and the angle of repose. A vibrating platform operating at 350 cycles per minute was used to investigate the dynamics of compaction of coke fractions during rail transport. It is emphasized that the physical properties of coke as a free-flowing material are of paramount importance in designing the processing and transportation systems and storage facilities for coking and calcining units.

  6. K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content

  7. Effect of oven cooking method on formation of heterocyclic amines and quality characteristics of chicken patties: steam-assisted hybrid oven versus convection ovens.

    PubMed

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Özdestan, Özgül; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking method in comparison with convection ovens (natural and forced) on quality characteristics (color, hardness, cooking loss, soluble protein content, fat retention, and formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines) of chicken patties. The cooking experiments of chicken patties (n = 648) were conducted at oven temperatures of 180, 210, and 240°C until 3 different end point temperatures (75, 90, and 100°C) were reached. Steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking enabled faster cooking than convection ovens and resulted in chicken patties having lower a* and higher L* value, lower hardness, lower fat, and soluble protein content (P < 0.05), and higher cooking loss than convection ovens. Steam-assisted hybrid oven could reduce the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans. PMID:24974393

  8. Coke calcination levels and aluminum anode quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, C.; Samanos, B.; Vogt, F.

    1996-10-01

    The calcination temperature of petroleum coke for aluminum anode applications has been generally increased during the past 10 years. This change by coke suppliers has often been done at the request of anode manufacturers (smelters) who seek special quality requirements for the calcined coke. Such an increase in calcining temperatures not only affects coke properties, but also has an effect on calciner operations and may have some unexpected effects on anode quality. One high and one low sulfur coke were calcined industrially at two different levels. The four individual calcined cokes were characterized. Then laboratory scale anodes were produced with each individual calcined coke. These all-coke anodes were first evaluated for optimum pitch content. Then the anodes were baked over a range of temperatures (920 to 1,260 C) in order to evaluate the influence of this heat treatment on anode properties. The results show the influence of calcining temperature on coke properties and anode properties, including the most important influence of the anode baking level.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing active coke

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E.

    1980-12-30

    At least a portion of coke produced in a hearth-type furnace is fed into an activation reactor, and at least a portion of the waste gas from the hearth-type furnace is fed to the activation reactor to act as a heating gas and/or an activation gas for the coke feed. Hot waste gas from the activation reactor is passed to a waste-heat boiler. Active coke which has at least partially lost its adsorption capacity may be fed into the furnace in mixture with the coal or alone, or it may be fed directly into the activation reactor for re-activation of the coke.

  10. 25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  11. 24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR CLOSED - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  12. 23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR OPEN - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  13. 65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIMENITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME-NITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, LOOKING AT 2 BANKS OF OVENS. MARCH 2, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  14. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  15. Inhalation trauma due to overheating in a microwave oven.

    PubMed Central

    Zanen, A L; Rietveld, A P

    1993-01-01

    The microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In some instances the temperature in the microwave oven can become exceedingly high. A case is discussed of a patient with respiratory distress after inhalation of gas from an overheated microwave oven. Images PMID:8497834

  16. Regeneration of coked catalysts: The effect of aging upon the characteristics of the coke deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, C.; Ibarra, J.V.; Monzon, A.; Santamaria, J. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente)

    1994-11-01

    The effect of aging in nitrogen upon the regeneration characteristics of the coke deposits on chromia-alumina catalysts has been investigated. To this end, the coked catalysts have been subjected to various treatments in nitrogen, and the chemical composition and reactivity of the deposits have been investigated. The results show that the process of aging in nitrogen gives rise to significant changes in both the composition and reactivity of the coke deposits, due to the stripping of the coke fractions with a higher volatility. This obviously has important consequences upon the subsequent regeneration, which are also discussed and tested in regeneration experiments using coked catalyst of different ages.

  17. Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant: Part. 1. Estimation of historical exposures

    PubMed Central

    Romundstad, P. R.; Ronneberg, A.; Leira, H. L.; Bye, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate historical exposure levels at a coke plant for all agents considered to be of importance for epidemiological studies of mortality and cancer incidence. METHODS: Time weighted average exposure (8 h TWA) was estimated based on personal measurements for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonaceous particulates. Exposure to quartz was estimated relative to the concentration of carbonaceous particulates. These estimates were adjusted for the use of airstream helmets. Exposure to other agents were estimated qualitatively (asbestos, benzene, and arsenic) or semi-quantitatively (carbon monoxide (CO) and heat) based on measurements and other indicators of exposure. RESULTS: Exposure to PAHs was highest for those who worked at the top of the ovens (300 micrograms/m3) in the period from 1970-6. The estimated PAH exposure was reduced to an average of 65 micrograms/m3 after the introduction of exposure control measures in 1976. The estimates for carbonaceous particulates ranged from 1 to 16 mg/m3, with the highest exposure for workers at the top of the ovens and at the coke screening station. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure of greatest concern in this study is to PAHs, but exposures to carbonaceous particulates and CO may also be of importance. The major limitations of this study are the lack of personal measurements before 1975 and the total lack of measurements for some of the exposed categories of workers. Despite these limitations, we think that this assessment reflects the actual exposures for most of the former employees. The assessment thus provides a reasonable tool for the subsequent epidemiological study and for future epidemiological follow up studies at the coke plant.   PMID:9861184

  18. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  19. The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, J.

    1995-06-01

    The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

  20. Drying oven with heat reclamation and air pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-23

    A system of drying ovens is disclosed with associated means for heat reclamation and air pollution control. The ovens are primarily for drying or baking paint or other coatings on pipes or the like where the emissions are primarily hydrocarbons. In this system of ovens, hydrocarbon fumes are concentrated at the ends of the oven. Solvent laden fumes are, therefore, collected where the concentration is the highest. The exhaust from the oven is located at the central portion and leads to a combustion/incineration chamber where it is exhausted to atmosphere after incineration and a major part of the heat is recovered and recirculated to the oven. In a sequence of ovens, the exhaust from one oven is circulated to the next at a high linear velocity, but low volume (At 25% lel) and heated to a high temperature (1400/sup 0/F.) by in-line incineration of the fumes. The low volume, high velocity, high temperature gasses are mixed with a high volume, low velocity, low temperature exhaust collected from the end of that oven. This incineration and mixing and recirculation of gasses is repeated in each succeeding oven and no gasses are exhausted to atmosphere until the last oven. In the last oven, in sequence, a burner is provided to incinerate fumes recirculated at one end of the oven and the exhaust goes to atmosphere through an incinerator/heat exchanger where the reclaimed heat is supplied to outside air being fed to support combustion in the incinerator at one end of the last oven.

