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Sample records for insoluble dietary fiber

  1. CHALLENGES IN MEASURING INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this review are to define the criteria needed to evaluate insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) methods, discuss their relevance in meeting nutritional needs, describe problems with empirical IDF methods, and assess their relative merits. The challenge for the researcher, nutritionist, and...

  2. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  3. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

  4. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  5. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  6. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  7. CELL WALL HYDROXYCINNAMATES IN WILD RICE (ZIZANIA AQUATICA L.) INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of ester-linked phenolic acids in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) dietary fibre were quantified by HPLC analysis, and oligosaccharide hydroxycinnamates were isolated and identified to investigate the linkages of hydroxycinnamic acids to cell wall polymers. In wild rice insoluble dietary...

  8. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  9. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. PMID:26256094

  10. Sugar profiles and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents of fruits in Thailand markets.

    PubMed

    Chareoansiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine sugar and dietary fiber contents in 37 varieties of Thai fruits. Sugars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and dietary fiber values were measured by the enzymatic-gravimetric method. The total sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose) content ranged from 4.5 g/100 g (strawberry) to 20.3 g/100 g (ripe banana; hawm variety) edible portion. All varieties of ripe banana provided good sources of glucose, fructose and total sugar. The total dietary fiber content ranged from 0.6 g/100 g (watermelon) to 11.5 g/100 g (sapodilla) edible portion. The rank of TDF contents per 100 g edible portion was sapodilla > durian > guava and strawberry > apple > Chinese pear > sugar apple > star fruit. Other fruits contained total dietary fiber values lower than 2.4 g/100 g edible portion, especially watermelon, which had the lowest total dietary fiber content (0.6-0.7 g/100 g edible portion). PMID:19255919

  11. Effect of micronization on the physicochemical properties of insoluble dietary fiber from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fayin; Tao, Bingbing; Liu, Jia; Zou, Yan; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of micronization (mechanical and jet grindings) on the physicochemical properties of the insoluble dietary fiber from citrus pomace in comparison with ordinary grinding. The results showed that micronization treatment effectively pulverized the IDF-CP powders to micron scale and significantly increased the soluble dietary fiber content (p < 0.05). Compared with mechanical grinding, jet grinding was more effective in size reduction and resulted in IDF-CP powders with narrower particle size distributions. Micronized IDF-CP powders had smaller particle size, smoother surface, higher fluidity, cation-exchange capacity, and metal cation binding capacity values, but lower water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, and swelling capacity values. These functional properties were significantly dependent on surface area and particle size (D0.5). The present study suggested that micronization treatments could modify functional properties of IDF-CP powders, which promotes their use in food applications. PMID:26130646

  12. NMR CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGNINS ISOLATED FROM FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional information for lignins in food is rare and concentrated on cereal grains and brans. As lignins are suspected to have important health roles in the dietary fiber complex, including as antioxidants and carcinogen adsorbants, and may be partially converted to mammalian lignans, the confu...

  13. The adsorption of lead(II) ions by dynamic high pressure micro-fluidization treated insoluble soybean dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zong-Cai; Ruan, Chuan-Ying; Lin, Derong

    2016-06-01

    Insoluble dietary fiber from soybean residue (SIDF) was treated with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) and used as adsorbent for Pb(II) ion. The effects of pressure on the Pb(II) adsorption capacity, primary cilia structure and surface topography of SIDF were determined using a gastrointestinal simulated model in vitro. SIDF (at pH 7.0) showed maximum binding capacity (261.42 ± 2.77 μmol/g), which was about 1.13 times higher than that of untreated sample (233.47 ± 1.84 μmol/g), when pressure reached 80 MPa. However, the net adsorption value of SIDF in a simulated small intestine (~ 9 μmol/g) was significantly lower than that in the stomach (~ 48 μmol/g), because of the competitive adsorption of Pb(2+) by pancreatin, cholate and several enzymes in the small intestine. In addition, the adsorption capacity of SIDF exhibited good linear relationship with the physicochemical properties of total negative charges, and the adsorption behavior presumably occurred on the surface area of granules fiber. PMID:27478208

  14. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. It is also found in psyllium, ...

  15. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. Only a small amount of ... grains. Fiber is very important to a healthy diet and can be a ... legumes, the group of food containing dried peas and beans.

  16. The potential of an insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley to protect from DMH-induced intestinal tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, G H; Jorgensen, L; Royle, P

    1993-01-01

    The influence of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber supplements from barley and wheat on colon cancer risk was assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats from four weeks of age on a semipurified (AIN76A) rat diet modified to contain 20% fat of mixed animal and plant origin and 5% dietary fiber. Gastrointestinal tumors were induced with dimethylhydrazine given weekly for five weeks at 15 mg/kg body wt by subcutaneous injection, commencing four weeks after rats were established on the experimental diets. At 32 weeks of age, rats were killed and tumors assessed. The insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley (spent barley grain, SBG) was significantly more effective at preventing induced tumors than soluble fiber-rich commercial barley bran. There were no significant differences among the results for the other three fiber sources, which were intermediate in their influence. Both incidence of rats affected and tumor mass index were reduced, the latter significantly, when SBG was compared with commercial barley bran. SBG also produced a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration (down 17%, p < 0.05) relative to wheat bran, but commercial barley bran was not different from wheat bran at this stage. Pure cellulose and outer-layer barley bran were, by comparison, only moderately effective in cancer prevention. SBG, like wheat bran, is a good source of cellulose and hemicellulose. It is also a good source of proteins, polyphenolics, fatty acids (including alpha-linolenic), vitamin E, and minerals. Further research is needed to clarify the relevance of these other factors to the differences observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8389043

  17. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  18. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  19. Investigation of the Impact of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber through the Feeding of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on the Incidence and Severity of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilberts, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Frana, Tim S.; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R.; Madson, Darin M.; Patience, John F.; Burrough, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or “B. hampsonii”) and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the “B. hampsonii” groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  20. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated. PMID:24876314

  1. Underutilized sources of dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Latner, T A

    2000-01-01

    Interest in the fiber content of foods has decreased in recent years as concerns about fat intake have increased. Fiber, however, remains an important component of the diet. Soluble dietary fiber, including pectic substances and hydrocolloids, is found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and oat bran. Insoluble fiber, including cellulose and hemicellulose, is found in foods such as whole grains. Fiber supplementation has been used to enhance the fiber content of a variety of foods ranging from cereal-based products to meats, imitation cheeses and sauces. Products used to enhance fiber content of foods have traditionally come from cereals such as wheat, corn and oats. There are a variety of other products, however, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and less commonly used cereals such as barley, which are potential sources of dietary fiber supplements. This article reviews research on some of these underutilized sources of dietary fiber. PMID:11086873

  2. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, and on hindgut degradability of fiber and growth performance of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of corn co-products in swine diets increases the concentration of dietary fiber, raising concerns about energy and nutrient digestibility, and ultimately on pig performance. A metabolism trial was conducted to determine the effect of increasing levels of insoluble-low fermentable fiber...

  3. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased. PMID:23587355

  4. Insoluble polyelectrolyte and ion-exchange hollow fiber impregnated therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The number of quaternary sites and ion exchange capacity of a polyquaternary, cross linked, insoluble copolymer of a vinyl pyridine and a dihalo organic compound is increased by about 15-35% by reaction of the polymer with an amine followed by quaternization, if required. The polymer forms spontaneously in the presence of a substrate such as within the pores of a hollow fiber. The improved resin impregnated fiber may be utilized to remove ions from waste or process steams.

  5. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  6. Dietary fiber: classification, chemical analyses, and food sources.

    PubMed

    Slavin, J L

    1987-09-01

    Dietary fiber's role in the prevention and treatment of constipation has long been known, but now fiber is touted as a cure for many of the ills in Western countries. Although some data exist to relate dietary fiber intake to certain diseases, lack of agreement on what dietary fiber is and how it should be measured make interpreting the data difficult. Further, not all dietary fiber is created equal. Water-soluble fibers, such as pectin and gums, have little effect on stool weight and hence are not appropriate treatment for patients with constipation. Water-insoluble fibers, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, are most effective in aiding laxation but may also limit absorption of minerals and possibly vitamins. Wheat bran is a good source of hemicellulose; vegetables supply cellulose to the diet. Most agencies are recommending a doubling or tripling of dietary fiber intake. Typical recommendations are set at 25 to 50 grams of dietary fiber daily. Different analytical methods for dietary fiber yield conflicting fiber values, and dietary fiber values do not exist for many foods, making fiber recommendations controversial and difficult to achieve. Fiber in the diet should ideally be increased by the consumption of unrefined breads and cereals and more fruits and vegetables. Vegetarians routinely consume 40 to 50 gm dietary fiber daily without ill effect. Fiber supplements may be appropriate for some patients, but the composition of the fiber should be known and be appropriate for the disease being treated. Before fiber supplements are marketed, clinical trials should be conducted to support the use of the supplements in the prevention and treatment of disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3040839

  7. Effects of soy hull pectin and insoluble fiber on physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Miller, Danika K; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pectin and insoluble fiber isolated from soy hulls on water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Beef patties were formulated with no dietary fiber (control), 1% soy hull pectin, insoluble fiber, or their mixture (1:1), respectively. The addition of soy hull pectin significantly decreased display weight loss and increased cook yield of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. In addition, no significant difference in hardness between fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties was observed for all dietary fiber treatments. However, incorporation of insoluble soy hull fiber decreased color and lipid oxidation stabilities of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Our results indicate that the incorporation of soy hull pectin could be an effective non-meat ingredient to minimize water loss and hardness defects of frozen beef patties. PMID:26946478

  8. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

  9. [Biologically active food supplements as sources of flavonoids, tannins and dietary fibers].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, O V; Berketova, L V

    2011-01-01

    The content of some biologically active substances such as bioflavonoids, tannins and dietary fiber in various type of biologically active additive was analyzed. The results are shown that the content of bioflavonoids ranger from 26.0 to 3970.0 mg%, tannins--from 1.19 to 857.0 mg%, insoluble dietary fiber--from 4.56 to 67.89% and soluble dietary fiber from 1.0 to 66.8%. PMID:22238949

  10. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  12. DIETARY FIBER CONTENT IN FRESH CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a wide variation in the reported values for pectin and dietary fiber content in the edible portions of fresh orange and grapefruit. Two studies done by the Produce Marketing Association in 1990 reported 4.0 g dietary fiber/ 100 g of fresh edible grapefruit and 4.4 g dietary fiber / 100 g f...

  13. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  14. Dietary fibers and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  15. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  16. INFLUENCE OF LIGNIN ON THE ADSORPTION OF HETERO-CYCLIC AROMATIC AMINES BY INSOLUBLE FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention of colon cancer by dietary fiber is widely discussed. One possible mechanism is by adsorbing carcinogens and transporting them out of the body. It was shown that several model dietary fibers are able to adsorb heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), a group of carcinogens mostly found in...

  17. Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.

    PubMed

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S; Griep, Linda M Oude; Griep, Linda M O; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S

    2015-11-14

    Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95% CI -2·97, -0·41) and attenuated to -1·01 mmHg (95% CI -2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95% CI -3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods. PMID:26328746

  18. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here. PMID:25694673

  19. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DEHYDROTRIFERULIC AND DEHYDROTETRAFERULIC ACIDS ISOLATED FROM INSOLUBLE MAIZE FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new dehydrotriferulic acids and two dehydrotetraferulic acids were isolated from saponified maize bran insoluble fiber using size exclusion chromatography on BioBeads S-X3 followed by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative Phenyl-Hexyl-RP-HPLC. Based on UV-spectroscopy, mass spectros...

  20. [Use of nopal dietary fiber in a powder dessert formulation].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Elena; Pak, Nelly; Vallejos, Ximena

    2002-12-01

    The development of diverse types of foods of low caloric value and with high content in dietary fiber have occupied a preponderant place in the food industry in the last years, due to the growing interest of the consumers for a healthy and nutritious diet. Pre-cooked or quick to prepare foods are attractive for the time they save; if to this you add their nutritious value, the attractiveness is even greater. For this reason, this study analyzes different formulations of a powder to prepare a dessert (flan), with different percentages of incorporation of nopal flour, as a source of dietary fiber (16%, 18%, 20%). Two flavors (melon and banana) were tried. It was observed that the flan flavored with banana and with 16% of nopal flour, reached better sensorial characteristics. Greater percentages of nopal flour negatively affected the sensorial characteristics, mainly flavor, color and texture. The analysis showed that the powder presented 5.7% of moisture, low water activity (0.48) and therefore a low total recount of microorganisms. The content of protein was high (27.2%), the ether extract low (2.0%) similar to the caloric contribution (40 Kcal/portion). The flan showed a 9.8% of total dietary fiber, being greater the contribution of soluble fiber (6.1%) than that of insoluble fiber (3.7%). Due to these characteristics this formulation could be considered as a food that provides benefits for the human health. PMID:12868280

  1. SINAPATE DEHYDRODIMERS AND SINAPALE-FERULATE HETERODIMERS IN CEREAL DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 8 8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-isomers were authenticated by comparison of their GLC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized fro...

  2. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296

  3. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-20

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26923351

  4. [Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Mello, Vanessa D de; Laaksonen, David E

    2009-07-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute to both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In epidemiological studies the intake of insoluble fiber, but not the intake of soluble fiber, has been inversely associated with the incidence of T2DM. In contrast, in postprandial studies, meals containing sufficiently quantities of beta-glucan, psyllium, or guar gum have decreased insulin and glucose responses in both healthy individuals and patients with T2DM. Diets enriched sufficiently in soluble fiber may also improve overall glycemic control in T2DM. Insoluble fiber has little effect on postprandial insulin and glucose responses. Fiber increases satiety. In some studies, insoluble fiber has been associated with less weight gain over time. Limited cross-sectional evidence suggests an inverse relationship between intake of cereal fiber and whole-grains and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Although long-term data from trials focusing on specifically dietary fiber are lacking, meeting current recommendations for a minimum fiber intake of 25 g/d based on a diet rich in whole grains, fruits and legumes will probably decrease the risk of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. PMID:19768242

  5. Measurement of novel dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; Rossiter, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described. PMID:15287670

  6. Benefits of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klosterbuer, Abby; Roughead, Zamzam Fariba; Slavin, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    Dietary fiber is widely recognized as an important part of a healthy diet and is a common addition to enteral nutrition (EN) formulas. Fiber sources differ in characteristics such as solubility, fermentability, and viscosity, and it is now well known that different types of fiber exert varying physiological effects in the body. Clinical studies suggest fiber can exert a wide range of benefits in areas such as bowel function, gut health, immunity, blood glucose control, and serum lipid levels. Although early clinical nutrition products contained fiber from a single source, it is now thought that blends of fiber from multiple sources more closely resemble a regular diet and may provide a greater range of benefits for the patient. Current recommendations support the use of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition when no contraindications exist, but little information exists about which types and combinations of fibers provide the relevant benefit in certain patient populations. This article summarizes the different types of fiber commonly added to EN products and reviews the current literature on the use of fiber blends in clinical nutrition. PMID:21947646

  7. In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Huang, Caihuan; Ou, Shiyi

    2011-02-15

    Water-soluble dietary fibers from apple peels and water-insoluble dietary fibers from wheat bran and soybean-seed hull were used to evaluate their binding capacities for four toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As), lard, cholesterol, and bile acids. The water-soluble dietary fibers showed a higher binding capacity for three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; and a lower binding capacity for lard, compared to the water-insoluble ones. A mixture of the dietary fibers from all samples - apple peels, wheat bran, and soybean-seed hull - in the ratio 2:4:4 (w/w) significantly increased the binding capacity of water-insoluble dietary fibers for the three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; moreover, the mixture could lower the concentrations of Pb(2+) and Cd(+) in the tested solutions to levels lower than those occurring in rice and vegetables grown in polluted soils. However, all the tested fibers showed a low binding capacity for the toxic anion, AsO(3)(3-). PMID:21095057

  8. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple. PMID:26813795

  9. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Okushima, Ayaka; Miyata, Yu; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Takahashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP) and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (P < 0.01), and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (P < 0.01). BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring. PMID:24348688

  10. Dietary fiber: nutritional lessons for macronutrient substitutes.

    PubMed

    Behall, K M

    1997-05-23

    The wide array of low-fat foods containing soluble fibers have the potential for helping in weight loss or weight control. Consumption of soluble fibers in sufficient quantities has been shown to lower serum lipid concentrations and to improve glycemic response. Some individuals could, eventually, consume a significant portion of their soluble dietary fiber from processed foods containing soluble-fiber fat substitutes. Changes in dietary fiber and starch sources increase the amount of fermentable material reaching the colon. Short-chain fatty acids thus produced are used as an energy source by colonocytes and may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. However, colonic fermentation can also result in flatulence or diarrhea. In addition, some diets high in soluble fiber have been shown to change intestinal cell morphology in rats. The possible benefits from consumption of a diet high in soluble fiber fat substitutes in serum lipid reduction, glycemic response improvement, and/or weight reduction as well as potential problems in flatulence, mineral absorption, and colonic cell hyperproliferation should be investigated. PMID:9186765

  11. Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: effect of acid–base induced modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural modifications of insoluble rice bran fiber (IRBF) by sequential regimes of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and their effects on the physicochemical attributes were studied. The increment of H2SO4 concentration resulted in decreased water holding capacity that ultimately enhanced the oil bindin...

  12. Dietary Fiber, Microbiota and Obesity Related Metabolic Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presentation summarizes our research over the past 7 years on viscous soluble dietary fibers in animal models of obesity and metabolic diseases. We found that in addition to the well known cholesterol and glucose lowering ability of soluble fibers, viscous dietary fibers also prevent most of th...

  13. Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Susanna C; Männistö, Satu; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Kontto, Jukka; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives There is convincing evidence that a high dietary fiber intake may lower the risk of coronary heart disease. However, the role of fiber in the prevention of stroke is unclear. We examined the associations of dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake with risk of stroke within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Subjects/Methods Between 1985 and 1988, 26 556 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years who had no history of stroke completed a dietary questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were ascertained. Results After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and folate and magnesium intakes, there was no significant association between intake of total fiber, water-soluble fiber, water-insoluble fiber, or fiber derived from fruit or cereal sources and risk of any stroke subtype. Vegetable fiber intake as well as consumption of fruit, vegetables, and cereals were inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction; the multivariate relative risks (RR) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.99) for vegetable fiber, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73–0.93) for fruit, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66–0.85) for vegetables, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74–1.03) for cereals. Vegetable consumption was inversely associated with risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR for highest versus lowest quintile: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40–0.98) and cereal consumption was inversely associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (RR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41–1.01). Conclusions These findings suggest a beneficial effect of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals on stroke risk. PMID:19319150

  14. In vitro mineral binding capacity of five fiber sources and their insoluble components for copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Claye, S S; Idouraine, A; Weber, C W

    1996-06-01

    Five fiber-rich food sources, wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), oat fiber (OF), apple fiber (AF), and tomato fiber (TF) and their isolated insoluble fiber fractions were evaluated in vitro for their binding capacity for zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Endogenous Zn concentrations of the fibers varied from 11.0 micrograms/g for OF to 136.0 micrograms/g for WB, whereas Cu concentrations ranged from 1.0 microgram/g for OF to 14.0 micrograms/g for WB. In all the fibers, total Cu bound was significantly higher than Zn. Total Cu bound ranged from 3687 micrograms/g for OF to 8019 micrograms/g and 8073 micrograms/g for WB and AF, whereas, bound Zn levels varied from 1213 micrograms/g for OF to 7121 micrograms/g and 7166 micrograms/g for WB and RB, respectively. Significantly more Zn and Cu were bound by the fiber fractions than the whole fibers, probably due to the exposure of more binding sites on the polymers during the fractionation process. Generally, the fiber components of all five fibers showed Cu and Zn binding capacities decreasing in the order; hemicellulose A > lignocellulose > lignin > cellulose. A strong correlation was seen between the combined effects of protein, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of the fibers versus total Zn binding capacity and a lesser correlation with Cu. PMID:8983052

  15. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  16. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Holford, Theodore R.; Zhang, Yawei; Boyle, Peter; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status. Methods A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER− tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER− tumor groups. Conclusions The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER− breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22350922

  17. Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary insoluble fibres: relationships with intestinal and hepatic cholesterol parameters.

    PubMed

    van Bennekum, Ariëtte M; Nguyen, David V; Schulthess, Georg; Hauser, Helmut; Phillips, Michael C

    2005-09-01

    Fibres with a range of abilities to perturb cholesterol homeostasis were used to investigate how the serum cholesterol-lowering effects of insoluble dietary fibres are related to parameters of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Cholestyramine, chitosan and cellulose were used as examples of fibres with high, intermediate and low bile acid-binding capacities, respectively. The serum cholesterol levels in a control group of mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 3 weeks increased about 2-fold to 4.3 mm and inclusion of any of these fibres at 7.5 % of the diet prevented this increase from occurring. In addition, the amount of cholesterol accumulated in hepatic stores due to the HFHC diet was reduced by treatment with these fibres. The three kinds of fibres showed similar hypocholesterolaemic activity; however, cholesterol depletion of liver tissue was greatest with cholestyramine. The mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of cholestyramine were (1) decreased cholesterol (food) intake, (2) decreased cholesterol absorption efficiency, and (3) increased faecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. The latter effects can be attributed to the high bile acid-binding capacity of cholestyramine. In contrast, incorporation of chitosan or cellulose in the diet reduced cholesterol (food) intake, but did not affect either intestinal cholesterol absorption or faecal sterol output. The present study provides strong evidence that above all satiation and satiety effects underlie the cholesterol-lowering properties of insoluble dietary fibres with moderate or low bile acid-binding capabilities. PMID:16176602

  18. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    Lattimer, James M.; Haub, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health. PMID:22254008

  19. Protective effect of dietary fibers against colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mia, M Abdur Razzaque; Siddiqui, M Nazrul Islam; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M Matiur; Deb, Kalpana

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fibers are remnant of plant cells resistant to hydrolysis by human alimentary tract enzymes. These are cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectins and gums. Intake of dietary fibers or foods rich in dietary fibers decreases the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Reduced risk of colorectal carcinoma is reported when populations with diet high in red meat and total fats switched to a diet high in total fibers and certain whole grain, goods. Fibre intake is also inversely related to mortality from colorectal carcinoma. Beneficial influence of most vegetables and fruits against colorectal carcinoma is confirmed and this is due to their fibre contents. PMID:12148400

  20. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

  1. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer. PMID:24567795

  2. Dietary toxicity of soluble and insoluble molybdenum to northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Lambert, Charles E; Zyskowski, Justin A; Engfehr, Cheryl L; Fletcher, Oscar J; Clark, Shanna L; Tiwary, Asheesh; Gulde, Cynthia M; Sample, Bradley E

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of molybdenum (Mo) on avian wildlife, which impairs evaluation of ecological exposure and risk. While Mo is an essential trace nutrient in birds, little is known of its toxicity to birds exposed to molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), the predominant form found in molybdenite ore. The chemical form and bioavailability of Mo is important in determining its toxicity. Avian toxicity tests typically involve a soluble form of Mo, such as sodium molybdate dihydrate (SMD, Na2MoO4·2H2O); however MoS2 is generally insoluble, with low bioaccessibility under most environmental conditions. The current study monitored survival and general health (body weight and food consumption) of 9-day old northern bobwhite exposed to soluble Mo (SMD) and ore-related Mo (MoS2) in their diet for 30 days. Toxicity and bioavailability (e.g. tissue distribution) of the two Mo forms were compared. Histopathology evaluations and serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissue sample analyses were conducted. Copper, a nutrient integrally associated with Mo toxicity, was also measured in the diet and tissue. No treatment-related mortality occurred and no treatment-related lesions were recorded for either Mo form. Tissue analyses detected increased Mo concentrations in serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissues following exposure to SMD, with decreasing concentrations following a post-exposure period. For the soluble form, a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Concentration (NOAEC) of 1200 mg Mo as SMD/kg feed (134 mg SMD/kg body weight/day) was identified based on body weight and food consumption. No adverse effects were observed in birds exposed to MoS2 at the maximum dose of 5000 mg MoS2/kg feed (545 mg MoS2/kg body weight/day). These results show that effects associated with MoS2, the more environmentally prevalent and less bioavailable Mo form, are much less than those observed for SMD. These data should support more realistic representations of exposure and risks to avian

  3. Dietary Fiber Is Positively Associated with Cognitive Control among Prepubertal Children12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. Objective: The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7–9 y (n = 65). Methods: Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index–2005) scores. Results: Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = −0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that children’s diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important

  4. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. PMID:24262528

  5. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance. PMID:19719017

  6. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  7. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet. PMID:26735801

  8. Some dietary fibers reduce the absorption of carotenoids in women.

    PubMed

    Riedl, J; Linseisen, J; Hoffmann, J; Wolfram, G

    1999-12-01

    Dietary fiber may be partly responsible for the lower bioavailability of carotenoids from food than from purified supplements. Due to the lack of detailed information available, we investigated the effects of different kinds of dietary fiber on the absorption of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol. Six healthy young women received an antioxidant mixture consisting of beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, canthaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol together with a standard meal. The meal did not contain additional dietary fiber or was enriched with pectin, guar, alginate, cellulose or wheat bran (0. 15 g. kg body weight(-1)). The increases in plasma carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were followed over 24 h, and the areas-under-curves (AUC(24h)) were calculated. The mean AUC(24h) of beta-carotene was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by the water-soluble fibers pectin, guar and alginate with a mean decrease of 33-43%. All tested fibers significantly reduced the AUC(24h) of lycopene and lutein by 40-74% (P < 0.05). The dietary fiber effect on the AUC(24h) of canthaxanthin was almost significant (P = 0.059) and there was no effect on the AUC(24h) of alpha-tocopherol. We conclude that the bioavailability of beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein given within a mixed supplement is markedly reduced by different kinds of dietary fiber. PMID:10573545

  9. Effects of soluble dietary fibers on lipid metabolism and activities of intestinal disaccharidases in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y S; Cho, S H; Kim, H J; Lee, H J

    1998-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin and polydextrose, soluble dietary fibers with low molecular weight, on lipid metabolism and disaccharidase activities of intestinal mucosa in rats fed a high sucrose diet. Their effects were compared with those of well-known soluble fibers, pectin, and guar gum, and also with an insoluble fiber, cellulose. Dietary fibers added to diets at the 5% (w/w) level were alpha-cellulose, pectin, guar gum, indigestible dextrin, and polydextrose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to test diets for 6 weeks. Body weight gain was the lowest in rats fed guar gum, the highest in rats fed cellulose, and in-between in rats fed other diets. Although guar gum, pectin, and indigestible feeding dextrin had lower plasma lipid values than cellulose feeding did, the differences were statistically insignificant. Liver triglyceride of the guar gum-fed group was about a third that of the cellulose-fed group, but although those of rats fed polydextrose, indigestible dextrin, and pectin were lower than that of cellulose, the differences were insignificant. Liver cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were similar among groups. Daily fecal excretion of total lipid, cholesterol, and bile acids were highest in rats fed guar gum, followed by pectin-fed and cellulose-fed rats, and the lowest in rats fed indigestible dextrin and polydextrose. Jejunal sucrase activity was low in the order of guar-gum, polydextrose, indigestible dextrin, pectin, and cellulose. The results indicate that the hypolipidemic effect of soluble dietary fibers would be lessened with reduction in molecular weight, but that the lower sucrase activity by soluble fibers with low molecular weight might be beneficial for hypoglycemic effect. PMID:9919480

  10. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  11. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  12. [Interaction of the dietary fibers with different functional food ingredients].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Baĭgarin, E K; Gorshunova, K D; Semenova, P A; Nechaev, A P

    2012-01-01

    The aspects of dietary fibers' and different food ingredients' interaction are considered in this article; in particular, the questions of dietary fibers' interaction with the main foodstuff components (proteins, fats, vitamins, etc.), especially functional purpose; and the interaction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which is part of dietary fiber, with the main foodstuff components--protein, vitamins and antioxidants (tocopherol, and riboflavin). It was found that with increasing of MCC content in the diet, there was increase of vitamins sorption (especially tocopherol), with its maximum at 3 g of MCC. This is probably due to the relatively high porosity and properties of MCC to absorb and retain water, lipids and other food ingredients. These findings point to the need to consider the possibility of sorption of polysaccharides and, in particular in the preparation of starch-rich foods and dietary recommendations for their use. PMID:22888670

  13. Dietary Fiber, Kidney Function, Inflammation, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Cederholm, Tommy; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70–71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991–1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Results Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). Conclusions High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also

  14. Organic solvent-tolerant elastase efficiently hydrolyzes insoluble, cross-linked, protein fiber of eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Shinji; Hano, Shinpei; Cheng, Minyi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Aoki, Kenji

    2012-05-01

    Eggshell membrane is a mechanically stable and insoluble cross-linked fibrous protein. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ME-4 synthesizes a metalloprotease that degrades the eggshell membrane. We cloned the encoding gene in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protease, over-expressed in E. coli, was inactive but addition of acetone to crude cell extracts restored the activity and removed many E. coli proteins. We purified the active, acetone-treated protease to homogeneity in a single chromatography step with 57% recovery. The recombinant protease partially hydrolyzed eggshell membrane and produced more soluble peptides and proteins than commercial elastase, α-chymotrypsin, and collagenase. The soluble peptides produced from hydrolyzed eggshell membrane inhibited angiotensin-I-converting enzyme activity. The degradation of eggshell membrane by the recombinant elastase could be applied to the production of soluble bioactive peptides. PMID:22286207

  15. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake. PMID:18302966

  16. Some dietary fibers increase elimination of orally administered polychlorinated biphenyls but not that of retinol in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasuhiro; Nagata, Yasuo; Buddington, Randal K

    2004-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplementation can increase the size and nutrient absorption capacities of the small intestine in some mammals, but does this increase the risk of accumulating environmental contaminants? This study addressed this question by feeding mice diets containing various types of fiber at 0 or 100 g/kg (cellulose, lactosucrose, polydextrose, indigestible dextrin, soy polysaccharide, rice bran and chitosan) for 10 wk. During the final 2 wk, the mice were fed retinol and a dose of Arochlor 1254 [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)] estimated to be 5% of the median lethal dose. Accumulation was determined using whole blood samples collected on days 1, 3 and 7 as well as eight tissues (whole blood, small and large intestine, liver, gall bladder, mesentery, kidney and brain). Elimination of Arochlor 1254 and retinol was determined using daily collections of feces and urine. The patterns of accumulation and elimination differed between Arochlor 1254 and retinol, among tissues, and among mice fed diets with various amounts and types of fiber. Dietary fiber supplementation did not decrease accumulation of PCB. However, the diet with chitosan increased fecal excretion of Arochlor 1254 compared to the fiber-free diet (P<0.05). The diets with fermentable fiber (polydextrose, indigestible dextrin and soy polysaccharides) increased urinary excretion of PCB compared to the diets with water-insoluble fiber (cellulose, rice bran and chitosan; P<0.05). The most efficacious diets for minimizing accumulation of environmental contaminants and accelerating elimination likely include a combination of soluble and insoluble fiber, but the specific types, proportions and amounts remain to be determined. PMID:14704306

  17. [Estimation of dietary fiber content of feedstuffs].

    PubMed

    Lipiec, A; Grela, E; Zürcher, U; Wenk, C

    1994-01-01

    In a series of 8 concentrates, 18 roughages and 13 wet feedstuffs the interactions between different dietary fibre fractions were studied. In comparison to other analytical methods the crude fibre method (XF) did not allow a satisfactory estimation of the dietary fibre content (DF) of the experimental feedstuffs. In comparison to the NDF and the dietary fibre content and depending on the feedstuff, XF content was lowered by 2 to 3 times and 2 to 4 times, respectively. There was a surprisingly high correspondence between the contents of NDF and unsoluble dietary fibre for almost all feedstuffs. Highly significant statistical coherences could be observed between the different fibre fractions. It can be expected, that these correlations do not always follow a linear relationship, as could be observed in the regressions equations for NDF to DF and XF to ADF. PMID:7668971

  18. Effect of dietary fiber on proteolytic pancreatic enzymes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W E

    1986-12-01

    Chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and enterokinase activities were measured in buffer solutions and in human duodenal juice after incubation with wheat bran, cellulose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium and lignin. The different types of dietary fiber led to inhibition of enzymatic activity in most experiments, e.g., lignin could totally ablish the activity of isolated trypsin and chymotrypsin. Only in enterokinase was there no influence. Inhibition depended on incubation time; the effect was proportional to fiber concentration and inversely related to enzyme level. Treatment of fiber with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) and heat (95 degrees C) destroyed inhibitory activity in some experiments. The effect of lignin on one enzyme (trypsin) was reduced by the addition of another enzyme (chymotrypsin). It is concluded that dietary fiber could affect digestion by inhibiting proteolytic pancreatic enzymes. PMID:2824629

  19. Preparation of dietary fiber powder from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk ("Horchata") byproducts and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, Elena; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Navarro, Casilda; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose Angel

    2009-09-01

    "Horchata" is a vegetable milk obtained from tiger nuts. The solid waste from horchata production was analyzed for physicochemical and microbial properties, aiming to determine its potential use as a fiber source for the food industry. The solid waste contains a high proportion of total dietary fiber (59.71 g/100 g), composed mainly of insoluble dietary fiber (99.8%). It has a high water-holding capacity (8.01 g/g) and oil-holding capacity (6.92 g/g) and a low water absorption (1.79 g/g) and water adsorption (0.23 g/g) capacities, in comparison with other dietary fiber sources. The emulsifying ability was 70.33 mL/100 mL, and the wastes showed high emulsion stability (100 mL/100 mL). The physicochemical properties indicate that tiger nut byproducts are rich in fiber and may be considered a potential ingredient in a healthy diet. However, the microbial quality was poor, meaning that it must be pasteurized prior to its addition to any food product. PMID:19670887

  20. Inclusion of insoluble fiber sources in mash or pellet diets for young broilers. 1. Effects on growth performance and water intake.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Moreno, E; de Coca-Sinova, A; González-Alvarado, J M; Mateos, G G

    2016-01-01

    The effects of feed form and the inclusion of insoluble fiber in the diet on growth performance and water intake were studied in female broilers from 0 to 21 d of age. The experimental design was completely randomized with 14 treatments arranged as a 2 × 7 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. pelleted) and 7 diets that consisted of a control diet low in fiber (1.6% crude fiber) based on broken rice, fermented soybean meal, and fish meal and 6 extra diets that resulted from the inclusion of 3 insoluble fiber sources (oat hulls; OH, rice hulls; RH, and sunflower hulls; SFH) at 2 levels (2.5 vs. 5%). Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Broilers fed pellets had 32% greater ADG and 3% better feed to gain ratio (F:G) than those fed mash (P ≤ 0.001). The inclusion of the fiber sources improved ADG (P ≤ 0.05) and F:G (P ≤ 0.05). Pelleting increased (P ≤ 0.001) water intake from 6 to 8 d, water-to-feed intake ratio from 18 to 20 d, and moisture content of the excreta at 20 d of age. The inclusion of the insoluble fiber sources increased water intake (P ≤ 0.05) from d 18 to 20 but not from d 6 to 8. Increasing the level of fiber inclusion from 2.5 to 5.0% tended to increase (P = 0.086) moisture content in the excreta at d 20. Pelleting and the inclusion of insoluble fiber sources improved ADG and F:G in broilers fed low-fiber diets, and the improvements observed were more pronounced with pellets than with mash. Growth performance of young broilers improves with the addition of moderate amounts of structural insoluble fiber in the diet, regardless of feed form. The inclusion of OH or SFH into low fiber diets was more beneficial for improving broiler performance than the inclusion of RH. PMID:26574033

  1. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  2. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  3. Dietary fibers reduce the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene following intravenous administration of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Viau, C; Zaoui, C; Charbonneau, S

    2004-03-01

    During biological monitoring of exposure to a chemical, a possible source of interindividual variability in the measurement of a urinary metabolite that undergoes enterohepatic cycling is the presence of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the effect of diets containing either the insoluble fiber Alphacel (nonnutritive bulk cellulose) or the soluble pectin (from citrus fruit, MW 20,000-40,000). Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of the following diets: poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in Alphacel, poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in pectin, or no fiber (NF). Five micromol/kg of pyrene was administered by iv injection immediately after feeding the animals with their respective diet, and urine and feces collections started for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene. The type of fiber had no influence on the results. The rats receiving diets both poor and rich in fiber excreted less 1-OHP (18 +/- 8 and 15 +/- 7 pmol per g of rat, respectively) in the 24-h urine samples than the NF group (28 +/- 6 pmol/g). There was a nonstatistically significant trend towards increased fecal and total (urinary + fecal) 1-OHP excretion with increasing amount of fiber in the diet. An in vitro experiment showed an inverse correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between the amount of Alphacel in suspension in a 1-OHP aqueous solution and the recovery of 1-OHP from the soluble fraction. The reduction in urinary output of the metabolite due to fiber reaching approximately 40% may contribute to its interindividual variability observed in occupational and environmental studies. PMID:14691205

  4. Incorporation of buriti endocarp flour in gluten-free whole cookies as potential source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Damiani, Clarissa; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas

    2014-12-01

    Cookies were prepared by replacing a mixture of brown rice flour (70%) and corn starch (30%) (BRFCS) by buriti endocarp flour (BEF) (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20%). BEF figured as a potential source of dietary fiber (70.53 g 100 g(-1)), especially of insoluble fiber (67.50 g 100 g(-1)), and gluten-free whole cookies showed increased dietary fiber content by adding 5, 10, 15 and 20% BEF (8.58 to 20.02 g 100 g(-1)) when compared to control cookie (6.91 g 100 g(-1)). The addition of BEF affected diameter, spread ratio, color and texture of cookies. All cookies added with BEF were darker, harder and presented smaller diameter and smaller spread ratio than the control cookie. These difference increased proportionally to level of substitution of BRFSC by BEF. Gluten-free whole cookies with up to 15% BEF were well accepted by consumers. Therefore, the use of BEF in cookies may increase the availability of functional ingredients source of dietary fiber for celiac consumers, add economic value to buriti processing by-products and decrease environmental impacts due to the high amounts of waste generated by buriti processing industries. PMID:25315266

  5. Dietary fiber and total enteral nutrition: fermentative assessment of five fiber supplements.

    PubMed

    McBurney, M I; Thompson, L U

    1991-01-01

    Total enteral nutrition (TEN) formulas supplemented with dietary fiber, typically soy polysaccharide, are in widespread clinical use. Five commercially available dietary fiber supplements obtained from fruits (apple, grapefruit, orange, prune, tomato) were examined for potential use in TEN formulas. In vitro fermentations of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours' duration with human fecal microbiota from three different donors were conducted to assess colonic fermentative effects. Short-chain fatty acid and hydrogen productions differed significantly with fiber source. The most rapid fermentation rate was with tomato followed by orange, grapefruit, apple, and finally prune fiber. Such differences in fermentability should be considered when fiber sources are selected to supplement TEN formulas. PMID:1650853

  6. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Enough? English 您是否摄取到足够的纤维质? - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center High Fiber Foods English 含大量纤维素的食品 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ...

  7. Recovery of soluble dietary fiber is dependent on the method of analysis.

    PubMed

    Marlett, J A; Chesters, J G; Longacre, M J; Bogdanske, J J

    1989-09-01

    The effects of different methods on the distribution of total neutral sugars (TNS), uronic acids (UA), and beta-glucans (beta G) between the soluble (S) and insoluble (I) fractions of dietary fiber (DF) were determined for peas, kidney beans, oat bran, rice, and macaroni. Incorporation of a protease step into the Theander method "A" modestly increased, and addition of a pepsin digestion further increased the proportion of total fiber recovered in the S fraction. The effect of extraction method on the distribution of TNS, UA, and beta G between the S and I fractions varied with the food. The three methods measured the same total DF in a food and 1-3% starch in the I fraction of peas and kidney beans. Use of dimethyl sulfoxide to solubilize starch, or elevated temperature to extract S components, had no effect on the distribution of DF between S and I fractions of peas and macaroni. Incomplete protein hydrolysis did not always lower Klason lignin and excluding lignin from the fiber complex did not always substantially increase the S fraction. PMID:2549779

  8. Dietary protein and fiber in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sirich, Tammy L

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the availability of hemodialysis, dietary protein restriction played a large part in the treatment of uremia. This therapy was based on observations that uremic symptoms increased with high protein intake. Early investigators thus presumed that "uremic toxins" were derived from the breakdown of dietary protein; its restriction improved uremic symptoms but caused malnutrition. After the availability of hemodialysis, protein restriction was no longer recommended. Studies in healthy subjects have shown that an intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is adequate to prevent protein malnutrition. Guidelines for hemodialysis patients, however, currently recommend higher protein intakes of 1.2 g/kg/day. A downside to higher intake may be increased production of protein-derived uremic solutes that caused the symptoms observed by early investigators. Some of these solutes are produced by colon microbes acting on protein which escapes digestion in the small intestine. Increasing dietary fiber may reduce the production of colon-derived solutes in hemodialysis patients without adverse effects of protein restriction. Fiber comprises carbohydrates and related substances that are resistant to digestion in the small intestine. Upon delivery to the colon, fiber is broken down to short chain fatty acids, providing energy to both the microbes and the host. With an increased energy supply, the microbes can incorporate dietary protein for growth rather than breaking them down to uremic solutes. Increasing fiber intake in hemodialysis patients has been shown to reduce the plasma levels of selected colon-derived solutes. Further studies are needed to test whether this provides clinical benefit. PMID:25319504

  9. In vitro hypoglycemic effects of selected dietary fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Sairam, Sudha; Urooj, Asna

    2011-06-01

    The physiological functions of dietary fiber and its role in health promotion and risk reduction of some chronic diseases has been well documented. In the present investigation, the effect of three dietary fiber sources, oats (OA), barley (BA) and psyllium husk (PH) on glucose adsorption, diffusion and starch hydrolysis were studied using in vitro techniques by simulating gastrointestinal conditions and compared with the commercial dietary fiber sources wheat bran (WB), acarbose (ACB) and guar gum (GG). The glucose binding capacity of all the samples was higher than WB and ACB at 5 mM concentration. In all the samples, the diffusion of glucose was directly proportional to the time and diffusion rate was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.01) in the system containing various samples compared to control. Glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) was 100 for OA, BA and PH at 60 min, at 120 min the maximal GDRI was in PH. Whereas; WB and ACB exhibited maximal GDRI at 180 and 240 min. All of these mechanisms might create a concerted function in lowering the rate of glucose absorption and as a result, decrease the postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:23572748

  10. Antioxidative activity of animal and vegetable dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobutaka; Fujimura, Ayako; Nagai, Takeshi; Mizumoto, Iwao; Itami, Toshiaki; Hatate, Hideo; Nozawa, Takashi; Kato, Norihisa; Nomoto, Tateo; Yoda, Binkoh

    2004-01-01

    Some dietary fibers originated from insects such as silkworm (Sericin) and others along with constituents of several representative seaweeds such as wakame Undaria pinnatifida; hijiki Hizikia fusifome; and kombu Laminaria japonica, were found to have fairly large reaction rates determined by quenching experiments of emission spectra in the near-infrared region lambdamax 1270 nm for singlet oxygen 1O2, Cypridina luminescence method for superoxide, and peroxide value (POV) for autoxidation. The determined reaction rates are between 10(3)-10(5) (g/L)(-1) s(-1) for the insect and the plant dietary fibers; the larger ones are as large as that of ascorbic acid, 1.93 x 10(4) (g/L)(-1) s(-1) for singlet oxygen. Most of these seaweed constituents also showed antioxidative activity against autoxidation and superoxide as well as their immunological enhancing activity. These results suggest a possibility that dietary fibers that are supposed to prevent the large-intestine cancer by their physical properties may prevent the cancer, at least in parts, by their chemical, antioxidative activity. PMID:15630221

  11. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. PMID:26514720

  12. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  13. Can supplementation of phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers help the management of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Carlo; Rizzello, Fernando; Gionchetti, Paolo; Calafiore, Andrea; Pagano, Nico; De Fazio, Luigia; Valerii, Maria Chiara; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo; Spisni, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in gene expression in polyp mucosa, whereas the secondary endpoint was the reduction in polyp number and size. After 3 months of ADI treatment, all patients showed a reduction in the number and size of duodenal polyps (P = 0.021). Analysis of the expression of CRC promoting/inhibiting genes in duodenal polyps biopsies demonstrated that different CRC-promoting genes (PCNA, MUC1 and COX-2) were significantly downregulated, whereas CRC-inhibiting genes (ER-β and MUC2) were significantly upregulated after ADI treatment. In conclusion, ADI proved to be safe and effective, and its long-term effects on FAP patients need further investigation. Judging from the results we observed on COX-2 and miR-101 expression, the short-term effects of ADI treatment could be comparable with those obtained using COX-2 inhibitors, with the advantage of being much more tolerable in chronic therapies and void of adverse events. PMID:27207660

  14. Plasma cholesterol-lowering effect on rats of dietary fiber extracted from immature plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, N; Taniguchi, Y; Kiriyama, S

    2000-12-01

    Crude dietary fiber samples were prepared from beet, cabbage, Japanese radish, onion and mung bean sprouts (BF, CF, RF, OF and MF, respectively). These samples contained total dietary fiber at the levels of 814, 699, 760, 693 and 666 g/kg, respectively. To examine the effect of these dietary fiber sources on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (FF) diet or on an FF diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. Dietary fiber extracted from vegetables, wood cellulose (CL), pectin (PE) and guar gum (GG) were used as the fiber sources. Compared with the rats fed on the FF diet, a significant reduction in the plasma cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats fed on BF, CF, RF, MF, PE or GG after a 21-d feeding period. Cecal acetate, n-butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly higher in the rats fed on these dietary fibers, except for CF, than in those fed on the FF diet. A negative correlation was apparent between the total dietary fiber content, hemicellulose content and pectin content of each dietary fiber source and the plasma cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that some vegetable fibers exert a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect through cecal fermentation of these fibers. PMID:11210115

  15. Dietary fiber is related to metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic and epidemiological evidence suggests that high fiber diets improve glucose and lipid metabolism. We examined the association between energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and several metabolic markers of disease risk in X men and Y women in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Dietary fiber ...

  16. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  17. Importance of enzyme purity and activity in the measurement of total dietary fiber and dietary fiber components.

    PubMed

    McCleary, B V; McCleary, B V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of the activity and purity of enzymes in the assay of total dietary fiber (AOAC Method 985.29) and specific dietary fiber components: resistant starch, fructan, and beta-glucan. In the measurement of total dietary fiber content of resistant starch samples, the concentration of alpha-amylase is critical; however, variations in the level of amyloglucosidase have little effect. Contamination of amyloglucosidase preparations with cellulase can result in significant underestimation of dietary fiber values for samples containing beta-glucan. Pure beta-glucan and cellulase purified from Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase preparations were used to determine acceptable critical levels of contamination. Sucrose, which interferes with the measurement of inulin and fructooligosaccharides in plant materials and food products, must be removed by hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose with a specific enzyme (sucrase) followed by borohydride reduction of the free sugars. Unlike invertase, sucrase has no action on low degree of polymerization (DP) fructooligosaccharides, such as kestose or kestotetraose. Fructan is hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose by the combined action of highly purified exo- and endo-inulinases, and these sugars are measured by the p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide reducing sugar method. Specific measurement of beta-glucan in cereal flour and food extracts requires the use of highly purified endo-1,3:1,4 beta-glucanase and A. niger beta-glucosidase. Beta-glucosidase from almonds does not completely hydrolyze mixed linkage beta-glucooligosaccharides from barley or oat beta-glucan. Contamination of these enzymes with starch, maltosaccharide, or sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes results in production of free glucose from a source other than beta-glucan, and thus an overestimation of beta-glucan content. The glucose oxidase and peroxidase used in the glucose determination reagent must be essentially devoid of catalase and alpha

  18. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. PMID:27330145

  19. Dietary fibers and heavy metal retention in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, H.E.; Quarterman, J.

    1987-02-01

    The metal-binding capacities of some gel-forming polysaccharides and other substances have been investigated in vitro in an attempt to relate their metal-binding properties to the retention of dietary Pb and Cd in vivo. In equilibrium dialysis systems, aqueous solutions of alginic acid, pectin, agar, and carrageenan (1 g fiber/100 ml) all bound Pb and Cd to varying degrees. Alginic acid had the greatest binding capacity for Pb (50 ..mu..g Pb bound/mg fiber) and carrageenan for Cd (9.3 ..mu..g Cd bound/mg fiber). Addition of any one of these fibers, or indulin or glucuronic acid to the diet increased the tissue retention of one or both of the metals. Only cellulose supplementation reduced the retention of both Pb and Cd. Carrageenan decreased that of Pb and increased that of Cd. In another experiment alginic acid was shown to increased Pb retention in rats even when present at fairly low dietary concentrations (1 g/kg).

  20. Intestinal interaction of bile acids, phospholipids, dietary fibers, and cholestyramine.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, D; Schneeman, B O

    1986-04-01

    Binding of bile acids and phospholipids to a number of dietary fibers and cholestyramine (CH) within the small intestine was determined. The fibers used were cellulose, wheat bran, oat bran, guar gum (GG), and lignin (LG). GG, LG, and CH bound significant quantities of bile acids. However, only the CH reduced the bile acid concentration within the aqueous phase of the intestinal contents. Significant phospholipid binding was found only with CH. None of the test substances significantly reduced the quantity of solubilized lipid. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the total quantity of bile acids and phospholipids in the aqueous phase of the intestinal contents was a significant predictor of the quantity of lipid solubilized within the contents (r2 = 0.67). The failure of GG and LG to significantly decrease the amount of solubilized lipid suggests that the hypocholesterolemic effect of these fibers is due more to their bile acid binding capacity than to an effect on lipid solubilization. PMID:3008573

  1. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre. PMID:11591231

  2. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  3. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  4. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  5. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  6. Effect of insoluble fiber supplementation applied at different ages on digestive organ weight and digestive enzymes of layer-strain poultry.

    PubMed

    Yokhana, J S; Parkinson, G; Frankel, T L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary insoluble fiber (IF) on digestive enzyme function in layer poultry. In Experiment 1, 8 wk old pullets were fed a control diet (Group C) or a diet (Group IF) supplemented with 1% IF (Arbocel RC). After 5 wk, 6 pullets per group were killed and organ samples collected. The remaining pullets in Group C were divided into two groups: half were fed the control diet (Group C) and half were given the IF diet (Group C-IF). Similarly, half the pullets in Group IF continued on the IF diet (Group IF) and half on the control diet (Group IF-C). At 10 wk, organ samples were collected. BW at wk 5 (IF, 1364.8 g; C, 1342.9 g) and 10 wk (IF, 1678.1 g; IF-C, 1630.5 g; C-IF, 1617.1 g; C, 1580.4 g) were not different. At wk 5, the relative proventricular weight (0.41 g/100 g BW) and activities of pepsin (75.3 pepsin units/g proventriculus/min) and pancreatic general proteolytic activity (GP) (122.9 μmol tyrosine produced/g tissue) were greater (P < 0.05) than those of Group C (proventricular relative weight, 0.36; pepsin activity, 70.6; GP activity, 94.3). At wk 10, relative weights of liver and gizzard of Group IF were heavier (P < 0.05) than other treatments; activities of pepsin, GP, trypsin and chymotrypsin of IF pullets were significantly greater than other treatments as was mRNA expression for pepsinogens A (25.9 vs. 22.9) and C (13.1 vs. 10.8). In Experiment 2, 19 wk old hens were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.8% IF (Arbocel RC) for 12 wk. Final BW after 12 wk was not different (IF, 1919.4 g; C, 1902.1 g). Pancreatic GP activity was greater (P < 0.05) in Group IF hens than Group C at wk 12 (122.2 vs. 97.0 μmol tyrosine released/min/g tissue)) as was relative gizzard weight (1.32 vs 1.10 g/100 g BW). The significantly improved digestive organ weights and enzyme activities in IF pullets may contribute to an improvement in feed utilization. PMID:26574026

  7. Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Murphy, Michael R; Fahey, George C

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the viscosities of both soluble and insoluble dietary fibers. In Expt. 1, corn bran, defatted rice bran, guar gum, gum xanthan, oat bran, psyllium, soy hulls, stabilized rice bran, wheat bran, wood cellulose, and 2 methylcellulose controls (Ticacel 42, Ticacel 43) were hydrated in water overnight at 0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2% concentrations. In Expt. 2, guar gum, oat bran, psyllium, rice bran, wheat bran, and wood cellulose were subjected to a 2-stage in vitro gastric and small intestinal digestion simulation model. Viscosity was measured every 2 and 3 h during gastric and small intestinal simulation, respectively. Viscosities in both experiments were measured at multiple shear rates. Viscosities of all fiber solutions were concentration- and shear rate-dependent. Rice brans, soy hulls, and wood cellulose had the lowest viscosities, whereas guar gum, psyllium, and xanthan gum had the highest viscosities, regardless of concentration. During gastric simulation, viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) at 4 h than at 0 h for guar gum, psyllium, rice bran, and wheat bran. During small intestinal simulation, viscosities were higher (P < 0.05) between 3 and 9 h compared with 18 h for guar gum, oat bran, and rice bran. Guar gum, psyllium, and oat bran exhibited viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal simulation, indicating potential for these fibers to elicit blood glucose and lipid attenuation. Wheat and rice brans and wood cellulose did not exhibit viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal digestion; thus, they may be beneficial for laxation. PMID:16549450

  8. Impact of dietary fibers on nutrient management and detoxification organs: gut, liver, and kidneys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiological effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. Dietary fibers can greatly alter the gut milieu by impacting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine response...

  9. Adiponectin in Hamster: Characterization and Functions in Soluble Dietary Fiber Mediated Lipid Homeostatis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of various natural and semisynthetic dietary fibers have been studied in the past for their potential use in the prevention and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Among these dietary fibers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) has been shown to...

  10. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of high dietary corn fiber on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n= 48; initial body weight of 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 days. Increasing the level of dietary corn fiber had no impact on average daily gain o...

  11. Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) peel as potential source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals in whole-bread preparations.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Rodrigues, Bruno Sanches; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario; dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is a fruit tree native to the Brazilian Amazon. Cupuassu beans are extensively used in the Brazilian food industry. Fat from cupuassu beans, which are a rich source of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, is used extensively in the production of candies and confectionery in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The potential use of the agro-industrial by-products of cupuassu has only slightly been addressed by the scientific community. Often, such by-products are sources of bioactive compounds with functional properties. Thus, the aims of this study were to characterize the use of cupuassu peel flour (CPF) and to examine the potential of CPF as a partial replacement in the preparation of breads through various means: chemical analyses, determination of protein digestibility, tannins, phytic acid and phenolic contents, pH, color, volume, and acceptance tests. The results show that CPF is a potential source of dietary fiber (79.81%), mainly insoluble fiber (78.29%), and breads made with added CPF present high dietary fiber content (5.40 and 6.15 g/100 g for inclusions with 6 and 9% CPF, respectively) and phytochemical values. The use of this by-product did not produce substantial changes in the physical, chemical or rheological characteristics of breads. Therefore, breads enhanced with CPF may be a convenient functional food, offering a good source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals. Breads prepared with 6% added CPF presented an acceptable overall quality to consumers. PMID:21948632

  12. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  13. In vitro determination of the indigestible fraction in foods: an alternative to dietary fiber analysis.

    PubMed

    Saura-Calixto, F; García-Alonso, A; Goñi, I; Bravo, L

    2000-08-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intakes in Western countries only accounts for about one-third of the substrates required for colonic bacterial cell turnover. There is a general trend among nutritionists to extend the DF concept to include all food constituents reaching the colon. In this line, a method to quantify the major nondigestible components in plant foods, namely, the indigestible fraction (IF), is presented. Analytical conditions for IF determination are close to physiological. Samples, analyzed as eaten, were successively incubated with pepsin and alpha-amylase; after centrifugation and dialysis, insoluble and soluble IFs were obtained. IF values include DF, resistant starch, resistant protein, and other associated compounds. IF contents determined in common foods (cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits) were higher than DF contents. Calculated IF intakes were close to the estimated amount of substrates reaching the colon. IF data could be more useful than DF data from a nutritional point of view; therefore, IF is proposed as an alternative to DF for food labeling and food composition tables. PMID:10956113

  14. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    PubMed

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  15. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, Allah; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  16. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: A meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Li; Xu, Chun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of dietary fiber intake on constipation by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to October 2011), Cochrane Library (2011), PubMed for articles on dietary fiber intake and constipation using the terms: constipation, fiber, cellulose, plant extracts, cereals, bran, psyllium, or plantago. References of important articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were high-quality RCTs and reported data on stool frequency, stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and gastrointestinal symptoms. The data were extracted independently by two researchers (Yang J and Wang HP) according to the described selection criteria. Review manager version 5 software was used for analysis and test. Weighted mean difference with 95%CI was used for quantitative data, odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI was used for dichotomous data. Both I2 statistic with a cut-off of ≥ 50% and the χ2 test with a P value < 0.10 were used to define a significant degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We searched 1322 potential relevant articles, 19 of which were retrieved for further assessment, 14 studies were excluded for various reasons, five studies were included in the analysis. Dietary fiber showed significant advantage over placebo in stool frequency (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation between the two groups. Stool frequency were reported by five RCTs, all results showed either a trend or a significant difference in favor of the treatment group, number of stools per week increased in treatment group than in placebo group (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05), with no significant heterogeneity among studies (I2= 0, P = 0.77). Four studies evaluated stool consistency, one of them presented outcome in terms of percentage of hard stool

  17. Adsorption of direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens by various dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, S; Kavas, A

    1999-09-01

    The protective effect of dietary fiber on human cancer has received great attention during the last decades. Because dietary fiber constitutes a large group of complex polysaccharides with various solubilities, degrees of lignification, chemical compositions and structural arrangements, several mechanisms for their effects have been proposed. In this study, in vitro binding capacities of various dietary fibers (potato fiber and glucomannan) and dietary fiber constituents (pectic acid and cellulose) against indirect mutagen 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo (4,5-f) quinoline (IQ) and direct-acting mutagen sodium azide were investigated. Direct-acting mutagen sodium azide was not adsorbed to the dietary fiber and dietary fiber constituents of 0 degree C, pH 4.5 and 37 degrees C, pH 7.0. However, indirect-acting mutagen 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo (4,5-f) quinoline (IQ) were sorbed by them in variable ratios at 0 degree C, pH 4.5 and 37 degrees C, pH 7.0. The differences between the in vitro binding capacities of the samples at two experimental conditions were found to be statiscially significant (P < 0.01). IQ was not released from the dietary fibers and constituents in distilled water. PMID:10719562

  18. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, P J; Robertson, J B; Lewis, B A

    1991-10-01

    There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition. PMID:1660498

  19. In vitro degradation and fermentation of three dietary fiber sources by human colonic bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend in part on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of the type of supplemented fiber on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial...

  20. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    PubMed

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Marlett, Judith A; McBurney, Michael I; Slavin, Joanne L

    2002-07-01

    Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually

  2. Improved methods for analysis and biological characterization of fiber.

    PubMed

    Jeraci, J L; Van Soest, P J

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fibers are not uniform, chemically or in their nutritive and biological properties, the only common ground being their resistance to mammalian digestive enzymes. The AOAC method for total fiber is subject to inferences from ash, protein, tannins and resistant starches. These interferences can be reduced by urea enzymatic dialysis. The measurement of soluble and insoluble fiber is nutritionally relevant, since physical properties greatly modify dietary effects of fiber. Insoluble fiber is conveniently measured as neutral-detergent fiber. This procedure has been improved by reducing the starch interference and the time of analysis. Physical and biological properties of dietary fiber can be measured by using relevant procedures for hydration capacity, metal ion exchange capacity and rate of fermentation. The lignin and tannin content modify the characteristics of dietary fiber. PMID:1706559

  3. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    PubMed

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. PMID:22352766

  4. Dietary fibers as immunoregulatory compounds in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Wismar, René; Brix, Susanne; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Laerke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-03-01

    Many nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) classified as dietary fibers have been reported to possess immunoregulatory properties. The fibers reported to activate or by other means modulate immune responses originate from both plant, fungal, and microbial sources and constitute highly distinct structures. In order to enhance our understanding of factors important for the immunoregulatory activities, this article addresses the importance of chemical structure, origin, and purity of fibers for their capacity to interact with key regulatory immune cells. Furthermore, we assess bioavailability, and discuss possible mechanisms involved. The binding of some NSPs to carbohydrate receptors on immune cells is well established and this event leads to activation or other changes. Especially, certain beta-glucans and some mannans have demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity with the specific structure being important for the activity. Within beta-glucans the activity varies according to structure, molecular weight, and solubility. As many of the preparations tested constitute crude extracts or partly purified NSPs, the risk of contaminants holding immunoregulatory activities should not be ignored. To what extent NSPs enter systemic circulation has been difficult to assess, partly due to lack of sensitive analytical methods. The presence of NSPs in blood and Peyer's patches in the gut has been demonstrated, supporting encounter between NSPs and immune cells, but bioavailability studies still constitute a major challenge. Studies demonstrating in vivo effects of beta-glucans on microbial infections and cancer treatment strongly indicate an immunoregulatory mechanism behind the effects. However, the potential of NSPs as immunoregulatory food ingredients is still far from fully explored. PMID:20388138

  5. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber on total death and cause-specific deaths. Methods We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20,126 deaths in men and 11,330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate RR comparing the highest vs. the lowest quintile =0.78, 95% CI:0.73–0.82, p-trend, <0.001 in men; 0.78. 95% CI:0.73–0.85, p-trend, <0.001 in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24%–56% in men and 34%–59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men, but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Conclusions Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits. PMID:21321288

  6. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28-42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12-14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50-70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. PMID:27422499

  7. The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dunaif, G; Schneeman, B O

    1981-06-01

    Human pancreatic juice was used as a source of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. The human pancreatic juice was incubated with one of several dietary fibers, including alfalfa, oat bran, pectin. Solka Floc, wheat bran, and xylan. In addition, the human pancreatic juice was incubated without any fiber, which was used as the control. Incubation with Solka Floc (cellulose) and xylan (a hemicellulose) resulted in a substantial loss of activity in all enzymes assayed. Wheat bran and oat bran decreased amylase and chymotrypsin activity, while alfalfa decreased trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Incubation with pectin significantly increased amylase and chymotrypsin activity. The mechanism by which sources of dietary fiber can alter enzyme activity is currently unknown. This effect of a dietary component on the activity of human pancreatic enzymes emphasizes the need to investigate further the effects of dietary fiber on digestion and absorption in the small intestine to understand fully its effects on metabolism. PMID:6165234

  8. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  9. Enhancement in fecal excretion of dioxin isomer in mice by several dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Aozasa, O; Ohta, S; Nakao, T; Miyata, H; Nomura, T

    2001-10-01

    The effect of increased nutrients (protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals) on dioxin-induced toxic manifestations such as immune suppression, hepatic hypertrophy, splenic atrophy and enzyme induction was investigated in mice after oral administration of 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD (HxCDD) as one of a representative compound of dioxin isomers. Consequently, it appeared that increased minerals and vitamins in the diet prevented immune suppression by HxCDD. In addition, to clarify the additive effect of nutrients and the ability to hasten the excretion of dioxins by dietary fiber, the adsorbing of dioxins by 16 dietary fibers was investigated by in vitro experiment. Among 16 dietary fibers, locust bean gum, pectin, alginic acid, guar gum, chitin and cellulose were effective in binding dioxin isomers. These dietary fibers also enhanced the fecal excretion of HxCDD in mice. PMID:11572611

  10. Effect of soluble and insoluble fibers within the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp by human gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Uttara S; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-07-16

    The aim of this research was to study the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp (CRP) and ensiled CRP (ECRP) using human fecal inoculum. Analysis of carbohydrate levels in fermentation digests showed that 51% of all CRP carbohydrates were utilized after 24 h of fermentation. For ECRP, having the same cell wall polysaccharide composition as CRP, but with solubilization of 4 times more of CRP pectin due to ensiling, the fermentation was quicker than with CRP as 11% more carbohydrates were utilized within the first 12 h. The level of fiber utilization for ECRP after 24 h was increased by 8% compared to CRP. This effect on fiber utilization from ECRP seemed to arise from (i) increased levels of soluble pectin fibers (arabinan, homogalacturonan, and galactan) and (ii) ahypothesized more open structure of the remaining cell walls in ECRP, which was more accessible to degradation than the CRP cell wall network. PMID:24967835

  11. Prospective Study of Dietary Fiber, Whole Grain Foods, and Small Intestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, Arthur; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Although a number of epidemiologic studies have found dietary fiber and whole grains to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence, studies of dietary and other risk factors for small intestinal cancer have been sparse and all of a case-control design. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the relationship between intake of dietary fiber/whole grains and the incidence of small intestinal cancer. Methods We analyzed dietary data collected in 1995 and 1996 from 293,703 men and 198,618 women in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to estimate relative risk (RR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for quintiles of dietary fiber and whole grain intake. Results 165 individuals developed small intestinal cancers through 2003. Dietary fiber/whole grain intake was generally associated with a lower risk of small intestinal cancer. The multivariate RR (95% CIs; 5th vs. 1st. intake quintile) were 0.79 (0.43–1.44) (p-trend, 0.41) for total dietary fiber, 0.51 (0.29–0.89) (p-trend, 0.01) for fiber from grains, and 0.59 (0.33–1.05) (p-trend=0.06) for whole-grain foods. Conclusions Intake of fiber from grains and whole-grain foods was inversely associated with small intestinal cancer incidence; the RR values were consistent with those of the same dietary factors for large bowel cancer in this cohort. In conjunction with the anatomic and physiologic commonalities of the large and small bowel, as well as the mutually increased risks for second cancer for both organs, grain fiber and whole grain foods appear to protect against lower gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:18727930

  12. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objectives of this research were to determine if inclusion of dietary fiber and a lowered dietary crude protein content would decrease ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 con...

  13. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  14. High Amount of Dietary Fiber Not Harmful But Favorable for Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD. PMID:25663207

  15. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed. PMID:26671648

  16. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  17. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the ‘fiber gap’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refinements in DF methods and definitions subsequent to the launch of the DF hypothesis. The refinements parallel both interventional and epidemiological research leading to better understanding of the role of DF in contributing to the numerous physiological benefits imparted by all the various digestion resistant carbohydrates. A comparison of the CODEX definition (including its footnote that authorizes the inclusion of polymers with DP 3–9) and approved CODEX Type 1 methods with other existing definitions and methods will point out differences and emphasize the importance of adoption of CODEX-aligned definitions by all jurisdictions. Such harmonization enables comparison of nutrition research, recommendations, food composition tables and nutrition labels the world over. A case will be made that fibers are analogous to vitamins, in that they vary in structure, function and amount needed, but each when present in the right amount contributes to optimal health. Since the intake of DF is significantly below recommended levels throughout the world, the recognition that ‘all fibers fit’ is an important strategy in bridging the ‘fiber gap’ by enfranchising and encouraging greater intake of foods with inherent and added DF. Fortifying foods with added DF makes it easier to increase intakes while maintaining calories at recommended levels. PMID:24725724

  18. Are dietary fiber-induced alterations in colonic epithelial cell proliferation predictive of fiber's effect on colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Whiteley, L O; Klurfeld, D M

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in cell proliferation of the colon have been observed as a result of changes in amount and type of dietary fiber and in relation to risk of developing colon cancer. Although some human observational and intervention studies contribute to the database, most information results from experiments on rodents. Because of numerous contradictory reports linking dietary fiber, cell proliferation, and colon cancer, we undertook a critical review of existing methods in an attempt to explain the inconsistencies. Although there may be some individual types of dietary fiber that protect against chemically induced colon cancer, dietary fiber as a single entity does not appear to afford any consistent protection. Because of significant differences in experimental protocols among laboratories, it is not yet possible to state with certainty that increases in cell proliferation, induced by fiber consumption, are predictive of increased tumorigenesis. Much of what has been observed and interpreted as elevation of risk may simply be normal homeostatic changes in cell proliferation. Even though fermentation to short-chain fatty acids is a mechanistically attractive hypothesis to explain why fiber modulates cytokinetics, data do not consistently support short-chain fatty acids as biological intermediates in risk of colon cancer. The state of the art in this field has not yet progressed to the point where a clear effect of dietary fiber on cytokinetics and colon carcinogenesis can be assessed with any degree of certainty. Additional markers of apoptosis, differentiation, and cell-cell communication may be required for a more accurate analysis of the relation among fiber, cytokinetics, and colon cancer. PMID:10890023

  19. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  20. Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Evans, M A; Shronts, E P

    1992-10-01

    In recent years, considerable research has focused on the physiologic effects and clinical uses of three dietary constituents thought to be trophic to the intestinal tract in human beings: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and dietary fiber. Glutamine is an important nitrogen-carrying amino acid that may be "conditionally essential" in certain disease states to support the gut barrier and immune function and overall protein use. Colonic irrigations with SCFA preparations have demonstrated enhanced healing of bowel tissue in animals and human beings. Dietary fiber supports bacterial SCFA production, normal stool output, and the gut barrier and immune function. However, optimal fiber doses for various medical conditions are not known, and the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, diarrhea, gas, and bloating necessitates careful selection of patients and daily monitoring of fiber tolerance. A review of the current literature indicates that widespread use of glutamine and SCFA additives parenterally and enterally awaits further evidence of safety and efficacy in human beings, establishment of appropriate doses, and advances in formulation technology. Administration of dietary fiber to enhance bowel motility should be considered in long-term tube-fed patients with intact GI function and sufficient fluid tolerance to permit hydration of fiber. Industrywide agreement on fiber analysis methods and labeling standards (eg, fiber fermentability vs solubility) would facilitate selection of enteral products. To streamline studies and optimize research efforts in future clinical trials, standard criteria for evaluating GI function, diarrheagenic factors, and intestinal outcome variables should be established. PMID:1328345

  1. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  2. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  3. Modulation of Dendritic-Epithelial Cell Responses against Sphingomonas Paucimobilis by Dietary Fibers.

    PubMed

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, such as Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S.paucimobilis), are among the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections. Up to now, no definitive guidelines exist for antimicrobial therapy for S. paucimobilis infections. As we have shown that some dietary fibers exhibit pronounced immune-regulatory properties, we hypothesized that specific immune active dietary fibers might modulate the responses against S. paucimobilis. We studied the immunomodulatory effects of dietary fibers against S. paucimobilis on cytokine release and maturation of human dendritic cells (DCs) in co-cultures of DCs and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). S. paucimobilis infection resulted in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by DCs/IECs; these effects were strongly attenuated by specific dietary fibers. Chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, and both starches had the strongest regulatory effects. IL-12 and TNF-α were drastically diminished upon exposure to chicory inulin and sugar beet pectin, or both starches. High-maize 260, was more effective in the reduction of chemokine release than the others fibers tested. In summary, chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, High-maize 260, and Novelose 330 attenuate S. paucimobilis-induced cytokines. These results demonstrate that dietary fibers with a specific chemical composition can be used to manage immune responses against pathogens such as S. paucimobilis. PMID:27452116

  4. Modulation of Dendritic-Epithelial Cell Responses against Sphingomonas Paucimobilis by Dietary Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, such as Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S.paucimobilis), are among the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections. Up to now, no definitive guidelines exist for antimicrobial therapy for S. paucimobilis infections. As we have shown that some dietary fibers exhibit pronounced immune-regulatory properties, we hypothesized that specific immune active dietary fibers might modulate the responses against S. paucimobilis. We studied the immunomodulatory effects of dietary fibers against S. paucimobilis on cytokine release and maturation of human dendritic cells (DCs) in co-cultures of DCs and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). S. paucimobilis infection resulted in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by DCs/IECs; these effects were strongly attenuated by specific dietary fibers. Chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, and both starches had the strongest regulatory effects. IL-12 and TNF-α were drastically diminished upon exposure to chicory inulin and sugar beet pectin, or both starches. High-maize 260, was more effective in the reduction of chemokine release than the others fibers tested. In summary, chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, High-maize 260, and Novelose 330 attenuate S. paucimobilis-induced cytokines. These results demonstrate that dietary fibers with a specific chemical composition can be used to manage immune responses against pathogens such as S. paucimobilis. PMID:27452116

  5. Effect of dietary fibers on losartan uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Naho; Miyake, Reiko; Hiroshima, Yuka; Abe, Mariko; Yasui, Airi; Imai, Kimie

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary fibers on the transport of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in small intestinal cells. Using Caco-2 cells in vitro, losartan uptake and transport were evaluated in the presence of various fibers (cellulose, chitosan, sodium alginate and glucomannan). Dietary fibers caused a decrease in the uptake of losartan, with chitosan causing a significant reduction. Chitosan and glucomannan significantly reduced the transport of losartan, while cellulose or sodium alginate did not. Dietary fibers also reduced the level of free losartan; however, this did not correlate with the observed reduction in losartan uptake and transport. In summary, chitosan had the greatest inhibitory effect on losartan uptake and transport, and this potential interaction should be considered in patients taking losartan. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26748460

  6. Water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction from pineapple peel improves intestinal function in hamsters: evidence from cecal and fecal indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chow, Chau-Jen

    2014-04-01

    Pineapple peel, a byproduct of agricultural processing, contains high levels of water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction (WIFF) (~42%, wt/wt). Our previous work has demonstrated that cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and xyloglucan), and pectic substances are the major polysaccharides of pineapple-peel WIFF. Based on its chemical composition and unique characteristics, we hypothesized that daily consumption of WIFF would improve intestinal function in hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a diet supplemented with either 5% cellulose or various amounts of WIFF (2.5%, 5%, or 10%). Activities of fecal bacterial enzymes, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and microbial number in the cecal content, and also biochemical indicators in the cecal and feces of hamsters, were evaluated in all groups. The supplementation of WIFF in a diet at a level of 2.5% significantly (P < .05) decreased the daily fecal ammonia output; shortened the gastrointestinal transit time; reduced the activities of β-D-glucosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, mucinase, and urease in feces; and also enhanced the total amounts of short-chain fatty acid in the cecal content and the growth of gut microflora such as Lactobacillus spp and Bifidobacterium spp. These results indicate that WIFF could improve cecal ecosystem function of hamsters by reducing the toxic compounds excreted by intestinal microflora. Therefore, pineapple-peel WIFF could be a promising candidate for a functional ingredient beneficial to human intestinal function and health. PMID:24774071

  7. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne Mette Lund; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrollment in 1993-1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was derived from self-administered questionnaires. The incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 24,418 women included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer. PMID:23163844

  8. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products. PMID:20623195

  9. Effect of dietary fiber and crude protein content in feed on nitrogen retention in pigs.

    PubMed

    Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P < 0.05) were assessed using Fisher's LSD procedure. The N intake, fecal N excretion and absorption, and N retention increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed high-CP diets with added fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P < 0.02) only for the low-CP diet. Urinary N as a percentage of N intake was reduced (P < 0.01) in both groups fed high-fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P < 0.02) in pigs fed diets with high CP and high fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention. PMID:23365315

  10. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification. PMID:26396304

  11. Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

  12. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  13. Intake of grains and dietary fiber and prostate cancer aggressiveness by race.

    PubMed

    Tabung, Fred; Steck, Susan E; Su, L Joseph; Mohler, James L; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Hebert, James R; Zhang, Hongmei; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men. PMID:23213538

  14. Intake of Grains and Dietary Fiber and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness by Race

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Mohler, James L.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men. PMID:23213538

  15. Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Charles; Demigné, Christian; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2003-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that dietary fibers are an important component of human and animal diets and play an important role in human health. Because dietary fibers and some associated substances, such as phytate, have in vitro mineral-binding capacities, they have been thought to impair absorption of minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc, although magnesium absorption seems to be less affected. Indeed, the effect of dietary fibers depends largely on their own nature and characteristics, and also on mineral homeostasis. In 1977 it was observed that resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber, could improve Mg absorption in rats. More recently, attention has been focused on other fermentable substrates such as inulin and oligo- or polysaccharides, for their potential prebiotic and health effects. Studies conducted on different types of fermentable carbohydrates have confirmed their beneficial effect on Mg absorption in different animal species. The majority of these studies have also sought to determine the effects of fibers on other minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc. In contrast to the studies with Mg, these studies did not show a consistent effect on the absorption of these minerals. This is due to the particularities of sites and mechanism of Mg absorption. To date, four human studies have been carried out that generally confirmed the enhancing effect of fermentable oligo- or polysaccharides on Mg absorption. PMID:12514257

  16. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

  17. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Reduced Crude Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Egg Production in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission is a major concern for the poultry industry and can be lowered by dietary inclusion of fibrous ingredients and by lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of dietary fiber and low-CP diets on egg production ...

  18. Transmissible microbial and metabolomic remodeling by soluble dietary fiber improves metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Ajami, Nadim J.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Tian, Xiangjun; Wong, Matthew; Losee-Olson, Susan H.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are increasingly appreciated as beneficial nutritional components. However, a requisite role of gut microbiota in fiber function and the overall impact of fibers on metabolomic flux remain unclear. We herein showed enhancing effects of a soluble resistant maltodextrin (RM) on glucose homeostasis in mouse metabolic disease models. Remarkably, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) caused pronounced and time-dependent improvement in glucose tolerance in RM recipient mice, indicating a causal relationship between microbial remodeling and metabolic efficacy. Microbial 16S sequencing revealed transmissible taxonomic changes correlated with improved metabolism, notably enrichment of probiotics and reduction of Alistipes and Bacteroides known to associate with high fat/protein diets. Metabolomic profiling further illustrated broad changes, including enrichment of phenylpropionates and decreases in key intermediates of glucose utilization, cholesterol biosynthesis and amino acid fermentation. These studies elucidate beneficial roles of RM-dependent microbial remodeling in metabolic homeostasis, and showcase prevalent health-promoting potentials of dietary fibers. PMID:26040234

  19. Transmissible microbial and metabolomic remodeling by soluble dietary fiber improves metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Ajami, Nadim J; Michalek, Ryan D; Tian, Xiangjun; Wong, Matthew; Losee-Olson, Susan H; Petrosino, Joseph F; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are increasingly appreciated as beneficial nutritional components. However, a requisite role of gut microbiota in fiber function and the overall impact of fibers on metabolomic flux remain unclear. We herein showed enhancing effects of a soluble resistant maltodextrin (RM) on glucose homeostasis in mouse metabolic disease models. Remarkably, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) caused pronounced and time-dependent improvement in glucose tolerance in RM recipient mice, indicating a causal relationship between microbial remodeling and metabolic efficacy. Microbial 16S sequencing revealed transmissible taxonomic changes correlated with improved metabolism, notably enrichment of probiotics and reduction of Alistipes and Bacteroides known to associate with high fat/protein diets. Metabolomic profiling further illustrated broad changes, including enrichment of phenylpropionates and decreases in key intermediates of glucose utilization, cholesterol biosynthesis and amino acid fermentation. These studies elucidate beneficial roles of RM-dependent microbial remodeling in metabolic homeostasis, and showcase prevalent health-promoting potentials of dietary fibers. PMID:26040234

  20. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed. PMID:25748244

  1. Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

  2. [The estimation of several dietary fibers possibility to absorb in vitro vitamins A, E, C, B1 and B2].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesdinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Isaeva, V A; Rudoĭ, B A; Dikovskiĭ, A V; Kodentsova, V M

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of several dietary fibers (lignins, wheat bran, microcrystalline cellulose) possibility to absorb vitamins from the solution containing simultaneously ten vitamins in vitro model (gastroenteric transit imitation) has been made. Fiber apparent capability to absorb retinol palmitate, alpha-tocopherol acetate, ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride and riboflavin phosphate has been determined. It has been demonstrated that dietary fibers are able to decrease vitamins availability. PMID:20560485

  3. Near-infrared transmission and reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of dietary fiber in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and an NIR Systems 6500 spectrometer were used to obtain transmission and ref...

  4. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet. PMID:24876635

  5. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects. PMID:22122826

  6. NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBER IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley. The Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and the NIR Systems 6500 monochromator were used to obtain transmission and reflectance spectra, respectiv...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER IN MILLED BARLEY USING NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMITTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned using a near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT)(850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined for each cultivar by AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method 991.43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and v...

  8. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  9. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly. PMID:18460140

  10. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  11. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  12. Prevention of obesity relatred metabolic diseases by processed foods containing soluble dietary fibers and flavonoids (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...

  13. The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- and Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Natalia; Marquart, Len F.; Gallaher, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination. PMID:23749206

  14. The role of viscosity and fermentability of dietary fibers on satiety- and adiposity-related hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Marquart, Len F; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2013-06-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination. PMID:23749206

  15. Isomalto/malto-polysaccharide, a novel soluble dietary fiber made via enzymatic conversion of starch.

    PubMed

    Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Ebbelaar, Monique; Faber, Folkert; Buwalda, Pieter L; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-12-10

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an urge for novel types of dietary fibers that do not cause unwanted sensory effects when applied as ingredient, while still positively contributing to the health of consumers. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel type of soluble dietary fiber with prebiotic properties, derived from starch via enzymatic modification, yielding isomalto/malto-polysaccharides (IMMPs), which consist of linear (α1 → 6)-glucan chains attached to the nonreducing ends of starch fragments. The applied Lactobacillus reuteri 121 GTFB 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzyme synthesizes these molecules by transferring the nonreducing glucose moiety of an (α1 → 4)-glucan chain to the nonreducing end of another (α1 → 4)-α-glucan chain, forming an (α1 → 6)-glycosidic linkage. Once elongated in this way, the molecule becomes a better acceptor substrate and is then further elongated with (α1 → 6)-linked glucose residues in a linear way. Comparison of 30 starches, maltodextrins, and α-glucans of various botanical sources, demonstrated that substrates with long and linear (α1 → 4)-glucan chains deliver products with the highest percentage of (α1 → 6) linkages, up to 92%. In vitro experiments, serving as model of the digestive power of the gastrointestinal tract, revealed that the IMMPs, or more precisely the IMMP fraction rich in (α1 → 6) linkages, will largely pass the small intestine undigested and therefore end up in the large intestine. IMMPs are a novel type of dietary fiber that may have health promoting activity. PMID:25412115

  16. Influence of Hydrocolloids (Dietary Fibers) on Lipid Digestion of Protein-Stabilized Emulsions: Comparison of Neutral, Anionic, and Cationic Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dingkui; Yang, Xiaojun; Gao, Songran; Yao, Junhu; McClements, David Julian

    2016-07-01

    The impact of dietary fibers on lipid digestion within the gastrointestinal tract depends on their molecular and physicochemical properties. In this study, the influence of the electrical characteristics of dietary fibers on their ability to interfere with the digestion of protein-coated lipid droplets was investigated using an in vitro small intestine model. Three dietary fibers were examined: cationic chitosan; anionic alginate; neutral locust bean gum (LBG). The particle size, ζ-potential, microstructure, and apparent viscosity of β-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing different types and levels of dietary fiber were measured before and after lipid digestion. The rate and extent of lipid digestion depended on polysaccharide type and concentration. At relatively low dietary fiber levels (0.1 to 0.2 wt%), the initial lipid digestion rate was only reduced by chitosan, but the final extent of lipid digestion was unaffected by all 3 dietary fibers. At relatively high dietary fiber levels (0.4 wt%), alginate and chitosan significantly inhibited lipid hydrolysis, whereas LBG did not. The impact of chitosan on lipid digestion was attributed to its ability to promote fat droplet aggregation through bridging flocculation, thereby retarding access of the lipase to the droplet surfaces. The influence of alginate was mainly ascribed to its ability to sequester calcium ions and promote depletion flocculation. PMID:27300319

  17. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... short period of time can cause intestinal gas ( flatulence ), bloating , and abdominal cramps . This problem often goes ... 213. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and ...

  18. In vitro degradation and fermentation of three dietary fiber sources by human colonic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Weimer, Paul J; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Savik, Kay

    2013-05-15

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a nonadapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, the extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21 days, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  19. In Vitro Degradation and Fermentation of Three Dietary Fiber Sources by Human Colonic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  20. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease. PMID:27040277

  1. Association Between Dietary Fiber and Incident Cases of Colon Polyps: The Adventist Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tantamango, Yessenia M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, Larry; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most cases of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps. It has been estimated that 25%–35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. Methods: We estimated the association between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2818 men and women who had undergone colonoscopy. Data were drawn from 2 cohort studies—the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) of 1976 and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) conducted from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from AHS-2 data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps. Results: A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, education, and alcohol and meat consumption, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51–0.99). This association showed a dose-response effect (p = .04). Analyses of various sources of fiber showed the most clear effect of fiber from vegetables including legumes (OR for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47–0.90; p = .02). Conclusions: In this population comprising a high proportion of vegetarians, persons who consumed low amounts of fiber, especially fiber contained in vegetables, had a higher risk of developing colon polyps. PMID:22295127

  2. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrate Quality and Quantity, and Mortality Risk of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. Objective To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992–2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75–0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64–0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07–1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18–2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12–2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m2; 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes. PMID:22927948

  3. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  4. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Methods Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose–response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. Results The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Conclusions Increasing dietary fiber

  5. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  6. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents' employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  7. [The influence of dietary fibers on cell immunity under the adequate nutrition and in the presence of alimentary polyhypovitaminosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Trushina, É N; Mustafina, O K; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wheat bran on cell immunity in rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 48 male Wistar rats (58.1 +/- 0.5 g) were divided into 6 group and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100% or 20% of vitamin mixture (Vit) with or without supplement of insoluble dietary fiber (DF) in the dose corresponding to the upper allowable level of its consumption (5% wheat bran of diet mass) for 4 weeks. The animals of the 1 group received 100% of vitamin mixture (100% Vit); 2 group--100% Vit+DF; 3 group--20% of vitamin mixture (20% Vit); 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and DF (20% Vit+DF). The next 5 days rats from vitamin-deficient groups were fed with diets supplemented with 80% of Vit: (5 group--20% Vit+80% Vit; 6 group--20% Vit+DF+80% Vit). The contents of lymphocytes, relative quantity of B-(CD45RA+) and T-lymphocytes (CD3+), subpopulations of T-lymphocytes: T-helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD8+), NK-cells (CD161a+) in the peripheral blood of rats were determined by the method of flow cytometry using Beckman Coulter FC 500 (USA) cytometer. In rats fed complete semi-synthetic diet supplemented with DF (100% Vit+DF) the reduction of relative contents of T-lymphocytes and the increase of the fraction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood has been found. The analogous changes and more pronounced degree of immunosupression, that appeared in a lymphocytopenia, much smaller level of T-lymphocytes, T-helper and increase of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes content in rats fed a low vitamins diet (20% Vit) in comparison with these parameters of control group, have been detected. In rats received 20% Vit+DF the suppressed cell immunity was accompanied with decreased level of NK-cells. Normalization of vitamins content in the diets of rat deficient groups led to an almost complete recovery of cell immunity indicators to the level of the animals from the corresponding control groups

  8. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Candida J; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-02-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. PMID:26724486

  9. Symptoms Associated with Dietary Fiber Supplementation over Time in Individuals with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. Purpose To compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Methods Subjects (N=189, 77% female, 92% white, (age = 58 years, SD = 14) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to placebo or a supplement of 16g total dietary fiber/day from one of three sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and two segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Results Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. Odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2–2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared to baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Subjects with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Conclusions Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated. PMID:21543963

  10. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  11. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    PubMed

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  12. Solid state NMR study of dietary fiber powders from aronia, bilberry, black currant and apple.

    PubMed

    Wawer, I; Wolniak, M; Paradowska, K

    2006-09-01

    13C CPMAS NMR spectra of dietary fiber powders from aronia (chokeberry), bilberry, black currant and apple were recorded. The spectra are complex owing to superposition of resonances from different polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. Standard, dipolar dephased and the TH(1rho) partially relaxed spectra enabled the identification of several constituents: microcrystalline cellulose, pectins, lignins, cutin-like polymers and condensed tannins. The fiber powders obtained from berries contain significant amounts of anthocyanins, as indicated by their dark violet color, but not verified by chemical shifts. The anthocyanin-rich extract from aronia berries and its major components, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and (-)epicatechin were also studied. PMID:16750905

  13. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients. PMID:25020181

  14. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols. PMID:23510166

  15. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    SciTech Connect

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  16. [Effect of dietary fibers on preservation of lipid component in flour confectionery].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, L N; Baĭkov, V G; Bessonov, V V; Skobel'skaia, Z G

    2007-01-01

    Deterioration of bisquit keeping quality is usually caused by oxidation processes changing quality of fats in the composition of buisquits. The oxidation processes are characterized by changing of acidity - and peroxide number. Experimentally shown that the adding of dietary fiber to the formula of butter bisquit results in delaying of the fat oxidation process. This allows to prolong storage period of butter bisquit as compared with bisquits produced according to the traditional formula to 10 days. PMID:17674526

  17. Lack of preventive effects of dietary fibers or chlorophyllin against acrylamide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Shibutani, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Keiko; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2007-08-01

    Dietary fibers and chlorophyllin have shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects against co-administered carcinogens. To test the possibility of chemoprevention by such dietary supplements on subacutely induced acrylamide (ACR) toxicity, Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered 2.5% sodium alginate, 5% glucomannan, 5% digestion resistant maltodextrin, 2.5% chitin or 1% chlorophyllin in the diet, and starting one week later, co-administered 0.02% ACR in the drinking water for 4 weeks. For comparison, untreated control animals given basal diet and tap water were also included. Neurotoxicity was examined with reference to gait abnormalities and by quantitative assessment of histopathological changes in the sciatic and trigeminal nerves, as well as aberrant dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Testicular toxicity was assessed by quantitation of seminiferous tubules with exfoliation of germ cells into the lumen and cell debris in the ducts of the epididymides. Development of testicular toxicity as well as neurotoxicity was evident with ACR-treatment, but was not suppressed by dietary addition of fibers or chlorophyllin, suggesting no apparent beneficial influence of these dietary supplements on experimentally induced subacute ACR toxicity. PMID:17391825

  18. Effects of dietary fibers on disturbances clustered in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, Milagros; Duarte, Juan; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Because of its growing prevalence in Western countries, the metabolic syndrome, a common metabolic disorder that clusters a constellation of abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, is emerging as one of the most important public health problems in the world, taking into account that it is a major risk factor mainly for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and also for many types of cancer. Although the pathogenesis of this syndrome is complex and not fully understood, obesity and insulin resistance, accompanied by an altered profile of number of hormones and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue, seem to be the main causative agents. A prime therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of this syndrome involves lifestyle changes. Among dietary modifications, dietary fiber intake could play an interesting role in the management of metabolic syndrome through different mechanisms related to its dietary sources, specific chemical structure and physical properties, or fermentability in the gut. According to all of these variables, the different types of dietary fibers have been reported to take part in the control of body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and in the regulation of many inflammation markers involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and which are also considered to be among its features. PMID:17618108

  19. Dietary fiber supplements: effects on serum and liver lipids and on liver phospholipid composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D; Tepper, S A; Satchithanandam, S; Cassidy, M M; Vahouny, G V

    1988-04-01

    Rats (6 per group) were fed semipurified diets containing either particulate fibers (alfalfa, 10%; cellulose, 10%; bran, 10%), a soluble ionic fiber (pectin 5%), soluble, nonionic fibers (guar gum, 5%; Metamucil, 10%), a mixed fiber preparation (Fibyrax, 10%, or an insoluble, ionic bile acid-binding resin (cholestyramine, 2%). The control group was fed the unsupplemented diet. The feeding period, during which diet and water were provided ad libitum, was 28 days. Compared with the control group, serum total cholesterol levels were increased by more than 10% in rats fed alfalfa and decreased by more than 10% in rats fed cellulose, guar gum, Fibyrax and cholestyramine. There were no significant differences in percentage of plasma HDL cholesterol. Serum triglycerides were elevated in the groups fed alfalfa, pectin, guar gum or Fibyrax and reduced in the group fed Metamucil. Plasma phospholipids were elevated in rats fed alfalfa or bran, unaffected in rats fed pectin or Metamucil and reduced in the other groups. Liver total cholesterol was elevated in all groups but those fed wheat bran and cholestyramine. The percentage of liver cholesterol present as ester was elevated in every group except that fed cholestyramine. Liver triglycerides were reduced in rats fed guar gum or Metamucil and elevated in those fed alfalfa. Liver phospholipids were lowered in the group fed cellulose. Liver phospholipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography to give phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (Sph), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (PI + PS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840544

  20. Dietary fiber information for individuals with Crohn disease: reports of gastrointestinal effects.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Carol S; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with Crohn disease before and after receiving dietary fiber information have not been described in the literature. This article offers findings from a study that used four semistructured audiorecorded interviews during a 4-week time period for the purpose of exploring the experiences of 11 individuals before and after receiving dietary fiber information from a healthcare professional. The first and second interviews occurred immediately before and after the presentation of information. Follow-up interviews occurred at 2-week intervals. Thematic analysis of the baseline interviews revealed 2 themes: (a) accepting a redefined (lower expectations) definition of normal quality of life and (b) continuing to look for answers. Three themes emerged from the follow-up interviews at Week 4: (a) reevaluating old diet-related concepts, (b) enjoying a healthier lifestyle at a self-set pace, and (c) enjoying positive physical effects of wheat bran consumption. This article examines the 3rd postintervention theme, "enjoying physical effects of wheat bran consumption." The relevance of this research is that nurses equipped with dietary fiber information may be better able to help some individuals with Crohn disease to explore the potential benefits of a well-rounded nutritious pattern of eating that includes wheat bran cereal. PMID:24084130

  1. Dietary Fiber Information for Individuals with Crohn Disease: Reports of Gastrointestinal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Carol S.; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with Crohn disease before and after receiving dietary fiber information have not been described in the literature. This article offers findings from a study that used four semi-structured audio recorded interviews during a 4-week time period for the purpose of exploring the experiences of 11 individuals before and after receiving dietary fiber information from a healthcare professional. The first and second interviews occurred immediately before and after the presentation of information. Follow-up interviews occurred at 2-week intervals. Thematic analysis of the baseline interviews revealed two themes: (a) accepting a redefined (lower expectations) definition of normal quality of life, and (b) continuing to look for answers. Three themes emerged from the follow-up interviews at week 4: (a) re-evaluating old diet-related concepts, (b) enjoying a healthier lifestyle at a self-set pace, and (c) enjoying positive physical effects of wheat bran consumption. This paper examines the third post-intervention theme, “enjoying physical effects of wheat bran consumption.” The relevance of this research is that nurses equipped with dietary fiber information may be better able to help some individuals with Crohn disease to explore the potential benefits of a well-rounded nutritious pattern of eating that includes wheat bran cereal. PMID:24084130

  2. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  3. Enzymatic degradation of phytate, polyphenols and dietary fibers in Ethiopian injera flours: effect on iron bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Baye, Kaleab; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2015-05-01

    The effect of removing phytate (IP6), iron-binding polyphenols, and dietary fibers on iron bioaccessibility in wheat-red sorghum (WrS) and teff-white sorghum (TwS) flour blends used in Ethiopia to make injera, a fermented pancake, was evaluated through the application of exogenous enzymes. Phytase treatment led to >90% reduction in IP6 and to an IP6:Fe molar ratio <1, but iron bioaccessibility was not improved (P > 0.05). Phytase + xylanase + cellulase (P + X + C) treatment increased iron bioaccessibility in TwS (non-detectableto1.6%) and WrS (1.9-3.2%), whereas phytase + polyphenol oxidase (P + PPO) treatment only showed improvement in the TwS blend. P + X + C + PPO treatment of the WrS blend increased the soluble non-dialysable iron fraction (6.7%) more than P + PPO treatment (3.9%). Although responses to enzyme treatments and iron bioaccessibility were matrix dependent, a positive effect of dietary fiber hydrolysis with X + C was obtained, irrespective of the blend. Dietary fibers had a negative effect on iron bioaccessibility independent of phytates. PMID:25529652

  4. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Lise V; Vigsnæs, Louise K; Licht, Tine R; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-05-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate the prebiotic potential of the fibers. Statistically designed experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of enzyme type, dosage, substrate level, incubation time, and temperature on the enzyme catalyzed solubilization to define the optimal minimal enzyme treatment for maximal fiber solubilization. The result was a method that within 1 min released 75% [weight/weight (w/w)] dry matter from 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from Aspergillus aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C. Molecular size fractionation of the solubilized fibers revealed two major fractions: one fraction rich in galacturonic acid of 10-100 kDa indicating mainly homogalacturonan, and a fraction >100 kDa rich in galactose, presumably mainly made up of β-1,4-galactan chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. When fermented in vitro by microbial communities derived from fecal samples from three healthy human volunteers, both of the solubilized fiber fractions were more bifidogenic than fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Notably the fibers having molecular masses of >100 kDa selectively increased the densities of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. 2-3 times more than FOS. PMID:21253720

  5. Adolescent Dietary Fiber, Vegetable Fat, Vegetable Protein, and Nut Intakes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Methods Women, ages 25–74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003 were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10–15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55 to 0.78; Ptrend<0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68 to 0.95; Ptrend=0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63 to 0.87; Ptrend=0.002) for vegetable fat, 0.76 (0.61 to 0.95 for ≥1 serving/day versus <1 serving/month intake; Ptrend=0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (Pinteraction≤0.05). Conclusions Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. PMID:24737167

  6. Characterization of soluble dietary fiber from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil

    2016-10-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host. PMID:27283233

  7. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90 percent of adults do not obtain the Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary fiber (DF). Using only reliable recalls in NHANES 2003–2006, we modeled the following changes to assess impact on usual DF intakes in US adults 19+ yrs: 1) increase all fiber containing foods by 10, 25, 50, or 100 percent; ...

  8. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence. PMID:26604338

  9. Unique purified hydrated-gelatin diet for feeding dietary fiber to Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    deBethizy, J D; Street, J C

    1984-02-01

    A purified hydrated gelatin diet was developed for feeding dietary fibers to Wistar rats. A dry fiber mix was prepared that consisted of 54.91 dextrose, 13.80 casein, 2.97 AIN mineral mix, 1.28 AIN vitamin mix, 0.17 dl-methionine, 6.80 lard and 5.10 gelatin (g/100g total dry feed). Either cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, or pectin (15 g/100 g total dry feed) was added to the hydrated dry fiber mix and blended until complete distribution and hydration of the fiber was achieved. After gelling, these hydrated diets were stable for up to 24 hours in environmental conditions commonly encountered in animal facilities. Gel weep was minimal thus permitting feed consumption to be monitored conveniently by weighing the residue in the feeders. In situ examination of stomach contents after feeding such hydrated diets to rats indicated that the gelatin gel was readily degraded and did not confound gel formation by fiber itself. Feed efficiency values (g gain/100 kcal digestible energy) for these diets following a 26-day feeding trial were as follows: no fiber, 6.21; cellulose, 6.38; hemicellulose, 6.23; lignin, 6.52; and pectin, 5.53. PMID:6325819

  10. Radiographic analysis of the effect of dietary fibers on rat colonic transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, J.R.; Meacher, M.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of different fiber sources on colonic transit time was charted using serial radiographs. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 rats per group, were provided with either a fiber-free control diet or the control diet uniformly diluted to provide 8% dietary fiber from guar, pectin, cellulose, wheat bran, or oat bran. At surgery, radiopaque markers were inserted at defined distances in the mesentary closest to the large bowel. Three weeks postsurgery, the animals were intubated with 0.5 ml of a radiopaque marker, and radiographs were taken at 15-min intervals. Of the two poorly fermented fibers, cellulose was as slow as and wheat bran was faster than the fiber-free controls at five out of the six bowel segments measured. The fermentable fibers (pectin, guar, and oat bran) were fast through some bowel segments and slow through others. This study provides in vivo data on colonic transit time and shows that neither 24-h fecal weight nor total transit time is a good predictor of the rate of transit through particular gut segments.

  11. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  12. Dietary Inulin Fibers Prevent Proton-Pump Inhibitor (PPI)-Induced Hypocalcemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Mark W.; de Baaij, Jeroen H. F.; Gommers, Lisanne M. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Bindels, René J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Proton-pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia (PPIH) is the most recognized side effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Additionally, PPIH is associated with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. It is hypothesized that PPIs reduce epithelial proton secretion and thereby increase the pH in the colon, which may explain the reduced absorption of and Mg2+ and Ca2+. Fermentation of dietary oligofructose-enriched inulin fibers by the microflora leads to acidification of the intestinal lumen and by this enhances mineral uptake. This study aimed, therefore, to improve mineral absorption by application of dietary inulin to counteract PPIH. Methods Here, C57BL/J6 mice were supplemented with omeprazole and/or inulin. Subsequently, Mg2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis was assessed by means of serum, urine and fecal electrolyte measurements. Moreover, the mRNA levels of magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes were examined in the large intestine and kidney by real-time PCR. Results Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced serum Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels. However, concomitant addition of dietary inulin fibers normalized serum Ca2+ but not serum Mg2+ concentrations. Inulin abolished enhanced expression of Trpv6 and S100g in the colon by omeprazole. Additionally, intestinal and renal mRNA levels of the Trpm6 gene were reduced after inulin intake. Conclusions This study suggests that dietary inulin counteracts reduced intestinal Ca2+ absorption upon PPI treatment. In contrast, inulin did not increase intestinal absorption of Mg2+ sufficiently to recover serum Mg2+. The clinical potential of dietary inulin treatment should be the subject of future studies. PMID:26397986

  13. Addition of soluble soybean polysaccharides to dairy products as a source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenpu; Duizer, Lisa; Corredig, Milena; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%kappa-carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%kappa-carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application: Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses. PMID:20722900

  14. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2016-09-15

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend  = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ptrend  = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) compared with MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95, ptrend  = 0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend  = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer. PMID:27137137

  15. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action. PMID:20334184

  16. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. PMID:22796465

  17. Regulation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins by dietary soluble fiber in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Vergara-Jimenez, M; Conde, K; Behr, T; Abdel-Fattah, G

    1997-03-01

    Dietary soluble-fiber sources such as pectin, guar gum, or psyllium decrease plasma concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in guinea pigs by distinct mechanisms, including increases in LDL apolipoprotein (apo) B turnover and/or decreases in LDL apo B flux (J Lipid Res 1995; 36:2394-404). The present studies were undertaken to test whether changes in the rates of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apo B secretion, VLDL conversion to LDL, and hepatic uptake of VLDL were related to the cholesterol-lowering actions of these soluble fibers. Guinea pigs were fed (by wt) 12.5% pectin, 12.5% guar gum, 7.5% psyllium, or a control diet containing cellulose as the fiber source. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in guinea pigs fed pectin, guar gum, and psyllium by 42%, 46%, and 35%, respectively (P < 0.001), compared with those animals fed the control diet, whereas plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were lower only with guar gum intake. The secretion rate of triacylglycerol, determined after Triton was injected to block VLDL catabolism, was not different among dietary treatment groups whereas the secretion rate of apo B was lower with pectin, guar gum, and psyllium intakes (P < 0.01). In addition, pectin, guar gum, and psyllium significantly altered the composition of newly secreted VLDLs by increasing the number of triacylglycerol and phospholipid molecules in the secreted lipoprotein, indicating the presence of larger nascent VLDLs. In contrast, the average particle diameter of mature VLDLs as determined by electron microscopy was smaller in the dietary soluble-fiber groups in the following order: pectin < psyllium < guar gum. Plasma lecithin-cholesteryl acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities were lower with intake of pectin, guar gum, and psyllium (P < 0.01). Injection of radiolabeled lipoproteins indicated that pectin, guar gum, and psyllium intakes resulted in more rapid VLDL and LDL apo B

  18. Modification of deoiled cumin dietary fiber with laccase and cellulase under high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengmei; Mu, Taihua

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzyme (laccase and cellulase) treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and functional properties and antioxidant activity of deoiled cumin dietary fiber (DF). HHP-enzyme treatment increased the contents of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (30.37 g/100g), monosaccharides (except for glucose), uronic acids, and total polyphenol. HHP-enzyme treatment altered the honey-comb structure of DF and generated new polysaccharides. DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment exhibited improved water retention capacity (10.02 g/g), water swelling capacity (11.19 mL/g), fat and glucose absorption capacities (10.44 g/g, 22.18-63.54 mmol/g), α-amylase activity inhibition ration (37.95%), and bile acid retardation index (48.85-52.58%). The antioxidant activity of DF was mainly correlated to total polyphenol content (R=0.8742). Therefore, DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment from deoiled cumin could be used as a fiber-rich ingredient in functional foods. PMID:26572332

  19. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  20. Impact of dietary fiber/starch ratio in shaping caecal microbiota in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanli; Wang, Chunyang; Li, Fuchang

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether changing the dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF)/starch ratio affected caecal microbiota when 4 different diets (diet A: 2.3 NDF/starch, diet B: 1.9, diet C: 1.4, diet D: 1.0) were formulated. A total of 200 weaned rabbits (35 days old, 50 per group) were used for the experiment, which started after an adaptation period of 7 days (i.e., day 42). Caecal contents were obtained from rabbits fed different NDF/starch diets at 52, 62, 72, and 82 days of life. The bacterial community structure was characterized by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Synergistetes, and Tenericutes did not significantly change with diet or age. However, Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05), Proteobacteria (P < 0.01), and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.05) reads were significantly affected by diet, and Proteobacteria (P < 0.01) and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.05) reads were significantly influenced by age. At the genus level, Escherichia/Shigella (P < 0.01) was overrepresented in diet A (high fiber) relative to diet D (high starch) in 52- and 62-day-old rabbits. Venn diagrams and heat map plot analyses revealed that the number of gut species shared between animals with different diet treatments increased with age. These results suggest that dietary fiber per starch ratios and age significantly alter the composition of caecal microbiota in growing rabbits. PMID:26361938

  1. Effects of pH on the in Vitro Sorption of Mutagens to Dietary Fibers.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, C; Nagai, T; Yano, T

    1992-01-01

    Dietary fibers, alginate and defatted corn fiber, sorbed food mutagens, Trp-P-1 and Glu-P-1, which are heterocyclic amines formed in the cooking process. The sorption behavior of the heterocyclic amines to defatted corn fiber and alginates was analyzed under pH-controlled conditions. Glu-P-1 and alginic acid had pKa values of 4.2 and 3.6, respectively, whereas Trp-P-1, which showed alkaline in solution, possessed two pKa values of 4.8 and 7.7. Defatted corn fiber, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, did not show a significant pKa value. The amount of sorbed Trp-P-1 to the alginates increased as the pH value of the buffer was elevated, and was much more than that sorbed to defatted corn fiber at each pH condition. These results suggest that the alginates held the amino group of Trp-P-1 or Glu-P-1 on their carboxyl group as a cation exchanger. PMID:27286385

  2. [Dietary fibers of secondary vegetable raw material for correction of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Shchelkunov, L F

    2001-01-01

    Drop of consumption by the population of dietary fibers is one of the causes of increase of sickness rate by diabetes in particular, and violation of carbohydrate metabolism in general. The purpose of research is definition of a degree of effect of dietary fibers of by-products of grapes processing (grape seed-cakes and press cake of grape pyrenes in an mixture with sorbite) on a carbohydrate and lipide metabolism in laboratory animals. During examinations is detected, that the vegetable products based on dietary fibers do not have negative action on physical development of animals, their body weight. The parameters of an amount of reticulocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, hematocrit were in normal range. In animal, receiving dietary fibers of secondary grape raw material in a ration, the concentration of a cholesterol in blood serum was lower on 2-3% (5.6-5.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l) as against control (6.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). The basal level of a glucose has appeared equal for control: 6.1 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, and for others groups of rats, consuming a dietary fibers with sorbite from 5.6 +/- 0.4 up to 6.0 +/- 0.5 mmol/l. PMID:11517682

  3. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). Objective We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Results Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Conclusion Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper

  4. Development of the dietary fiber functional food and studies on its toxicological and physiologic properties.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Zi-Jun, Wang; Jian, Xiong; Ying-jie, Dai; Fang, Ma

    2012-09-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) obtained from wheat bran by microbial fermentation was used as a food additive to cookies. The cookies were evaluated sensorally through an orthogonal test to gain the optimized production conditions as follows: the suitable DF content 8%, leavening agent 1.5%, standing time 5 min, and baking time of the cookies is 8 min. A series of toxicological and physiological functions of the cookies were studied using KM mice as the experimental animal in this paper. No deaths or abnormal behaviors of mice occurred either in acute toxicity tests or in short-term feeding tests. Besides, the weight gains, food utilization ratios, blood and serum biochemical parameters, organ coefficients and the results of organ histopathology tests of all doses groups exhibited no significant differences with the control group. This reveals that the dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no acute or sub-chronic toxicity. In terms of physiological function, compared with the control group, the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were 17.0-21.7% and 18.7-35.0% lower in mice serum of all DF cookie doses groups, respectively, but this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Compared with positive control group, the Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) excretion ratios of DF group were 27.4% and 25.2% higher, respectively. Thus, a conclusion has been drawn that dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no toxic or harmful actions on animals or humans, and the DF food was able to decrease TC and TG concentrations to some extent in serum and increase excretion of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in Feces. PMID:22609425

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. PMID:26256376

  6. Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

  7. Influence of two dietary fibers in the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of ethinyloestradiol.

    PubMed

    García, J J; Fernández, N; Diez, M J; Sahagún, A; González, A; Alonso, M L; Prieto, C; Calle, A P; Sierra, M

    2000-11-01

    Dietary fibers are widely used in hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, slimming diets. It is probable that their ingestion coincides with the oral administration of drugs and a modification of their pharmacokinetics can appear. In the present study, the influence of two soluble fibers (guar gum and psyllium) was evaluated on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyloestradiol (EE) when they were administered together to female rabbits via the oral route. Three groups of rabbits were used. All animals received 1 mg/kg of EE; this compound was administered alone in the control group and with 3.5 g of guar gum or psyllium in the other two groups. When guar gum was administered, there was a decrease in the extent of EE absorbed, but no change was observed in the rate of absorption. When psyllium was administered, the extent of EE absorbed increased slightly and the rate of absorption was slower. PMID:11172796

  8. Sex, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Fiber Intake Influence the Human Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J.; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B.; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the human gut microbiome is important in the etiology of human diseases; however, the personal factors that influence the gut microbiome composition are poorly characterized. Animal models point to sex hormone-related differentials in microbiome composition. In this study, we investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index (BMI) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline. Relationships of sex, BMI, and fiber intake with overall gut microbiome composition and specific taxon abundances were assessed by permutational MANOVA and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. We found that sex was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.001). The gut microbiome in women was characterized by a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p=0.03). BMI (>25 kg/m2 vs. <25 kg/m2) was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.05), and this relationship was strong in women (p=0.03) but not in men (p=0.29). Fiber from beans and from fruits and vegetables were associated, respectively, with greater abundance of Actinobacteria (p=0.006 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.05) and Clostridia (p=0.009 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.09). Our findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans. Better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and disease prevention. PMID:25874569

  9. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits. PMID:25608953

  10. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

  11. In vitro binding of estrogens by dietary fiber and the in vivo apparent digestibility tested in pigs.

    PubMed

    Arts, C J; Govers, C A; van den Berg, H; Wolters, M G; van Leeuwen, P; Thijssen, J H

    1991-05-01

    Within the framework of experiments related to the association between dietary fiber and breast cancer an in vitro test system was used to study the binding of estrogens to various fibers (e.g. cholestyramin, lignin and cellulose) and fiber sources (e.g. wheat bran, cereals, seeds and legumes). Furthermore, the in vivo apparent digestibility of the different fiber sources was tested using a mobile nylon bag technique in intestine-cannulated pigs. Estradiol-17 beta (E2) bound more strongly to the various fibers than did estrone (E1), estriol or estrone-3-glucuronide. At increasing pH (greater than 7) binding of both E1 and E2 to wheat bran decreased significantly. Cholestyramine and lignin bound almost all estrogens present in the medium. Linseed (91%), oats (83%), barley chaff (88%) and wheat bran (82%) are other excellent binders of E2. Corn, rye and white wheat flour showed lower binding capacity with a relatively low affinity. Cereals with the highest percentage of lignin in the fiber (greater than 3%) were also the fiber sources with the lowest apparent digestibility. Estrogens bound with the highest affinity (relative to bovine serum albumin) to these fiber sources. Together with wheat bran and lignin, oats, linseed and soybean seem to be products with good perspectives for in vivo evaluation of the lowering effect of dietary fiber on estrogen exposure of estrogen-sensitive tissues. PMID:1645589

  12. Fermentable dietary fibers elevate urinary methylmalonate and decrease propionate oxidation in rats deprived of vitamin B-12.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    This study examines the effect of dietary fiber supplements of different degrees of bacterial fermentability on biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency in rats. Groups of rats were fed a fiber-free diet deficient in vitamin B-12 or the fiber-free diet diluted with 5% of a poorly fermentable dietary fiber (cellulose, lignin or alginic acid) or a highly fermentable fiber (pectin, guar gum or xylan). Poorly fermentable fibers had no significant effect on apparent B-12 status, whereas the highly fermentable fibers significantly increased urinary methylmalonic acid and depressed oxidation of [14C]propionate to 14CO2. Pectin consistently induced significantly greater effects than did xylan or guar gum. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that fermentable fibers stimulate bacterial propionate production and exaggerate certain biochemical indicators of B-12 deficiency. Since pectin had a more pronounced effect than did other fermentable fibers, the possibility that pectin may also interfere with B-12 absorption requires further study. PMID:2550598

  13. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 1. Preparation and physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed. PMID:16302753

  14. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to five contrasting dietary fiber preparations.

    PubMed

    Roberton, A M; Ferguson, L R; Hollands, H J; Harris, P J

    1991-03-01

    The ability of five plant cell wall (dietary fiber) preparations with contrasting compositions to adsorb in vitro the hydrophobic, environmental mutagen, 1,8-dinitropyrene (DNP), was investigated. Many of the fruits and vegetables in Western diets are from dicotyledonous (broad leaved) plants and the dietary fiber from these consists mainly of unlignified cell walls. A representative of this wall type, prepared from immature cabbage leaves, showed little ability to adsorb DNP. Two other cell-wall preparations, representing lignified walls of dicotyledons and unlignified walls of vegetative parts of grasses and cereals (monocotyledons belonging to the family Poaceae), adsorbed DNP much more effectively. However, two further preparations, representing suberized walls of cork cells and lignified walls of vegetative parts of grasses and cereals, were the most effective in adsorbing DNP. Extrapolation of these data to the in vivo situation would indicate that increased consumption of the vegetative parts of grasses or cereals and plant material containing cork cells, for example potato skins, could be effective in removing hydrophobic mutagens from potential contact with colonic mucosal cells. PMID:1848354

  15. Effect of four types of dietary fiber on the technological quality of pasta.

    PubMed

    Bustos, M C; Pérez, G T; León, A E

    2011-06-01

    The development of dietary fiber-enriched foods permits to obtain products with functional properties but can cause several problems in technological quality. The aim of this study was to study the quality of pasta obtained by replacing bread wheat flour with resistant starch II (RSII), resistant starch IV (RSIV), oat bran (OB) and inulin (IN) with the purpose of improving their nutritional quality. RSII, RSIV, OB and IN were substituted for a portion of bread wheat flour at levels 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%. Cooking properties, amylose and inulin losses, color and texture were measured. Finally, nutritional quality of enriched pasta was evaluated by protein losses during cooking and total dietary fiber. Microstructure of pasta was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Addition of RSII into pasta formulation improved the quality of the final product. RSIV-enriched pasta presented an improvement in textural characteristics and OB affected cooking properties positively up to 5% of substitution. Inulin was lost during cooking; besides, its addition negatively affected the technological quality of pasta. The results obtained in this study prove that it is possible to elaborate pasta with acceptable cooking quality and with improved nutritional characteristics by adding 10% of RSII and RSIV and 5% of OB. PMID:21593287

  16. DIETARY FIBER AND SERUM 16α-HYDROXYESTRONE, AN ESTROGEN METABOLITE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shawn; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.; Masi, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We recently identified an inverse relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone, a metabolite of 17β-estradiol, in postmenopausal women. Formation of 16α-hydroxyestrone is catalyzed primarily by CYP1A2, a cytochrome P450 enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between known modifiers of CYP1A2 activity and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that fruits, vegetables, and grains, which contain more soluble fiber (a known inducer of CYP1A2) as a proportion of total fiber, would be more positively associated with serum 16α-hydroxyestrone than legumes, which contain less soluble fiber as a proportion of total fiber. Materials and Methods Serum from a population-based sample of 42 postmenopausal women aged 55–69 living in Cook County, Illinois, was assayed for 16α-hydroxyestrone using mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between dietary fiber and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone after adjusting for multiple covariates. Results Relative to dietary fiber from legumes, dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables was associated with a greater log odds (B = 0.201, p = 0.036) of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone. The log odds of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone was also lower among African-American women (B = −2.300, p = .030) compared to white women. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating a negative relationship between SBP and dietary fruits and vegetables and a positive relationship between African-American race and SBP. Further research is needed regarding dietary factors that may influence the serum concentration of 16α-hydroxyestrone. PMID:21035306

  17. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice.

    PubMed

    Moen, Birgitte; Henjum, Kristi; Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  18. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  19. Dietary fibers and crude protein content alleviate hepatic fat deposition and obesity in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Rezaian, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The effects of inclusion of cellulose or inulin as a source of dietary fiber and CP content of the diet on hepatic fat deposition were investigated in hens fed restricted or close to ad libitum consumption. There were 12 dietary treatments forming a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens [restricted and liberal (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 fiber sources (control, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). Hens were assigned in groups of 6 to 60 floor pens. From 43 to 55 wk of age, hens fed LIB showed increased activity of the hepatic malic enzyme (MalE; P < 0.01), which led to an increase (P < 0.001) in liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition and was associated with enhancements (P < 0.05) in plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abdominal fat deposition and BW of the hens increased (P < 0.001) with liberal feeding. Inclusion of inulin in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) liver and abdominal fat weight, whereas cellulose inclusion decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, abdominal fat, and BW. An increase in CP content of the diet from 14.5 to 17.4% reduced MalE activity (P < 0.001), liver weight (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the liver, as well as plasma triglyceride concentration and abdominal fat pad weight (P < 0.05). It is concluded that fiber inclusion reduced abdominal fat and liver weight, with effects being more pronounced with cellulose than with inulin. An increase in dietary CP reduced MalE activity and alleviated hepatic and plasma lipid concentration; therefore, it might be a practical approach to reduce the incidence of obesity-linked problems in broiler breeder hens. The combination of high-CP diets and the inclusion of a fiber source did not suppress liver lipid content over that observed with the high-CP diet, exclusively. PMID:23155020

  20. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  1. Dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Hui; Qiao, Chong; Wang, Ruo-Chen; Zhou, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk has been controversial. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiologic studies on this point. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases as well as by reviewing the rence lists of relevant articles. Random or fixed-effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This meta-analysis included one cohort and thirteen case-control studies which involving a total of 3287 subjects with pancreatic cancer. After summarizing the risk estimates of these studies, we yielded a significant association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk among case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.44–0.67; I2 = 41.4%; P = 0.043) but a non-significant result in cohort study (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.59–1.74). Additionally, significant inverse associations were observed when we carried out the stratify analyses by the study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders among case-control studies. Given only one cohort study included in the present meta-analysis, further prospective-designed studies should validate our findings and report more detail results, including those for subtypes of fiber, the risk estimates which corrected the impact of measurement errors and fully adjust for the potential confounders. PMID:26035410

  2. Prediction of rumen fiber pool in cattle from dietary, fecal, and animal variables.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Detmann, E; Krizsan, S J

    2016-07-01

    Feed intake control in ruminants is based on the integration of physical constraints and metabolic feedbacks. Physical constraints are related to the fill caused by the weight or volume of digesta in the reticulo-rumen. The amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the rumen (RNDF) may be used as an indicator of rumen fill. The objective of this study was to develop equations predicting RNDF from diet and animal characteristics using a meta-analysis technique. A treatment mean data set (n=314) was obtained from 84 studies, in which rumen pool size and diet digestibility were determined in lactating cows (n=231) or growing cattle (n=83). The data were analyzed using linear and nonlinear mixed models. Intake, rumen pool size, and fecal output of NDF were scaled to body weight (BW)(1.0). Due to the heterogeneous nature of dietary NDF, predictions of RNDF based on NDF intake were not precise. Predictions were markedly improved by dividing NDF into potentially digestible and indigestible fractions, because rumen turnover time of indigestible NDF was 2.7 times longer than that of potentially digestible NDF. At equal NDF intake, RNDF was negatively associated with dietary crude protein concentration and positively with the proportion of concentrate in the diet. Models based on fecal NDF output generally performed better than those based on NDF intake, probably because the effects of intrinsic characteristics of dietary cell walls and associative effects of dietary components collectively influence fecal NDF output. The model based on fecal NDF output was improved by including dietary concentration of forage NDF in the model, reflecting slower turnover of forage NDF compared with concentrate NDF. The curvilinear relationship between fecal NDF output and RNDF could be described by a quadratic, Mitscherlich, or power function equation, which performed better than the quadratic or Mitscherlich equation. In addition to fecal NDF output and dietary concentration of forage NDF

  3. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease. PMID:22012132

  4. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Fabiën N.; Kampman, Ellen; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy; Baumgartner, Richard; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among n=688 stage 0 to IIIA breast cancer survivors in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Pre- and postmenopausal women from Western Washington State, Los Angeles County, and New Mexico participated. Usual diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Total mortality, breast cancer mortality, non-fatal recurrence and second occurrence data were obtained from SEER registries and medical records. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Results During a median of 6.7 years follow-up after diagnosis, n= 106 total deaths, n=83 breast cancer-specific deaths and n=82 non-fatal recurrences were confirmed. We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and mortality. Multivariate-adjusted HRRs comparing high to low intake were 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-1.23) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.43-1.31). A threshold effect was observed whereby no additional benefit was observed for intakes >9 g/day. Fiber intake was suggestively inversely associated with breast-cancer specific mortality (HRR=0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70) and risk of non-fatal recurrence or second occurrence (HRR=0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70), but results were not statistically significant. Conclusion Dietary fiber was associated with a non-significant inverse association with breast cancer events and total mortality. Further studies to assess and confirm this relationship are needed in order to offer effective dietary strategies for breast cancer patients. Impact Increasing dietary fiber may an effective lifestyle modification strategy for breast cancer survivors. PMID:21430298

  5. Effects of polysaccharide-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber on quality attributes of fresh-cut apples.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria R; Cassani, Lucía; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the incorporation of dietary fiber into edible films and coatings. In this work, apple fiber and inulin were incorporated into polysaccharide-based (alginate, pectine and gellan gum) edible coating formulations and their effects on the quality attributes of fresh-cut apples were evaluated. Antioxidant properties, color, firmness, sensory quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut apple were studied during 16 days of storage at 4 °C. Results show that dietary fiber extracts incorporated to gellan gum, pectin and alginate-based coatings together with calcium chloride and ascorbic acid successfully maintained the firmness and color of coated fresh-cut apples in comparison with uncoated control samples, which presented severe texture softening and browning. The firmness of apple pieces coated with polysaccharide-based coating formulations incorporating apple fiber doubled, and sometimes tripled, that of uncoated samples. Any of the assayed coatings exhibited a positive effect on the sensory properties of fresh-cut apples. The incorporation of apple fiber, together with the use of ascorbic acid, contributed to keep the antioxidant potential of the fruit at least during the first week of storage. Furthermore, gellan gum coatings had a marked effect in reducing mesophilic and psychrophilic counts on fresh-cut apples throughout storage regardless the addition of dietary fibers. The results achieved demonstrate the feasibility of the addition of dietary fiber to edible coating formulations for increasing the nutritional value of fresh-cut apples without compromising their fresh-like quality attributes. PMID:26604352

  6. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  7. In vitro fermentation of bacterial cellulose composites as model dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J; Williams, Barbara A

    2011-04-27

    Plant cell walls within the human diet are compositionally heterogeneous, so defining the basis of nutritive properties is difficult. Using a pig fecal inoculum, in vitro fermentations of soluble forms of arabinoxylan, mixed-linkage glucan, and xyloglucan were compared with the same polymers incorporated into bacterial cellulose composites. Fermentation rates were highest and similar for the soluble polysaccharides. Cellulose composites incorporating those polysaccharides fermented more slowly and at similar rates to wheat bran. Bacterial cellulose and cotton fermented most slowly. Cellulose composite fermentation resulted in a different short-chain fatty acid profile, compared with soluble polysaccharides, with more butyrate and less propionate. The results suggest that physical form is more relevant than the chemistry of plant cell wall polysaccharides in determining both rate and end-products of fermentation using fecal bacteria. This work also establishes bacterial cellulose composites as a useful model system for the fermentation of complex cell wall dietary fiber. PMID:21417282

  8. Functional metagenomics to mine the human gut microbiome for dietary fiber catabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tasse, Lena; Bercovici, Juliette; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Robe, Patrick; Tap, Julien; Klopp, Christophe; Cantarel, Brandi L; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Leclerc, Marion; Doré, Joël; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle

    2010-11-01

    The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem composed mainly of uncultured bacteria. It plays an essential role in the catabolism of dietary fibers, the part of plant material in our diet that is not metabolized in the upper digestive tract, because the human genome does not encode adequate carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). We describe a multi-step functionally based approach to guide the in-depth pyrosequencing of specific regions of the human gut metagenome encoding the CAZymes involved in dietary fiber breakdown. High-throughput functional screens were first applied to a library covering 5.4 × 10(9) bp of metagenomic DNA, allowing the isolation of 310 clones showing beta-glucanase, hemicellulase, galactanase, amylase, or pectinase activities. Based on the results of refined secondary screens, sequencing efforts were reduced to 0.84 Mb of nonredundant metagenomic DNA, corresponding to 26 clones that were particularly efficient for the degradation of raw plant polysaccharides. Seventy-three CAZymes from 35 different families were discovered. This corresponds to a fivefold target-gene enrichment compared to random sequencing of the human gut metagenome. Thirty-three of these CAZy encoding genes are highly homologous to prevalent genes found in the gut microbiome of at least 20 individuals for whose metagenomic data are available. Moreover, 18 multigenic clusters encoding complementary enzyme activities for plant cell wall degradation were also identified. Gene taxonomic assignment is consistent with horizontal gene transfer events in dominant gut species and provides new insights into the human gut functional trophic chain. PMID:20841432

  9. Functional metagenomics to mine the human gut microbiome for dietary fiber catabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tasse, Lena; Bercovici, Juliette; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Robe, Patrick; Tap, Julien; Klopp, Christophe; Cantarel, Brandi L.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Leclerc, Marion; Doré, Joël; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem composed mainly of uncultured bacteria. It plays an essential role in the catabolism of dietary fibers, the part of plant material in our diet that is not metabolized in the upper digestive tract, because the human genome does not encode adequate carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). We describe a multi-step functionally based approach to guide the in-depth pyrosequencing of specific regions of the human gut metagenome encoding the CAZymes involved in dietary fiber breakdown. High-throughput functional screens were first applied to a library covering 5.4 × 109 bp of metagenomic DNA, allowing the isolation of 310 clones showing beta-glucanase, hemicellulase, galactanase, amylase, or pectinase activities. Based on the results of refined secondary screens, sequencing efforts were reduced to 0.84 Mb of nonredundant metagenomic DNA, corresponding to 26 clones that were particularly efficient for the degradation of raw plant polysaccharides. Seventy-three CAZymes from 35 different families were discovered. This corresponds to a fivefold target-gene enrichment compared to random sequencing of the human gut metagenome. Thirty-three of these CAZy encoding genes are highly homologous to prevalent genes found in the gut microbiome of at least 20 individuals for whose metagenomic data are available. Moreover, 18 multigenic clusters encoding complementary enzyme activities for plant cell wall degradation were also identified. Gene taxonomic assignment is consistent with horizontal gene transfer events in dominant gut species and provides new insights into the human gut functional trophic chain. PMID:20841432

  10. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber