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Sample records for insecticides iv diseases

  1. Insecticide Control of Vector-Borne Diseases: When Is Insecticide Resistance a Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Ana; Vézilier, Julien; Weill, Mylène; Read, Andrew F.; Gandon, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way—and there may be no simple generality—the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention. PMID:20700451

  2. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  3. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth

    PubMed Central

    David, Jean-Philippe; Ismail, Hanafy Mahmoud; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Paine, Mark John Ingraham

    2013-01-01

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementation of control interventions and reduce their environmental impact on Earth. Recent technological advances are helping us to build a functional profile of the P450 determinants of insecticide metabolic resistance in mosquitoes. Alongside, the cross-responses of mosquito P450s to insecticides and pollutants are also being investigated. Such research will provide the means to produce diagnostic tools for early detection of P450s linked to resistance. It will also enable the design of new insecticides with optimized efficacy in different environments. PMID:23297352

  4. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Henk; Zaim, Morteza; Soares, Agnes; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Mnzava, Abraham; Hii, Jeffrey; Dash, Aditya Prasad; Ejov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for control of vector-borne diseases for the period 2000 through 2009. Methods: A survey was distributed to countries with vector control programs to request national data on vector control insecticide use, excluding the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs). Data were received from 125 countries, representing 97% of the human populations of 143 targeted countries. Results: The main disease targeted with insecticides was malaria, followed by dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. The use of vector control insecticides was dominated by organochlorines [i.e., DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)] in terms of quantity applied (71% of total) and by pyrethroids in terms of the surface or area covered (81% of total). Global use of DDT for vector control, most of which was in India alone, was fairly constant during 2000 through 2009. In Africa, pyrethroid use increased in countries that also achieved high coverage for LNs, and DDT increased sharply until 2008 but dropped in 2009. Conclusions: The global use of DDT has not changed substantially since the Stockholm Convention went into effect. The dominance of pyrethroid use has major implications because of the spread of insecticide resistance with the potential to reduce the efficacy of LNs. Managing insecticide resistance should be coordinated between disease-specific programs and sectors of public health and agriculture within the context of an integrated vector management approach. PMID:22251458

  5. Review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. The complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent’) properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. The development of “physiological” resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and disease vectors around the world. In Thailand, resistance in many mosquito populations has developed to all three classes of insecticidal active ingredients currently used for vector control with a majority being synthetic-derived pyrethroids. Evidence of low-grade insecticide resistance requires immediate countermeasures to mitigate further intensification and spread of the genetic mechanisms responsible for resistance. This can take the form of rotation of a different class of chemical, addition of a synergist, mixtures of chemicals or concurrent mosaic application of different classes of chemicals. From the gathered evidence, the distribution and degree of physiological resistance has been restricted in specific areas of Thailand in spite of long-term use of chemicals to control insect pests and disease vectors throughout the country. Most surprisingly, there have been no reported cases of pyrethroid resistance in anopheline populations in the country from 2000 to 2011. The precise reasons for this are unclear but we assume that behavioral avoidance to insecticides may play a significant role in reducing the selection pressure and thus occurrence and spread of insecticide resistance. The review herein provides information regarding the status of physiological resistance and behavioral avoidance of the primary mosquito vectors of human diseases to insecticides in Thailand from 2000 to 2011. PMID:24294938

  6. Multiple Insecticide Resistances in the Disease Vector Culex p. Quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Milesi, Pascal; Makoundou, Patrick; Unal, Sandra; Zumbo, Betty; Atyame, Célestine; Darriet, Frédéric; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Thiria, Julien; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Iyaloo, Diana P.; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Labbé, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations

  7. Chronic motor neuron disease possibly related to intoxication with organochlorine insecticides.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R G; Resende, L A; Silva, M D; Camargo, A

    1993-07-01

    We report on two patients with a history of chronic exposure to organochlorine insecticides who developed clinical and electromyographic signs and symptoms of chronic motor neuron disease. Measurements of aldrin, lindane and heptachlor confirmed the intoxication. We emphasize the importance of searching for toxic and environmental factors in cases of motor neuron disease especially in Third World countries, where workers usually wear no adequate protective equipment. PMID:7690513

  8. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60 years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Methods Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Results Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24 hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. Conclusions The low resistance observed in Mayotte’s main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a

  9. The impact of insecticide-resistance on control of vectors and vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    Busvine, J. R.; Pal, R.

    1969-01-01

    A questionnaire inquiring into the nature of schemes for the insecticidal control of disease vectors, the development of resistance in these vectors, and the effect of any such resistance on their control and on the extent of disease was sent to more than 100 health authorities throughout the world. The replies to the questionnaire are summarized in this paper. Until recently, the use of insecticides in public health has been largely based on three organochlorine compounds—DDT, HCH and dieldrin. However, in some countries resistance to these has now severely affected control both of many insect species and of the diseases they transmit (e.g., malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, typhus, plague). Certain other public health problems (onchocerciasis, Chagas' disease, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis) have not so far been greatly affected by resistance, but it is difficult to be sure of the continued reliability of the organochlorines. Research in the past 5 years, much of it sponsored by WHO, has shown the value of various organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides as replacements for the organochlorines, although resistance to them, too, can occur. Attention must therefore be focused on all facets of the use of these newer compounds and particular scrutiny made of possible instances of resistance to them. PMID:5307234

  10. Stability analysis of pine wilt disease model by periodic use of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Awan, Aziz Ullah; Ozair, Muhammad; Din, Qamar; Hussain, Takasar

    2016-12-01

    This work is related to qualitative behaviour of an epidemic model of pine wilt disease. More precisely, we proved that the reproductive number has sharp threshold properties. It has been shown that how vector population can be reduced by the periodic use of insecticides. Numerical simulations show that epidemic level of infected vectors becomes independent of saturation level by including the transmission through mating. PMID:27584035

  11. Epidemiology of and Impact of Insecticide Spraying on Chagas Disease in Communities in the Bolivian Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Menacho, Silvio; Gil, Jose; Spicer, Jennifer; Budde, Julia; Levy, Michael Z.; Bozo, Ricardo W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease control campaigns relying upon residual insecticide spraying have been successful in many Southern American countries. However, in some areas, rapid reinfestation and recrudescence of transmission have occurred. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey in the Bolivian Chaco to evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for T. cruzi infection 11 years after two rounds of blanket insecticide application. We used a cubic B-spline model to estimate change in force of infection over time based on age-specific seroprevalence data. Overall T. cruzi seroprevalence was 51.7%. The prevalence was 19.8% among children 2–15, 72.7% among those 15–30 and 97.1% among participants older than 30 years. Based on the model, the estimated annual force of infection was 4.3% over the two years before the first blanket spray in 2000 and fell to 0.4% for 2001–2002. The estimated annual force of infection for 2004–2005, the 2 year period following the second blanket spray, was 4.6%. However, the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals overlap for all of these estimates. In a multivariable model, only sleeping in a structure with cracks in the walls (aOR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.15–4.78), age and village of residence were associated with infection. Conclusions/Significance As in other areas in the Chaco, we found an extremely high prevalence of Chagas disease. Despite evidence that blanket insecticide application in 2000 may have decreased the force of infection, active transmission is ongoing. Continued spraying vigilance, infestation surveillance, and systematic household improvements are necessary to disrupt and sustain interruption of infection transmission. PMID:23936581

  12. Identification of mutations in Type IV glycogen storage disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Kishnani, P.; Chen, Y.T.

    1994-09-01

    Type IV glycogen storage disease (GSD IV, Andersen disease) is caused by a deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) activity, which results in the accumulation of glycogen with unbranched, long, outer chains in the tissues. The molecular basis of the disease is not known. We studied four patients with the disease; three with typical presentation of progressive liver cirrhosis and failure, and one with severe and fatal neonatal hypotonia and cardiomyopathy. Southern blot analysis with EcoRI or MspI did not detect gross DNA rearrangement, deletion or duplication in patients` glycogen branching enzyme genes. Northern analysis with total cellular RNAs isolated from skin fibroblast MI strains of three patients with typical clinical presentation showed a normal level and size (2.95 kb) of GBE mRNA hybridization band in two and absent mRNA hybridization band in the remaining one. The patient with atypical severe neonatal hypotonia demonstrated a less intense and smaller size (2.75 kb) of mRNA hybridization band. A 210 hp deletion from nucleotide sequence 873 to 1082 which causes 70 amino acids missing from amino acid sequence 262 to 331 was detected in all 17 clones sequenced from the fatal hypotonia patient. This deletion is located in the region which is highly conserved between prokaryotic, yeast and human GBE polypeptide sequences, and also includes the first of the four regions which constitute the catalytic active sites of most of amylolytic enzymes. A point mutation C-T (1633) which changes the amino acid from Arginine to Cystine was found in 19 of 20 cDNA clones from a patient with classical clinical presentation. This point mutation was unique to this patient and was not observed in three other patients or normal controls. This is the first report on the molecular basis of GSD IV and our data indicated the presence of extensive genetic heterogeneity in the disease.

  13. Spectral Studies and Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Insecticidal and Parasitological Activities of Organotin(IV) Complexes of Thio Schiff Bases Having no Donor Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Savita

    1995-01-01

    Twelve new organotin(IV) complexes of the type RnSnLm [where n = 3, m = 1, R = CH3 or C6H5; n = 2, m = 2, R = C6H5 or C4H9 ; L = anion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-amino-5-(o-anisyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole with salicylaldehyde (HL-1), 2- hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HL-2) and 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HL-3)] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductances, electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1H NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectral studies. Thermal studies of two complexes, viz., Ph3Sn (L-1) and Ph2Sn(L-2)2 have been carried out in the temperature range 25-1000∘C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of SnO2 as an end product. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bases and their complexes has also been determined against Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin resistance (2500 units), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporotrichum schenckii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. The Schiff bases (HL-1), (HL-2) and the organotin(IV) compounds have also been tested against various important herbicidal, fungicidal, insecticidal species and also for parasitological activity against freeliving nematode. PMID:18472781

  14. Intensified Surveillance and Insecticide-based Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Gaspe, María Sol; Enriquez, Gustavo F.; Provecho, Yael M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The elimination of Triatoma infestans, the main Chagas disease vector in the Gran Chaco region, remains elusive. We implemented an intensified control strategy based on full-coverage pyrethroid spraying, followed by frequent vector surveillance and immediate selective insecticide treatment of detected foci in a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina with moderate pyrethroid resistance. We assessed long-term impacts, and identified factors and procedures affecting spray effectiveness. Methods and Findings After initial control interventions, timed-manual searches were performed by skilled personnel in 4,053 sites of 353–411 houses inspected every 4–7 months over a 35-month period. Residual insecticide spraying was less effective than expected throughout the three-year period, mainly because of the occurrence of moderate pyrethroid resistance and the limited effectiveness of selective treatment of infested sites only. After initial interventions, peridomestic infestation prevalence always exceeded domestic infestation, and timed-manual searches consistently outperformed householders' bug detection, except in domiciles. Most of the infestations occurred in houses infested at baseline, and were restricted to four main ecotopes. Houses with an early persistent infestation were spatially aggregated up to a distance of 2.5 km. An Akaike-based multi-model inference approach showed that new site-level infestations increased substantially with the local availability of appropriate refugia for triatomine bugs, and with proximity to the nearest site found infested at one or two preceding surveys. Conclusions and Significance Current vector control procedures have limited effectiveness in the Gran Chaco. Selective insecticide sprays must include all sites within the infested house compound. The suppression of T. infestans in rural areas with moderate pyrethroid resistance requires increased efforts and appropriate management actions. In addition to

  15. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying Against Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space-time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. PMID:26416118

  16. [Epidemiology of Chagas' disease in Chile. Serological follow-up of 1,906 inhabitants from an endemic rural area, IV Region, 1991-1993].

    PubMed

    Valdés, J; Contreras, M C; Mercado, R; Rojas, A; Correa, V; Schenone, H

    1994-01-01

    The IV Region (29 degrees 30'-32 degrees 13' south lat.) is located in the center of the geographical area of distribution of Chagas' disease in Chile. Triatoma infestans is the main and almost exclusive vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in this country. The mean prevalence rate of T. cruzi human infection in urban and periurban sections of IV Region is 24.7%. To assess the impact of anti-T. infestans activities, by means of health education and sprayings of dwellings with insecticides, carried out in the IV Region since 1980, during January-February (summer) a serological follow-up to residents from 46 rural chagasic localities was performed. An indirect hemagglutination test and an indirect immunofluorescence test were done to each of the surveyed persons. In 1991, 303 (15.9%) out of 1,906 examined people resulted serologically positive. In 1992, previous discarding the positive individuals found in 1991, 1,334 persons were examined resulting positive 9 (0.7%). In 1993, 1,398 persons were surveyed and 26 (1.9%) were positive. It is noteworthy that none of these 35 positive persons had been surveyed in 1991, being difficult to assert if any was positive before. Two infants, daughters of positive mothers, serologically positive at the beginning, changed to negative in the following survey, indicating that it was a passive transfer of maternal specific antibodies. According to the results of this study, it is concluded that dwelling spraying with persistent-activity insecticides against T. infestans and health education are good tools in the control of T. cruzi human infection, particularly when the involved community participates. PMID:7654291

  17. Benefit of Insecticide-Treated Nets, Curtains and Screening on Vector Borne Diseases, Excluding Malaria: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne L.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.; van den Berg, Henk; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and insecticide-treated house screening (ITS) against Chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Tropical Disease Bulletin databases were searched using intervention, vector- and disease-specific search terms. Cluster or individually randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials with pre- and post-intervention data and rotational design studies were included. Analysis assessed the efficacy of ITNs, ITCs or ITS versus no intervention. Meta-analysis of clinical data was performed and percentage reduction in vector density calculated. Results Twenty-one studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of clinical data could only be performed for four cutaneous leishmaniasis studies which together showed a protective efficacy of ITNs of 77% (95%CI: 39%–91%). Studies of ITC and ITS against cutaneous leishmaniasis also reported significant reductions in disease incidence. Single studies reported a high protective efficacy of ITS against dengue and ITNs against Japanese encephalitis. No studies of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis or onchocerciasis were identified. Conclusion There are likely to be considerable collateral benefits of ITN roll out on cutaneous leishmaniasis where this disease is co-endemic with malaria. Due to the low number of studies identified, issues with reporting of entomological outcomes, and few studies reporting clinical outcomes, it is difficult to make strong conclusions on the effect of ITNs, ITCs or ITS on other VBDs and therefore further studies

  18. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  19. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV) activity in serum and on lymphocytes of MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice correlates with disease onset.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Iizuka, H; Bachovchin, W W; Stollar, B D

    1994-05-01

    DP IV (CD26), a serine protease expressed on activated T cells, participates in immune responses in vivo as well as in vitro. We measured cell surface and serum DP IV in mice of the autoimmune MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) strain, which is characterized by massive T cell proliferation and production of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. The mass of inguinal lymph nodes correlated with serum DP IV activity. Furthermore, serum DP IV activity increased markedly in parallel with the acceleration of lymph node swelling and anti-nDNA antibody production. Serum DP IV activity in 16-week-old MRL/l mice reached levels up to three higher than those in age-matched MRL/Mp- +/+ mice or BALB/c mice. Immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometric analysis identified DV IV on surfaces of lymphocytes from the enlarged lymph nodes of MRL/l mice. Subcutaneous injection of the mechanism-based inhibitor, Pro-boroPro, reduced protease activity in serum and cell suspensions prepared from spleen and lymph nodes, confirming the identity of the enzyme as DP IV. These results indicate that the massively accumulating lymphocytes of MRL/l mice have a property characteristic of activated T cells, although they express little surface CD4 or CD8 and do not produce IL-2. DP IV may participate in the role these cells play in the pathogenesis of MRL/l autoimmune disease. PMID:7910536

  1. Selective Insecticide Applications Directed Against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Affected a Nontarget Secondary Vector of Chagas Disease, Triatoma garciabesi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Planes, L I; Vazquez-Prokopec, G M; Cecere, M C; Canale, D M; Gürtler, R E

    2016-01-01

    The control of nondomiciliated triatomine species adapted to peridomestic habitats represents a challenge because they are connected to sylvatic colonies, and pyrethroid insecticides have limited effects outdoors. The effects of residual insecticide spraying have rarely been assessed on secondary triatomines. Triatoma garciabesi (Carcavallo, Martinez, Cichero, Prosen & Ronderos, 1967) is a nontarget vector that inhabits the dry western Chaco region, and a member of the Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 complex. Little is known on the capacity of T. garciabesi to invade and establish viable domestic or peridomestic colonies, and on its response to residual insecticide sprays directed against Triatoma infestans Klug 1834. The presence and abundance of triatomines were assessed by timed manual collections annually or biannually (spring and fall) during 10 yr after a community-wide insecticide spraying campaign and selective insecticide sprays directed against T. infestans in a rural village of northwestern Argentina. T. garciabesi mainly occupied peridomestic habitats associated with chickens, and was unable to colonize human sleeping quarters. Trees with chickens occurred in nearly all houses and were infested in >25% of the occasions. The abundance of bugs at house-compound level was best explained by a generalized estimating equation model that included selective insecticide sprays during the previous semester (negative effects), chicken abundance (positive effects), seasonality, and their interactions. Our results suggest that insecticide applications targeting T. infestans affected the abundance of T. garciabesi, and reduced the likelihood of future infestation. PMID:26490000

  2. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV: A Case With Histopathologic Findings in First-Trimester Placental Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B; Lund, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr-old woman presented with 2 consecutive miscarriages within 7 mo. Histopathologic examination of the placental tissue showed intracytoplasmic inclusion vacuoles with a strong reaction in Periodic acid-Schiff staining and a slightly pallor reaction in alcian blue staining. Additional molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made on histopathologic examination. Genetic analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis and to offer prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies. PMID:26166723

  3. Design, synthesis and bioassay of new mosquito insecticides and repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New compounds and classes of compounds are needed to protect deployed military personnel from diseases transmitted by medically important arthropods. Historically, the synthetic insecticides and repellents have been effective tools for mosquito control. To develop new synthetic insecticides and repe...

  4. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset: beyond depression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321

  5. A novel GBE1 gene variant in a child with glycogen storage disease type IV.

    PubMed

    Said, Samar M; Murphree, Marine I; Mounajjed, Taofic; El-Youssef, Mounif; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrates caused by deficiency of amylo-1-4-glycanoglycosyltransferase, which leads to accumulation of amylopectin-like polysaccharides in tissues including liver, heart and neuromuscular system. More than 40 different mutations in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1) have been described. In this study, we report a 2-year-old boy who presented with developmental delay and muscle weakness. He subsequently was diagnosed with glycogen storage disease type IV based on a liver biopsy histology and electron microscopy. Glycogen branching enzyme activity was in the low range. Genetic analysis demonstrated a novel heterozygous variant (c.760A>G; p.Thr254Ala) in exon 6 of the GBE1 gene, which is believed to be pathogenic. This variant was inherited from the patient's mother who was asymptomatic with normal glycogen branching enzyme activity. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal additional variations in the GBE1 gene. PMID:27107456

  6. Antibodies to α5 chain of collagen IV are pathogenic in Goodpasture's disease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhao; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Miao; Hu, Shui-Yi; Wang, Su-Xia; Yu, Feng; Brown, Kyle L; Hudson, Billy G; Pedchenko, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    Autoantibody against glomerular basement membrane (GBM) plays a direct role in the initiation and development of Goodpasture's (GP) disease. The principal autoantigen is the non-collagenous domain 1 (NC1) of α3 chain of collagen IV, with two immunodominant epitopes, EA-α3 and EB-α3. We recently demonstrated that antibodies targeting α5NC1 are bound to kidneys in GP patients, suggesting their pathogenic relevance. In the present study, we sought to assess the pathogenicity of the α5 autoantibody with clinical and animal studies. Herein, we present a special case of GP disease with circulating autoantibody reactive exclusively to the α5NC1 domain. This autoantibody reacted with conformational epitopes within GBM collagen IV hexamer and produced a linear IgG staining on frozen sections of human kidney. The antibody binds to the two regions within α5NC1 domain, EA and EB, and inhibition ELISA indicates that they are targeted by distinct sub-populations of autoantibodies. Sequence analysis highlights five residues that determine specificity of antibody targeting EA and EB epitopes of α5NC1 over homologous regions in α3NC1. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant α5NC1 domain induced crescentic glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Thus, patient data and animal studies together reveal the pathogenicity of α5 antibodies. Given previously documented cases of GP disease with antibodies selectively targeting α3NC1 domain, our data presents a conundrum of why α3-specific antibodies developing in majority of GP patients, with α5-specific antibodies emerged in isolated cases, the answer for which is critical for understanding of etiology and progression of the GP disease. PMID:27117167

  7. Tay-Sachs disease in Brazilian patients: prevalence of the IVS7+1g>c mutation.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, R; Martins, A M; Micheletti, C; Mustacchi, Z; Pereira, L V

    2004-01-01

    Seven Brazilian Tay-Sachs disease cases were screened for the most frequent causative mutations. They all presented at least one copy of the IVS7+1g>c mutation. Three patients were homozygotes, three were compound heterozygotes, and in one case only the mother was tested and shown to carry the IVS7+1g>c mutation. In the second allele the compound heterozygotes presented: R178H (the DN allele), InsTATC1278 and an unidentified mutation. The IVS7+1g>c mutation has already been described in three Portuguese patients. In this study, all families were unaware of any Portuguese ancestry. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony, the mutation most probably came from ancient common ancestry. The initial molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease patients in Brazil indicated a prevalence of the IVS7+1g>c mutation, possibly as a result of genetic drift. PMID:15065574

  8. Adaptation and evaluation of the bottle assay for monitoring insecticide resistance in disease vector mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Zamora Perea, Elvira; Balta León, Rosario; Palomino Salcedo, Miriam; Brogdon, William G; Devine, Gregor J

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to establish whether the "bottle assay", a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, can complement and augment the capabilities of the established WHO assay, particularly in resource-poor, logistically challenging environments. Methods Laboratory reared Aedes aegypti and field collected Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albimanus were used to assess the suitability of locally sourced solvents and formulated insecticides for use with the bottle assay. Using these adapted protocols, the ability of the bottle assay and the WHO assay to discriminate between deltamethrin-resistant Anopheles albimanus populations was compared. The diagnostic dose of deltamethrin that would identify resistance in currently susceptible populations of An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti was defined. The robustness of the bottle assay during a surveillance exercise in the Amazon was assessed. Results The bottle assay (using technical or formulated material) and the WHO assay were equally able to differentiate deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible An. albimanus populations. A diagnostic dose of 10 μg a.i./bottle was identified as the most sensitive discriminating dose for characterizing resistance in An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti. Treated bottles, prepared using locally sourced solvents and insecticide formulations, can be stored for > 14 days and used three times. Bottles can be stored and transported under local conditions and field-assays can be completed in a single evening. Conclusion The flexible and portable nature of the bottle assay and the ready availability of its components make it a potentially robust and useful tool for monitoring insecticide resistance and efficacy in remote areas that require minimal cost tools. PMID:19728871

  9. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826

  10. Cox-Maze IV Results for Patients With Lone Atrial Fibrillation Versus Concomitant Mitral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Lindsey L.; Bailey, Marci S.; Prasad, Sunil; Guthrie, Tracey J.; Bell, Jennifer; Moon, Marc R.; Lawton, Jennifer S.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.; Maniar, Hersh S.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study compared Cox-Maze IV (CMIV) outcomes for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with lone AF vs those with AF and mitral valve (MV) disease. Methods Since 2002, 200 patients have undergone a CMIV procedure for lone AF (n = 101) or concomitantly with MV operations (n = 99). Preoperative, perioperative, and late outcomes between these groups were compared. Data were collected prospectively and reported at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Lone AF patients had AF of longer duration; patients with AF and MV disease were older, with larger left atria and worse New York Heart Association classification (p < 0.05). Operative mortality (1% vs 4%, p > 0.05, respectively) was similar between both groups. Perioperative atrial tachyarrhythmias were more prevalent in patients with concomitant MV operations (57% vs 41%, p = 0.03); however, freedom from AF and antiar-rhythmics was similar for both groups at 12 months (76% and 77%). The only predictor for atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence or arrhythmic drug dependence was failure to isolate the posterior left atrium (p < 0.01). Conclusions Patients with AF and MV disease have distinct comorbidities compared with patients with lone AF. However, the CMIV is safe and effective in both groups and should be considered for patients with AF undergoing MV operations. Patients with MV disease had more atrial tachyarrhythmias at 3 months, but freedom from AF and antiarrhythmics was similar to patients with lone AF at 1 year. The posterior left atrium should be isolated in every patient, because this was the only predictor for failure of the CMIV for either group. PMID:22305055

  11. Relationship between serum and hepatic 7S fragments of type IV collagen in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Suou, T; Yamada, S; Hosho, K; Yoshikawa, N; Kawasaki, H

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated the mechanism of increased serum concentrations of the 7S fragment of the N-terminal domain of type IV collagen (7S collagen) in chronic liver disease. We measured the concentrations of hepatic-free and deposited 7S collagens after extraction with Tris-HCl buffer and bacterial collagenase, then compared them with the serum levels in 8 normal controls and 48 patients with chronic liver disease. The hepatic 7S collagen levels extracted with Tris-HCl buffer and collagenase accounted for 7% and 93%, respectively, of the total 7S collagen levels in normal controls. Both hepatic 7S collagen levels as well as serum levels increased in accordance with the progress of liver disease. Serum levels of 7S collagen showed a closer correlation with the hepatic 7S collagen levels extracted with Tris-HCl buffer (r = .822), compared with those extracted with collagenase (r = .382). On the other hand, the histological degrees of liver fibrosis were highly correlated with the hepatic collagenase-extracted 7S collagen levels (r = .822), compared with serum and the hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted levels (r = .478 and r = .537, respectively). Although there was no difference in serum and hepatic 7S collagen levels between B and C viral patients, the serum and hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted 7S collagen levels were higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than patients with viral cirrhosis. However, the hepatic collagenase-extracted levels were similar in both groups. Gel filtration demonstrated that the serum and hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted 7S collagens were mainly eluted in the macromolecular 7S collagen-reactive fraction in cirrhosis, whereas the hepatic collagenase-extracted 7S collagen was eluted in the authentic 7S collagen-reactive fraction. The results suggest that serum 7S collagen levels are not a particularly reliable measure of hepatic fibrosis but reflect the enhanced metabolism, especially synthesis of type IV collagen in the liver. PMID:8621148

  12. Effect of Astragaloside IV on Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Alzheimer's Disease Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Haiyan, Hu; Rensong, Yang; Guoqin, Jin; Xueli, Zhang; Huaying, Xia; Yanwu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is a promising treatment strategy for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the maintenance of renewal and replacement capabilities of endogenous progenitor cells or engrafted stem cells in a pathological environment remains elusive. To investigate the effect of astragaloside IV (ASI) on the proliferation and differentiation of the engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs), we cultured NSCs from the hippocampus of E14 rat embryos, treated the cells with ASI, and then transplanted the cells into the hippocampus of rat AD models. In vitro experimentation showed that 10−5 M ASI induced NSCs to differentiate into β-tubulin III+ and GFAP+ cells. NSCs transplantation into rat AD models resulted in improvements in learning and memory, especially in the ASI-treated groups. ASI treatment resulted in an increase in the number of β-tubulin III+ cells in the hippocampus. Further investigation showed that ASI inhibited PS1 expression in vitro and in vivo. The high-dose ASI downregulated the Notch intracellular domain, whereas the low-dose ASI increased Notch-1 and NICD. In conclusion, ASI treatment resulted in improvements in learning and memory of AD models by promoting NSC proliferation and differentiation partly through the Notch signal pathway. PMID:27034688

  13. Nozzles of insecticide sprayers

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, Fred W.

    1955-01-01

    Certain performance characteristics of the insecticide-sprayer nozzle tip and its relationship to the pressure regulator are discussed. After analysing the effectiveness of residual spraying at various pressures, the author concludes that low-pressure application would best attain the pattern and rate of insecticide discharge laid down by the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides. PMID:14364190

  14. A unique description of stage IV extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) in an adolescent associated with gamma heavy chain disease.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Nupur; Zhu, Bing; Gaitonde, Sujata; Lu, Yang; Schmidt, Mary Lou

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal Marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) is a rare, usually localized disease in children. Advanced stage EMZL in adults is considered incurable, with prolonged remissions after chemotherapy. Gamma heavy chain disease (γHCD) is a rare disease of adults associated with lympho-proliferative processes with no comparable reports in children. A case of stage-IV EMZL with γHCD in an adolescent is discussed including treatment with Bendamustine plus Rituximab. The patient remains disease free 18 months from diagnosis. This case highlights necessity for careful diagnostic work-up to identify indolent lymphomas in children which may respond to less toxic chemotherapy than used for common pediatric lymphomas. PMID:25663537

  15. Randomized trial of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for stage III-IV A & B Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, S; Santarelli, M T; Muriel, F S; Fernández, I; Garcia, I; Schwartz, L; Montero, C; Sanahuja, F L; Magnasco, H; Costa, A

    1992-07-01

    A total of 151 patients with previously untreated Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages III-IV A & B, were randomized to receive CVPP for 6 cycles, or CVPP plus RT 3000 cGy to previously involved areas between the 3rd and 4th cycles. CVPP consists of cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2/i.v., vinblastine 6 mg/m2/i.v. on day 1, procarbazine 100 mg/m2/p.o. and prednisone 40 mg/m2/p.o. on days 1 to 14. Both groups displayed similar clinical characteristics at diagnosis. Sixty-six were treated with CVPP + RT (52 St III and 14 St IV) and 85 with CVPP alone (68 St III and 17 St IV). Complete remission was obtained in 57 (86%) of 66 patients who received CVPP plus RT, and in 62 (73%) of 85 patients treated with CVPP. Five and sixteen patients, respectively, achieved partial responses, while 2 in each group died during treatment. At 7 years, duration of complete remission and failure-free survival were: 51% and 45% for those treated with CVPP plus RT, and 23% and 21% with CVPP alone (p = 0.0150 and P = 0.0016, respectively). Overall survival at 7 years was 71% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.1488). A dose analysis performed in 84 pts showed that 91% and 88% received full protocol doses of CPM and PCZ, respectively, in the CVPP + RT group, and 95% and 94% for CVPP. The WBC nadir was 3.5 and 3.7 x mm3, respectively. Of 25 pts on CVPP + RT who relapsed, 9 are now disease-free, 5 are alive with disease and 11 have died, and with CVPP, of 37 relapsing pts, 18 are disease-free, 5 are alive with disease and 14 are dead.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1498073

  16. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    PubMed

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans. PMID:860135

  17. [Mucopolysaccharidosis. A case report of Morquio's type-A disease (MPS IV-A)].

    PubMed

    Pagni, L; Bartolozzi, L; Giacchetti, D

    1992-11-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis represent a broad spectrum of disorders due to the deficiency of one of a group of enzymes which degrade three classes of mucopolysaccharides: heparan sulfate, dermatan-sulfate and keratan sulfate. The general phenotype includes coarse facies, corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, joint stiffness, hernias, dysostosis multiplex, mucopolysaccharides excretion in the urine and metachromatic staining in peripheral leukocytes and bone marrow. Various components of the MPS phenotype are also found in the mucolipidoses, glycoprotein storage diseases. Detailed clinical and radiologic evaluation and identification of the type of MPS excreted in the urine help to narrow the diagnosis possibilities. Definitive diagnosis requires assay of specific enzymes in various tissues such as cultured skin fibroblasts. For the moment there are 14 types of known mucopolysaccharidoses, including several subtypes. They are classified into Hurler's syndrome (MPS I-H); Scheie's syndrome (MPS I-S); Hurler-Scheie's syndrome (MPS I-H/S); Hunter's syndrome A, B (MPS II-A, B); Sanfilippo's syndrome A,B,C,D (MPS II-A,B,C,D); Morquio's syndrome A,B,C (MSP IV-A,B,C); Maroteaux-Lamy's syndrome (MPS VI) and Sly's syndrome MPS VII). The mucopolysaccharidosis incidence is around 0.04-0.3% of the newborn and they are 1.5% of all congenital disorders. All mucopolysaccharidosis are autosomal recessive disorders, except for Hunter's syndrome that is X-linked and recessive. Patient suffering of MPS, usually, don't show clinical sign from their birth in fact they develop later their characteristics. The average surviving of this patients is around 20-30 years old, and the exitus is due to cardiac failure or to infections to the gastrointestinal tract or to instability of atlantoaxial joint.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1294876

  18. The insecticidal potential of venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer J; Herzig, Volker; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F

    2013-10-01

    Pest insect species are a burden to humans as they destroy crops and serve as vectors for a wide range of diseases including malaria and dengue. Chemical insecticides are currently the dominant approach for combating these pests. However, the de-registration of key classes of chemical insecticides due to their perceived ecological and human health risks in combination with the development of insecticide resistance in many pest insect populations has created an urgent need for improved methods of insect pest control. The venoms of arthropod predators such as spiders and scorpions are a promising source of novel insecticidal peptides that often have different modes of action to extant chemical insecticides. These peptides have been optimized via a prey-predator arms race spanning hundreds of millions of years to target specific types of insect ion channels and receptors. Here we review the current literature on insecticidal venom peptides, with a particular focus on their structural and pharmacological diversity, and discuss their potential for deployment as insecticides. PMID:23525661

  19. IV iron use in patients with higher serum ferritin: case study on anemia in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Anemia management practices in patients on hemodialysis that incorporate a balanced approach to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, use the lowest effective dose of ESA, and provide IV iron therapy in patients with higher serum ferritin levels have become important treatment considerations. This case study, followed by an indepth discussion, addresses these issues and helps to identify safe and effective treatment strategies to assist nurses in improving patient outcomes. PMID:18472686

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi IV Causing Outbreaks of Acute Chagas Disease and Infections by Different Haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; de Sá, Amanda Regina Nichi; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Borges, Lara; Pires, Isa; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. Conclusion/Significance DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes. PMID:22848457

  1. [Morquio disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV-A): clinical aspects, diagnosis and new treatment with enzyme replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Politei, Juan; Schenone, Andrea B; Guelbert, Norberto; Fainboim, Alejandro; Szlago, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV-A (Morquio A disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, that results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin-6-sulfate and keratan sulfate. Clinical presentations reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe phenotype to an attenuated expression. Accumulation of substrate manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia, including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. Other abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with Morquio disease. Elosulfase alfa showed in clinical trials in children and adults a significant and sustained improvement in endurance and urinary levels of keratan sulfate. Data from the ongoing observational, multinational Morquio A Registry Study will provide valuable information on the long-term efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa in patients, as well as on the natural history of this very rare disease. PMID:26172013

  2. [Evaluation of a triatoma infestans eradication program in rural dwellings from the IV region, Chile, by means of serology for Chagas disease in 0-10 years old children].

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Schenone, H; del C Contreras, M; García, A; Bahamonde, M I; Correa, V; Valdés, J; Rojas, A; Jofré, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures employed in the control of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas' disease), in the IV region of Chile through a serological follow up program. For this reason, a serological survey has been carried out in 2,783 children, from 0 to 10 years, who live in rural high endemic areas of the region. The sera were tested using an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) and ELISA techniques with results agreeing in 99.9% of the samples. In children with positive serology xenodiagnosis was performed and blood samples from the corresponding mothers were submitted to serology for Chagas' disease. These additional tests should allow to distinguish between congenital infection and vectorial transmission. It was observed that vectorial transmission of T. cruzi was interrupted in some localities where entomological control has been applied for 10 years, or lowered in those which have been submitted to desinsectations in the last 5 years. On the other hand, a relatively high prevalence of the infection has been detected in some localities. These results suggest an apparent increase of vectorial transmission, indicating the need of readjusting the dwellings insecticide sprayings activities to improve the measures against the vector. PMID:8762674

  3. Screening for DSM-IV-TR Cognitive Disorder NOS in Parkinson’s disease using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pontone, Gregory M.; Palanci, Justin; Williams, James R.; Bassett, Susan Spear

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores the utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) as a screening tool for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis Cognitive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Parkinson’s disease(PD). Methods 125 individuals with PD were diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria for Cognitive Disorder NOS and dementia. Receiver operating characteristics tested the discriminant validity of the MDRS, with the clinician’s diagnosis serving as the gold standard. Results The MDRS ROC curve to discriminate subjects with Cognitive Disorder NOS from non-demented subjects had an AUC of 0.59 (std. err.= 0.08, 95% CI: 0.43–0.74). Conclusions The MDRS is not effective for identifying PD patients with Cognitive Disorder NOS without dementia. PMID:22628158

  4. Branching enzyme activity of cultured amniocytes and chorionic villi: prenatal testing for type IV glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B I; Brown, D H

    1989-01-01

    Although type IV glycogen storage disease (Andersen disease; McKusick 23250) is considered to be a rare, autosomally recessive disorder, of the more than 600 patients with glycogenosis identified in our laboratory by enzymatic assays, 6% have been shown to be deficient in the glycogen branching enzyme. Most of the 38 patients with type IV glycogen storage disease who are known to us have succumbed at a very early age, with the exception of one male teenager, an apparently healthy 7-year-old male, and several 5-year-old patients. Fourteen pregnancies at risk for branching enzyme deficiency have been monitored using cultured amniotic fluid cells, and four additional pregnancies have been screened using cultured chorionic villi. Essentially no branching enzyme activity was detectable in eight samples (amniocytes); activities within the control range were found in five samples (three amniocyte and two chorionic villi samples); and five samples appeared to have been derived from carriers. In two of the cases lacking branching enzyme activity, in which the pregnancies were terminated and fibroblasts were successfully cultured from the aborted fetuses, no branching enzyme activity was found. Another fetus, which was predicted by antenatal assay to be affected, was carried to term. Skin fibroblasts from this baby were deficient in branching enzyme. Pregnancies at risk for glycogen storage disease due to the deficiency of branching enzyme can be successfully monitored using either cultured chorionic villi or amniocytes. PMID:2521770

  5. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  6. Innovative applications for insect viruses: towards insecticide sensitization.

    PubMed

    Lapied, Bruno; Pennetier, Cédric; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Licznar, Patricia; Corbel, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    The effective management of emerging insect-borne disease is dependent on the use of safe and efficacious chemical insecticides. Given the inherent ability of insects to develop resistance, it is essential to propose innovative strategies because insecticides remain the most important element of integrated approaches to vector control. Recently, intracellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of membrane receptors and ion channels targeted by insecticides have been described as new processes for increasing the sensitivity of insecticides. An efficient method might be to infect host insects with recombinant viruses overexpressing specific protein phosphatases/kinases known to regulate specific insecticide-sensitive targets. This attractive strategy could lead to sensitization of the insects, thus reducing the doses of insecticides and increasing the efficacy of treatments. PMID:19251330

  7. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  8. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G; Norris, Douglas E; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B; Coleman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future. PMID:27089119

  9. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K.; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G.; Norris, Douglas E.; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H.; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M.; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future. PMID:27089119

  10. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic metalloproteases and serine proteases have also been examined. The sites of protease toxic activity range from the insect midgut to the hemocoel (body cavity) to the cuticle. This review discusses these insecticidal proteases along with their evaluation and use as potential pesticides. PMID:22069618

  11. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  12. Management of glycemia in diabetic patients with stage IV and V chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Roche-Recinos, Andrea; Charlap, Esti; Markell, Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Data suggest that prevention of progression to end-stage may lie in excellent blood glucose control; however, as kidney disease progresses, the risk of hypoglycemia increases, due to unpredictable insulin kinetics and altered pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic agents. In addition, whole classes of hypoglycemic agents become contraindicated and regimens must be adjusted for declining kidney function. There is no consensus regarding the best therapy for the patient with advanced chronic kidney disease. In the best of circumstances, the care of these patients will involve intensive monitoring, with the input of a team of health care providers creating a coordinated care plan, including dietary advice and a drug regimen tailored to the specific issues faced by the individual patient. An open dialogue is necessary at all times, as patients may become frustrated and attempt self-treatment using over the counter alternatives. PMID:25772643

  13. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  14. Averting a malaria disaster: will insecticide resistance derail malaria control?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary; Magill, Alan; Kolaczinski, Jan; Fornadel, Christen; Gimnig, John; Coetzee, Maureen; Simard, Frederic; Roch, Dabiré K; Hinzoumbe, Clément Kerah; Pickett, John; Schellenberg, David; Gething, Peter; Hoppé, Mark; Hamon, Nicholas

    2016-04-23

    World Malaria Day 2015 highlighted the progress made in the development of new methods of prevention (vaccines and insecticides) and treatment (single dose drugs) of the disease. However, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens the successes made with existing methods. Insecticide resistance has decreased the efficacy of the most commonly used insecticide class of pyrethroids. This decreased efficacy has increased mosquito survival, which is a prelude to rising incidence of malaria and fatalities. Despite intensive research efforts, new insecticides will not reach the market for at least 5 years. Elimination of malaria is not possible without effective mosquito control. Therefore, to combat the threat of resistance, key stakeholders need to rapidly embrace a multifaceted approach including a reduction in the cost of bringing new resistance management methods to market and the streamlining of associated development, policy, and implementation pathways to counter this looming public health catastrophe. PMID:26880124

  15. Newcastle Disease Virus in Madagascar: Identification of an Original Genotype Possibly Deriving from a Died Out Ancestor of Genotype IV

    PubMed Central

    Maminiaina, Olivier F.; Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Albina, Emmanuel; Keita, Djénéba; Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina Rasamoelina; Chevalier, Véronique; Lancelot, Renaud; Martinez, Dominique; Rakotondravao, R.; Rajaonarison, Jean-Joseph; Koko, M.; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel A.; Jestin, Véronique; Servan de Almeida, Renata

    2010-01-01

    In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed. PMID:21085573

  16. Selective primary health care: strategies for control of disease in the developing world. IV. Measles.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J A

    1983-01-01

    Measles, a highly contagious viral disease, kills several hundred thousand infants and young children yearly. Essentially all children will become infected; at least 1% of those living in developing countries will die unless protected by immunization. In urban areas, peak incidence occurs in those younger than three years. The youngest and most undernourished children suffer the most severe complications and the highest risk of death. Diarrhea, malnutrition, pneumonia, and blindness associated with vitamin A deficiency are the worst complications. The infection is preventable by the timely administration of a potent vaccine. This endeavor requires a well-managed technical and administrative network that remains difficult to organize in many areas of the world. The vaccine is efficacious and has few adverse effects but must be provided to children during the short interval between loss of transplacentally acquired antibodies and the acquisition of natural infection. The improvements in heat stability of the vaccine increase the likelihood of providing potent vaccine, but a well-managed cold chain remains a prerequisite for any successful immunization program. Health education, improved management skills, publicity, and community support are all important factors for ultimately preventing the morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:6844806

  17. Fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles leads to uncontrolled exocytosis in the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV.

    PubMed

    Park, Soonhong; Ahuja, Malini; Kim, Min Seuk; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Jha, Archana; Zeng, Mei; Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Zerfas, Patricia M; Eckhaus, Michael A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in TRPML1 cause the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The role of TRPML1 in cell function and how the mutations cause the disease are not well understood. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes. Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV. PMID:26682800

  18. METABOLISM OF CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of studies conducted to determine the metabolic fate of carbamate insecticides and its toxicological significance are presented. Methomyl metabolism in rats was investigated in detail as was Croneton in the rat, cow, pig and chicken. Carbaryl and carbofuran were admin...

  19. Insecticides and excitation behavior.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of mosquitoes with insecticides can result from exposure to surface contact or sprays. Efficacy of surface contact can be impacted by landing and resting behavior on treated surfaces. Behavioral analysis of the landing and resting responses of 3 different mosquito species to pyrethroid-t...

  20. A unifying hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. IV. Causation and sequence of events.

    PubMed

    Heininger, K

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to common concepts, the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) does not follow a suicide but a rescue program. Widely shared features of metabolism in starvation, hibernation and various conditions of energy deprivation, e.g. ischemia, allow the definition of a deprivation syndrome which is a phylogenetically conserved adaptive response to energetic stress. It is characterized by hypometabolism, oxidative stress and adjustments of the glucose-fatty acid cycle. Cumulative evidence suggests that the brain in aging and AD actively adapts to the progressive fuel deprivation. The counterregulatory mechanisms aim to preserve glucose for anabolic needs and promote the oxidative utilization of ketone bodies. The agent mediating the metabolic switch is soluble Abeta which inhibits glucose utilization and stimulates ketone body utilization at various levels. These processes, which are initiated during normal aging, include inhibition of pro-glycolytic neurohormones, cholinergic transmission, and pyruvate dehydrogenase, the key transmitter and effector systems regulating glucose metabolism. Hormonal and effector systems which promote ketone body utilization, such as glucocorticosteroid and galanin activity, GABAergic transmission, nitric oxide, lipid transport, Ca2+ elevation, and ketone body metabolizing enzymes, are enhanced. A multitude of risk factors feed into this pathophysiological cascade at a variety of levels. Taking into account its pleiotropic regulatory actions in the deprivation response, a new name for Abeta is suggested: deprivin. On the other hand, cumulative evidence, taken together compelling, suggests that senile plaques are the dump rather than the driving force of AD. Moreover, the neurotoxic action of fibrillar Abeta is a likely in vitro artifact but does not contribute significantly to the in vivo pathophysiological events. This archaic program, conserved from bacteria to man, aims to ensure the survival of a deprived organism and controls such

  1. ANTICHOLINESTERASE INSECTICIDE RETROSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Casida, John E.; Durkin, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The anticholinesterase (antiChE) organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades. About 90 of these compounds are still in use – the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally (where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs) but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity. Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP450 oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others. Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. The current market for OPs and MCs of 19% of worldwide insecticide sales is only half of that of 10 years ago for several reasons: there have been no major new compounds for 30 years; resistance has eroded their effectiveness; human toxicity problems are still encountered; the patents have expired reducing the incentive to update registration packages; alternative chemotypes or control methods have been developed. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down

  2. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, V) from 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Ho; Han, Chang Hoon; Park, Seon Cheol; Kim, Cheong Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is good evidence for an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression, but there are few studies on the relationship between COPD and suicidal ideation/suicidal attempts. Aims: To evaluate the mental health of patients with COPD in Korea and to compare it with that of the general population. Methods: We analysed data of 15,718 subjects (age ⩾40 years) who participated in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for people aged ⩾40 years. We compared the mental health outcomes of 2,506 patients with COPD (2,355 GOLD stages I and II; 151 GOLD stages III and IV) with those of 13,212 controls. Results: Suicidal thoughts were reported by 16.0% of patients in stages I and II, by 23.8% of those in stages III and IV and by 15.7% of controls (P=0.023). Suicidal attempts were reported by 0.6% of patients in stages I and II, by 2.6% of those in stages III and IV and by 1.0% of controls (P=0.019). The crude odds ratio (OR) for suicidal ideation in those in stages III and IV was 1.68 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16–2.46), and the OR for suicidal attempts in stages III and IV was 2.83 (95% CI, 1.03–7.75). In multivariate analysis, the OR for suicidal ideation in stages III and IV was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.12–2.49) and that for suicidal attempts was 2.94 (95% CI, 1.03–8.31). Conclusions: GOLD stages III and IV COPD were associated with a marked increase in suicidal behaviour. PMID:25356541

  3. Novel and Viable Acetylcholinesterase Target Site for Developing Effective and Environmentally Safe Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market. PMID:22280344

  4. Insecticide Control in a Dengue Epidemics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2010-09-01

    A model for the transmission of dengue disease is presented. It consists of eight mutually-exclusive compartments representing the human and vector dynamics. It also includes a control parameter (insecticide) in order to fight the mosquitoes. The main goal of this work is to investigate the best way to apply the control in order to effectively reduce the number of infected humans and mosquitoes. A case study, using data of the outbreak that occurred in 2009 in Cape Verde, is presented.

  5. GOLD B-C-D groups or GOLD II-III-IV grades: Which one better reflects the functionality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Moreira, Graciane L; Donária, Leila; Furlanetto, Karina C; Paes, Thais; Sant'Anna, Thaís; Hernandes, Nidia A; Pitta, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate which global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) classification (B-C-D or II-III-IV) better reflects the functionality of patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Ninety patients with COPD were classified according to the GOLD B-C-D and II-III-IV classifications. Functionality was assessed by different outcomes: 6-min walk test (6MWT), activities of daily living (ADL) (London Chest ADL Scale), and daily life activity/inactivity variables assessed by activity monitoring (SenseWear armband, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA). The 6MWT was the only outcome significantly associated with both the GOLD classifications. Good functionality as assessed by the 6MWT was observed in 80%, 69%, and 43.5% (GOLD B, C, and D, respectively) and 81%, 59%, and 29% (GOLD II, III, and IV, respectively) of the patients. Association (V Cramer's) and correlation (Spearman) coefficients of 6MWT with GOLD B-C-D and II-III-IV were V = 0.30, r = -0.35, and V = 0.37, r = -0.25, respectively. Neither GOLD classification showed V or r ≥ 0.30 with any other functionality outcome. Both the GOLD B-C-D and II-III-IV classifications do not reflect well COPD patients' functionality. Despite low association and correlation coefficients in general, both GOLD classifications were better associated with functional exercise capacity (6MWT) than with subjectively assessed ADL and objectively assessed outcomes of physical activity/inactivity. PMID:25711468

  6. Effects of insecticides on behavior of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous.

    PubMed

    Butler, Casey D; Byrne, Frank J; Keremane, Manjunath L; Lee, Richard F; Trumble, John T

    2011-04-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacer psyllaurous. Current pest management practices rely on the use of insecticides to control the potato psyllid to lower disease incidences and increase yields. Although many studies have focused on the mortality that insecticides can cause on potato psyllid populations, little is known regarding the behavioral responses of the potato psyllid to insecticides or whether insecticides can decrease pathogen transmission. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of insecticides on adult potato psyllid behaviors, the residual effects of insecticides on potato psyllid behaviors over time, and effects of these insecticides on Ca. L. psyllaurous transmission. Insecticides tested included imidacloprid, kaolin particle film, horticultural spray oil, abamectin, and pymetrozine. All insecticides significantly reduced probing durations and increased the amount of time adult psyllids spent off the leaflets, suggesting that these chemicals may be deterrents to feeding as well as repellents. Nonfeeding behaviors such as tasting, resting, and cleaning showed variable relationships with the different insecticide treatments over time. The insecticides imidacloprid and abamectin significantly lowered transmission of Ca. L. psyllaurous compared with untreated controls. The implications of our results for the selection of insecticides useful for an integrated pest management program for potato psyllid control are discussed. PMID:21510209

  7. Evaluation of pleural effusion sCD26 and DPP-IV as diagnostic biomarkers in lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Otero, Nuria; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; de la Cadena, María Páez; Botana-Rial, María Isabel; Cordero, Oscar J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured ADA and DPP-IV enzymatic activity and sCD26 concentration in 150 pleural effusion (PE) samples and tested for correlations between these and other cellular and biochemical measures. We found that DPP-IV in particular might improve the specificity (but not the sensitivity) of the ADA test for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, since half of the false ADA positive results in non-tuberculous PE were also DPP-IV positive. A percentage of patients with malignant PE were sCD26 or DPP-IV positive; however, some patients with benign PE also tested positive. As a pattern associated with DPP-IV (but not the CD26 protein) was observed in PE, we searched for a finding that might increase the value of these biomarkers for diagnosis of malignancy. The observed pattern was related to the presence of leukocytes, as indicated by correlations with the cell count, and to a band of 180 kDa, detected by immunoblotting. PMID:24499783

  8. Length of efficacy for control of curly top in sugar beet with seed foliar insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top in sugar beet caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is an important yield limiting disease that can be reduced via neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. However the length of efficacy of these insecticides is poorly understood, so a series of field experiments was conducted with the ...

  9. Microgeographical study of insecticide resistance in Triatoma infestans from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Germano, Mónica D; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A

    2013-12-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America where it is currently estimated that 90 million people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemical control with pyrethroid insecticides has been effective to reduce disease transmission in several areas of the Southern Cone, although insecticide resistance has evolved and diminished the campaigns' results. Considering previous reports on the different levels of resistance between Triatoma infestans from different geographical areas, the objective of this work was to determine if T. infestans populations are toxicologically structured within localities. Response to the insecticide was measured and compared between houses of two Argentine localities. Different toxicity of deltamethrin was detected between dwellings of Chaco province, accounting for both susceptible and resistant houses within the same locality. However no difference was found among houses of Salta province. The results obtained in this work suggest that geographical structure is present not only at the between localities level, but also at the microgeograhical level. PMID:23962389

  10. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  11. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  12. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    PubMed

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. PMID:26251334

  13. Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.

    1983-07-01

    Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury.

  14. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-xiao; Guo, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ying-mei; Dong, Yan-de; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Heng-duan; Zhao, Tong-yan

    2016-05-01

    Culex pipiens pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus are important vectors of many diseases, such as West Nile fever and lymphatic filariasis. The widespread use of insecticides to control these disease vectors and other insect pests has led to insecticide resistance becoming common in these species. In this study, high throughout Illumina sequencing was used to identify hundreds of Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus genes that were differentially expressed in response to insecticide exposure. The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes. PMID:26802491

  15. The WHO programme for the evaluation and testing of new insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    For many years the World Health Organization has been engaged in a programme for the control of vector-borne diseases, and in 1960 established a programme for evaluating and testing new insecticides, the special objectives being to find new compounds that would overcome the problem of insecticide resistance and not lead to further contamination of the environment. This paper reviews the present status of control of some of the principal vector-borne diseases of man and describes the WHO programme for insecticide evaluation and testing and the results it has achieved. PMID:5315342

  16. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  17. Toxicity of non-pyrethroid insecticides against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-08-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas disease, which is a public health concern in most Latin American countries. The prevention of Chagas disease is based on the chemical control of the vector using pyrethroid insecticides. In the last decade, different levels of deltamethrin resistance have been detected in certain areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Because of this, alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides from different chemical groups were evaluated against two T. infestans populations, NFS and El Malá, with the objective of finding new insecticides to control resistant insect populations. Toxicity to different insecticides was evaluated in a deltamethrin-susceptible and a deltamethrin-resistant population. Topical application of the insecticides fenitrothion and imidacloprid to first nymphs had lethal effects on both populations, producing 50% lethal dose (LD50) values that ranged from 5.2-28 ng/insect. However, amitraz, flubendiamide, ivermectin, indoxacarb and spinosad showed no insecticidal activity in first instars at the applied doses (LD50 > 200 ng/insect). Fenitrothion and imidacloprid were effective against both deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant populations of T. infestans. Therefore, they may be considered alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides for the control of Chagas disease. PMID:22850959

  18. Electrostatic coating enhances bioavailability of insecticides and breaks pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Rob; Snetselaar, Janneke; Suer, Remco A; Osinga, Anne J; Deschietere, Johan; Lyimo, Issa N; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Brooke, Basil D; Ranson, Hilary; Knols, Bart G J; Farenhorst, Marit

    2015-09-29

    Insecticide resistance poses a significant and increasing threat to the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We present a novel method of insecticide application based on netting treated with an electrostatic coating that binds insecticidal particles through polarity. Electrostatic netting can hold small amounts of insecticides effectively and results in enhanced bioavailability upon contact by the insect. Six pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles mosquito strains from across Africa were exposed to similar concentrations of deltamethrin on electrostatic netting or a standard long-lasting deltamethrin-coated bednet (PermaNet 2.0). Standard WHO exposure bioassays showed that electrostatic netting induced significantly higher mortality rates than the PermaNet, thereby effectively breaking mosquito resistance. Electrostatic netting also induced high mortality in resistant mosquito strains when a 15-fold lower dose of deltamethrin was applied and when the exposure time was reduced to only 5 s. Because different types of particles adhere to electrostatic netting, it is also possible to apply nonpyrethroid insecticides. Three insecticide classes were effective against strains of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, demonstrating that electrostatic netting can be used to deploy a wide range of active insecticides against all major groups of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Promising applications include the use of electrostatic coating on walls or eave curtains and in trapping/contamination devices. We conclude that application of electrostatically adhered particles boosts the efficacy of WHO-recommended insecticides even against resistant mosquitoes. This innovative technique has potential to support the use of unconventional insecticide classes or combinations thereof, potentially offering a significant step forward in managing insecticide resistance in vector-control operations. PMID:26324912

  19. Electrostatic coating enhances bioavailability of insecticides and breaks pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Andriessen, Rob; Snetselaar, Janneke; Suer, Remco A.; Osinga, Anne J.; Deschietere, Johan; Lyimo, Issa N.; Mnyone, Ladslaus L.; Brooke, Basil D.; Ranson, Hilary; Knols, Bart G. J.; Farenhorst, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide resistance poses a significant and increasing threat to the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We present a novel method of insecticide application based on netting treated with an electrostatic coating that binds insecticidal particles through polarity. Electrostatic netting can hold small amounts of insecticides effectively and results in enhanced bioavailability upon contact by the insect. Six pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles mosquito strains from across Africa were exposed to similar concentrations of deltamethrin on electrostatic netting or a standard long-lasting deltamethrin-coated bednet (PermaNet 2.0). Standard WHO exposure bioassays showed that electrostatic netting induced significantly higher mortality rates than the PermaNet, thereby effectively breaking mosquito resistance. Electrostatic netting also induced high mortality in resistant mosquito strains when a 15-fold lower dose of deltamethrin was applied and when the exposure time was reduced to only 5 s. Because different types of particles adhere to electrostatic netting, it is also possible to apply nonpyrethroid insecticides. Three insecticide classes were effective against strains of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, demonstrating that electrostatic netting can be used to deploy a wide range of active insecticides against all major groups of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Promising applications include the use of electrostatic coating on walls or eave curtains and in trapping/contamination devices. We conclude that application of electrostatically adhered particles boosts the efficacy of WHO-recommended insecticides even against resistant mosquitoes. This innovative technique has potential to support the use of unconventional insecticide classes or combinations thereof, potentially offering a significant step forward in managing insecticide resistance in vector-control operations. PMID:26324912

  20. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Abate, Luc; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance raises concerns for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, its impact on parasite transmission could be diverse when considering the ecological interactions between vector and parasite. Thus we investigated the fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance and Plasmodium falciparum infection as well as their interactive cost on Anopheles gambiae survival and fecundity. In absence of infection, we observed a cost on fecundity associated with insecticide resistance. However, survival was higher for mosquito bearing the kdr mutation and equal for those with the ace-1R mutation compared to their insecticide susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, Plasmodium infection reduced survival only in the insecticide resistant strains but not in the susceptible one and infection was associated with an increase in fecundity independently of the strain considered. This study provides evidence for a survival cost associated with infection by Plasmodium parasite only in mosquito selected for insecticide resistance. This suggests that the selection of insecticide resistance mutation may have disturbed the interaction between parasites and vectors, resulting in increased cost of infection. Considering the fitness cost as well as other ecological aspects of this natural mosquito-parasite combination is important to predict the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance. PMID:27432257

  1. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  2. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbénou, Luc S; Abate, Luc; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance raises concerns for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, its impact on parasite transmission could be diverse when considering the ecological interactions between vector and parasite. Thus we investigated the fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance and Plasmodium falciparum infection as well as their interactive cost on Anopheles gambiae survival and fecundity. In absence of infection, we observed a cost on fecundity associated with insecticide resistance. However, survival was higher for mosquito bearing the kdr mutation and equal for those with the ace-1(R) mutation compared to their insecticide susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, Plasmodium infection reduced survival only in the insecticide resistant strains but not in the susceptible one and infection was associated with an increase in fecundity independently of the strain considered. This study provides evidence for a survival cost associated with infection by Plasmodium parasite only in mosquito selected for insecticide resistance. This suggests that the selection of insecticide resistance mutation may have disturbed the interaction between parasites and vectors, resulting in increased cost of infection. Considering the fitness cost as well as other ecological aspects of this natural mosquito-parasite combination is important to predict the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance. PMID:27432257

  3. What role for insecticides in vector control programs?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Jany, W C

    1994-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases including dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, leishmaniasis, and filariasis remain severe public health problems in most of the countries in which they are endemic. In some cases, their incidence is increasing and they are spreading to new geographic areas. For a number of the infections, the most effective manner of controlling their transmission is through control of their vectors. However, in some instances, such as dengue and Chagas' disease, there is no alternative. Most countries that are endemic for vector-borne diseases maintain vector control services, and most large tropical and semitropical cities also have pest control programs, mainly against pest mosquitoes. Virtually all of the vector and pest control programs depend on the use of insecticides formulated as larvicides, adulticides, baits, or insecticide impregnated bed nets. For many years, the development of new insecticides for use in public health programs was encouraged and supported by multilateral and bilateral health agencies, including the implementation of field trials in endemic areas. Due to the development of insecticide resistance, toxicologic and environmental considerations, and the cost of development and of registration, the number of compounds available for use has declined while the number of new insecticides submitted for laboratory and field trials to the World Health Organization has dwindled even more. The recrudescence of vector-borne diseases, the rapid pace of urbanization, lagging development of environmental services in many tropical cities, and difficulties encountered in ensuring the community's cooperation in its own protection through environmental measures make imperative the continued availability of pesticides for public health use. Since only the pesticide manufacturing industry has the combination of technical and financial resources to promulgate the research and development of new pesticides and pesticide groups, it is

  4. Injection of household spray insecticide.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L H; Shupp, D; Weitz, H H; Zeccardi, J A

    1982-11-01

    During a three-week period, two patients who had attempted suicide by injecting themselves with commercially available household spray insecticides were seen in our emergency department. Both presented with cellulitis at and adjacent to the injection sites, and both were admitted for intravenous antibiotics, warm soaks, and elevation. In both patients abscesses subsequently developed in the areas of cellulitis. It is not clear whether the pathologic processes in these two patients were primarily due to inoculation of microorganisms or to the effects of the insecticide per se. PMID:7137672

  5. Novel AChE Inhibitors for Sustainable Insecticide Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    Alout, Haoues; Labbé, Pierrick; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Djogbénou, Luc; Leonetti, Jean-Paul; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides has become a critical issue in pest management and it is particularly chronic in the control of human disease vectors. The gravity of this situation is being exacerbated since there has not been a new insecticide class produced for over twenty years. Reasoned strategies have been developed to limit resistance spread but have proven difficult to implement in the field. Here we propose a new conceptual strategy based on inhibitors that preferentially target mosquitoes already resistant to a currently used insecticide. Application of such inhibitors in rotation with the insecticide against which resistance has been selected initially is expected to restore vector control efficacy and reduce the odds of neo-resistance. We validated this strategy by screening for inhibitors of the G119S mutated acetylcholinesterase-1 (AChE1), which mediates insensitivity to the widely used organophosphates (OP) and carbamates (CX) insecticides. PyrimidineTrione Furan-substituted (PTF) compounds came out as best hits, acting biochemically as reversible and competitive inhibitors of mosquito AChE1 and preferentially inhibiting the mutated form, insensitive to OP and CX. PTF application in bioassays preferentially killed OP-resistant Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae as a consequence of AChE1 inhibition. Modeling the evolution of frequencies of wild type and OP-insensitive AChE1 alleles in PTF-treated populations using the selectivity parameters estimated from bioassays predicts a rapid rise in the wild type allele frequency. This study identifies the first compound class that preferentially targets OP-resistant mosquitoes, thus restoring OP-susceptibility, which validates a new prospect of sustainable insecticide resistance management. PMID:23056599

  6. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  7. Centers for Disease Control light traps for monitoring Anopheles arabiensis human biting rates in an area with low vector density and high insecticide-treated bed net use.

    PubMed

    Fornadel, Christen M; Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2010-10-01

    Human landing catches (HLCs) are currently the preferred method to determine vector human biting rates (HBRs), which are key determinants of entomologic inoculation rates and important measures for assessing the impact of vector control efforts. Although HLCs are the most direct means of establishing HBRs, they are labor-intensive, and their use is facing increasing ethical concerns. The relationship between Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and HLC collections was evaluated in Macha, Zambia during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons. A CDC light trap captured on average 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.28) times as many An. arabiensis per night as an indoor HLC. Additionally, nets treated with deltamethrin did not affect the numbers of An. arabiensis collected. Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs. PMID:20889876

  8. Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Anne; Purdy, John; Anderson, Troy; Fell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an important pollinator of agricultural crops. Since 2006, when unexpectedly high colony losses were first reported, articles have proliferated in the popular press suggesting a range of possible causes and raising alarm over the general decline of bees. Suggested causes include pesticides, genetically modified crops, habitat fragmentation, and introduced diseases and parasites. Scientists have concluded that multiple factors in various combinations—including mites, fungi, viruses, and pesticides, as well as other factors such as reduction in forage, poor nutrition, and queen failure—are the most probable cause of elevated colony loss rates. Investigators and regulators continue to focus on the possible role that insecticides, particularly the neonicotinoids, may play in honeybee health. Neonicotinoid insecticides are insect neurotoxicants with desirable features such as broad-spectrum activity, low application rates, low mammalian toxicity, upward systemic movement in plants, and versatile application methods. Their distribution throughout the plant, including pollen, nectar, and guttation fluids, poses particular concern for exposure to pollinators. The authors describe how neonicotinoids interact with the nervous system of honeybees and affect individual honeybees in laboratory situations. Because honeybees are social insects, colony effects in semifield and field studies are discussed. The authors conclude with a review of current and proposed guidance in the United States and Europe for assessing the risks of pesticides to honeybees. PMID:24692231

  9. Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Anne; Purdy, John; Anderson, Troy; Fell, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an important pollinator of agricultural crops. Since 2006, when unexpectedly high colony losses were first reported, articles have proliferated in the popular press suggesting a range of possible causes and raising alarm over the general decline of bees. Suggested causes include pesticides, genetically modified crops, habitat fragmentation, and introduced diseases and parasites. Scientists have concluded that multiple factors in various combinations-including mites, fungi, viruses, and pesticides, as well as other factors such as reduction in forage, poor nutrition, and queen failure-are the most probable cause of elevated colony loss rates. Investigators and regulators continue to focus on the possible role that insecticides, particularly the neonicotinoids, may play in honeybee health. Neonicotinoid insecticides are insect neurotoxicants with desirable features such as broad-spectrum activity, low application rates, low mammalian toxicity, upward systemic movement in plants, and versatile application methods. Their distribution throughout the plant, including pollen, nectar, and guttation fluids, poses particular concern for exposure to pollinators. The authors describe how neonicotinoids interact with the nervous system of honeybees and affect individual honeybees in laboratory situations. Because honeybees are social insects, colony effects in semifield and field studies are discussed. The authors conclude with a review of current and proposed guidance in the United States and Europe for assessing the risks of pesticides to honeybees. PMID:24692231

  10. Insecticide resistance and dominance levels.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D; Genissel, A; Raymond, M

    2000-12-01

    Dominance has been assessed in different ways in insecticide resistance studies, based on three phenotypic traits: the insecticide concentration required to give a particular mortality (DLC), mortality at a particular insecticide dose (DML), and fitness in treated areas (DWT). We propose a general formula for estimating dominance on a scale of 0 to 1 (0 = complete recessivity and 1 = complete dominance). DLC, DML, and DWT are not directly related and their values depend on genetic background and environmental conditions. We also show that pest management strategies can have the consequence to increase DWT via the selection of dominance modifiers. Studies on resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins provide the ultimate example of the complexity of the definition of the concept of dominance. Almost all studies have focused on calculation of DLC, which provides little information about the efficiency of pest management programs. For instance, one assumption of the high dose/refuge strategy is that Bacillus thuringiensis resistance must be effectively recessive (i.e., DML must be close to zero). However, DWT, rather than DML, is relevant to the resistance management strategy. Therefore, we strongly suggest that the time has come to focus on fitness dominance levels in the presence and absence of insecticide. PMID:11142285

  11. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

  12. Limonene--A Natural Insecticide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry student's research project in which limonene was isolated from the oil of lemons and oranges. Outlines the students' tests on the use of this chemical as an insecticide. Discusses possible extensions of the exercises based on questions generated by the students. (TW)

  13. Bioassays for Monitoring Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Audra L.E.; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC50 can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC50 using the same methodology. PMID:21248689

  14. The biology of insecticidal activity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Perry, Trent; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J

    2011-07-01

    Identifying insecticide resistance mechanisms is paramount for pest insect control, as the understandings that underpin insect control strategies must provide ways of detecting and managing resistance. Insecticide resistance studies rely heavily on detailed biochemical and genetic analyses. Although there have been many successes, there are also many examples of resistance that still challenge us. As a precursor to rational pest insect control, the biology of the insect, within the contexts of insecticide modes of action and insecticide metabolism, must be well understood. It makes sense to initiate this research in the best model insect system, Drosophila melanogaster, and translate these findings and methodologies to other insects. Here we explore the usefulness of the D. melanogaster model in studying metabolic-based insecticide resistances, target-site mediated resistances and identifying novel insecticide targets, whilst highlighting the importance of having a more complete understanding of insect biology for insecticide studies. PMID:21426939

  15. The Impact of Local and Regional Disease Extent on Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Daniel S.; Chen, Ronald C.; Tracton, Gregg; Morris, David E.; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian G.; Stefanescu, Mihaela; Pham, Erica; Socinski, Mark A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma are typically treated with initial platinum-based chemotherapy. A variety of factors (eg, performance status, gender, age, histology, weight loss, and smoking history) are generally accepted as predictors of overall survival. Because uncontrolled pulmonary disease constitutes a major cause of death in these patients, we hypothesized that clinical and radiographic factors related to intrathoracic disease at diagnosis may be prognostically significant in addition to conventional factors. The results have implications regarding the selection of patients for whom palliative thoracic radiation therapy may be of most benefit. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pooled analysis of 189 patients enrolled at a single institution into 9 prospective phase II and III clinical trials involving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Baseline clinical and radiographic characteristics before trial enrollment were analyzed as possible predictors for subsequent overall survival. To assess the relationship between anatomic location and volume of disease within the thorax and its effect on survival, the pre-enrollment computed tomography images were also analyzed by contouring central and peripheral intrapulmonary disease. Results: On univariate survival analysis, multiple pulmonary-related factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival, including pulmonary symptoms at presentation (P=.0046), total volume of intrathoracic disease (P=.0006), and evidence of obstruction of major bronchi or vessels on prechemotherapy computed tomography (P<.0001). When partitioned into central and peripheral volumes, central (P<.0001) but not peripheral (P=.74) disease was associated with worse survival. On multivariate analysis with known factors, pulmonary symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.46; P=.042), central disease volume (hazard ratio, 1.47; P=.042), and bronchial/vascular compression (hazard ratio, 1

  16. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

  17. ANNUAL INSECTICIDE LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and other insect vectors of animal and human diseases; for control of brush in rangelands, on roadsides, and along power...

  18. Parasites and diseases of bison in Canada IV. Serologic survey for brucellosis in bison in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Choquette, L P; Broughton, E; Cousineau, J G; Novakowski, N S

    1978-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 2,365 free-roaming hybrid bison (Bison bison bison x Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and adjacent areas in the Northwest Territories were tested for brucellosis during the period 1959 to 1974. A positive reaction was obtained in 739 (31.2%) of the animals tested. The overall effect of brucellosis on this free-roaming bison population is unknown. The authors also dealt with some of the actual and possible consequences of the disease in this population. PMID:691126

  19. Juxta-articular adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease type IV): report of four cases and treatment by dermolipectomy.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Langner, Dana; Nowak, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Juxta-articular adiposis dolorosa is a rare subtype of Dercum's disease. It manifests mainly on the medial parts of the knees. Pain and impaired mobility are common symptoms. We report on four females (aged between 52 and 83 years) who suffered from juxta-articular adiposis dolorosa for more than 10 years. These patients were successfully treated by dermolipectomy resulting in dramatically improved pain and mobility. Adverse effects and complications were minor with a lymph fistula in a single patient which was treated by surgery. PMID:26289595

  20. Pyridalyl, a novel insecticide: potency and insecticidal selectivity.

    PubMed

    Isayama, S; Saito, S; Kuroda, K; Umeda, K; Kasamatsu, K

    2005-04-01

    Pyridalyl is an insecticide of a novel chemical class (unclassified insecticides). Toxicity of pyridalyl to two insect pest species, Spodoptera litura and Frankliniella occidentalis, an insect predator, Orius stringicollis, and a pollinator, Bombus terrestris, was evaluated in the laboratory. The insecticidal activity of pyridalyl against S. litura was evaluated using the leaf-dipping method. The potency of pyridalyl was highly effective against all development stages (2nd to 6th instar larvae) of S. litura. This compound was also evaluated against F. occidentalis using the direct spray method. For F. occidentalis, toxicity of pyridalyl was almost similar to that of acrinathrin, but greater than acrinathrin for adults. Then the toxicity of this product to the natural enemies, Orius stringicollis and the pollinating insect Bombus terrestris, was evaluated using the body-dipping method or direct spray method. No acute toxicity of this product was observed on these non-target insects. Moreover, the influence of pyridalyl to the nest of Bombus terrestris was evaluated using the direct spray to the inside of the nest. No apparent influence of this compound was observed by 21 days after treatment. The cytotoxicity of pyridalyl to the Sf9 insect cell line and the CHO-K1 mammalian cell line was evaluated using the trypan-blue exclusion method. High toxicity to the insect cell line, but almost no toxicity to the mammalian cell line, was observed. Thus, pyridalyl exhibited high selectivity in cytotoxicity between the insect and mammalian cell line as well as in insecticidal activity among insect species. We infer pyridalyl may be useful for IPM programs of greenhouse cultivation system. PMID:15756699

  1. A case of subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminin subunits who developed later autoantibodies to alpha-5 chain of type IV collagen associated with membranous glomerulonephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Hirohiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Ohtoshi, Shinpei; Nakada, Tokio; Yoshimura, Ashio; Tateishi, Chiharu; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Fader, William; Ghohestani, Reza F; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Qian, Hua; Li, Xiaoguang; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We report a 68-year-old Japanese female patient with subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminins, who subsequently developed membranous glomerulonephropathy. At skin disease stage, immunofluorescence demonstrated IgG anti-basement membrane zone antibodies reactive with dermal side of NaCl-split skin. Immunoblotting of human dermal extract, purified laminin-332, hemidesmosome-rich fraction and laminin-521 trimer recombinant protein (RP) detected laminin γ-1 and α-3 and γ-2 subunits of laminin-332. Three years after skin lesions disappeared, nephrotic symptoms developed. Antibodies to α-3 chain of type IV collagen (COL4A3) were negative, thus excluding the diagnosis of Goodpasture syndrome. All anti-laminin antibodies disappeared. Additional IB and ELISA studies of RPs of various COL4 chains revealed reactivity with COL4A5, but not with COL4A6 or COL4A3. Although diagnosis of anti-laminin γ-1 (p200) pemphigoid or anti-laminin-332-type mucous membrane pemphigoid could not be made, this case was similar to previous cases with autoantibodies to COL4A5 and/or COL4A6. PMID:25633161

  2. Triple insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies: a practical impediment for malaria control in Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Vijayakumar, T.; Jambulingam, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In Odisha State, the control of malaria vectors has become dependent on synthetic pyrethroids, which are used for treatment of all approved long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The vast use of just one class of insecticide has led to the problem of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors. One of the major malaria vectors in Odisha State is Anopheles culicifacies Giles. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance status of An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid and other common insecticides used by the National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP) for indoor residual spraying in Odisha State. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during April 2014 - June 2014 from 15 randomly selected villages in five Plasmodium falciparum endemic southern districts of Odisha State. The blood-fed wild caught females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. Results: Results indicated that An. culicifacies was resistant to all the three insecticides used in the malaria control programme in the five districts of Odisha State. Interpretation & conclusions: Resistance management strategy by appropriate rotation of different groups of insecticides including carbamates and incorporating a synergist with synthetic pyrethroids for treating mosquito nets should be considered for the control of malaria vectors in the area, especially where An. culicifacies is predominant. Periodical monitoring of susceptibility/resistance status of An. culicifacies to different insecticides is warranted. PMID:26905243

  3. Insecticide resistance in malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Zimbabwe: a review.

    PubMed

    Soko, White; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a global public health problem, with about 3.2 billion people at risk of infection. The populations at risk mainly reside in Africa, Asia and America, with African populations accounting for the largest burden of the disease. In 2013, close to 198 million malaria cases were reported, leading to 584,000 deaths. Much (90 %) of the mortality rates were recorded from the World Health Organization (WHO) database in the African region and 78 % of these occurred in children under the age of five. In Zimbabwe, approximately half of the population is at risk of infection with malaria.Insecticide residual spraying (IRS) has been documented as an effective way to control malaria and has been adopted globally by the WHO and national governments. However, both insecticide resistance and climate change threaten to reverse the progress made by IRS in malaria control. Resistance has been reported in all four classes of insecticides approved by the WHO for vector control intervention. Variability of environmental temperature is suspected to complicate the situation through alteration in the genetic structure, and enzyme and protein profiles of mosquitoes. In Zimbabwe, little research has been done on the interaction between climate change, temperature variability and insecticide resistance in malarial mosquitoes over time. Such information is important for informing policies on insecticide selection for IRS.We reviewed literature on insecticide sensitivity among malarial mosquitoes in Zimbabwe from 1972 to 2014. International peer-reviewed articles on insecticide sensitivity in Zimbabwe, published in English in this time period, were searched using MEDLINE® (PubMed), Google Scholar, Google and grey literature. Eight publications were eligible for the present study, with one of the articles being a review paper. Six articles covered insecticide resistance, while the other two articles, published in 2000, were about the absence of resistance. Contradicting resistance

  4. The insecticide-resistance problem

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. W. A.

    1958-01-01

    The author reviews the growth of the insecticide-resistance problem throughout the world during the period between July 1956 and November 1957, and the developments in research on the subject during the same period. Three new resistant species have been discovered—Anopheles subpictus, Chrysomyia putoria and Rhipicephalus sanguineus—and eight new types of resistance in already resistant species have been observed. Moreover, the geographical area covered by certain resistant insect populations has considerably increased. The research accomplishments during the period under review include: systems of detecting resistance in the field by standard test methods; confirmation of two distinct types of resistance to chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides in mosquitos and bed-bugs as well as in houseflies; evidence that DDT-resistance in the housefly, Anopheles sundaicus and Aëdes aegypti is due mainly to a single genetic factor associated with the ability to dehydrochlorinate DDT, and that dieldrin-resistance of Anopheles gambiae also derives from a single factor present even in untouched populations; a fuller understanding of the physiological mechanism of BHC-resistance in the housefly; and demonstration that selection pressure from organo-phosphorus compounds induces resistance to themselves and to chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides. PMID:13536795

  5. COMPARISON OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES WITH SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY INSECTICIDE STANDARDS FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) insecticide efficacy research trials were conducted during the cotton seasons of 1997-2000 at the U of CA Desert Res. and Ext. Center in the Imperial Valley, CA to evaluate neonicotinoid insecticides and standard insecticides for control of SLW in cotton. Neonicotinoid inse...

  6. A Novel Insecticidal Peptide SLP1 Produced by Streptomyces laindensis H008 against Lipaphis erysimi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Liang, Kangkang; Duan, Bensha; Yu, Mengdi; Meng, Wei; Wang, Qinggui; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are major insect pests for crops, causing damage by direct feeding and transmission of plant diseases. This paper was completed to discover and characterize a novel insecticidal metabolite against aphids from soil actinobacteria. An insecticidal activity assay was used to screen 180 bacterial strains from soil samples against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. The bacterial strain H008 showed the strongest activity, and it was identified by the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and physiological traits as a novel species of genus Streptomyces (named S. laindensis H008). With the bioassay-guided method, the insecticidal extract from S. laindensis H008 was subjected to chromatographic separations. Finally, a novel insecticidal peptide was purified from Streptomyces laindensis H008 against L. erysimi, and it was determined to be S-E-P-A-Q-I-V-I-V-D-G-V-D-Y-W by TOF-MS and amino acid analysis. PMID:27556442

  7. Spiroindolines Identify the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter as a Novel Target for Insecticide Action

    PubMed Central

    Sluder, Ann; Shah, Sheetal; Cassayre, Jérôme; Clover, Ralph; Maienfisch, Peter; Molleyres, Louis-Pierre; Hirst, Elizabeth A.; Flemming, Anthony J.; Shi, Min; Cutler, Penny; Stanger, Carole; Roberts, Richard S.; Hughes, David J.; Flury, Thomas; Robinson, Michael P.; Hillesheim, Elke; Pitterna, Thomas; Cederbaum, Fredrik; Worthington, Paul A.; Crossthwaite, Andrew J.; Windass, John D.; Currie, Richard A.; Earley, Fergus G. P.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines) encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family. PMID:22563457

  8. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  9. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  10. Effect of paricalcitol on renin and albuminuria in non-diabetic stage III-IV chronic kidney disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D receptor activators reduce albuminuria, and may improve survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies suggest that these pleiotropic effects of vitamin D may be mediated by suppression of renin. However, randomized trials in humans have yet to establish this relationship. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study, the effect of oral paricalcitol (2 μg/day) was investigated in 26 patients with non-diabetic, albuminuric stage III-IV CKD. After treatment, plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured. GFR was determined by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Assessment of renal NO dependency was performed by infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Albumin excretion rate (AER) was analyzed in 24-h urine and during 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Results Paricalcitol did not alter plasma levels of renin, AngII, Aldo, or urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. A modest reduction of borderline significance was observed in AER, and paricalcitol abrogated the albuminuric response to L-NMMA. Conclusions In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial paricalcitol only marginally decreased AER and did not alter circulating levels of renin, AngII or Aldo. The abrogation of the rise in albumin excretion by paricalcitol during NOS blockade may indicate that favourable modulation of renal NO dependency could be involved in mediating reno-protection and survival benefits in CKD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01136564 PMID:23889806

  11. [Use of agricultural insecticides in Benin].

    PubMed

    Akogbeto, M C; Djouaka, R; Noukpo, H

    2005-12-01

    The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors. For farming staff, the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes. On the other hand, public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control. In Turkey, the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established. This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin. Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton, rice and vegetables farmers. The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance. The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields, 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations. After filling and signing concerned forms, farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on: insecticides being used, the various doses applied for pests eradication, the frequency of treatments, the cost of treatments (cost/hectare/year) the origin of insecticides, the place of purchase, safety precautions and related health hazards. The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact. During treatments, insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae. This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure. Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities. Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Insecticide Neurotoxicity: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Soderlund, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were introduced into widespread use for the control of insect pests and disease vectors more than three decades ago. In addition to their value in controlling agricultural pests, pyrethroids are at the forefront of efforts to combat malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases and are also common ingredients of household insecticide and companion animal ectoparasite control products. The abundance and variety of pyrethroid uses contribute to the risk of exposure and adverse effects in the general population. The insecticidal actions of pyrethroids depend on their ability to bind to and disrupt voltage-gated sodium channels of insect nerves. Sodium channels are also important targets for the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids in mammals but other targets, particularly voltage-gated calcium and chloride channels, have been implicated as alternative or secondary sites of action for a subset of pyrethroids. This review summarizes information published during the past decade on the action of pyrethroids on voltage-gated sodium channels as well as on voltage-gated calcium and chloride channels and provides a critical re-evaluation of the role of these three targets in pyrethroid neurotoxicity based on this information. PMID:21710279

  13. Resistance is not Futile: It Shapes Insecticide Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Margaret C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemical control compounds used for the management of insect pests have been much maligned, but still serve a critical role in protecting people and agricultural products from insect pests, as well as conserving biodiversity by eradicating invasive species. Although biological control can be an effective option for area-wide management of established pests, chemical control methods are important for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs, as well as in export treatments, eradicating recently arrived invasive species, and minimizing population explosions of vectors of human disease. Cogitated research and development programs have continued the innovation of insecticides, with a particular focus on combating insecticide resistance. Recent developments in the fields of human health, protecting the global food supply, and biosecurity will be highlighted. PMID:26462586

  14. Resistance is not Futile: It Shapes Insecticide Discovery.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemical control compounds used for the management of insect pests have been much maligned, but still serve a critical role in protecting people and agricultural products from insect pests, as well as conserving biodiversity by eradicating invasive species. Although biological control can be an effective option for area-wide management of established pests, chemical control methods are important for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs, as well as in export treatments, eradicating recently arrived invasive species, and minimizing population explosions of vectors of human disease. Cogitated research and development programs have continued the innovation of insecticides, with a particular focus on combating insecticide resistance. Recent developments in the fields of human health, protecting the global food supply, and biosecurity will be highlighted. PMID:26462586

  15. Trifluoromethylphenyl amides as novel insecticides and fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased resistance to insecticides in arthropods, it is necessary to identify new chemicals that may have novel modes of action. Following an extensive literature search for compounds with insecticidal and mosquito repellent activity, we have designed and synthesized a set of 20 trifluo...

  16. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  17. Trifluoromethylphenyl amides as novel insecticides and fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased resistance to insecticides in arthropods, it is necessary to identify new chemicals that may have novel modes of action. Following an extensive literature search for compounds with insecticidal and mosquito repellent activity, we have designed and synthesized a set of 20 triflu...

  18. Trifluoromethylphenyl amides as novel insecticides and fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased resistance to insecticides in arthropods, it is necessary to identify new chemicals that may have novel modes of action. Following an extensive literature search for compounds with insecticidal and mosquito repellent activity, we have designed and synthesized a set of 20 trif...

  19. Insecticidal compounds from Kalanchoe daigremontiana x tubiflora.

    PubMed

    Supratman, U; Fujita, T; Akiyama, K; Hayashi, H

    2001-09-01

    Methyl daigremonate, an insecticidal bufadienolide, was isolated from the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontianaxtubiflora (Crassulaceae) along with four known bufadienolides. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, and insecticidal activities were assessed against the third instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The results suggest that the orthoester and alpha-pyrone moieties played an important role in the activity. PMID:11551556

  20. DOD AFPMB and USDA ARS team up to develop new insecticides for mosquito control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito-borne pathogens continue to be one of the leading source of human disease that cause human morbidity and moribundity worldwide. In some cases, vaccines are effective methods of disease reduction; however, in many situations, the reliance is upon insecticides for control, including the use ...

  1. Oral anticoagulants in coronary heart disease (Section IV). Position paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    De Caterina, Raffaele; Husted, Steen; Wallentin, Lars; Andreotti, Felicita; Arnesen, Harald; Bachmann, Fedor; Baigent, Colin; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Huber, Kurt; Jespersen, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Lip, Gregory Y H; Morais, João; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Ricci, Fabrizio; Sibbing, Dirk; Siegbahn, Agneta; Storey, Robert F; Ten Berg, Jurriën; Verheugt, Freek W A; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were the only available oral anticoagulants evaluated for long-term treatment of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite efficacy in this setting, VKAs are rarely used because they are cumbersome to administer. Instead, the more readily manageable antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of prevention in ACS patients. This situation has the potential to change with the introduction of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which are easier to administer than VKAs because they can be given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. The NOACs include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and apixaban, rivaroxaban and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. Apixaban and rivaroxaban were evaluated in phase III trials for prevention of recurrent ischaemia in ACS patients, most of whom were also receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Although at the doses tested rivaroxaban was effective and apixaban was not, both agents increased major bleeding. The role for the NOACs in ACS management, although promising, is therefore complicated, because it is uncertain how they compare with newer antiplatelet agents, such as prasugrel, ticagrelor or vorapaxar, and because their safety in combination with these other drugs is unknown. Ongoing studies are also now evaluating the use of NOACs in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients, where their role is established, with coexistent ACS or coronary stenting. Focusing on CHD, we review the results of clinical trials with the NOACs and provide a perspective on their future incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:26952877

  2. Safety and Efficacy of PDpoetin for Management of Anemia in Patients with end Stage Renal Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Results from a Phase IV Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Emami, Amirhossein; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Emami-Razavi, Hassan; Farhadkhani, Masoumeh; Gorjipour, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is available for correcting anemia. PDpoetin, a new brand of rHuEPO, has been certified by Food and Drug Department of Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran for clinical use in patients with chronic kidney disease. We conducted this post-marketing survey to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of PDpoetin for management of anemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Patients from 4 centers in Iran were enrolled for this multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled phase IV clinical trial. Changes in blood chemistry, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, renal function, and other characteristics of the patients were recorded for 4 months; 501 of the patients recruited, completed this study. Mean age of the patients was 50.9 (±16.2) years. 48.7% of patients were female. Mean of the hemoglobin value in all of the 4 centers was 9.29 (±1.43) g/dL at beginning of the study and reached 10.96 (±2.23) g/dL after 4 months and showed significant increase overall (P<0.001). PDpoetin dose was stable at 50-100 U/kg thrice weekly. Hemorheologic disturbancesand changes in blood electrolytes was not observed. No case of immunological reactions to PDpoetin was observed. Our study, therefore, showed that PDpoetin has significantly raised the level of hemoglobin in the hemodialysis patients (about 1.7±0.6 g/dL). Anemia were successfully corrected in 49% of patients under study. Use of this biosimilar was shown to be safe and effective for the maintenance of hemoglobin in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:25317316

  3. Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Kim, Young A; Yang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was 5.44 μg/L. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population. PMID:25580399

  4. Safety and Efficacy of PDpoetin for Management of Anemia in Patients with end Stage Renal Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Results from a Phase IV Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Emami, Amirhossein; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Emami-Razavi, Hassan; Farhadkhani, Masoumeh; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Gorjipour, Fazel

    2014-08-26

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is available for correcting anemia. PDpoetin, a new brand of rHuEPO, has been certified by Food and Drug Department of Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran for clinical use in patients with chronic kidney disease. We conducted this post-marketing survey to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of PDpoetin for management of anemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Patients from 4 centers in Iran were enrolled for this multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled phase IV clinical trial. Changes in blood chemistry, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, renal function, and other characteristics of the patients were recorded for 4 months; 501 of the patients recruited, completed this study. Mean age of the patients was 50.9 (±16.2) years. 48.7% of patients were female. Mean of the hemoglobin value in all of the 4 centers was 9.29 (±1.43) g/dL at beginning of the study and reached 10.96 (±2.23) g/dL after 4 months and showed significant increase overall (P<0.001). PDpoetin dose was stable at 50-100 U/kg thrice weekly. Hemorheologic disturbancesand changes in blood electrolytes was not observed. No case of immunological reactions to PDpoetin was observed. Our study, therefore, showed that PDpoetin has significantly raised the level of hemoglobin in the hemodialysis patients (about 1.7±0.6 g/dL). Anemia were successfully corrected in 49% of patients under study. Use of this biosimilar was shown to be safe and effective for the maintenance of hemoglobin in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:25317316

  5. Proof of concept for a novel insecticide bioassay based on sugar feeding by adult Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Stell, F M; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Kennedy, L; Thornton, H; Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Wesson, D M; Black, W C; Apperson, C S

    2013-09-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Disease management is largely based on mosquito control achieved by insecticides applied to interior resting surfaces and through space sprays. Population monitoring to detect insecticide resistance is a significant component of integrated disease management programmes. We developed a bioassay method for assessing insecticide susceptibility based on the feeding activity of mosquitoes on plant sugars. Our prototype sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay system was composed of inexpensive, disposable components, contained minimal volumes of insecticide, and was compact and highly transportable. Individual mosquitoes were assayed in a plastic cup that contained a sucrose-permethrin solution. Trypan blue dye was added to create a visual marker in the mosquito's abdomen for ingested sucrose-permethrin solution. Blue faecal spots provided further evidence of solution ingestion. With the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay, the permethrin susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females from two field-collected strains was characterized by probit analysis of dosage-response data. The field strains were also tested by forced contact of females with permethrin residues on filter paper. Dosage-response patterns were similar, indicating that the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay had appropriately characterized the permethrin susceptibility of the two strains. PMID:23077986

  6. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    PubMed

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  7. A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K.D.; Macedo, Paula A.; Davis, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public about the risks from insecticide use. The objective of this study was to use reasonable worst-case risk assessment methodologies to evaluate human-health risks for WNV and the insecticides most commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. We evaluated documented health effects from WNV infection and determined potential population risks based on reported frequencies. We determined potential acute (1-day) and subchronic (90-day) multiroute residential exposures from each insecticide for several human subgroups during a WNV disease outbreak scenario. We then compared potential insecticide exposures to toxicologic and regulatory effect levels. Risk quotients (RQs, the ratio of exposure to toxicologic effect) were < 1.0 for all subgroups. Acute RQs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.4726, and subchronic RQs ranged from 0.00014 to 0.2074. Results from our risk assessment and the current weight of scientific evidence indicate that human-health risks from residential exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and are not likely to exceed levels of concern. Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. PMID:16507459

  8. Hematological Disorders Following Exposure to Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Mastromatteo, Ernest

    1964-01-01

    The medical literature dealing with hematological disorders following exposure to insecticides (chiefly chlorinated hydrocarbons and organic phosphorus compounds) is briefly reviewed. The development of blood dyscrasias as a consequence of exposure to insecticides is considered unlikely. Reported cases are few in number and often involve persons with little contact with these materials. It is often impossible to prove (or to disprove) a cause-and-effect relation in the individual case. Pointers which may be of assistance in evaluating this relationship are described. Purpura as a result of allergic vascular changes after exposure to insecticides is also discussed. PMID:14145471

  9. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A. ); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations. PMID:26206155

  11. Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations. PMID:26206155

  12. [About an insecticidal paint for controlling Triatoma infestans, in Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Jemmio, A

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary evaluations of an insecticidal paint based on diazinon, chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a micro-encapsulated formulation (Inesfly 5A IGR) have shown that it has effective and persistent activity against Triatoma infestans inside homes and in areas surrounding homes, in a highly infested region of the Bolivian Chaco. Furthermore, the evaluations have highlighted that the product presents good handling characteristics and gives a good appearance to houses and outhouses that have been treated, and that its acceptance among the population and the local sanitary authorities is excellent. This encourages new investigations and the use of the product on a larger scale and against other vector species for Chagas disease. PMID:18368277

  13. Impact of insecticides on the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of insecticide lethality.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Short, Brent D; Wright, Starker E

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of 37 insecticide treatments against adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) was established based on exposure to 18-h old dry insecticide residue in laboratory bioassays. Individual adult H. halys were exposed to an insecticide residue for 4.5 h and then monitored daily for survivorship over a 7-d period. The proportion of dead and moribund insects was used as an estimate of overall insecticide efficacy against H. halys immediately after the exposure period and over the 7-d trial. Among all materials evaluated, 14 insecticides exhibited increasing efficacy, in which the percentage of dead and moribund insects (used as a measure of insecticide efficacy) increased by > 10% after 7 d. By contrast, insecticide efficacy values of eight insecticides declined by > 10% (based on recovery of adults from a moribund state) over the 7-d period with most belonging to the pyrethroid class. In this study, the efficacy value of neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, showed the greatest decline from 93 to 10% over 7 d. A lethality index (scale of 0-100) was developed to compare insecticides based on quantifying the immediate and longer-term effects of insecticide exposure on H. halys. Among all materials evaluated, dimethoate, malathion, bifenthrin, methidathion, endosulfan, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, acephate, fenpropathrin, and permethrin yielded the highest values (> 75) because of a high degree of immediate mortality with very little recovery. Our results provide baseline information regarding potential of candidate insecticides against adult H. halys and highlight the need to consider longer-term effects in establishing overall efficacy ratings against this invasive species. PMID:23156170

  14. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. PMID:25555206

  15. Repellency of selected biorational insecticides to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericera cockerelli has recently become a major concern because of its direct feeding and vectoring of bacterial diseases in many solanaceous crops. The repellency of four biorational insecticides, MOI-201 (a Chinese medicine plant extract), Requiem (a plant extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides), ...

  16. Predicting mosquito behavior in the presence of repellents, insecticides, and attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal protective measures, such as repellents and insecticides, are designed to prevent arthropods from landing, feeding, and transmitting disease to humans. Some of these chemicals block mosquito odor binding receptors and others are contact irritants. Although chemical products are effective a...

  17. THE INTERACTION OF AN ANTICHOLINESTERASE INSECTICIDE, DIAZINON, WITH A PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE, DELTAMETHRIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This present study explores the interaction of the toxicity induced by an organophosphorus insecticide, diazinon (diethyl 2-isopropyl-6methyl-4-pyrimidal phosphorothionate), with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin ((S)-a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,...

  18. THE ANTICHOLINESTERASE INSECTICIDE, DIAZINON, MAY POTENTIATE THE TOXICITY OF THE PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE DELTAMETHRIN AT LOW DOSAGES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This present study explores the interaction of the toxicity induced by an organophosphorus insecticide, diazinon (diethyl 2-isopropyl-6methyl-4-pyrimidal phosphorothionate), with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin ((S)-a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,...

  19. Toxicity of selected insecticides and insecticide mixtures to adult brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glass vial bioassay were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of selected insecticides and insecticide mixtures to the brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) collected from blacklight traps, cotton plants and weeds in farming areas in the Brazos Valley of Texas. Dicrotophos was 5- and 18-fold...

  20. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  1. Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200 ng/L to 500 ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

  2. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests. PMID:24830653

  3. Lessons from the past: managing insecticide resistance in malaria control and eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hope, Louise; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet

    2008-06-01

    The distribution of insecticide-treated bednets to help combat the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has accelerated in the past 5 years. Additionally, many countries are also considering, or have already begun, indoor residual spraying campaigns. These are positive developments, since vector control has repeatedly proven to be an effective means of reducing malaria transmission. However, the sustainability of these insecticide-based interventions relies on the continuing susceptibility of the anopheles vectors to the limited number of available insecticides. Continual monitoring for early signs of insecticide resistance and the adoption of carefully considered resistance management strategies are therefore required. Regrettably, this essential monitoring component is frequently given a low priority in the push to meet ambitious coverage targets. We outline the key requirements for establishing an insecticide resistance surveillance system and urge all those involved in malaria vector control, either directly or as facilitators, to ensure that these measures are incorporated into control programmes. Failure to act now will inevitably lead to a future breakdown in disease control and jeopardise hopes of eradicating this major public-health problem. PMID:18374633

  4. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission.

    PubMed

    Birget, Philip L G; Koella, Jacob C

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN's insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  5. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN’s insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  6. AB171. RNA alternative splicing modulator can effectively increase lymphoblast enzyme activity in patients with cardiac fabry disease caused by IVS4+919G >A mutation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yung-Hsiu; Li, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, DNA-based newborn screening showed a surprisingly high incidence (1/875 in males and 1/399 in females) of a cardiac fabry mutation (IVS4 + 919G >A). The common cardiac variant fabry mutation, IVS4+919G >A, affects the splicing of GLA RNA by introducing a 57-nucleotide insertion between exons 4 and 5 that contains a stop codon and leads to a truncated protein and inactive enzyme. And this mutation affected males have up to 10% residual enzyme activity and present clinically with late-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Due to the high cost of enzyme replacement therapy and the large number of patients with this mutation, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Several low-molecular-mass compounds, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors or kinase/phosphatase inhibitors, have been identified as modulators of alternative splicing. It may offer a potential alternative to enzyme replacement therapy. We expect to find out a more economic and effective drug by the detailed study of the mechanism of the small molecule modulators on the IVS4+919G >A mutation for the greater benefits of patients with this mutation. Methods In this study, we used to generate Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines and incubated with different concentrations of three HDIs (sodium butyrate, valproic acid, and trichostatin A) and Amiloride hydrochloride (Amiloride HCl). To identify the respond of these compound, we were monitored the relative amounts of normal and aberrant splice forms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the relative amounts of the normal and truncated α-Gal A protein products were analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme activities. Results Western blotting revealed those females heterozygous for the IVS4+919G >A mutation had approximately 50% of the normal level of α-Gal A protein, whereas hemizygous males had approximately 10% of the normal level. The three HDIs were all found to rescue the aberrant RNA

  7. Insecticide Resistance and Malaria Vector Control: The Importance of Fitness Cost Mechanisms in Determining Economically Optimal Control Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Zachary S.; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Kramer, Randall A.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of knowing whether insecticide resistance mutations involve fitness costs. Using a theoretical model, this article investigates economically optimal strategies for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes when there is the potential for mosquitoes to evolve resistance to insecticides. Consistent with previous literature, we find that fitness costs are a key element in the computation of economically optimal resistance management strategies. Additionally, our models indicate that different biological mechanisms underlying these fitness costs (e.g., increased adult mortality and/or decreased fecundity) can significantly alter economically optimal resistance management strategies. PMID:23448053

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  9. CHAPTER IV-2 BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. Today, the principal microbial insecticides utilize spore forming bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria as their active ingredients, either in formulations or by incorporation of toxin g...

  10. Evaluation of Alternatives to Carbamate and Organophosphate Insecticides Against Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut Production.

    PubMed

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2016-04-01

    Thrips are important pests of peanut. They cause severe feeding injuries on peanut foliage in the early season. They also transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease. At-plant insecticides and cultivars that exhibit field resistance to TSWV are often used to manage thrips and spotted wilt disease. Historically, peanut growers used the broad-spectrum insecticides aldicarb (IRAC class 1A; Temik) and phorate (IRAC class 1B; Thimet) for managing thrips and thereby reducing TSWV transmission. Aldicarb has not been produced since 2011 and its usage in peanut will be legally phased out in 2018; therefore, identification of alternative chemistries is critical for thrips and spotted wilt management. Here, eight alternative insecticides, with known thrips activity, were evaluated in field trials conducted from 2011 through 2013. In addition, different application methods of alternatives were also evaluated. Imidacloprid (Admire Pro), thiamethoxam (Actara), spinetoram (Radiant), and cyantraniliprole (Exirel) were as effective as aldicarb and phorate in suppressing thrips, but none of the insecticides significantly suppressed spotted wilt incidence. Nevertheless, greenhouse assays demonstrated that the same alternative insecticides were effective in suppressing thrips feeding and reducing TSWV transmission. Spotted wilt incidence in the greenhouse was more severe (∼80%) than in the field (5–25%). In general, field resistance to TSWV in cultivars only marginally influenced spotted wilt incidence. Results suggest that effective management of thrips using alternative insecticides and subsequent feeding reduction could improve yields under low to moderate virus pressure. PMID:26637534

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuesong; Ren, Xiubei; Su, Jianya

    2011-04-01

    Insecticide control is the major measure for suppression of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage, and a few insecticides used for long time have proved to fail to control this pest in China. Several new chemicals have been introduced for control of C. medinalis. However, there was no baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to insecticides used or will be in use. In this study, a seedling dipping method was developed for bioassay of insecticide susceptibility of C. medinalis. Dose responses of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides were tested. Interpopulation sensitivity to insecticides was compared. Based on LC50 values, C. medinalis was most susceptible to antibiotic insecticides (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad) and least sensitive to monosultap and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) product. Chlorantraniliprole and insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides (tebufenozide and hexaflumuron) exhibited great efficacy against C. medinalis. No susceptibility difference was observed for antibiotic insecticide and IGR insecticides among three populations. Narrow variation in tolerant level was detected for organophosphates insecticides, chlorantraniliprole, monosultap, and Bt. The results in this study provided baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides and also offered useful information for choice of alternative insecticide and for integrated resistance management of C. medinalis. PMID:21510218

  12. Insecticidal suppression of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vector of huanglongbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Kostyk, Barry C; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary depending on

  13. Residual insecticides and the problem of sorption

    PubMed Central

    Bertagna, P.

    1959-01-01

    Whereas laboratory investigations have elucidated the mechanism of sorption of residual insecticides and demonstrated that their persistency is determined by a number of physico-chemical factors and is therefore theoretically calculable, the variables encountered in the field may produce results in apparent conflict with those theoretically expected. Attempts to enhance persistency through the prevention of sorption, although promising, have so far not been fully successful. It is consequently also necessary to assess the residual effectiveness of insecticides, “effectiveness” here being viewed as a biological effect expressed in terms of the mosquito mortality produced. For this purpose bio-assay tests have been used, but with very variable results, and it is suggested that a study of the bio-assay technique itself is needed. This should be conducted in parallel with chemical determinations of the total amount of insecticide present both on and below the sprayed surface. PMID:13799942

  14. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Draughon, F A; Ayres, J C

    1981-04-01

    The insecticide naled completed inhibition production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus at a 100-ppm (100 microgram/ml) concentration. The insecticides dichlorvos, Landrin, pyrethrum, Sevin, malathion, and Diazinon significantly (P = 0.05) inhibited production of aflatoxins at a 100-ppm concentration. However, at a concentration of 10 ppm, significant inhibition in production of aflatoxins was found only with naled, dichlorvos, Sevin, Landrin, and pyrethrum. Dichlorvos, Landrin, Sevin, and naled inhibited growth of A. parasiticus by 28.9 , 18.9, 15.7, and 100%, respectively, at 100 ppm. Stimulation of growth was observed when diazinon was added to cultures. Aflatoxin B1 was most resistant to inhibition by insecticides, followed by G1, G2, and B2, respectively. PMID:6786222

  15. Structure—activity relationships for insecticidal carbamates*

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Carbamate insecticides are biologically active because of their structural complementarity to the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their consequent action as substrates with very low turnover numbers. Carbamates behave as synthetic neurohormones that produce their toxic action by interrupting the normal action of AChE so that acetylcholine accumulates at synaptic junctions. The necessary properties for a suitable insecticidal carbamate are lipid solubility, suitable structural complementarity to AChE, and sufficient stability to multifunction-oxidase detoxification. The relationships between the structure and the activity of a large number of synthetic carbamates are analysed in detail, with particular attention to the second of these properties. PMID:5315358

  16. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. ); Vassilieff, I. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

  17. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Plants Used as Insecticide and Insect Repellent in Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi Niroumand, Mina; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Karimpour Razkenari, Elahe; Amin, Gholamreza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Context Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain medicinal plants described in TIM. Evidence Acquisition Information about medicinal plants proposed as insecticides and insect repellents in the TIM was collected from the TIM literature, and searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Results Modern investigations have supported the claims of the insecticidal activity of several plants, including Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, Citrullus colocynthis, Laurus nobilis, Mentha pulegium, Myrtus communis, Nerium oleander, Ocimum basilicum, and Origanum majorana. However, in the cases of plants like Iris florentina and Malva sylvestris, there is not enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness with regard to their insecticidal and insect repellent activities. Conclusions This study confirmed the Iranian traditional medicine claims of the insecticidal and insect repellent activity of certain plants. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the overall efficacy and possible mechanisms underlying these herbs. PMID:27186389

  18. PC, a Novel Oral Insecticidal Toxin from Bacillus bombysepticus Involved in Host Lethality via APN and BtR-175.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have developed resistance to chemical insecticides, insecticidal toxins as bioinsecticides or genetic protection built into crops. Consequently, novel, orally active insecticidal toxins would be valuable biological alternatives for pest control. Here, we identified a novel insecticidal toxin, parasporal crystal toxin (PC), from Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb). PC shows oral pathogenic activity and lethality towards silkworms and Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera strains. In vitro assays, PC after activated by trypsin binds to BmAPN4 and BtR-175 by interacting with CR7 and CR12 fragments. Additionally, trypsin-activated PC demonstrates cytotoxicity against Sf9 cells expressing BmAPN4, revealing that BmAPN4 serves as a functional receptor that participates in Bb and PC pathogenicity. In vivo assay, knocking out BtR-175 increased the resistance of silkworms to PC. These data suggest that PC is the first protein with insecticidal activity identified in Bb that is capable of causing silkworm death via receptor interactions, representing an important advance in our understanding of the toxicity of Bb and the contributions of interactions between microbial pathogens and insects to disease pathology. Furthermore, the potency of PC as an insecticidal protein makes it a good candidate for inclusion in integrated agricultural pest management systems. PMID:26057951

  19. PC, a Novel Oral Insecticidal Toxin from Bacillus bombysepticus Involved in Host Lethality via APN and BtR-175

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have developed resistance to chemical insecticides, insecticidal toxins as bioinsecticides or genetic protection built into crops. Consequently, novel, orally active insecticidal toxins would be valuable biological alternatives for pest control. Here, we identified a novel insecticidal toxin, parasporal crystal toxin (PC), from Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb). PC shows oral pathogenic activity and lethality towards silkworms and Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera strains. In vitro assays, PC after activated by trypsin binds to BmAPN4 and BtR-175 by interacting with CR7 and CR12 fragments. Additionally, trypsin-activated PC demonstrates cytotoxicity against Sf9 cells expressing BmAPN4, revealing that BmAPN4 serves as a functional receptor that participates in Bb and PC pathogenicity. In vivo assay, knocking out BtR-175 increased the resistance of silkworms to PC. These data suggest that PC is the first protein with insecticidal activity identified in Bb that is capable of causing silkworm death via receptor interactions, representing an important advance in our understanding of the toxicity of Bb and the contributions of interactions between microbial pathogens and insects to disease pathology. Furthermore, the potency of PC as an insecticidal protein makes it a good candidate for inclusion in integrated agricultural pest management systems. PMID:26057951

  20. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  1. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  2. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  3. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David W.; Finn, Robert D.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or “pyrethrome.” Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450–insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control. PMID:24248381

  4. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  5. Impact of insecticides on the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae): analysis on the insecticide lethality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of 37 insecticides against adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) was established based on exposure to 18-h old dry insecticide residue in laboratory bioassays. Adult H. halys were exposed to an insecticide residue for 4.5 h and then monitored daily for survivorship over a 7-d period. The pro...

  6. A genetic model of the effects of insecticide-treated bed nets on the evolution of insecticide-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Birget, Philip L. G.; Koella, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evolution of insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors is emerging as a serious challenge for the control of malaria. Modelling the spread of insecticide-resistance is an essential tool to understand the evolutionary pressures and dynamics caused by the application of insecticides. Methodology: We developed a population-genetic model of the spread of insecticide-resistance in a population of Anopheles vectors in response to insecticides used either as adulticides (focussing on insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)) or as larvicides (either for the control of malaria or, as an inadvertent side-product, in agriculture). Results: We show that indoor use of insecticides leads to considerably less selection pressure than their use as larvicides, supporting the idea that most resistance of malaria vectors is due to the agricultural use of the insecticides that are also used for malaria control. The reasons for the relatively low selection pressure posed by adulticides are (i) that males are not affected by the ITNs and, in particular, (ii) that the insecticides are also repellents, keeping mosquitoes at bay from contacting the insecticide but also driving them to bite either people who do not use the insecticide or alternative hosts. Conclusion: We conclude by discussing the opposing public health benefits of high repellency at an epidemiological and an evolutionary timescale: whereas repellency is beneficial to delay the evolution of resistance, other models have shown that it decreases the population-level protection of the insecticide. PMID:26320183

  7. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  8. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  9. Analysis of the Type IV Fimbrial-Subunit Gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: Application in PCR-Mediated Detection of Yellow Disease in Hyacinths

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J.; Hollinger, T. C.; Oudega, B.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280–1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR. PMID:11157222

  10. The 1975 Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide Quick Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Bill G.; Thomson, W. T.

    This is a quick guide for choosing a chemical to use to control a certain pest on a specific crop. Information in the book was obtained from manufacturers' labels and from the USDA and FDA pesticide summary. The book is divided into four parts: (1) insecticides, (2) herbicides, (3) fungicides, and (4) conversion tables. Each of the first three…

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES: CRITICAL REVIEW.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are widely utilized insecticides whose primary action is the disruption of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC). Although these compounds have been in use for over 30 years and their acute neurotoxicity has been well characterized, there is considerably less info...

  12. COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGY OF THE PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are photostable analogs of the natural pyrethrins of botanical origin. heir structures range from very similar to the original (e.g., allethrin, Fig. 1) to highly dissimilar compounds (e.g., flucythrinate, Fig. 1). irected synthesis by groups in ...

  13. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. PMID:24155227

  14. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 hours a day. If there is a problem with the IV, you can call your home health care agency for help. If the IV comes out of ... bleeding stops. Then call the home health care agency or the doctor right away.

  15. Using PLATO IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meller, David V.

    This beginning reference manual describes PLATO IV hardware for prospective users and provides an introduction to PLATO for new authors. The PLATO terminal is described in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a block diagram of the PLATO IV system. Procedures for getting on line are described in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides references to…

  16. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  17. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

  18. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  19. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  20. Insecticide residues on weathered passerine carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Butterbrodt, J.J.; Mengelkoch, J.; MacDougall, K.; Williams, B.; Pendergrass, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nine brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were exposed to turf srayed with either EarthCare? (25% diazinon; 477 L a.i./ha) or Ortho-Klor? (12 .6% chlorpyrifos; 5.21 L a.i./ha.). Birds were euthanized and one foot from each bird was weathered outdoors for up to 28 days and the other foot was kept frozen until residue analysis. When compared to the unweathered feet, feet weathered for 28 days retained 43% and 37% of the diazinon and chlorpyrifors, respectively. Insecticide residues were below the level of detection (1.0 ppm) on control feet. Weathered feet may be used for determining organophosphorus insecticide exposure to birds.

  1. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fourth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-Communicable Disease in Iran: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Ardalan, Gelayol; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Bahreynian, Maryam; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The fourth survey of the surveillance system named “childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease” (CASPIAN-IV study), was conducted among a national representative sample of Iranian students. This paper describes the methods and early findings of this survey. Methods: This nationwide school-based study was conducted in 2011-2012 in 30 provinces of Iran among 13,486 students, 6-18 years (6640 girls, 75.6% from urban areas) and one of their parents. Results: Mean age of students was 12.5 years. Based on the World Health Organization growth curves, 12.2% were underweight, 9.7% overweight and 11.9% were obese. Abdominal obesity was observed in 19.1% of students. The dominant type of cooking oil in urban families was liquid oil and hydrogenated fat (39% and 32%), most rural families used hydrogenated fat (53%), respectively. A total of 18% of students had at least 30 min of daily physical activity; 41% of students used computer in weekdays and 44% used it in weekends. Almost 34.5% of students reported to have at least one cigarette smoker and 21.5% reported to have a waterpipe smoker in their relatives. Moreover, 20.3% of students reported that they had suffered an injury needing the help of school health providers during the year prior to the study. Conclusions: Current evidence on the health risky behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents confirms the importance of conducting comprehensive surveillance surveys to identify health risk behaviors. Data of this survey and the trend of variables provide necessary information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions. PMID:24498502

  2. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  3. Transcriptome response to pollutants and insecticides in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, mosquito control programs are now threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Hitherto, most research efforts have been focused on elucidating the molecular basis of inherited resistance. Less attention has been paid to the short-term response of mosquitoes to insecticides and pollutants which could have a significant impact on insecticide efficacy. Here, a combination of LongSAGE and Solexa sequencing was used to perform a deep transcriptome analysis of larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti exposed for 48 h to sub-lethal doses of three chemical insecticides and three anthropogenic pollutants. Results Thirty millions 20 bp cDNA tags were sequenced, mapped to the mosquito genome and clustered, representing 6850 known genes and 4868 additional clusters not located within predicted genes. Mosquitoes exposed to insecticides or anthropogenic pollutants showed considerable modifications of their transcriptome. Genes encoding cuticular proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and detoxification processes were particularly affected. Genes and molecular mechanisms potentially involved in xenobiotic response and insecticide tolerance were identified. Conclusions The method used in the present study appears as a powerful approach for investigating fine transcriptome variations in genome-sequenced organisms and can provide useful informations for the detection of novel transcripts. At the biological level, despite low concentrations and no apparent phenotypic effects, the significant impact of these xenobiotics on mosquito transcriptomes raise important questions about the 'hidden impact' of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems and consequences on vector control. PMID:20356352

  4. Patterns of phenoloxidase activity in insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes differ between laboratory-selected and wild-caught individuals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance has the potential to alter vector immune competence and consequently affect the transmission of diseases. Methods Using both laboratory isogenic strains and field-caught Culex pipiens mosquitoes, we investigated the effects of insecticide resistance on an important component of the mosquito immune system: the phenoloxidase (PO) activity. As infection risk varies dramatically with the age and sex of mosquitoes, allocation to PO immunity was quantified across different stages of the mosquito life cycle. Results Our results were consistent in showing that larvae have a higher PO activity than adults, females have a higher PO activity than males, and PO activity declines with adult age. We obtained, however, a marked discrepancy between laboratory and field-collected mosquitoes on the effect of insecticide resistance on PO activity. In the laboratory selected strains we found evidence of strong interactions between insecticide resistance and the age and sex of mosquitoes. In particular, 7 and 14 day old esterase-resistant adult females and acetylcholine-esterase resistant males had significantly higher PO activities than their susceptible counterparts. No such effects were, however, apparent in field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusions Combined, the field and laboratory-based approaches employed in this study provide a powerful test of the effect of insecticide resistance on PO-mediated immunity. The use of laboratory-selected insecticide-resistant strains is still the most widely used method to investigate the pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance. Our results suggest that the outcome of these laboratory-selected mosquitoes must be interpreted with caution and, whenever possible, compared with mosquitoes captured from the field. PMID:24499651

  5. Insecticide tolerance of Culex nigripalpus in Florida.

    PubMed

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Floore, T G; Rodriguez, H M; Coughlin, J S

    1989-12-01

    Larval susceptibility tests of Culex nigripalpus populations from various areas of Florida have shown resistance to several organophosphorus insecticides since 1984. Although the degree of resistance is low (2 to 7 times), it can be termed tolerance and appears to be the greatest for fenthion, followed by temephos, naled and malathion. It is suggested that pesticide runoff from lawns, golf courses and agricultural and urban areas may play a role in developing resistance in Florida mosquito populations. PMID:2614401

  6. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  7. TRP Channels in Insect Stretch Receptors as Insecticide Targets.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Alexandre; Spalthoff, Christian; Kandasamy, Ramani; Katana, Radoslav; Rankl, Nancy B; Andrés, Marta; Jähde, Philipp; Dorsch, John A; Stam, Lynn F; Braun, Franz-Josef; Warren, Ben; Salgado, Vincent L; Göpfert, Martin C

    2015-05-01

    Defining the molecular targets of insecticides is crucial for assessing their selectivity and potential impact on environment and health. Two commercial insecticides are now shown to target a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel complex that is unique to insect stretch receptor cells. Pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazon disturbed Drosophila coordination and hearing by acting on chordotonal stretch receptor neurons. This action required the two TRPs Nanchung (Nan) and Inactive (Iav), which co-occur exclusively within these cells. Nan and Iav together sufficed to confer cellular insecticide responses in vivo and in vitro, and the two insecticides were identified as specific agonists of Nan-Iav complexes that, by promoting cellular calcium influx, silence the stretch receptor cells. This establishes TRPs as insecticide targets and defines specific agonists of insect TRPs. It also shows that TRPs can render insecticides cell-type selective and puts forward TRP targets to reduce side effects on non-target species. PMID:25950634

  8. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Lavine, Laura; O’Neal, Sally; Lavine, Mark; Foss, Carrie; Walsh, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs. PMID:26751480

  9. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Lavine, Laura; O'Neal, Sally; Lavine, Mark; Foss, Carrie; Walsh, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs. PMID:26751480

  10. Effects of the residual activity of foliar-applied insecticides on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) feeding behavior.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), is associated with a phloem-limited bacterium that is transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Application of insecticides to reduce psyllid populations is one of the primary methods used for HLB management. However,...

  11. Blood meal origins and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis from Chano in South-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba Minch in South-West Ethiopia. Methods Blood meal sources of anopheline mosquitoes collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) from human dwellings, and hand-held mouth aspirators from outdoor pit shelters were analysed using a direct enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The susceptibility of An. arabiensis to pyrethroid insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and cyfluthrin) and DDT was assessed using females reared from larval and pupal collections from natural breeding sites. Results The blood meal origins of 2967 freshly fed Anopheles mosquitoes were determined. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (75%), and it fed mainly on cattle. The densities of both freshly fed An. arabiensis and those fed on human blood followed similar seasonal patterns. The overall human blood index (HBI) of An. arabiensis, including mixed blood meals, was 44% and the bovine blood index (BBI) was 69%. The HBI of An. arabiensis from CDC light trap collections was 75% and this was higher than those for PSC (38%) and outdoor pit shelter collections (13%), while the BBI was 65% for PSC, 68% for outdoor pit shelters and 72% for CDC light traps. More freshly fed and human blood-fed An. arabiensis were sampled from houses close to the shore of Lake Abaya (the major breeding site). A high proportion of An. arabiensis was resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides, with a mortality rate of 56% for lambdacyhalothrin, 50% for cyfluthrin and alphacypermethrin, 47% for deltamethrin, and 10% for DDT. Conclusion Anopheles arabiensis is

  12. Control of melanoma cell invasion by type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Sylvie; Brassart, Bertrand; Ramont, Laurent; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from diseases of the skin. This review summarizes the data from the literature and our laboratory addressing the effects of type IV collagen on melanoma progression. Many different sequences from type IV collagen promote melanoma cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The triple helical conformation of the collagenous domain plays a critical role in some of these interactions. However, recent studies from our group demonstrated that a sequence from the alpha3(IV) NC1 domain inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MMP production and activation. Peptide sequences from the alpha1(IV), alpha2(IV) and alpha3(IV) chains named arresten, canstatin and tumstatin, respectively were shown to inhibit angiogenesis. Further investigations regarding the inhibitory effects of the alpha(IV) NC1 domains will have a paramount relevance for the design of efficient strategies to limit melanoma development. PMID:15936594

  13. A critical review of ultralow-volume aerosols of insecticide applied with vehicle-mounted generators for adult mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Mount, G A

    1998-09-01

    This review of ultralow-volume (ULV) ground aerosols for adult mosquito control includes discussion on application volume, aerosol generators, droplet size, meteorology, swath, dispersal speed, assay methods, insecticide efficacy, and nontarget effects. It summarizes the efficacy of ULV insecticidal aerosols against many important pest and disease-bearing species of mosquitoes in a wide range of locations and habitats in the United States and in some countries of Asia and the Americas. Fourteen conclusions were drawn from the review. 1) ULV ground aerosol applications of insecticide are as efficacious against adult mosquitoes as high- or low-volume aerosols. 2) ULV aerosols with an optimum droplet size spectrum can be produced by several types of nozzles including vortex, pneumatic, and rotary. Droplet size of a particular insecticide formulation is dependent primarily on nozzle air pressure or rotation speed and secondarily on insecticide flow rate. 3) Label flow rates of insecticide for ULV aerosol application can be delivered accurately during routine operations with speed-correlated metering systems within a calibrated speed range, usually not exceeding 20 mph. 4) The most economical and convenient method of droplet size determination for ULV aerosols of insecticide is the waved-slide technique. 5) The efficacy of ULV ground aerosols against adult mosquitoes is related to droplet size because it governs air transport and impingement. The optimum droplet size for mosquito adulticiding is 8-15 microns volume median diameter (VMD) on the basis of laboratory wind-tunnel tests and field research with caged mosquitoes. 6) In general, ULV aerosols should be applied following sunset when mosquitoes are active and meteorological conditions are favorable for achieving maximum levels of control. Application can be made during daytime hours when conditions permit, but rates may have to be increased. The critical meteorological factors are wind velocity and direction

  14. Optimizing insecticide allocation strategies based on houses and livestock shelters for visceral leishmaniasis control in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Gorahava, Kaushik K; Rosenberger, Jay M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most deadly form of the leishmaniasis family of diseases, which affects numerous developing countries. The Indian state of Bihar has the highest prevalence and mortality rate of VL in the world. Insecticide spraying is believed to be an effective vector control program for controlling the spread of VL in Bihar; however, it is expensive and less effective if not implemented systematically. This study develops and analyzes a novel optimization model for VL control in Bihar that identifies an optimal (best possible) allocation of chosen insecticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] or deltamethrin) based on the sizes of human and cattle populations in the region. The model maximizes the insecticide-induced sandfly death rate in human and cattle dwellings while staying within the current state budget for VL vector control efforts. The model results suggest that deltamethrin might not be a good replacement for DDT because the insecticide-induced sandfly deaths are 3.72 times more in case of DDT even after 90 days post spray. Different insecticide allocation strategies between the two types of sites (houses and cattle sheds) are suggested based on the state VL-control budget and have a direct implication on VL elimination efforts in a resource-limited region. PMID:25940194

  15. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  16. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  17. Insecticidal Suppression of Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Kostyk, Barry C.; Stansly, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause ‘huanglongbing’ or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005–2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24–68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76–100% nymphs or adults over 99–296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary

  18. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  19. Population-specific toxicity of six insecticides to the trematode Echinoparyphium sp.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Buss, Nicholas; Kim, Justin; Orlofske, Sarah A; Hoverman, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitous use of pesticides has increased concerns over their direct and indirect effects on disease dynamics. While studies examining the effects of pesticides on host-parasite interactions have largely focused on how pesticides influence the host, few studies have considered the effects of pesticides on parasites. We investigated the toxicity of six common insecticides at six environmentally-relevant concentrations to cercariae of the trematode Echinoparyphium from two populations. All six insecticides reduced the survival of cercariae (overall difference between mortality in control vs pesticide exposure = 86·2 ± 8·7%) but not in a predictable dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Echinoparyphium are sensitive to a broad range of insecticides commonly used in the USA. The lack of a clear dose-dependent response in Echinoparyphium highlights the potential limitations of toxicity assays in predicting pesticide toxicity to parasites. Finally, population-level variation in cercarial susceptibility to pesticides underscores the importance of accounting for population variation as overlooking this variation can limit our ability to predict toxicity in nature. Collectively, this work demonstrates that consideration of pesticide toxicity to parasites is important to understanding how pesticides ultimately shape disease dynamics in nature. PMID:26928351

  20. Expression of insecticide resistance in immature life stages of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, Gonzalo; Picollo, María Inés; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility to the insecticide deltamethrin and the expression of resistance to this insecticide in developing eggs and neonate nymphs of Triatoma infestans from two areas of Argentina (Campo Largo) and Bolivia (Entre Ríos), where resistance to this pyrethroid is suspected. Both nymphal populations showed resistance to deltamethrin, with lower resistance ratio for Entre Ríos (173X) than Campo Largo (1108X). Efficacy of deltamethrin on 4-, 7-, and 12-d-old eggs for both field populations were significantly lower than efficacy on eggs of the susceptible strain. This is the first documented evidence of the expression of pyrethroid resistance during the embryonic development of Chagas Disease vectors. PMID:23926779

  1. Stage IV-S neuroblastoma. Results with definitive therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.H.; Thomas, P.R.; Perez, C.A.; Vietti, T.J.

    1984-05-15

    The results of management of 14 patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma are reported. The treatment policy, although not consistent over this time span, in general used a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or infrequently one modality alone. Twelve of 14 (86%) survived more than 6 years. One patient, with a solitary mediastinal primary tumor, died of rapidly progressive disease at three months. The other death occurred in a 4.5-year-old presenting with hepatomegaly at diagnosis followed by skeletal dissemination 2.5 years later. Thirteen of the patients were younger than 1 year of age. Of the 11 patients that received radiotherapy, 4 experienced mild asymptomatic scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis at 3 to 12 years after initial therapy. A review of the literature indicates that spontaneous regression in this tumor is very frequent; therefore, it is recommended that for the common presentation of massive hepatomegaly in an infant, close observation is warranted, unless life threatening complications occur. However, initial therapeutic intervention may be indicated in those patients with life threatening presentations. This data did not substantiate the necessity for complete surgical excision of the primary tumor, as has been suggested by others.

  2. Insect hormones and their derivatives as insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, William S.

    1971-01-01

    The hormonal control of moulting, reproduction, and diapause in insects has little or no relationship to any similar phenomena in other animals, and the hormones involved in these processes are unlike any known hormones of vertebrates. The availability of pure chemicals with high biological activity has permitted an astonishing increase in research on insect hormones. At present, understanding of insect endocrinology is far too incomplete to justify much speculation about the possibility of using insect hormones as insecticides. However, the preliminary studies discussed in this paper give reason for hope, and the results justify further effort. PMID:4938025

  3. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  4. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF TARNISHED PLANT BUG TOLERANCE TO INSECTICIDES, 2002.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formulated insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for toxicity to tarnished plant bugs. Spray chamber bioassay were conducted by applying insecticides to cotton terminals. Treatment consisted of Vydate applied at 0.33 lb (AI)/acre and Intruder at 0.042, 0.056, 0.084 and 0.0112 lb (AI)/acre....

  5. Distribution and Efficacy of Aerosol Insecticides in Commercial Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides are being viewed as a potential alternative to fumigations in commercial milling, processing, and storage facilities. Although there are a number of insecticides and delivery systems available for use, there are little published data regarding efficacy and performance in actual ...

  6. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  7. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENITROTHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Tamura, H., Maness, S.C., Reischmann, K. Dorman, D.C., Gray, L.E., and Gaido, K.W. (2000). Toxicol. Sci.

    Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticide...

  8. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. PMID:26821651

  9. Evaluating Coverage and Efficacy of Insecticides to Control Navel Orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method employing eggs was designed to assess insecticide coverage in pistachio clusters. Strips of paper towel with known numbers of eggs were pinned into pistachio clusters immediately before insecticide application. The eggs were removed 24-48 hours after application and placed on diet, re...

  10. Effectiveness of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches in mitigating insecticide loadings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown that runoff and spray-drift are important sources of nonpoint-source insecticide pollution of surface waters. Owing to this, public concern over the presence of insecticides in surface and ground water has resulted in intensive scientific efforts to find economical, yet environmen...

  11. MITIGATION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES IN A MISSISSIPPI DELTA CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in intensively cultivated agricultural areas for crop pest control. During storm runoff events, these insecticides may be transported into aquatic receiving systems where they have the potential to damage fish and invertebrates. Constructed wetlands are on...

  12. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  13. Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under natural climatic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amelotti, Ivana; Catalá, Silvia S; Gorla, David E

    2009-01-01

    Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™) and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™) formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively) after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy. PMID:19586532

  14. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  15. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  16. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  17. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. PMID:24216132

  18. Production of Insecticide Degradates in Juices: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Radford, Samantha A; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to observe the production of degradates of two organophosphorus insecticides and one pyrethroid insecticide in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, apple juice, and red grape juice were fortified with 500 ng/g malathion, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, and aliquots were extracted for malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) several times over a 15 day period of being stored in the dark at 2.5 °C. Overall, first-order kinetics were observed for production of MDA, and statistically significant production of TCPy was also observed. Statistically significant production of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was not observed. Results indicate that insecticides degrade in food and beverages, and this degradation may lead to preexisting insecticide metabolites in the beverages. Therefore, it is suggested that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk. PMID:27213611

  19. Ecotoxicological Study of Insecticide Effects on Arthropods in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon–Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. PMID:25700537

  20. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. PMID:25700537

  1. Insecticidal sesquiterpene from Alpinia oxyphylla against Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishikawa, Y

    2000-08-01

    In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from Chinese crude drugs, an MeOH extract of Alpinia oxyphylla was found to possess insecticidal activity against larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. From the extract, an insecticidal compound was isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as nootkatone (1) by GC, GC-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. In bioassays for insecticidal activity, 1 showed an LC(50) value of 11.5 micromol/mL of diet against larvae of D. melanogaster and an LD(50) value of 96 microg/adult against adults. Epinootkatol (1A), however, showed slight insecticidal activity in both assays, indicating that the carbonyl group at the 2-position in 1 was the important function for enhanced activity of 1. PMID:10956162

  2. Can nutrients mask community responses to insecticide mixtures?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alexa C; Luis, Ana T; Culp, Joseph M; Baird, Donald J; Cessna, Allan J

    2013-09-01

    The ecological effect of simultaneous exposure to two nutrient gradients, three insecticides and different predator intensities was investigated over a 3-week period in 80 outdoor, artificial streams using field-collected benthic invertebrates. The experimental design consisted of a 2 × 5 factorial structure with two nutrient levels (oligotrophic or mesotrophic) and five concentrations of the ternary insecticide mixture consisting of the insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and imidacloprid). Equivalent toxic unit doses were summed to create a ternary insecticide dose (e.g., 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.3 TU) resulting in a range of ternary insecticide mixture toxicity (i.e., control groundwater, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 TU). Two genera of insect predators, Gomphus spp. (Odonata) and Agnetina spp. (Plecoptera) were also added into each replicate stream, at densities and sizes comparable to those found at our collection site, to evaluate how the contribution of predators may change in nutrient limited (oligotrophic) versus amended (mesotrophic) systems. We describe a causal mechanism whereby the combined action of nutrients and insecticides reshaped aquatic community structure by interacting through multiple pathways. Specifically, mesotrophic conditions reduced the toxic effects of ternary insecticide mixtures for aquatic insects which, in some cases, appeared to increase abundance of aquatic insects. However, higher levels of insecticides in mesotrophic streams negated this effect and were even more toxic; for example, to aquatic insect grazers than the same insecticide doses in oligotrophic treatment levels. Effects of predators were only significant in oligotrophic streams. Evidence is provided as to how nutrient and contaminant interactions can greatly complicate the assessment of community level responses to insecticide mixtures due to direct and indirect effects of the resulting changes in the density of different genera and functional feeding groups within a

  3. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: a dermatological evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Flannigan, S A; Tucker, S B; Key, M M; Ross, C E; Fairchild, E J; Grimes, B A; Harrist, R B

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are lipophilic insecticides whose biological activity seems to be directly related to their chemical structure. In this investigation differences in cutaneous sensation were detected by human participants between synthetic pyrethroids with a cyano group in the (S)-configuration of the 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol of their molecular structure (fenvalerate) and those that do not (permethrin). A strong relation was noted between insecticidal potency and degree of induced cutaneous sensation for the alpha-cyano and non-cyano pyrethroids, with a prominent difference between the two. No sensation was observed by any of the same participants on topical exposure to the inert ingredients of these agents. A linear correlation between concentration and degree of induced dysaethesia was observed for both pyrethroids. Regressing the cutaneous sensation on the common logarithm of concentration resulted in a regression equation of Y = 84.0 + 31.0X1 for fenvalerate and Y = 27.5 + 15.8X1 for permethrin. A highly efficacious therapeutic agent for pyrethroid exposure was noted to be dl-alpha tocopherol acetate. An impressive degree of inhibition of paraesthesia resulted from the topical application of vitamin E acetate, with a therapeutic index of almost 100%. PMID:4005189

  4. Comparison of insecticidal paint and deltamethrin against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) feeding and mortality in simulated natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Kathleen M.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Salazar, Renzo; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Yukich, Joshua O.; Naquira, Cesar; Keating, Joseph A.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans is largely controlled by the household application of pyrethroid insecticides. Because effective, large-scale insecticide application is costly and necessitates numerous trained personnel, alternative control techniques are badly needed. We compared the residual effect of organophosphate-based insecticidal paint (Inesfly 5A IGR™ (I5A)) to standard deltamethrin, and a negative control, against T. infestans in a simulated natural environment. We evaluated mortality, knockdown, and ability to take a blood meal among fifth instar nymphs. I5A paint caused significantly greater mortality at time points up to 9 months compared to deltamethrin (Fisher's Exact Test, p < 0.01 in all instances). A year following application mortality among nymphs in the I5A was similar to those in the deltamethrin (χ2 = 0.76, df=1, p < 0.76). At months 0 and 1 after application, fewer nymphs exposed to deltamethrin took a blood meal compared to insects exposed to paint (Fisher's Exact Tests, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01 respectively). Insecticidal paint may provide an easily-applied means of protection against Chagas disease vectors. PMID:23701602

  5. Comparison of insecticidal paint and deltamethrin against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) feeding and mortality in simulated natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Kathleen M; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Salazar, Renzo; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Yukich, Joshua O; Naquira, Cesar; Keating, Joseph A; Levy, Michael Z

    2013-06-01

    The vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma infestans, is largely controlled by the household application of pyrethroid insecticides. Because effective, large-scale insecticide application is costly and necessitates numerous trained personnel, alternative control techniques are badly needed. We compared the residual effect of organophosphate-based insecticidal paint (Inesfly 5A IGR™ (I5A)) to standard deltamethrin, and a negative control, against T. infestans in a simulated natural environment. We evaluated mortality, knockdown, and ability to take a blood meal among 5(th) instar nymphs. I5A paint caused significantly greater mortality at time points up to nine months compared to deltamethrin (Fisher's Exact Test, p < 0.01 in all instances). A year following application, mortality among nymphs in the I5A was similar to those in the deltamethrin (χ2 = 0.76, df=1, p < 0.76). At months 0 and 1 after application, fewer nymphs exposed to deltamethrin took a blood meal compared to insects exposed to paint (Fisher's Exact Tests, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Insecticidal paint may provide an easily-applied means of protection against vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:23701602

  6. Methodology and Early Findings of the Assessment of Determinants of Weight Disorders among Iranian Children and Adolescents: The Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Noncommunicable Disease-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Bahreynian, Maryam; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Kabir, Kourosh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Safari, Omid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and primary findings of a national project on determinants of weight disorders among Iranian children and adolescents at national and sub-national levels. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011–2012 in Iran as part of the fourth phase of a national surveillance program entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Noncommunicable disease-IV study. It had two phases of qualitative and quantitative study. This multicentric study was conducted among 25,000 students aged 6–18 years, living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Students were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Data regarding weight disorders including sociodemographic variables, perinatal factors, lifestyle factors, family and student dietary habits, quality of life, and family history of chronic diseases as well as body image were gathered via validated questionnaires. Results: Overall, 23043 students completed the survey (participation rate: 92.17%). The mean age of participants was 12.55 ± 3.31 years; 50.8% were boys, and 73.4% were from urban areas. Underweight was found in 10.4% of boys and 9.2% of girls, the corresponding figure for overweight and obesity was 21% and 18.3%. Abdominal obesity was found in 17.6% of students. Among parents, obesity was more frequent than other weight disorders, with higher prevalence in parents of girls than boys (24.5% vs. 21.5%, respectively, P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in urban than in rural parents (66.7% vs. 59.7%, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This survey serves as confirmatory evidence on the prevalence of dual burden of weight disorders in Iran. Its findings on determinants of weight disorders would help policymakers to implement relevant programs at national and sub-national levels. PMID:26425332

  7. Mucolipidosis Type IV: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyo; Gustafson, Ann Marie; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disorder with severe psychomotor developmental delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorydria. It is characterized by the presence of lysosomal inclusions in many cell types in patients. MLIV is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes for mucolipin-1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. Although approximately 70-80% of patients identified are Ashkenazi Jewish, MLIV is a pan-ethnic disorder. Importantly, while MLIV is thought to be a rare disease, its frequency may be greater than currently appreciated, for its common presentation as a cerebral palsy-like encephalopathy can lead to misdiagnosis. Moreover, patients with milder variants are often not recognized as having MLIV. This review provides an update on the ethnic distribution, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, methods of diagnosis, molecular genetics, differential diagnosis, and treatment of patients with MLIV. An enhanced awareness of the manifestations of this disorder may help to elucidate the true frequency and range of symptoms associated with MLIV, providing insight into the pathogenesis of this multi-system disease. PMID:21763169

  8. Susceptibility of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to pyrethroid insecticides and to insecticidal dusts with or without pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; Cowles, Richard S

    2012-10-01

    Relative increases of bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations are probably due in large measure to their resistance to pyrethroids, which have been used extensively against urban pests. A Connecticut population of bed bugs was assessed for sensitivity to pyrethroids and exposed to commonly-used commercial insecticides applied to various substrates on which the residues were allowed to age for 0-24 wk. Type I and type II pyrethroids differed in toxicity when applied at a high dosage (1 microg) per bed bug. Some type II pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cis-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) caused > 80% mortality, whereas exposure to type I pyrethroids caused < 5% mortality over 72 h (with one exception, pyrethrins caused 23% mortality). Dust products were not affected by residue aging; mortality response over time of exposure closely fit (R2 > 0.95) an exponential rise to a maximum model from which the survival half-life (S1/2) was calculated directly. Tempo Dust (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) killed bed bugs relatively quickly, as did Syloid 244 (Grace Davison, Columbia, MD) and Drione (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) on hardboard and mattress fabric substrates (S1/2 < 1 d); DeltaDust (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) provided a relatively slow kill (S1/2 approximately equal to 3.5 d). The sprayable pyrethroids, Cyonara 9.7 (Insecticide Control solutions, Pasadena, TX) and D-Force HPX Aerosol 0.06% (Waterbury Companies, Waterbury, CT), displayed reduced residual toxicity as they aged; the mortality was < 50% on some substrates after 4 d. Desiccant dusts, with their physical mode of action and long residual activity, appear to be superior to sprayable pyrethroid products for killing bed bugs. PMID:23156178

  9. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  10. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations.

    PubMed

    Bellinato, Diogo Fernandes; Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  11. Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Bouvresse, S; Berdjane, Z; Izri, A; Chosidow, O; Clark, J M

    2012-04-01

    Insecticide treatment resistance is considered to be a major factor in the increasing number of infestations by head lice. The large insecticide selection pressure induced by conventional topical pediculicides has led to the emergence and spread of resistance in many parts of the world. Possible mechanisms of resistance include accelerated detoxification of insecticides by enzyme-mediated reduction, esterification, oxidation that may be overcome by synergistic agents such as piperonyl butoxide, alteration of the binding site, e.g. altered acetylcholinesterase or altered nerve voltage-gated sodium channel, and knockdown resistance (kdr). Clinical, parasitological and molecular data on resistance to conventional topical pediculicides show that treatments with neurotoxic insecticides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. In particular, resistance to synthetic pyrethroids has become prominent, probably because of their extensive use. As other treatment options, including non-insecticidal pediculicides such as dimeticone, are now available, the use of older insecticides, such as lindane and carbaryl, should be minimized, owing to their loss of efficacy and safety concerns. The organophosphorus insecticide malathion remains effective, except in the UK, mostly in formulations that include terpineol. PMID:22429458

  12. Virus and calcium: an unexpected tandem to optimize insecticide efficacy.

    PubMed

    Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Ogliastro, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Pennetier, Cédric; Raymond, Valérie; Lapied, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The effective control of insect pests is based on the rational use of the most efficient and safe insecticide treatments. To increase the effects of classical insecticides and to avoid the ability of certain pest insects to develop resistance, it is essential to propose novel strategies. Previous studies have shown that calcium-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is now considered as a new cellular mechanism for increasing the target sensitivity to insecticides. Because it is known that virus entry is correlated with intracellular calcium concentration rise, this report attempts to present the most important data relevant to the feasibility of combining an insect virus such as baculovirus or densovirus with an insecticide. In this case, the insect virus is not used as a bioinsecticide but acts as a synergistic agent able to trigger calcium rise and to activate calcium-dependent intracellular signalling pathways involved in the increase of the membrane receptors and/or ion channels sensitivity to insecticides. This virus-insecticide mixture represents a promising alternative to optimize the efficacy of insecticides against insect pests while reducing the doses. PMID:26743399

  13. Simulating cholinesterase inhibition in birds caused by dietary insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corson, M.S.; Mora, M.A.; Grant, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a stochastic simulation model that simulates avian foraging in an agricultural landscape to evaluate factors affecting dietary insecticide exposure and to predict post-exposure cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. To evaluate the model, we simulated published field studies and found that model predictions of insecticide decay and ChE inhibition reasonably approximated most observed results. Sensitivity analysis suggested that foraging location usually influenced ChE inhibition more than diet preferences or daily intake rate. Although organophosphorus insecticides usually caused greater inhibition than carbamate insecticides, insecticide toxicity appeared only moderately important. When we simulated impact of heavy insecticide applications during breeding seasons of 15 wild bird species, mean maximum ChE inhibition in most species exceeded 20% at some point. At this level of inhibition, birds may experience nausea and/or may exhibit minor behavioral changes. Simulated risk peaked in April-May and August-September and was lowest in July. ChE inhibition increased with proportion of vegetation in the diet. This model, and ones like it, may help predict insecticide exposure of and sublethal ChE inhibition in grassland animals, thereby reducing dependence of ecological risk assessments on field studies alone.

  14. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  15. Behavioural response to combined insecticide and temperature stress in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Neumann-Mondlak, A; Good, R T; Green, L M; Schmidt, J M; Robin, C

    2016-05-01

    Insecticide resistance evolves extremely rapidly, providing an illuminating model for the study of adaptation. With climate change reshaping species distribution, pest and disease vector control needs rethinking to include the effects of environmental variation and insect stress physiology. Here, we assessed how both long-term adaptation of populations to temperature and immediate temperature variation affect the genetic architecture of DDT insecticide response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mortality assays and behavioural assays based on continuous activity monitoring were used to assess the interaction between DDT and temperature on three field-derived populations from climate extremes (Raleigh for warm temperate, Tasmania for cold oceanic and Queensland for hot tropical). The Raleigh population showed the highest mortality to DDT, whereas the Queensland population, epicentre for derived alleles of the resistance gene Cyp6g1, showed the lowest. Interaction between insecticide and temperature strongly affected mortality, particularly for the Tasmanian population. Activity profiles analysed using self-organizing maps show that the insecticide promoted an early response, whereas elevated temperature promoted a later response. These distinctive early or later activity phases revealed similar responses to temperature and DDT dose alone but with more or less genetic variance depending on the population. This change in genetic variance among populations suggests that selection particularly depleted genetic variance for DDT response in the Queensland population. Finally, despite similar (co)variation between traits in benign conditions, the genetic responses across population differed under stressful conditions. This showed how stress-responsive genetic variation only reveals itself in specific conditions and thereby escapes potential trade-offs in benign environments. PMID:26864706

  16. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  17. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action. PMID:24579768

  18. Resistance to insecticides in Heliothine Lepidoptera: a global view

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The status of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene and pyrethroid insecticides in the heliothine Lepidoptera is reviewed. In particular, resistance in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, from the New World, and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from the Old World, are considered in detail. Particular emphasis has been placed on resistance to the most widely used of these insecticide groups, the pyrethroids. In each case, the incidence and current status of resistance are considered before a detailed view of the mechanisms of resistance is given. Controversial issues regarding the nature of mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides are discussed. The implications for resistance management are considered.

  19. [Insecticide resistance in lice collected from homeless people in Moscow].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2011-01-01

    Permethrin and malathion resistance in body and head lice collected from homeless people in Moscow was investigated in March 2009 to March 2010. Most micropopulations were found to have permethrin-resistant individuals. Their proportion varied from 8.7 to 100%. Cross resistance of body lice to 5 insecticides (the pyrethroids permethrin, d-phenothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and the organic chlorine compound DDT) was revealed in one case. The lice remained susceptible to organic phosphorus insecticides (fenthion, malathion). The data on permethrin resistance in the lice, obtained by the standard method (immersion of the insects into an insecticide solution), correlated with those yielded by the modified WHO method. PMID:22308710

  20. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of heptafluoroisopropyl-containing benzoylphenylurea structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Xiuhong; Ishaaya, Isaac; Cao, Song; Wu, Jingjing; Yu, Jinlong; Li, Hui; Qian, Xuhong

    2010-03-10

    Fourteen novel heptafluoroisopropyl-containing benzoylphenylureas were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against armyworm ( Pseudaletia separata Walker) were examined and compared with the commercial product diflubenzuron. Three compounds (IIi, IIj, and IIk) showed excellent insecticidal effect, and their activity resembled that of diflubenzuron. Compound IIi also showed nearly the same insecticidal activity as novaluron on African cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis ). Furthermore, results from a field trial indicated that 5% EC IIi exhibited similar efficacy in comparison with chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron against imported cabbage worm ( Pieris rapae L.) and diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella ), respectively. PMID:20014763

  1. Teppeki, selective insecticide about Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Angela; Filì, Vittorio; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    At a time when a highly controversial debate about the causes of the widespread deaths of bees is taking place all over Europe, which accused the agriculture and its practices with particular reference to the harmful effects of some insecticides, it seems important to point out as another insecticide, the Teppeki, can be selective about bumble and have a good compatibility with the activity of the apiaries. This insecticide has the active ingredient flonicamid (500 g/kg) belonging to a new chemical class, called pyridinecarboxamides: the product works systemic and is known as having a long lasting efficacy against all important aphid species. Bioagritest test facility of Pignola (PZ, Italy) has conducted in two successive production cycles an experimental trial on a tomato hydroponic cultivation within the Agricola Bonsai farm in Sibari (CS, Italy), whose objective was to measure the selectivity of flonicamid on Bombus terrestris, insects playing an important role in the pollination of certain species grown in greenhouse such as Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Cucumber. On the pollinated flower B. terrestris leaves some trace of its visit, a typical dark trademark: on the detection of the marking of flowers was based the testing program conducted by Bioagritest. Two thesis were compared: A, standard) treatment with a foliar insecticide, the neonicotinoide acetamiprid, normally used for control of aphids and whiteflies (unlike other neonicotinoides--imidacloprid and thiametoxam--quite selective about B. terrestris) and B, Teppeki) foliar treatment with Teppeki, to the maximum dose indicated on the label. The experimental design included the use of randomized blocks with 4 repetitions (4 plots/thesis with 100 plants each). In every thesis six B. terrestris hives were placed 2 days before treatment: the respective holes remained closed during the treatment and the 12 following hours. In order to verify the pollination, by the detection of the flower marking, 2 flowers

  2. A novel insecticidal serotype of Clostridium bifermentans.

    PubMed

    Seleena, P; Lee, H L; Lecadet, M M

    1997-12-01

    A novel Clostridium bifermentans strain toxic to mosquito larvae on ingestion was isolated from a soil sample collected from secondary forest floor. This strain was designated as serovar paraiba (C. b. paraiba) according to its specific H antigen. Clostridium bifermentans paraiba is most toxic to Anopheles maculatus Theobald larvae (LC50 = 0.038 mg/liter), whereas toxicity to Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (LC50 = 0.74 mg/liter) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 = 0.11 mg/liter) larvae was 20 and 3 times lower, respectively. The toxicity to An. maculatus larvae is as high as that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis. C. b. paraiba was also found to exhibit significant per os insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica (Linn.). PMID:9474569

  3. Minor Type IV Collagen α5 Chain Promotes Cancer Progression through Discoidin Domain Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Qingbo; Yue, Jiao; Liu, Chunying; Zhao, Xiaotong; Qiao, Yuemei; Ji, Hongbin; Chen, Jianfeng; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Type IV collagens (Col IV), components of basement membrane, are essential in the maintenance of tissue integrity and proper function. Alteration of Col IV is related to developmental defects and diseases, including cancer. Col IV α chains form α1α1α2, α3α4α5 and α5α5α6 protomers that further form collagen networks. Despite knowledge on the functions of major Col IV (α1α1α2), little is known whether minor Col IV (α3α4α5 and α5α5α6) plays a role in cancer. It also remains to be elucidated whether major and minor Col IV are functionally redundant. We show that minor Col IV α5 chain is indispensable in cancer development by using α5(IV)-deficient mouse model. Ablation of α5(IV) significantly impeded the development of KrasG12D-driven lung cancer without affecting major Col IV expression. Epithelial α5(IV) supports cancer cell proliferation, while endothelial α5(IV) is essential for efficient tumor angiogenesis. α5(IV), but not α1(IV), ablation impaired expression of non-integrin collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR1) and downstream ERK activation in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells. Knockdown of DDR1 in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells phenocopied the cells deficient of α5(IV). Constitutively active DDR1 or MEK1 rescued the defects of α5(IV)-ablated cells. Thus, minor Col IV α5(IV) chain supports lung cancer progression via DDR1-mediated cancer cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. Minor Col IV can not be functionally compensated by abundant major Col IV. PMID:25992553

  4. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Mathieu, Romain Blanc; Pocquet, Nicolas; Riaz, Muhammad-Asam; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Sélior, Serge; Darriet, Frédéric; Reynaud, Stéphane; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Chandre, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies). The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%). Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed. PMID:22363529

  5. Facilitating Wolbachia introductions into mosquito populations through insecticide-resistance selection

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ary A.; Turelli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia infections are being introduced into mosquito vectors of human diseases following the discovery that they can block transmission of disease agents. This requires mosquitoes infected with the disease-blocking Wolbachia to successfully invade populations lacking the infection. While this process is facilitated by features of Wolbachia, particularly their ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, blocking Wolbachia may produce deleterious effects, such as reduced host viability or fecundity, that inhibit successful local introductions and subsequent spatial spread. Here, we outline an approach to facilitate the introduction and spread of Wolbachia infections by coupling Wolbachia introduction to resistance to specific classes of insecticides. The approach takes advantage of very high maternal transmission fidelity of Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes, complete incompatibility between infected males and uninfected females, the widespread occurrence of insecticide resistance, and the widespread use of chemical control in disease-endemic countries. This approach is easily integrated into many existing control strategies, provides population suppression during release and might be used to introduce Wolbachia infections even with high and seasonally dependent deleterious effects, such as the wMelPop infection introduced into Aedes aegypti for dengue control. However, possible benefits will need to be weighed against concerns associated with the introduction of resistance alleles. PMID:23576788

  6. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  7. Design, synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel phenylurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialong; Zhou, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity. PMID:25808149

  8. Neonicotinoid insecticides: highlights of a symposium on strategic molecular designs.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2011-04-13

    Neonicotinoids are the newest of the five major classes of insecticides (the others are chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus compounds, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids), and they make up approximately one-fourth of the world insecticide market. Nithiazine was the lead compound from Shell Development Co. in California later optimized by Shinzo Kagabu of Nihon Tokushu Noyaku Seizo to increase the potency and photostability, resulting in imidacloprid and thiacloprid. These discoveries are the basis for the International Award for Research in Agrochemicals of the American Chemical Society presented in 2010 to Professor Shinzo Kagabu. Five other neonicotinoids were added by others for the current set of seven commercial compounds. This symposium considers the progress in discovery and development of novel chemotype nicotinic insecticides with enhanced effectiveness, unique biological properties, and maximal safety. Chemorational approaches considered include physicochemical properties, metabolic activation and detoxification, and chemical and structural biology aspects potentially facilitating receptor structure-guided insecticide design. PMID:21077684

  9. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the insecticide "Raid" in Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Achudume, Albert C; Nwoha, Polycarp C; Ibe, Joseph N

    2009-08-01

    Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the insecticide "Raid" was determined to assess total animal dietary exposures in a nonoccupational environment. The study focused primarily on dietary exposure concentrations (25-960 microg/g) of the ingredients of Raid administered to rats for 10 days. Tissue concentrations of the insecticide were determined by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, whereas established methods were used to assess the tissue levels of glucose-6-phosphate and lactic acid dehydrogenase. Results show that animal mortality progressively increased with increasing concentrations while growth (in weight) decreased. Bioaccumulation of the insecticide in the tissues was in the order of lipid > muscle > liver > brain. The indices of toxicity showed no significant effect in brain, but significant reduction of glucose-6-phosphatase and lactic acid dehydrogenase levels were observed in muscle and liver. These results suggest an inhibition of some key metabolic enzymes resulting from accumulation of the insecticide components in the tissues. PMID:18785263

  10. USING ARRAY TECHNOLOGY TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS FOR PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides affect nervous system function by disruption of sodium channels in nerve membranes. FQPA requirements for assessing cumulative risk have increased the need for rapid and sensitive biomarkers of effect. This project aims to develop biochemical markers of n...