  1. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  2. Pressure Analysis for LAVA-OVEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cendana, Donna Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) and the Oxygen Volatiles Extraction Node (OVEN) are subsystems included in the Regolith Environment Science, and Oxygen Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) payload bound for the Moon in 2019. This Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) has the objective of landing on a shadowed region of the Moons South Pole to collect data and determine whether the resources could be effectively used for space exploration systems. The quantification of the resources will help understand if it can adequately minimize materials carried from Earth by: providing life support, propellants, construction materials or energy supply to the payload or crew. This paper outlines the procedures done for the pressure analysis of the LAVA-OVEN (LOVEN) Integration Testing. The pressure analysis quantifies how much gases and water are present in the sample tested during the Engineering Testing Unit (ETU) phase of instrument development. Ultimately the purpose of these tests is to improve the estimate of the amount of water in each Lunar sample and reduce the time necessary for this estimate. The governing principle that was used for the analysis is the Ideal Gas Law, PV=nRT where P stands for pressure, V for volume, n for number of moles, R being the gas constant and T for temperature. We also estimate the errors involved in these measured and derived quantities since a key objective of the mission is to estimate the quantity of volatiles present in the lunar samples introduced into OVEN.

  3. Method of hot-briquetting mixtures of coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kleisa, K.; Langhoff, J.; Lehmann, J.; Makrutzki, D.; Nashan, G.

    1980-07-08

    In a method of making briquettes in which coke and coking coal are admixed to form a briquetting mixture having a temperature in the range between about 400 to 500/sup 0/C, the improvement is described wherein the coke temperature is adjusted, prior to mixing of the coke with the coking coal, to a temperature level which will, upon mixing of the coke with the coking coal, result in the mixture having a temperature with +-5% of a predetermined briquetting temperature lying within said range.

  4. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  5. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Irwin Charles; Greinke, Ronald Alfred

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  6. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  7. 16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Developing an accelerated test of coking tendencies of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.D.; Bagby, M.O.; Schwab, A.W.; Goering, C.E.; Savage, L.D.

    1988-07-01

    Burning vegetable oils in direct-injected diesel engines leads to nozzle and combustion chamber coking and eventually to engine damage. Because typical durability tests to detect coking tendencies of fuels are expensive, a one-cylinder diesel engine was instrumented and automated to enable external detection of engine coking in only 5 h. The heat release pattern revealed shifts to later burning as coke accumulated in the engine, but exhaust emissions showed little correlation with coke accumulation.

  9. Prospects for use of lean coking coal from the Kuznetsk coalfield for coking

    SciTech Connect

    Sulimov, G.I.; Agafonov, A.A.; Ol'shanetskii, L.G.

    1983-06-01

    Coals suitable for opencast working in the southern Kuzbass form a transitional stage between low-volatile caking and lean coal and have been incorporated satisfactorily in layer coking charges together with conventional coking coal. Strength tests showed a reasonably strong metallurgical product. Two collieries in particular offered promising coals with a narrow range of vitrinite contents and varying only in rank. These have been blended with a fat coal from Pechora to produce an exceptional metallurgical coke.

  10. Reduced coking of fuel nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.A.; Sager, J.W.; Kobish, T.R.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a fuel nozzle useful for a gas turbine engine and having a nozzle face, the combination of fuel supply means on the nozzle, the fuel supply means including an annular fuel discharge body converging in a downstream direction toward a longitudinal central axis of the nozzle and terminating in a downstream fuel discharge orifice substantially on the central axis for discharging fuel from the orifice for mixing with air downstream of the nozzle face, air supply means on the nozzle for discharging air from the nozzle face, and means on the nozzle around the fuel discharge body cooperating with the air supply means for controllably discharging sufficient air flow with locally reduced swirl strength over the fuel discharge body to establish a recirculation zone spaced away from the nozzle face downstream thereof a sufficient distance to substantially reduce coking on the nozzle face.

  11. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  13. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  14. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  15. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  16. Possibilities of coke manufacture in nonpollutant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barca, F.; Panaitescu, C.; Vidrighin, C.; Peleanu, I.; Albastroiu, P.

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents some possibilities to obtain coke briquettes from anthracite, using as binders petroleum pitch, wheat flour, cement, plaster, ashes from power-plants dried from the electrofilters. Specific thermal post-treatment were proposed for each case, such as: oxidation or heating at low temperatures (under 300 C). As a result the authors obtained coke briquettes to be used in small equipment, with no pollutant pyrogenetic treatment.

  17. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations.

  18. A modified concentrating type solar oven for outdoor cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, A.M.A.

    1983-12-01

    Solar cookers offer a partial solution to many problems for the poor developing areas of the world. In these regions energy used for cooking sometimes comprises four fifths of the total energy demand. Solar cookers are generally four catagories: direct focusing, oven, ovenfocusing and indirect types. The direct focusing types failed to boil water under windy conditions due to excessive convection losses from the bare cooking pot placed at the concentrator focus. The oven type cookers, such as Telkes oven, observe the rules of energy conservation and thus are more efficient and less affected by windy weather. However, this oven suffers from two major problems. First, tilting the oven could cause food spillage unless a hinged support is used for the pot. This adds complication to the design of Telkes oven. Second, the solar radiation is added to the pot from the top for high solar altitude angles. This leads to poor heat transfer to the food inside the pot. The advantages of concentrating and oven cookers can be obtained by widding of a point focus concentrator to a new oven type receiver. In this paper the concept and design details of such an oven are introduced. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the developed cooker are given.

  19. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  20. Application of NMR techniques for studying coking of FCC catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardet, J.J.; Barrage, M.C.; Fraissard, J.

    1995-12-31

    NMR occupies an important place in the study of the deactivation of zeolites by coking. Indeed, association of the resonances of several nuclei has shown that it is possible to investigate: the nature of the, carbonaceous; deposits; under certain conditions, the coke content; the mode of zeolite deactivation; the exact location of the internal coke and the evolution of its distribution with the coke content, the presence of carbonaceous; residues at the crystallite surface; the effect of zeolite structure and the nature of the reactant on coking and regeneration. It also reveals the role of extra framework aluminium species and that of certain lattice Al atoms in the coking process.

  1. Microwave Ovens--Out of the Kitchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Haswell, Stephen J.

    2001-07-01

    We are all aware of the advantages cooking or heating meals in a microwave oven can offer, but we may be less familiar with what this technology brings to the field of chemistry. This paper reviews the applications of microwaves in the chemical laboratory, including their use in undergraduate laboratory classes. We show that microwave ovens have successfully made the transition from kitchens to laboratories and the story continues. Perhaps the greatest impact of microwaves in the laboratory over the past 20 years has been in analytical chemistry, where rapid and efficient heating of samples in closed vessels or flow-through systems has revolutionized sample preparation methodology. The use of microwaves in extraction procedures before chromatographic analysis has sharply reduced the total analysis time and has allowed larger numbers of samples to be analyzed. More recently microwave technology has expanded into other branches of chemistry and is now being used in the relatively new field of combinatorial chemistry for fast preparation of large numbers of similar compounds.

  2. Modification of a Microwave Oven for Laboratory Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of a domestic microwave oven for drying analytical samples with time savings compared to conventional ovens, providing a solution to the problem of loss of load as samples dry. Presents a system for examining emitted gases from drying process and reports results of several test dryings. (JM)

  3. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 7 CFR 3201.72 - Oven and grill cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oven and grill cleaners. 3201.72 Section 3201.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.72 Oven and...

  5. BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO RAILROAD CARS (FRONT), COAL STORAGE BIN AND TIPPLE FOR COAL TO BE CHARGED IN FURNACES (BACK) - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

    2004-03-01

    In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  9. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  10. 61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT FIRE BOXES AND SILOS FOR COKE DRYERS. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    PubMed

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed. PMID:19452916

  12. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  13. Coking quality and caking properties of western Canadian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Mourits, F.M.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.; Leeder, W.R.

    1997-12-31

    Methods exist for predicting coke strength from the caking (thermal rheological) or petrographic properties of a metallurgical coal. These methods, which were derived for Carboniferous coals, frequently indicate that western Canadian Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke yet both types of coals can produce excellent coke suitable for iron blast furnaces. This paper will discuss why western Canadian metallurgical coals exhibit lower thermal rheological values and how to predict the strength of the coke produced from them.

  14. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J.; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants. PMID:26035666

  15. Petroleum coke in the urban environment: a review of potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants. PMID:26035666

  16. Process for producing shaft furnace cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, K.; Sunami, Y.

    1981-06-09

    An impregnated carbonaceous material which can be mixed with basic coal to form a mixture which, once roasted, forms an effective shaft furnace coke. The impregnated carbonaceous material is formed by finely crushing an inert carbonaceous material such as powdered coke, coal gasification char, coal liquifaction residue coal, oil coke, and semi-dry-distilled char, and mixing and impregnating the crushed carbonaceous material with an aromatic pitch such as coal tar, coal tar pitch, asphalt, and pitch obtained by heat-treating or solvent extracting an asphalt. The mixing is conducted at a temperature above the aromatic pitch melting point. The impregnated carbonaceous material contains preferably 50 to 95 parts by weight of crushed inert carbonaceous material and 5 to 50 parts by weight aromatic pitch.

  17. Coke formation in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. 4: Modeling of coke formation in naphtha cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Reyniers, G.C.; Froment, G.F. . Lab. voor Petrochemische Techniek); Kopinke, F.D.; Zimmermann, G. . Abteilung Hochtemperaturreaktionen am Inst. fuer Technische Chemie)

    1994-11-01

    An extensive experimental program has been carried out in a pilot unit for the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. On the basis of the experimental information and the insight in the mechanisms for coke formation in pyrolysis reactors, a mathematical model describing the coke formation has been derived. This model has been incorporated in the existing simulation tools at the Laboratorium voor Petrochemische Techniek, and the run length of an industrial naphtha cracking furnace has been accurately simulated. In this way the coking model has been validated.

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  19. Effusive atomic oven nozzle design using an aligned microcapillary array

    SciTech Connect

    Senaratne, Ruwan Rajagopal, Shankari V.; Geiger, Zachary A.; Fujiwara, Kurt M.; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M.

    2015-02-15

    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design, we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525 °C, the collimated atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is 1.2 × 10{sup 14} atoms/s with a peak beam intensity greater than 5.0 × 10{sup 16} atoms/s/sr. This suggests an oven lifetime of several decades of continuous operation.

  20. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  1. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  2. Briquetting of coke fines for phosphorus production

    SciTech Connect

    Shpaizer, E.E.; Klimova, L.K.; Mel'nik, A.P.; Egorov, A.A.

    1988-07-20

    Large amounts of coke wastes have accumulated in phosphorus factories. For use as a carbonaceous reducing agent in phosphorus production this waste material should be agglomerated to the required size with satisfactory strength, with minimal consumption of energy and materials. The dependence of briquet strength on a number of important physicochemical factors is described by an equation obtained by least-squares computer analysis of experimental data. Addition of finely ground quartzite to the mixture raises the thermal stability of the briquets. The activation energy and order of overall interaction of phosphoric acid and the ash components of coke, E = 24.8 kJ/mole and n = 0.98, were found by the method of nonisothermal kinetics. Their results show that the reactions leading to increase of briquet strength occur at temperatures from 520 to 670 K, i.e., below the ignition point of coke. Therefore the briquets may be heat-treated in an oxidizing medium; this greatly simplifies the practical process of agglomeration of coke fines.

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  4. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  5. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74810) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 15123, March 14, 2012). The Commission... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  6. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  7. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  8. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  9. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  10. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  11. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  12. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  13. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND STEEL SLAB EXITING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND STEEL SLAB EXITING (LEFT) AND EDGING MACHINE/PRESS (RIGHT). - Central Iron Foundry, Hot Strip Mill Building, 1700 Holt Road, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND STEEL SLAB HAVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND STEEL SLAB HAVING EXITED (LEFT) AND PROCEEDING TO EDGER (RIGHT). - Central Iron Foundry, Hot Strip Mill Building, 1700 Holt Road, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  16. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS (LEFT) AND SLAB BEING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS (LEFT) AND SLAB BEING PROCESSED THROUGH PRESS/STECKLER (RIGHT). - Central Iron Foundry, Hot Strip Mill Building, 1700 Holt Road, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED IN NORTH END OF BUILDING, ALONG WEST WALL; LOOKING WEST - Gerber Sheet Metal Works Building, 128 Porthand Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING WEST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. 63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. 62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF ORGANIC EXTRACTS FROM DIESEL, COKE OVEN, ROOFING TAR, AND CIGARETTE SMOKE EMISSIONS IN THE AMES ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of metabolic activation in the difference between a microbial and mammalian bioassays in the ranking of genotoxic potency of several environmental emissions was investigated. Although the relative potency in the Ames assay correlated well with the relative potency in mam...

  6. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  7. Regeneration performance and carbon consumption of semi-coke and activated coke for SO₂ and NO removal.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song; Li, Yuran; Zhu, Tingyu; Guo, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the operating cost of flue gas purification technologies based on carbon-based materials, the adsorption and regeneration performance of low-price semi-coke and activated coke were compared for SO2 and NO removal in a simulated flue gas. The functional groups of the two adsorbents before and after regeneration were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and were quantitatively assessed using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) coupled with FTIR and acid-base titration. The results show that semi-coke had higher adsorption capacity (16.2% for SO2 and 38.6% for NO) than activated coke because of its higher content of basic functional groups and lactones. After regeneration, the adsorption performance of semi-coke decreased because the number of active functional groups decreased and the micropores increased. Semi-coke had better regeneration performance than activated coke. Semi-coke had a larger SO2 recovery of 7.2% and smaller carbon consumption of 12% compared to activated coke. The semi-coke carbon-based adsorbent could be regenerated at lower temperatures to depress the carbon consumption, because the SO2 recovery was only reduced a small amount. PMID:26257344

  8. Coking rates in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace: Liquid petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Integral rates of coking for 14 feedstocks (light naphtha to vacuum gas oil) and mixtures of these were determined in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace between 815 and 943/sup 0/C and between 70 and 340 ms. These can be ranked as severe coking (S.C) and low coking (L.C.) feedstocks and are characterized by production of filamentous and amorphous (encapsulating) coke, respectively. Admixture of a L.C. feedstock in greater than a critical minimum amount of a S.C. feedstock imparts a natural inhibition on the coking rate of the S.C. feedstock, so that the coking rate of the mixture mimics that of the L.C. component.

  9. Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-15

    This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

  10. Microbiology of coke-plant activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The biological treatment of coke-plant wastewater represents the most economical means of detoxification and contaminant removal, but little is known about the microbial ecology of this system. Research was therefore undertaken to determine the kinds of microorganisms that survive and function in this environment and to examine the growth patterns that influence treatment efficiency. The microbial flora of coke-plant activated sludge is predominated by populations of aerobic gram negative rods. The principle genera identified were Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter. The genera Bacillus, Nocardia and Micrococcus were also present at low levels. A single type of rotifer was present along with various protozoans. The ability of microorganisms in coke wastewater to grow on various organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy is more restrictive when compared with that of isolates obtained from activated sludge processes treating municipal wastes. The phenol degrading bacteria can be maintained in a continuous culture system with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of as long as 14 days. Under conditions of increasing HRT the average cell size decreased and the number of cells per milliter increased. As the HRT increased cell yields decreased. At long HRT's (7 to 14 days) cell yields remained constant.

  11. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate. PMID:24179031

  12. The effects of petroleum coke properties on carbon anode quality

    SciTech Connect

    Belitskus, D. ); Danka, D.J. )

    1988-11-01

    Comprehensive bench-scale testing of the effects of calcined coke on the properties of prebaked anodes for aluminum smelting cells has revealed correlations between coke and anode properties. Extensive measurements of the physical properties of coke as well as impurities, determinations of performance-indicative anode properties, and correlation by regression analyses provided statistically significant relationships which can generally be explained in terms of reasonable chemical and physical interactions.

  13. Effect of bulk density of coking coal on swelling pressure.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinfeng; Yang, Chunwang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhang, Yaru; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    Coking coals are the important raw materials for the iron and steel industries and play an important role on its sustainable development, especially on the stamp-charging coke making with the characteristics of increasing the bulk density. There is a significance on the reasonable usage of the coking coal resource with the reduced production cost, improved efficiency of the economy to develop the stamp-charging coke making technology. Important effects of the density of coking coal on the coking and caking properties were investigated. In the article, the maximum values of swelling pressure and variation of Laowan gas coal and Xinjian 1/3 coking coal, Longhu fat coal and Didao coking coal, which were mined at Shenyang and Qitaihe respectively, were investigated under different bulk densities during the coking. The results showed that when the values of density increased from 0.85 ton/m(3) to 1.05 ton/m(3), for the Laowan gas coal, swelling pressure variation and even the maximum value changed slightly. The swelling pressure was 3.63 KPa when the density was improved to 1.05 ton/m(3); for the Xinjian 1/3 coking coal, the values of swelling pressure changed significantly and the maximum values was 82.88 KPa with the density improved to 1.05 when the coal was heated to 600°C. The coke porosity, which was investigated by automatic microphotometer, decreased from 47.4% to 33.1% with the increasing of the density from 0.85 ton/m(3) to 1.05 ton/m(3), and the decreased value was 14.3%. Meanwhile, the pore structures of four cokes were characterized by an optical microscope. PMID:25078833

  14. Method for characterizing the coking tendencies of baseoils and additive-treated oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a method of characterizing the coking tendency of baseoil. The method consists the steps of: (a) subjecting the baseoil to conditions which accelerate asphaltene coke precursor formation in the baseoil, and (b) characterizing the coking tendency of the baseoil by determining (i) the onset and progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time or (ii) the progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time, wherein a faster onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation indicates a higher coking tendency of the baseoil than a slower onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation.

  15. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkinen, M.; Mäkelä, K.; Vuorela, T.; Palovuori, K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  16. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  17. Methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40 % by weight. There are some coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have big resources of the coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for the coke production would allow to broad up the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C`s lab shown some differences in coal properties in dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of well caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way of low caking coals application in coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method is been known for a very loner time acro. It may be divided into two possible directions of briquettes using. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is briquettes adding to coal blend in defined proportion and its combined coking. The possibility of application of coal benefication methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  18. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  19. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  20. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  1. Mechanisms of coke formation and fouling in thermal cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, R.K.; Rangwala, H.A.; Hsi, C.

    1995-12-31

    When heavy oil is cracked to produce distillate, coking of the reacting liquid is, in general, preceded by formation of a new, highly viscous liquid phase, rich in coke precursors. Results from pilot-scale experiments using feedstocks from Gudao (China) reported here show that inert-gas stripping of light distillates from the reacting liquid strongly inhibits coking and possibly the partition of precursors into the new phase. Heavy oil, rich in asphaltene, is often reported to have a high coking propensity. This paper provides experimental evidence to show that the asphaltene concentration is not the most critical factor in the coking propensity of heavy oil. Autoclave tests show that the liquid product could contain more than 40% of asphaltene, and yield only 60% of the coke produced by similar tests in which the liquid product contains less than 20% asphaltene. The solubility of asphaltene in the reaction liquid is the most crucial factor affecting coke yield. It controls the coking mechanisms and the fouling tendency of the resulting coke.

  2. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces.

    PubMed

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2011-10-17

    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. PMID:21956815

  3. Operational test of micro-oven for 48Ca beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Kageyama, T.; Kidera, M.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    In order to supply a high-intensity and stable 48Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we are conducting operational tests of a micro-oven. A mixture of CaO and Al powders is placed into the crucible of the micro-oven and heated to produce metallic calcium by a reductive reaction. The successful production of a calcium beam was confirmed. In addition, we reduced the material consumption rate by using a so-called "hot liner," and we enhanced the beam intensity by applying a negative voltage bias to the micro-oven, the effect of which is similar to the effect of a "biased disk."

  4. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  5. Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Mills, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

  6. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  7. Household oven doors: a burn hazard in children.

    PubMed

    Yen, K L; Bank, D E; O'Neill, A M; Yurt, R W

    2001-01-01

    Contact with hot oven doors is an important cause of burns in pediatric patients. These burns are of particular concern because of their frequent localization to the hands, with the resulting negative implications for financial cost, long-term cosmesis, and hand function. A 5-year review of pediatric oven door burn cases admitted to a burn referral center was conducted. Of the 14 cases identified, the median age was 12 months. The median total body surface area (TBSA) was 1.75% (range, 0.5%-4.5%). Twelve of 14 cases involved 1 or both hands. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days. In 7 cases, burns were sustained from contact to an external surface of the oven. Based on the results obtained, we propose several prevention strategies. PMID:11177068

  8. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  9. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  10. Formed coke production with recovery of medium btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, E.

    1981-09-08

    In the fluidized carbonization and calcination of coal to form a reactive coal calcinate for admixture with bituminous binder for briquetting, curing, and coking to produce form coke, there is improvement in recovering medium Btu gases in the overheads by using as the fluidizing medium oxygen diluted with steam or carbon dioxide and removing the steam or carbon dioxide from the overheads.

  11. "Fishing" of heteropolyacids into carbonaceous seine via coking.

    PubMed

    Sushkevich, Vitaly L; Ivanova, Irina I; Lancelot, Christine; Moldovan, Simona; Ersen, Ovidiu; Ordomsky, Vitaly V

    2015-12-14

    The carbon encapsulated tungstophosphoric acid was synthesized by the controlled coking during gas phase reaction of formaldehyde with isobutene. The as-made material showed unique stability toward leaching in the aqueous phase due to localization of HPA clusters inside the porous coke matrix with high activity in the esterification reaction. PMID:26451706

  12. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  13. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  14. Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Díez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

    2004-03-01

    Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

  15. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  16. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    In the early development of jet engines, it was occasionally found that excessive amounts of coke or other carbonaceous deposits were formed in the combustion chamber. Sometimes a considerable amount of smoke was noted in the-exhaust gases. Excessive coke deposits may adversely affect jet-engine performance in several ways. The formation of excessive amounts of coke on or just downstream of a fuel nozzle (figs. 116(a) and (b)) changes the fuel-spray pattern and possibly affects combustor life and performance. Similar effects on performance can result from the deposition of coke on primary-air entry ports (fig. 116(c)). Sea-level or altitude starting may be impaired by the deposition of coke on spark-plug electrodes (fig. 116(b)), deposits either grounding the electrodes completely or causing the spark to occur at positions other than the intended gap. For some time it was thought that large deposits of coke in turbojet combustion chambers (fig. 116(a)) might break away and damage turbine blades; however, experience has indicated that for metal blades this problem is insignificant. (Cermet turbine blades may be damaged by loose coke deposits.) Finally, the deposition of coke may cause high-temperature areas, which promote liner warping and cracking (fig. 116(d)) from excessive temperature gradients and variations in thermal-expansion rates. Smoke in the exhaust gases does not generally impair engine performance but may be undesirable from a tactical or a nuisance standpoint. Appendix B of reference 1 and references 2 to 4 present data obtained from full-scale engines operated on test stands and from flight tests that indicate some effects on performance caused by coke deposits and smoke. Some information about the mechanism of coke formation is given in reference 5 and chapter IX. The data indicate that (1) high-boiling fuel residuals and partly polymerized products may be mixed with a large amount of smoke formed in the gas phase to account for the consistency

  17. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  18. Radiant heat source, vacuum bag, provide portable bonding oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, A. H.

    1967-01-01

    Portable bonding oven is formed to any desired size or configuration to attach doublers and brackets to the surfaces of large structures. A radiant heat source is used in combination with a heat resistant transport vacuum bag and a black heat absorbing cloth.

  19. Interior oblique view of the north side bay showing ovens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view of the north side bay showing ovens and tongs in the foreground and a press behind at the right. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  1. 7 CFR 3201.72 - Oven and grill cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... loosen charred food, grease, and residue. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement... the finished product. (c) Preference compliance date. No later than July 23, 2012, procuring agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased oven...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.72 - Oven and grill cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... loosen charred food, grease, and residue. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement... the finished product. (c) Preference compliance date. No later than July 23, 2012, procuring agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased oven...

  3. OVEN & LAVA Subsystems in the RESOLVE Payload for Resource Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine E.

    2015-01-01

    A short briefing in Power Point of the status of the OVEN subsystem and the LAVA subsystems of the RESOLVE payload being developed under the Resource Prospector mission. The purpose of the mission is to sample and analyze volatile ices embedded in the lunar soil at the poles of the Moon and is expected to be conducted in the 2020 time frame.

  4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND SLAB BEING PROCESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH OVENS AND SLAB BEING PROCESSED THROUGH PRESS/STECKLER (RIGHT). HEATED SLABS MAKE SEVERAL PASSES THROUGH THE STECKLER WITH THICKNESS OF THE SLAB DECREASED UNTIL REQUIRED GAGE IS REACHED. - Central Iron Foundry, Hot Strip Mill Building, 1700 Holt Road, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Air pollution control and heat recovery system for industrial ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-30

    A system of air pollution control and heat recovery is provided for an arrangement of industrial ovens, especially for drum manufacture. A plurality of paint bake ovens of various capacities, lengths and heat input are provided for multi-stage processing in the manufacture of drums and lids therefor. A supply of high temperature water is provided for multi-stage cleaning and rinsing in the manufacturing operation. The combined exhaust from the oven is preheated in a heat exchanger and then all of the combustible components are burnt off by passing through the flames of an incinerator grid burner. The effluent from the burner first passes through the heat exchanger to preheat said oven exhaust gases and then through hot water coils to provide all of the necessary hot water for the system. High pressure hot water (275/sup 0/) is provided in this heat exchange operation. The hot gasses from the last heat exchanger, completely free of combustible contaminates, are mixed with fresh air to supply hot air for the dryers used in the process. There is a substantially complete recovery of heat and the gasses discharged to atmosphere meet air quality standards.

  7. Microwave Oven Experiments with Metals and Light Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    "Don't put metal objects in the microwave" is common safety advice. But why? Here we describe demonstration experiments involving placing household metallic objects in a microwave oven. These allow a better understanding of the interaction of microwaves with materials. Light bulbs and discharge lamps can also be used in instructive demonstrations.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1179 - For curing ovens, what standards must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false For curing ovens, what standards must... Standards § 63.1179 For curing ovens, what standards must I meet? (a) You must control emissions from each existing, new, or reconstructed curing oven by limiting emissions of formaldehyde to either of...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1179 - For curing ovens, what standards must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For curing ovens, what standards must... Standards § 63.1179 For curing ovens, what standards must I meet? (a) You must control emissions from each existing, new, or reconstructed curing oven by limiting emissions of formaldehyde to either of...

  10. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... published on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16040), DOE tested 32 microwave ovens, and the Association of Home... Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... current active mode provisions in its test procedure for microwave ovens do not produce accurate...

  11. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2: Supporting appendices, oven study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Calculations and data regarding the development of a galley oven for use in the space shuttle are presented. Heat flow, heat transfer, and food heating characteristics are given for various oven designs. A design approach to guarantee structural reliability is also presented, in which the oven closure, door, and basic mounting points are considered.

  12. Liver, lung and kidney homogenates used as an activation system in mutagenicity studies of airborne particles and of expectorate and urine samples from exposed workers in a coke plant.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, A; Schmid, R; Zahlsen, K

    1991-01-01

    A comparison was made between lung and kidney homogenates on the one hand and liver S9 from rats on the other hand in order to compare their ability to activate promutagens. The Salmonella reversion assay was used on extracts of airborne particles from the top of coke oven batteries, and of expectorate and urine samples from exposed workers in the same coke plant. The contents of benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene in the different test solutions were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both mutagens were detected in the filter extract and in the expectorates from the exposed workers but not in the expectorates from the control groups or in the urine samples. The liver S9 gave significantly higher mutagenicity than lung and kidney activation with both filter samples and expectorate and urine samples. PMID:1988823

  13. Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-09-15

    Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... January 1, 1998; (i) For coke oven doors: (A) 4.3 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product... leaking coke oven doors on each tall by-product coke oven battery and for each by-product coke oven... limitations: (i) For coke oven doors; (A) 4.0 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product...

  15. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... January 1, 1998; (i) For coke oven doors: (A) 4.3 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product... leaking coke oven doors on each tall by-product coke oven battery and for each by-product coke oven... limitations: (i) For coke oven doors; (A) 4.0 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product...

  16. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... January 1, 1998; (i) For coke oven doors: (A) 4.3 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product... leaking coke oven doors on each tall by-product coke oven battery and for each by-product coke oven... limitations: (i) For coke oven doors; (A) 4.0 percent leaking coke oven doors for each tall by-product...

  17. Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova

    2009-04-15

    In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

  18. Characteristics of laboratory-coked resid HDS catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, J. Wang, Y.; Ernst, W.R. )

    1990-12-01

    A sample of commercial residual oil hydrotreating catalyst with a bimodal pore structure was coked to progressively higher levels with styrene at 425{degree}C. Measurements of porosity by mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry, and coronene diffusivity reveal the importance of the pore network to the structure of the coked catalyst. The role played by 'shielded' large pores within the structure is demonstrated. It is proposed that coking first occurs at the junctions between large, shielded pores and narrow connecting pores. The results are discussed in terms of the theoretical predictions of Mann and co-workers.

  19. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  20. Utilization of spent coking plant acid

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'eva, I.V.; Vasilenko, N.Y.; Mostovaya, V.G.; Tret'yak, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    A feasibility study is described for using spent regenerated sulfuric acid from a coking plant, containing 540-640 g/l H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, to pickle metals. Results were compared with the performance of a solution of technical sulfuric acid in pickling high-carbon and low-alloy steels. It was found economically feasible to use the spent regenerated acid as the basic pickling solution. The degree of protection of the metal against corrosion is 85%, which can be increased to 98-99% if inhibitors are added to the acid. Only one-fifth as much inhibitor is needed with the regenerated acid as with the technical sulfuric acid.

  1. Energy-efficient ovens for unpolluted balady bread

    SciTech Connect

    Gadalla, M.A.; Mansour, M.S.; Mahdy, E.; El-Mahallawy, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    A new bread oven has been developed, tested and presented in this work for local balady bread. The design has the advantage of being efficient and producing unpolluted bread. An extensive study of the conventional and available designs has been carried out in order to help developing the new design. Evaluation of the conventional design is based on numerous tests and measurements. A computer code utilizing the indirect method has been developed to evaluate the thermal performance of the tested ovens. The present design achieves higher thermal efficiency of about 50% than the conventional ones. In addition, its capital cost is much cheaper than other imported designs. Thus, the present design achieves higher efficiency, pollutant free products and less cost. Moreover, it may be modified for different types of bread baking systems.

  2. Dry-heat Depyrogenation Ovens for Pharmaceutical Compounding Facilities.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tom; Kragseth, Rolf; Dullinger, Roger; Illum, Henrik; Perry, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization kills microorganisms in compounded preparations, on the implements used to prepare them, and on the vessels that contain them, but depyrogenation incinerates the remaining debris and renders the treated tool, container, or meditation pyrogen free. Depyrogenation is thus an essential step in the preparation of sterile compounds, and the pharmacist who dispenses those formulations is directly responsible for ensuring their safety, potency, and purity. Dry heat provided by a depyrogenation oven or tunnel is the pharmaceutical gold standard for ensuring the elimination of pyrogens. In this report, we describe several depyrogenation ovens that are compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practice standards and are appropriate for use in aseptic-compounding facilities that meet the guidelines set forth in United States Pharmacopela Chapter <797>. PMID:26714359

  3. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M

    2000-12-01

    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression. PMID:11189868

  4. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    PubMed

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P < 0.05). Roast weights ≥1 kg had lesser cooking loss, more uniform internal color and tender compared to 0.5 kg (P < 0.05). Consequently, roasting at low temperature without searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg. PMID:26788289

  5. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  6. 2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS PIPELINE, URR COAL LOADING STATION, CONRAIL PORT PERRY BRIDGE, URR HOT METAL BRIDGE, USSSTEEL EDGAR THOMSON WORKS. - Conrail Port Perry Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  8. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  9. Effects of Annealing on Microstructure and Microstrength of Metallurgical Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xing; Zhang, Guangqing; Rogers, Harold; Zulli, Paul; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    Two metallurgical cokes were heat treated at 1673 K to 2273 K (1400 °C to 2000 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microstrength of metallurgical cokes was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultra-microindentation. In the process of heat treatment, the microstructure of the metallurgical cokes transformed toward the graphite structure. Raman spectroscopy of reactive maceral-derived component (RMDC) and inert maceral-derived component (IMDC) indicated that the graphitisation degree of the RMDC was slightly lower than that of the IMDC in the original cokes; however graphitisation of the RMDC progressed faster than that of the IMDC during annealing, and became significantly higher after annealing at 2273 K (2000 °C). The microstrength of cokes was significantly degraded in the process of heat treatment. The microstrength of the RMDC was lower, and of its deterioration caused by heat treatment was more severe than IMDC. The degradation of the microstrength of cokes was attributed to their increased graphitisation degree during the heat treatment.

  10. Biological treatment of full-strength coke plant wastewater at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Removal of ammonia from wastewater is fast becoming a major issue for both industrial and municipal dischargers. Geneva Steel, spurred by changes in both air and water regulations, recently installed an innovative biological wastewater treatment plant for high-strength coke plant wastewater. Wastewater containing ammonia concentrations over 3,000 ppm, chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 8,000 ppm and high cyanide, thiocyanate, phenol and other organic compounds is biologically treated to comply with EPA's Best Available Treatment (BAT) standards. Start-up and operation of the plant showed that proper influent equalization as well as careful control of reactor temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and solids inventory will result in an effluent with ammonia concentrations below 10 ppm, COD's below 600 ppm, negligible phenol and thiocyanate concentrations, and organic loadings well below BAT requirements. It was also shown that nitrification and denitrification can take place in a single continuous flow reactor with only one sludge. This single-sludge treatment process has significant economic and operational benefits over conventional coke plant wastewater treatment processes.

  11. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S.

    2009-07-01

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  12. Effect of different pH coking wastewater on adsorption of coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    H2SO4 has an effect on the sorption of organic contaminants by coking coal (CC) in wastewater. This paper focused on the effect of pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols and ammonia. UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, zeta potential and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis were investigated to characterize the changes of CC properties and coking wastewater (CW) at different pH values. The results showed that the COD and phenol removal efficiencies increased with decreasing pH value, while the ammonia removal efficiency was decreased gradually. A new transmittance band in the region of 340-600 cm(-1) was observed in UV-vis spectra of CW in acidic condition. The absolute value of the zeta potential as the solution was gradually increasing with the increasing of pH value. Surface area and total pore volume of CC which was immersed in acidic solutions measured by BET were much higher than that of raw CC. CC has a greater adsorption capacity to organic pollution in the acidic solution mainly by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. PMID:26877041

  13. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  14. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2016-06-01

    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  15. 75 FR 11936 - USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of... Coke Works, Clairton, Pennsylvania. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  16. A phase-separation kinetic model for coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehe, I.A. . Corporate Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Coke formation during the thermolysis of petroleum residua is postulated to occur by a mechanism that involves the liquid-liquid phase separation of reacted asphaltenes to form a phase that is lean in abstractable hydrogen. This mechanism provides the basis of a model that quantitatively describes the kinetics for the thermolysis of Cold Lake vacuum residuum and its deasphalted oil in an open-tube reactor at 400 C. The previously unreacted asphaltenes were found to be the fraction with the highest rate of thermal reaction but with the least extent of reaction. This not only described the appearance and disappearance of asphaltenes but also quantitatively described the variation in molecular weight and hydrogen content of the asphaltenes with reaction time. Further evidence of the liquid-liquid phase separation was the observation of spherical particles of liquid crystalline coke and the preferential conversion of the most associated asphaltenes to coke.

  17. A phase separation kinetic model for coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehe, I.A.

    1993-12-31

    Coke formation during the thermolysis of petroleum residua is postulated to occur by a mechanism that involves the liquid-liquid phase separation of reacted asphaltenes to form a phase that is lean in abstractable hydrogen. This mechanism provides the basis of a model the quantitatively describes the kinetics for the thermolysis of Cold Lake vacuum residuum and its deasphalted oil in an open tube reactor at 400{degrees}C. The previously unreacted asphaltenes were found to be the fraction with the highest rate of thermal reaction but with the least extent of reaction. Further evidence of the liquid-liquid phase separation was the observation of spherical particles of liquid crystalline coke and the preferential conversion of the most associated asphaltenes to coke.

  18. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  19. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations.

    PubMed

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Although consistently low, TWA total fiber concentrations varied with plant, job (tasks), and type of coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Analysis of task length average (TLA) data by various statistical techniques indicates that the average carbon/coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml. PMID:16326398

  20. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  1. Progress toward the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Chiramoute, J.; Pack, G.E.; Patterson, J.

    1983-08-01

    A progress report is given on the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant. The plant gasifies petroleum coke in a fluidized bed to produce syngas for the methanol plant already on site and fuel gas for a combined cycle. The plant will produce 24,000 gallons of chemical grade methanol per day and will cogenerate electricity at about 10 MWe. The coke that is used as the raw feed stock is from a local refinery's fluid coker unit and is sized at minus 6 mm (0.25 inches) and has a heating value of 31 MJ/kg (14,700 Btu/lb). The coke, which is 90% carbon, is relatively unreactive, but can be economically gasified with a catalyst using TOSCO's coke gasification process at 650-850/sup 0/ C (1200-1500/sup 0/ F). This process is unique in that a catalyst reduces the gasification temperature which in turn lowers the oxygen requirements. This lower temperature prevents a slagging ash problem, so typical in other gasification processes. The process also uses less steam than other non-catalytic fluid-bed gasification processes. The capital cost of the plant is 24.2 million dollars and the operating cost is 5.24 million dollars per year. Low interest (8.8%) State of California loans for methanol production are used as well as the alcohol tax credit. The energy cost was found to be around $5/MMBtu for a 20 cent/gal tax credit and a coke feed at $20/ton.

  2. Production of blast furnace coke via novel briquetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

    1982-12-07

    A method of making high strength coke briquettes suitable for use as blast furnace coke comprising, (A) providing coal, (B) heating the coal at a temperature at or above the softening point of the coal to form partially carbonized char, (C) cooling the partially carbonized char below the softening point of the coal, (D) mixing the cooled partially carbonized char and tar to form a mixture of tar and partially carbonized char, (E) briquetting the mixture of tar and partially carbonized char to form briquettes of tar and partially carbonized char, (F) calcinating the briquettes to form high strength briquettes.

  3. Temperament and intuition: a commentary on Feltz and Cokely.

    PubMed

    Nadelhoffer, Thomas; Kvaran, Trevor; Nahmias, Eddy

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we examine Adam Feltz and Edward Cokely's recent claim that "the personality trait extraversion predicts people's intuitions about the relationship of determinism to free will and moral responsibility" (INSERT REFERENCE). We will first present some criticisms of their work before briefly examining the results of a recent study of our own. We argue that while Feltz and Cokely have their finger on the pulse of an interesting and important issue, they have not established a robust and stable connection between extraversion and compatibilist-friendly intuitions. PMID:19136280

  4. Supercritical convection, critical heat flux, and coking characteristics of propane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Gross, R. S.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of propane at subcritical and supercritical pressure were experimentally evaluated using electrically heated Monel K-500 tubes. A design correlation for supercritical heat transfer coefficient was established using the approach previously applied to supercritical oxygen. Flow oscillations were observed and the onset of these oscillations at supercritical pressures was correlated with wall-to-bulk temperature ratio and velocity. The critical heat flux measured at subcritical pressure was correlated with the product of velocity and subcooling. Long duration tests at fixed heat flux conditions were conducted to evaluate coking on the coolant side tube wall and coking rates comparable to RP-1 were observed.

  5. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim Final Rule incorporated by... measurements and calculations in the conventional cooking products test procedure. 76 FR 72331 (Nov. 23, 2011... covered product for the DOE microwave oven test procedure. 76 FR 72332, 72336 (Nov. 23, 2011)....

  6. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to provide for the measurement of standby mode and off mode power use by microwave ovens. These amendments incorporate into the DOE test procedure provisions from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 62301, ``Household electrical......

  7. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... products to measure their efficiency and energy use more accurately. 62 FR 51976. The microwave oven test... first cycle of these rulemakings and issued a final rule on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 48038), in which... ovens. In a final rule published on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16040) (hereafter referred to as the...

  8. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    PubMed

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  9. Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin

    2009-05-15

    This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

  10. Properties of spent active coke particles analysed via comminution in spouted bed.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  11. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  12. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  13. First TEGA Oven is Ready to Accept a Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer instrument has been checked out and has been approved to accept the sample from the location informally called 'Baby Bear'. Although the doors did not fully open, tests have shown that enough sample will get in to fill the tiny oven. This image was taken on the eighth day of the Mars mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008) by the Robotic Arm Camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COKE BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial screening study, initiating a multimedia environmental assessment of coke by-product recovery plants in the U.S. The study included both the gathering and analysis of existing data and sampling and analysis at one plant based on EPA's Indust...

  15. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  16. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  17. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  18. Using the undersizes of Karaganda coals in coking charges

    SciTech Connect

    Muzychuk, V.D.; Chernyak, Yu.B.; Khegai, U.; Tyrchenkova, L.M.; Vasyuchkov, E.I.; Vlasova, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for coking coals have increased considerably in the Karaganda basin in connection with starting up the Vostochaya Central Concentrating Mill and coal treatment plant No. 2 of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex, as well as in connection with the increase in the use of Karaganda coking coals which has taken place at the plants in the Ural and Ukraine regions. The problem of expanding the source of raw materials is of current interest due to the involvement of Karaganda coals with a high ash content in the charge. In this connection, undersizes of the fine classes of Karaganda coals presently used to meet energy needs are of considerable interest. This paper discusses how an undersize of types K and K2 Karaganda coals can be used in determined amounts in the coking charges of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex. When the amount of type KZh coals in a charges is decreased (less than or equal to 50%), the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine must be no more than 5% due to their inferior agglutinating power. When the content of type KZh coal is 55% or more, the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine can be increased to 7%. Coal undersizes from the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution mine possess a higher agglutinating power than those from the Karaganda mine. However, it is not advisable to feed them into a coking charge in an amount surpassing 5% at the present time due to the higher ash content.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF DRY COKE QUENCHING VS. CONTINUOUS WET QUENCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the multimedia environmental impacts of continuous wet and dry quenching at National Steel's Weirton, West Virginia, Brown's Island coke plant. The report, based primarily on design data, test data from related processes, and engineeri...

  20. 30. XX byproducts building (containing coke gas compressors at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. XX by-products building (containing coke gas compressors at north end, ammonia stills in south end), #20 coal conveyor jutting out of top on east side, continuing out west side to bunker. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI