Science.gov

Sample records for institutional control policies

  1. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  2. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  3. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. PMID:25000963

  4. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  5. Foreign Students: Developing Institutional Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    The academic sector must demonstrate its awareness of the implications of international educational exchange on particular disciplines, the quality of U.S. academic institutions amd on their economic health, the economic and social conditions of surrounding communities, and U.S. foreign policies. (MLW)

  6. Barriers and challenges of implementing tobacco control policies in hospitals: applying the institutional analysis and development framework to the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    This article analyzes tobacco control policies in hospitals based on the experience of the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals, Spain. The objective is to understand through this case study how tobacco policies are designed and implemented in health care organizations. Because tobacco control is a public health issue, governmental, institutional, and professional involvement is necessary. This article identifies and examines the structure and relationships among the different actors involved in the tobacco control policies in health care organizations using Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework.This theory helps one understand the policy failures and rethink the future challenges. Critical issues should be reviewed to enhance implementation of smoke-free hospitals-such as assuring the compliance of nonsmoking areas and introducing compulsory tobacco cessation activities that are promoted and monitored by the public administration. The author suggests that relying primarily on an organization's interpretation of rules leads to irregular implementation. PMID:19900946

  7. Institute for International Public Policy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for International Public Policy program provides a single grant to assist a consortia of institutions of higher education in establishing an institute designed to increase the representation of minorities in international service, including private international voluntary organizations and the Foreign Service of the United States. A…

  8. State Policy Toward Independent Postsecondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The statement of state policy toward independent degree-granting colleges and universities in California addresses these issues: independent institutions as a public resource (enrollment, degrees awarded, levels of support, tuition and fees, government revenues, program diversity, and geographic location); state policy toward independent…

  9. The Impact of Federal Policies on Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Arthur T., Ed.

    The papers are: "Making Higher Education Policy at the National Level" (Ralph K. Huitt); "Federal Impact and Higher Education Systems" (G. Homer Durham); "External Control and Institutional Governance" (Allan W. Ostar); "Federal Regulations and Institutional Autonomy" (Louis W. Bender); "Making Federalism Work" (Warren G. Hill); "Advice for Policy…

  10. Solar Energy, Technology Policy, and Institutional Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Frank N.

    2001-03-01

    Energy policies influence the shape of emergent technological systems, and also condition our social, political, and economic lives. This book demonstrates the difficulties of deliberating such properties by providing a historical case study that analyzes U.S. renewable energy policy from the end of World War II through the energy crisis of the 1970s. It illuminates the ways beliefs and values come to dominate official problem frames and get entrenched in institutions.

  11. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  12. Extended Learning Institute. Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Larry

    This manual describes the Extended Learning Institute (ELI) at John Tyler Community College in Virginia. The ELI is a comprehensive program of instruction using alternative delivery systems (e.g., television, print-based, radio, and newspapers). General procedures and policies are delineated in section I, including registration and student and…

  13. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. PMID:24088143

  14. Support for Alcohol-Control Policies and Enforcement Strategies among US College Students at 4-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Schneider, Shari Kessel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined college student support for policies and enforcement strategies to reduce alcohol problems on campus. Participants: A random sample of students from each of 32 four-year colleges and universities participated. Methods: Students completed an anonymous mail survey. Results: A majority of students supported 5 of the 12…

  15. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mcnicoll, G

    1995-11-01

    Despite having almost the highest rate of population growth among OECD countries, Australia has no explicit population policy. The potential elements of such a policy, especially with regard to immigration, family, and environment, are deeply entrenched in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for any systematic engagement and considered debate among them. Parallels to the case of Australia can be drawn with Canada and the US. Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find particularly difficult to manage. There are, however, also specific historical circumstances which led to the outcome and perpetuate the situation. Population processes and the institution of citizenship, and contested policy domains are discussed. PMID:12321981

  16. Budgetary Control Procedures for Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ray M.

    Budgetary control procedures for not-for-profit institutions are presented in this compilation of budgetary materials and ideas gathered at the Program for Institutional Administrators at the University of Notre Dame. Budgetary reporting and control are suggested as the most effective tools for coordinating and controlling the acquisition and use…

  17. Alleviating the Policy Paradox through Improved Institutional Policy Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven C.; Griffin, Rick A.; Martin, Cameron K.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional policies and policy systems are vital to the well-being of institutions of higher education. While many institutions dedicate time and resources to the development of key policies, the establishment of a well-designed and well-functioning policy system is often neglected. We refer to the discrepancy between the importance of…

  18. Institutional Admissions Policies in Higher Education: A Widening Participation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how higher education institutions (HEIs) have responded to government policy to increase the participation rates of students from lower social classes through their admissions policies. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses documentary evidence and interviews with institutional policy makers to examine HEI…

  19. The Implementation of Policies Regulating Institutional Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Petra; Kirchner, Ingo; Hirt, Mirjam

    2013-04-01

    Data management in geosciences, especially at university and other research institutes commonly isn't very well coordinated. Due to changing staff and limited funding this topic has no priority in general. The process to implement policies regulating data management in an university institute is complex. First of all existing structures and workflows had to be reviewed. That means an inventory of different data sets, reviewing quality tests, but also data requirements of scientists as well as their willingness to follow rules simplifying their work. Awareness of complying with regulations is essential for the acceptance of policies. A leading team, formed by several scientists, will bring together different points of view to control the development of institutional policies. Determining the actual state of personal data management using a questionary was one of the activities in the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences). The intention of the project is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives and in using documented data from these archives. Project partners are Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Other activities were to discuss existing problems and approved solutions with many institutions and tried to find out, where are the gaps in already realized workflows and which structures could be an ideal model to be generalized. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. University lectures were started to teach future scientific generations from the beginning on how to deal with all sorts of different data in a transparent way. Their feedback will be used to improve data documentations and data curation, so that the re-use of archived research data will be encouraged. The whole process of different approaches in the project EWIG, funded

  20. Institutional Conflict of Interest Policies at U.S. Academic Research Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Ariansen, J.L.; Jamal, Jaweria; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Institutional conflicts of interest (ICOIs) occur when the institution or leaders with authority to act on behalf of the institution have conflicts of interest (COIs) that may threaten the objectivity, integrity, or trustworthiness of research because they could impact institutional decision making. The purpose of this study was to gather and analyze information about the ICOI policies of the top 100 U.S. academic research institutions, ranked according to total research funding. Method From May–June 2014, the authors attempted to obtain ICOI policy information for the top 100 U.S. academic research institutions from publicly available Web sites or via e-mail inquiry. If an ICOI policy was not found, the institutions' online COI policies were examined. Data on each institution's total research funding, national funding rank, public versus private status, and involvement in clinical research were collected. The authors developed a coding system for categorizing the ICOI policies and used it to code the policies for nine items. Interrater agreement and P values were assessed. Results Only 28/100 (28.0%) institutions had an ICOI policy. ICOI policies varied among the 28 institutions. Having an ICOI policy was positively associated with total research funding and national funding ranking but not with public versus private status or involvement in clinical research. Conclusions Although most U.S. medical schools have policies that address ICOIs, most of the top academic research institutions do not. Federal regulation and guidance may be necessary to encourage institutions to adopt ICOI policies and establish a standard form of ICOI review. PMID:26535868

  1. Institutional Mission vs Policy Constraint?: Unlocking Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The research-intensive and competitive knowledge society is putting HEIs (higher education institutions) under the spotlight. While many HEIs around the world do not proclaim or wish to be research-intensive institutions the majority desire to intensify their research activity because it is seen as a sine qua non of higher education. Accordingly,…

  2. Stigma, biomedical efficacy, and institutional control.

    PubMed

    Goldin, C S

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the role of biomedical efficacy in the rehabilitation of the disabled. Ethnographic data are presented from two studies, one concerned with the prevocationally blind, the other with the institutionalized chronically mentally ill. A comparison of rehabilitation for these two groups suggests that when disabilities do not respond well to biomedical interventions, inconsistent and contradictory interpretations and policies about etiology, therapy, and post-treatment prognosis are likely to flourish. These conflicts may, in turn, increase pressure on rehabilitation institutions to maintain control over their clients. This paper addresses these issues in order to stimulate discussion about the relationship of different kinds of disability to stigma and rehabilitation. PMID:2315755

  3. Undergraduate Admissions: The Realities of Institutional Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC.

    Undergraduate admissions policies and practices at 1,463 institutions were surveyed. The investigation dealt with many aspects of admission, including policy-making authority, application procedures, accessibility and selectivity, student credentials, recruitment, and marketing, guidance and course placement, and differential treatment of various…

  4. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  5. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  6. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  7. Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas: policy and institutional treatment of a disease.

    PubMed

    Schweickardt, Julio Cesar; Xerez, Luena Matheus de

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen's disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease. PMID:26625914

  8. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  9. Fordham Institute's Pretend Research. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    The Thomas B. Fordham Institute has released a report, "Evaluating the Content and Quality of Next Generation Assessments," ostensibly an evaluative comparison of four testing programs, the Common Core derived SBAC and PARCC, ACT's Aspire, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts' MCAS. Of course, anyone familiar with Fordham's past work…

  10. Rethinking Institutional Secularization as an (Im)possible "Policy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Caride, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes through a genealogical discourse analysis how religion as a cultural practice escapes into the borders of state institutions. While most studies about secularization focus on institutional aspects, such approaches tend to link state secularist policies with cultural secularization. This essay argues that state promotion of…

  11. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  12. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-07-27

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites, which requires a Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. The revision is needed to provide an update as remedial actions are completed and new areas of concern are found. This Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan is based on guidance in the May 3, 1999, EPA Region 10 Final Policy on the Use of Institutional Controls at Federal Facilities; the September 29, 2000, EPA guidance Institutional Controls: A Site Manager's Guide to Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Institutional Controls at Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action Cleanups; and the April 9, 2003, DOE Policy 454.1, "Use of Institutional Controls." These policies establish measures that ensure short- and long-term effectiveness of institutional controls that protect human health and the environment at federal facility sites undergoing remedial action pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or corrective action pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The site-specific institutional controls currently in place at the Idaho National Laboratory are documented in this Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan. This plan is being updated, along with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan, to reflect the progress of remedial activities and changes in CERCLA sites.

  13. Developing and implementing an institute-wide data sharing policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute has a strong reputation for prepublication data sharing as a result of its policy of rapid release of genome sequence data and particularly through its contribution to the Human Genome Project. The practicalities of broad data sharing remain largely uncharted, especially to cover the wide range of data types currently produced by genomic studies and to adequately address ethical issues. This paper describes the processes and challenges involved in implementing a data sharing policy on an institute-wide scale. This includes questions of governance, practical aspects of applying principles to diverse experimental contexts, building enabling systems and infrastructure, incentives and collaborative issues. PMID:21955348

  14. Higher Education Policy Change and Institutional Development in Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Thomas, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Changes in higher education policy in Mongolia involved an abruptness that both facilitated reform and challenged institutional managers. This article reports on the nature of these changes and their impact on the School of Economic Studies (SES) at the National University. It focuses on the negotiation between the SES, the National University and…

  15. NCAA Academic Performance Metrics: Implications for Institutional Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForge, Larry; Hodge, Janie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the higher education community with information about the Federal Graduation Rate (FGR), the Academic Progress Rate (APR), and the Graduation Success Rate (GSR) to assist in developing sound institutional policy. First, relevant background information is provided to clarify the context underlying the…

  16. MOOCs, Institutional Policy and Change Dynamics in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The last couple of years have witnessed a growing debate about online learning in higher education, notably in response to the global massive open online course (MOOC) phenomenon. This paper explores these developments from an institutional policy perspective, drawing on an analysis of the initial stages of different approaches to MOOCs and…

  17. Institutional Statements of Commitment and Widening Participation Policy in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Mangion, Antoine; Buchanan, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which the equity agenda, as outlined in the Bradley Review of Higher Education (Bradley et al., 2008), is translated into action in one Australian university. Drawing on the conceptual work of Ahmed (2012) to elaborate institutional life, we investigate the effects of the widening participation policy. Ahmed (2012)…

  18. Toward Instituting a Chaperone Policy in Outpatient Pediatric Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; Jenkins, Carol; Laney, Tyler; Seidel, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to evaluate child, parent and medical provider preferences for chaperones for outpatient encounters and to evaluate the acceptability and frequency of utilization following institution of a chaperone policy. Secondarily, we sought to understand what medical history and examinations teens consider "sensitive." Design: We…

  19. Review of Canadian mobile satellite systems institutional arrangements policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilvary, David

    1990-01-01

    Development of institutional arrangements policy for maritime, land, and aeronautical mobile satellite systems (MSS) is an integral part of the Canadian telecommunications policy process. An ongoing activity in that process is fitting of MSS institutional arrangements policy within the confines of the 1987 Canadian Telecom Policy Framework. Making sure the fit is correct is a major task at present because technology seems to be driving service demand at rapid growth rates, particularly in the case of land MSS. This growth is stimulating policy and regulatory development efforts to keep pace. In Canada, this is happening in four planned MSS applications areas: Canada-US transborder (immediate), aeronautical MSS (1990/94), Telesat Mobile Inc. EMDS via INMARSAT (1990), and MSAT (1993/94). The need for an up-to-date MSS policy in these areas is emphasized by related developments in the US and elsewhere. It arises because of the growing number of market initiatives proposing North American rather than Canada-only or US-only coverage, such as INMARSAT, Geostar, OmniTRACS, and Starlink.

  20. Rethinking forest carbon assessments to account for policy institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David

    2015-10-01

    There has been extensive debate about whether the sustainable use of forests (forest management aimed at producing a sustainable yield of timber or other products) results in superior climate outcomes to conservation (maintenance or enhancement of conservation values without commercial harvesting). Most of the relevant research has relied on consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the results tending to show that sustainable use has lower net greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions than conservation in the long term. However, the literature cautions that results are sensitive to forest- and market-related contextual factors: the carbon density of the forests, silvicultural and wood processing practices, and the extent to which wood products and forest bioenergy displace carbon-intensive alternatives. Depending on these issues, conservation can be better for the climate than sustainable use. Policy institutions are another key contextual factor but, so far, they have largely been ignored. Using a case study on the Southern Forestry Region (SFR) of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we show how policy institutions can affect the assessed outcomes from alternative forest management strategies. Our results highlight the need for greater attention to be paid to policy institutions in forest carbon research.

  1. Coalition Policy-Making under Constraints: Examining the Role of Preferences and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schermann, Katrin; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the formation and termination of coalitions, comparatively little attention has been paid to the policy output of multiparty governments. The present study attempts to narrow this research gap by analysing policy-making in three Austrian coalition governments between 1999 and 2008. Drawing on the party mandate literature, a manually coded textual analysis of election manifestos is conducted that yields a dataset containing over 1,100 pledges. The fulfilment of these pledges is taken as the dependent variable in a multivariate analysis. The results indicate that institutional determinants (adoption in the coalition agreement, ministerial control, and policy status quo) significantly influence the chances of pledge fulfilment and thus present a powerful predictor of coalition policy output. By contrast, factors related to parties’ preferences (consensus between parties, policy distance, pledge saliency, and majority support in parliament) do not have an impact. PMID:26770004

  2. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  3. Locating regional health policy: Institutions, politics, and practices

    PubMed Central

    Riggirozzi, Pia; Yeates, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Poverty reduction and health became central in the agendas of Southern regional organisations in the last two decades. Yet, little is known about how these organisations address poverty, inclusion and social inequality, and how Southern regional formations are engaging in power constellations, institutions, processes, interests and ideological positions within different spheres of governance. This article reviews academic literatures spanning global social policy, regional studies and diplomacy studies, and the state of knowledge and understanding of the ‘place’ of regional actors in health governance as a global political practice therein. It identifies theoretical and thematic points of connection between disparate literatures and how these can be bridged through research focusing on the social policies of regional organisations and regional integration processes. This framework hence locates the contributions of each of the research articles of this Special Issue of Global Social Policy on the regional dimension of health policy and diplomacy in relation to Southern Africa and South America. It also highlights the ways in which the articles bring new evidence about how social relations of welfare are being (re)made over larger scales and how regional actors may initiate new norms to improve health rights in international arenas engaging in new forms of ‘regional’ diplomacy. PMID:26635495

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Education Policy and Practice: The Case of Institutions in Mumbai and Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Radhika; Surianarain, Sharmi

    2010-01-01

    There exist many actors within the realm of education policy planning and implementation, namely: the policy makers; the national, local and regional institutions engaged in the dissemination and interpretation of these policies; and the educational institutions that implement these policies at the ground level (schools). While schools are largely…

  5. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.46 Institutional security policies and... person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or...

  6. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.46 Institutional security policies and... person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or...

  7. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.46 Institutional security policies and... person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or...

  8. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.46 Institutional security policies and... person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or...

  9. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.46 Institutional security policies and... person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or...

  10. A Note on Policy Implications of Some Institutional-Productivity Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Earl

    This paper defines concepts relating to institutional-productivity-models, lists components of a productivity-policy-model, and discusses several models. An institutional-productivitv-policy-model is a manipulative representation of the productivity of an institution or part of an institution. Components of an…

  11. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized

  12. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  13. Pitfalls in Health Communication: Healthcare Policy, Institution, Structure, & Process

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, José L; Beltrán, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    The state of health communication for a given population is a function of several tiers of structure and process: government policy, healthcare directives, healthcare structure and process, and the ethnosocial realities of a multicultural society. Common yet specific to these tiers of health communication is the interpersonal and intergroup use of language in all its forms. Language is the most common behavior exhibited by humankind. Its use at all tiers determines quality of healthcare and quality of life for healthcare consumers: patients and their families. Of note, at the consumer end, mounting evidence demonstrates that barriers to health communication contribute to poorer access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes. The lack of comprehensible and usable written and spoken language is a major barrier to health communication targeting primary and secondary disease prevention and is a major contributor to the misuse of healthcare, patient noncompliance, rising healthcare costs. In this paper, we cursorily examine the relationship among government policy, institutional directives, and healthcare structure and process and its influence on the public health, especially vulnerable populations. We conclude that limited health communication in the context of changing healthcare environments and diverse populations is an important underpinning of rising healthcare costs and sustained health disparities. More research is needed to improve communication about health at all tiers and to develop health communication interventions that are usable by all population groups. PMID:15208522

  14. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population. PMID:21382116

  15. Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.

    PubMed

    Hens; Boon

    1999-10-01

    / This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly

  16. Widening Participation in Higher Education: An Examination of the Factors Influencing Institutional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the factors influencing the development of widening participation policy in 16 higher education institutions (HEIs). It utilises documentary research, followed by interviews with key policy makers in three of the institutions: an "old" university, a "new" university and a college of higher education. The paper demonstrates…

  17. Framing Student Perspectives into the Higher Education Institutional Review Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl; Riedel, Alex; Luth, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary and desirable to enhance student learning in higher education by integrating multiple perspectives during institutional policy reviews, yet few examples of such a process exist. This article describes an institutional assessment policy review process that used a questionnaire to elicit 269 students' perspectives on a draft policy…

  18. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  19. Student Handicapped Access Policies in Private or Independent Institutions of Higher Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Gene

    Making postsecondary education truly available to those with disabilities has become an urgent priority for handicapped citizens and government at the state and national levels. Handicapped access policies at private or independent institutions of higher education can be broadly characterized by two different policy approaches: policies that are…

  20. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review and assess (i) the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii) the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa) were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i) Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii) Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii) Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv) Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet many health policy

  1. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  2. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  3. Internalization of agri-environmental policies and the role of institutions.

    PubMed

    Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Groot, Jeroen C J; Bishop, Carly; Hall, Jilly; Pretty, Jules

    2009-05-01

    Recent investigations have indicated that environmental and conservation policies frequently fail to reach anticipated aims, which raises concern over the cost-effectiveness of governmental policy-related expenditure. The limited effectiveness of policies is often attributed to methodological aspects of policy implementation. However, an alternative reason can be the limited internalization of policies, so that these are only implemented to a minimum level to attain benefits or avoid penalties. It is postulated that increased internalization of policies can considerably improve their effectiveness and that suitable institutional arrangements exist to support such increases in internalization. In this paper, we review the available literature on internalization and its institutional aspects, and propose a framework, based on self-determination theory, for evaluation of potential internalization by farm managers that are expected to implement policies. This method was applied to a small case study for dairy farmers in the nationally important landscape of the Northern Friesian Woodlands, The Netherlands. The results showed that organic farmers were internally motivated for nature conservation and had strong institutional links. They were more likely to internalize the goals of environmental policy schemes than conventional farmers who focused predominantly on financial rewards. We suggest that policy developers promote internalization of policies by tuning policy instruments to the specificities of farmers' motivations to preserve farmers' nature and to focus on institutional support to help internalization. PMID:19185970

  4. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES... to the Institute formulated in accordance with the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policies and procedures for Institute...

  5. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES... to the Institute formulated in accordance with the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policies and procedures for Institute...

  6. Universities as Communities of Fate: Institutional Rhetoric and Student Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, David; Goldman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: What is the rhetoric that higher education institutions use when they develop and publish policies to improve student retention? Using the organization literature on institutional environments, this study examines the nature and evolution of institutional rhetoric used by three public universities in a single state over a 20-year period.…

  7. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupido, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  8. Tobacco Industry Influence on the American Law Institute's Restatements of Torts and Implications for Its Conflict of Interest Policies.

    PubMed

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2012-11-01

    The American Law Institute ("ALI") is a prestigious and influential organization that creates treatises on the current state of the law, including "Restatements" of case law that guide judicial decisions and legislation. This paper uses previously secret tobacco industry documents made available as the result of state and federal litigation against the industry to describe how the tobacco companies, acting both indirectly through their trade organization, the Tobacco Institute, and directly, using influential lawyers, quietly influenced the ALI's writing of the Restatements. The tobacco industry's ease of access to the ALI calls into question the Institute's independence, the preparation of major policy documents such as the Restatements, as well as the Institute's ability to monitor and control conflicts of interest. The ALI's conflict of interest policies lag behind comparable organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, and are insufficient to protect Institute projects from significant outside influence. Because of the undisclosed influence of the tobacco industry over the ALI, courts and legislatures should not apply the principles embodied in the Restatements in tort cases against the tobacco companies for injuries suffered from tobacco use. Until the ALI implements strong conflict of interest policies to ensure independence from private-interest manipulation, courts and legislatures should not rely on Institute reports and recommendations as neutral scholarly summaries of the law that should guide judicial and legislative decision-making. PMID:23633723

  9. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty…

  10. Developing a Policy on Institutional Research for Black Hawk College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quayle, Thomas; Stevens, Mary A.

    In order to study the general objectives, methods, and provisions for institutional research in the community college, this document surveys the pertinent literature and reviews institutional research practices at selected community colleges. In general, three basic governance structure models are identified which represent varying relationships…

  11. [Ups and downs of chronicity: policies, institutions, mechanisms and therapists].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo P

    2009-01-01

    Chronicity is approached from several angles: that of the individual patient, the sociopolitical background, the therapist's role, the institutional framework for the treatment of chronic patients. Relevant themes are discussed and authors visited that contribute to fresh thinking regarding the position of the therapist (psychiatrist, psychologist, psychoanalyst) towards these patients. More often than not, these patients are classified as unclassifiable, or refractory. As it has been said before, this implies that from the professional's viewpoint these patients are intrinsically difficult and "little rewarding". This raises the question of health ideals and expectations, as well as the institutional inconveniences of current models of treatments and institutional devices. PMID:20038987

  12. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  13. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  14. Statewide Mandatory Remediation Policies: National, State, and Institutional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peak, Charity S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite uncertainty related to student outcomes resulting from remediation (Bettinger & Long, 2009), eleven states mandate remedial education through common placement testing and standardized cutoff scores rather than permitting individual postsecondary institutions to establish remediation guidelines. Colorado, in particular, offers an…

  15. Policy, institutional and market barriers to the implementation of clean development mechanisms (CDM) in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, L.; Yan, J.Y.

    2005-07-15

    This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China's government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative systems, and be more active in budding a competitive edge in the world carbon market.

  16. Loose Coupling and Inhabited Institutions: Inclusion Policy and Teacher Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRoche, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This case study uses interviews and participant observation to study how teachers negotiate inclusion policy in their everyday classroom interactions and strategies. Interviews consisted of two teachers and an educational assistant from one Northern Ontario classroom while participant observation was conducted for a period of seven weeks. Drawing…

  17. Institutional Constraints on Business Involvement in K-12 Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipple, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the actions of business leaders representing multinational corporations, the "MI-Roundtable," through observation and interviews as they tried to affect education policy in Michigan. That this group took a thoughtful approach and had a significant impact on education reform is no indication that other business groups will do the same.…

  18. Missions Statements in Wales: The Impact of Markets and Policy on Congruence between Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Helen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to compare the mission statements of higher education institutions in Wales as well as to compare these with regional level policy statements and demands from the market. The underlying idea is to reveal the extent to which mission statements actually differ and are (or are not) in line with such regional policies and market…

  19. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  20. Critical Interactives: Improving Public Understanding of Institutional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, Duncan A.; Cooley, Heidi Rae

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, the authors have pursued unique cross-college collaboration. They have hosted a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)-funded Humanities Gaming Institute and team-taught a cross-listed course that brought together students from the humanities and computer science. Currently, they are overseeing the development of an…

  1. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  2. Reviewing Institutional Policies for Electronic Management of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voce, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Electronic assignment submission (e-submission) tools, such as those within course management systems (e.g. Blackboard), or systems such as Turnitin, which enable students to submit coursework online are now one of the main centrally supported institutional tools in Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK), however the development of…

  3. Improving Student Attainment in Community Colleges: Institutional Characteristics and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; Alfonso, Mariana; Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Jenkins, Davis; Kienzl, Gregory; Leinbach, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are a crucial point of access to higher education for low-income, minority, and other underserved students. These groups are overrepresented (with respect to their share of undergraduate enrollment) in two year and less than two year post secondary institutions. The community college access mission is built on low tuition, …

  4. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Contributions and Challenges. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcom-Piqueux, Lindsey E.; Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This brief presents information about the characteristics of the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and their students, as well as the HSIs' contributions to the educational attainment of the Latino population. The brief concludes by outlining some of the challenges faced by HSIs as they aim to meet their implied mission of serving…

  5. Global Integration Policies versus Institutional Dynamics of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doh, Pascal S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of one of the most recent integration trends in higher education, the Bologna process. The Bologna process can be understood as a sustained, broad-scale initiative among institutions of higher education and national governments to respond to the forces of globalization (Kalvermark and Van der Wende 1997). The…

  6. Politics in India: A Research Bibliography on Indian Political Institutions, Behavior and Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Urmila

    This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…

  7. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  8. Introducing Widening Participation Policies in Higher Education: The Influence of Institutional Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of culture in the development of higher education institution (HEI) policy on widening participation. The study involved documentary research and interviews with senior and middle managers. It suggests that a culture of widening participation is often not embedded throughout institutions. Therefore, widening…

  9. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  10. Public Policy and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: From Invention to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental premise for creating the Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) designation assumes that a critical mass of students motivates an institution to change how it operates to better serve these students to degree attainment. Increasing Hispanic degree attainment is in the national interest, and programs created by public policy to support…

  11. Changing Labour Markets in Europe: The Role of Institutions and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains five papers on the role of institutions in changing labor markets in Europe. "Introduction" (Peter Auer) explores the following topics: institutions and labor market forces; macroeconomic policy; redistribution of working times; equality of opportunity; and industrial relations and social dialogue. "Small-Economy Macroeconomics"…

  12. The Influence of Higher Education Policies on College Readiness at Two Texas Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to gain insight into how higher education policies can influence institutional performance in Latino postsecondary degree completion; specifically, through an examination of the college readiness efforts of two Hispanic-Serving Institutions in Texas. Over half of all Latinos in postsecondary education in the…

  13. Pricing Policy, Social Equity and Institutional Survival in Tertiary Education in New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alfred M.

    New Jersey aids private institutions but is deficit in low-priced open access to public colleges. Discussed is higher education in New Jersey in light of this historical condition; pricing policy; social equity; decisions, especially regarding institutional support, student aid, and public tuition; and the "free market." While the proportion of…

  14. Controlling Reactive Nitrogen: Attaining Cost Effectiveness and Institutional Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, O.

    2012-12-01

    The fact that reactive nitrogen (Nr) cascades by changing form and moving between air, land and water makes its management and control especially difficult. The cascade means that excess Nr's negative impacts may initially occur, flow through, or linger in air, land or water. The critical question becomes where and how to interdict, not only in terms of technical capacity but also in terms of cost effectiveness and institutional capacity. The nature of Nr also needs to inform the questions that need to be asked to be able to deal with Nr. For much of the world, agriculture is the major contributor to Nr.The stark trade-off often involves excess Nr that is the product of increased food production. As it is often the largest source of excess Nr, agriculture has to be a focus for Nr control and management efforts. This paper will start with the Nr balance sheet for the US and outline some of the trade-offs and opportunities for controlling Nr.The institutional responsibility and capacity to take effective action will be assessed on the basis of US institutions and their history. This will involve illustrating some of the difficulties posed by the cascading nature of Nr as it movesfrom one regulatory jurisdiction to another. Within the US agricultural sector. the history and politics of dealing with such problems will be traced as they relate to the willingness and capacity of the sector to more effectively control or manage problems like Nr. The institutional history of the sector has a strong influence onwhat can be accomplished in a cost effective way - one that is very different from the history and practice in Australia or Europe. The EPA Science Advisory Boards' suggestion that a twenty five percent reduction in excess Nr should be achievable will be traced through for agriculture and allied situations illustrating some of the possibilities and dilemmas. Finally, the issue of metrics will be addressed. As a caution to policy makers, one can obtain very different

  15. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  16. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  17. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession. PMID:8827261

  18. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744

  19. Science and agriculture policy at Land-Grant Institutions.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, M L; Zimbelman, R G; Pray, C E

    1995-06-01

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funding of science and education at Land-Grant College institutions is in transition. The traditional "science pipeline" model linking basic science funding with the application of technology is in question as some policymakers dispute the premise that non-directed science results in benefits to society. Historically, research at USDA and Land-Grant institutions is much more directed than that funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), or Department of Energy (DOE). Nevertheless, there are calls for change at the USDA as well. An approach that both the Congress and the Executive branch are taking seeks to direct research dollars according to predetermined goals. This is being emphasized in part due to budget pressures and may force the system to struggle maintaining funding in constant dollars. Deficit cutters are first considering cutting "earmarked grants" for research and facilities at USDA and Land Grant Institutions. Savings in these categories may help to support modest increases in formula funding and competitive grants. Earmarked grants for research and facilities at the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) for Fiscal Year 1993 were approximately 26% of total appropriations and distributed to well over 100 specific line items. This level has increased from approximately 15% of CSRS appropriations in 1985. At the same time formula funding has remained static and competitive grants, although increasing, are below authorized levels. As state and federal budgets face pressure and as concerns from consumer and environmental groups are encountered, balancing the percentage of research dollars devoted to research intended to increase production efficiency and the percentage devoted to meeting concerns about food safety, pesticides, water quality, sustainability, animal welfare, and so on will be a challenge. Linking research priorities with producer and consumer needs

  20. INL Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Report FY2006

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-08-01

    This document reports the results of the fiscal year 2006 institutional controls assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites at the Idaho National Laboratory. These activities are described in the INEEL Sitewide Institutional Control Plan. Inspections were performed by Long-term Stewardship Program personnel with representatives of the various facilities. The assessments showed that the various institutional control measures in place across the Idaho National Laboratory Site are functioning as intended. Information in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan was reviewed as part of the annual assessment and was revised as needed to reflect the current status of the institutional control sites.

  1. Tobacco control in Europe: a policy review.

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised. PMID:27246592

  2. Equilibrium Control Policies for Markov Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The average cost criterion has held great intuitive appeal and has attracted considerable attention. It is widely employed when controlling dynamic systems that evolve stochastically over time by means of formulating an optimization problem to achieve long-term goals efficiently. The average cost criterion is especially appealing when the decision-making process is long compared to other timescales involved, and there is no compelling motivation to select short-term optimization. This paper addresses the problem of controlling a Markov chain so as to minimize the average cost per unit time. Our approach treats the problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We derive conditions guaranteeing that a saddle point exists for the new dual problem and we show that this saddle point is an equilibrium control policy for each state of the Markov chain. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that recognition of such saddle points may be of value in deriving in real time an optimal control policy.

  3. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute. PMID:22124894

  4. Policy Writers' Conceptions of Language and Communication within one Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Ball argues that "policy authors do make concerted efforts to assert control [of readings] by the means at their disposal … [and that] we need to understand those efforts" (Ball, 1994, p. 16). Efforts by policy authors to control readings are influenced by their own assumptions about the nature of language, texts and communication. This…

  5. Politics Can Limit Policy Opportunism in Fiscal Institutions: Evidence from Official General Fund Revenue Forecasts in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Lewis, David E.; Douglas, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Governments make policy decisions in the same areas in quite different institutions. Some assign policymaking responsibility to institutions designed to be insulated from myopic partisan and electoral pressures and others do not. In this study, we claim that differences in political context and institutional design constrain the policy choices…

  6. Drilling down natural gas well permitting policy: Examining the effects of institutional arrangements on citizen participation and policy outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Laurie C.

    Over the past decade the movement of natural gas drilling operations toward more suburban and urban communities has created unique policy challenges for municipalities. Municipal response is manifest in a variety of institutional arrangements, some more enabling than others regarding citizen access to public hearings. This observation lead to the main research question, "How are variations in citizen participation affecting policy outcomes?" The argument is made that institutions affecting citizen participation, in turn affect policy outcomes. If the general public is given access to public hearings, their preferences for longer setbacks will be taken into account and the approved gas wells will have greater distances from neighboring residences -- effectively providing for greater safety. Given the paucity of research on the topic of natural gas drilling, the research first begins with the presentation of a theoretical framework to allow for analysis of the highly complex topic of gas well permitting, emphasizing the rule-ordered relationships between the various levels of decision making and provides a typology of collective action arenas currently used by Texas municipalities. The research uses paired case studies of most similar design and employs a mixed methods process for the collection, analysis and interpretation of the municipal level gas well permitting process. The investigation includes a complete census of 185 approved gas wells from four North Texas cities between the years 2002-2012; 20 interviews comprised of city officials and drilling operators; and archival records such as gas well site plans, ordinances, online government documents and other public information. The findings reveal that zoning institutions are associated with a 15% longer gas well setback than siting institutions and institutions without waivers are associated with a 20% longer gas well setback than institutions with waiver rules. The practical implications suggest that citizen

  7. Pupil Control As an Institutional Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    This study of pupil control attitudes was based on the assumption that public school teachers and college education instructors hold divergent views on pupil control. These divergent views would then be imposed on the preservice teachers. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) Scale and the Dogmatism Scale, Form E, were randomly distributed to 100…

  8. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  9. Pupil Control as an Institutional Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Differences in attitudes toward pupil control between university educators and cooperating pupil school teachers were measured to determine if student teachers might be receiving conflicting sets of expectations. The results of the study confirm that college supervisors have a more humanistic attitude toward pupil control than cooperating teachers…

  10. Educational Policy in the Carter Years. Institute for Educational Leadership Policy Paper 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.; And Others

    Two articles and a transcript of a colloquium discussion by seven practitioners/experts on the topic of educational policy in the Carter years are presented. The discussion group considered Carter's first year, zero-based budgeting, dimensions of leadership, the fiscal year 1979 budget, reorganization and a Department of Education, and the…

  11. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  12. Transnational Higher Education Institutions in China: A Comparison of Policy Orientation and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, a total of 64 transnational higher education institutions (TEIs) were approved by the Ministry of Education (MOE) to operate in China's higher education sector. The TEIs were established in two batches. The first batch of 24 TEIs resulted from a policy promulgated in 1995, whereas the second batch of 40 TEIs resulted from two…

  13. Current Institutional Policies on A) Grade Submission and B) Issuance of Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwender, James C.

    1978-01-01

    Policies on grade submission and issuance of transcripts were surveyed for 135 U.S. institutions of higher education with enrollments over 12,800. Information is provided on submission schedules, proportion of final grades not submitted in time, penalties for late submission, transcript production, annual volume, processing time, and conditions…

  14. An Analysis of Institutional Policies and Practices Critical for Effective Leadership in Developmental Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, Carolyn Gaughan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most critical institutional policies and practices deemed essential for the effective development and governance of systemic, effective developmental education programs in community colleges through the perspective of community college administrators. This study ranked community college leaders'…

  15. Development of Guidelines for Policy-Relevant Studies of Faculty Vitality through an Institutional Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary; Clark, Shirley M.

    The issue of faculty vitality and an institutional case study are discussed, along with implications for academic policy. The literature of faculty vitality reveals a situational, contextual dimension that makes defining the concept difficult. It is helpful to view the college as an organization in which faculty members pursue careers as scholars,…

  16. 34 CFR 668.134 - Institutional policies and procedures for requesting documentation and receiving secondary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional policies and procedures for requesting documentation and receiving secondary confirmation. 668.134 Section 668.134 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Institute of Medicine. A Policy Statement: The Elderly and Functional Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The 1976 Anglo-American Conference on Care of the Elderly examined many issues related to the development, management, and possible prevention of functional dependency among the elderly. A number of conference participants subsequently expressed interest in specifying the implications of these issues for public policy. The Institute of Medicine…

  18. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  19. Policy Statement on Rights and Responsibilities of Accrediting Bodies and Institutions in the Accrediting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Postsecondary Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    A national, nongovernmental accreditation system is the key to ensuring that education remains fundamentally sound, responsible, responsive, and effective, thereby providing public confidence in the integrity and quality of educational institutions and programs. The Council on Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA) policy on the rights and…

  20. Granting Credit for Work Experience: A Guide to Policies and Procedures of Wisconsin Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    The ways that Wisconsin colleges, technical institutes and high schools award credit for learning acquired through work experience are described. This guide was written after a statewide study of the policies and procedures of both postsecondary and secondary schools. Data were gathered in interviews with nearly every postsecondary school in…

  1. Administrative Practices as Institutional Identity: Bureaucratic Impediments to HE "Internationalisation" Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how bureaucracy impedes the implementation of higher education (HE) policy at Japanese universities. Administrative systems employ Weberian legal-rational bureaucratic practices that are central to the institutional identity of a university. Rather than the means to internationalisation and reform in general, these systems…

  2. Political and Institutional Influences on the Use of Evidence in Public Health Policy. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. Methods We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. Findings 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. Conclusions This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an

  3. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  4. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton; Fallin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants 16 campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August, 2013. Methods Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) Position Statement on Tobacco. The Institutional Grammar Tool was used to breakdown policy statements into Strategies, Norms, or Rules. Differences in ACHA score and number of Strategies, Norms, and Rules were assessed by region, policy, and institution type. Results Median ACHA score was 0.35 (scale of 0–1). Schools with 100% tobacco-free policies had highest ACHA scores, but failed to address relationships between schools and tobacco companies. Less than half the schools assessed (7/16) had Rules (enforceable penalties related to policies). In 67% of the policy statements, individuals doing the action were implied (not specifically stated). Conclusion Campuses should address ACHA recommendations related to campus relationships with tobacco companies, include enforceable rules, and specify individuals and entities covered by policy. PMID:25257333

  5. Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: institutions, policies and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

    2015-04-15

    The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas. PMID:25752532

  6. Improving the Internal Accounting Controls of Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolou, Nicholas G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Accounting controls are primarily concerned with methods and procedures that safeguard an entity's assets and ensure the reliability of its financial records. This article discusses internal control objectives as applied to educational institutions, outlines specific steps necessary to develop an effective internal control system, and mentions…

  7. Quality of service policy control in virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiqing; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Dongru

    2004-04-01

    This paper studies the QoS of VPN in an environment where the public network prices connection-oriented services based on source, destination and grade of service, and advertises these prices to its VPN customers (users). As different QoS technologies can produce different QoS, there are according different traffic classification rules and priority rules. The internet service provider (ISP) may need to build complex mechanisms separately for each node. In order to reduce the burden of network configuration, we need to design policy control technologies. We considers mainly directory server, policy server, policy manager and policy enforcers. Policy decision point (PDP) decide its control according to policy rules. In network, policy enforce point (PEP) decide its network controlled unit. For InterServ and DiffServ, we will adopt different policy control methods as following: (1) In InterServ, traffic uses resource reservation protocol (RSVP) to guarantee the network resource. (2) In DiffServ, policy server controls the DiffServ code points and per hop behavior (PHB), its PDP distributes information to each network node. Policy server will function as following: information searching; decision mechanism; decision delivering; auto-configuration. In order to prove the effectiveness of QoS policy control, we make the corrective simulation.

  8. 75 FR 62839 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Tribal Law and Policy Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...The Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Children's Bureau (CB) announces the award of a single-source expansion supplement to the Tribal Law and Policy Institute, West Hollywood, CA, to provide more intensive technical assistance to Tribes. The Tribal Law and Policy Institute administers the National Resource Center for Tribes under a cooperative agreement where technical......

  9. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada. PMID:26567379

  10. Many-objective reservoir policy identification and refinement to reduce institutional myopia in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Herman, Jonathan D.; Castelletti, Andrea; Reed, Patrick M.

    2014-05-01

    Current water reservoir operating policies are facing growing water demands as well as increasing uncertainties associated with a changing climate. However, policy inertia and myopia strongly limit the possibility of adapting current water reservoir operations to the undergoing change. Historical agreements and regulatory constraints limit the rate that reservoir operations are innovated and creates policy inertia, where water institutions are unlikely to change their current practices in absence of dramatic failures. Yet, no guarantee exists that historical management policies will not fail in coming years. In reference to policy myopia, although it has long been recognized that water reservoir systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, the broader understanding of the multi-objective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome both policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. The proposed framework initially uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the current but unknown operating policy of Conowingo Dam. The quality of the identified baseline

  11. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  12. Institutional Policy Changes to Prevent Cardiac Toxicity Associated With Bupivacaine Penile Blockade in Infants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Richard N; Houck, Constance S; Casta, Alfonso; Blum, Richard H

    2016-08-01

    Dorsal penile nerve block is a widely used method of analgesia for infants undergoing penile surgery. Because of its potency, extended duration of action, and lack of vasoconstriction, bupivacaine remains the most commonly used local anesthetic. Rapid systemic absorption of bupivacaine, however, has been associated with profound central nervous system and cardiovascular side effects, including cardiac arrest. As determined by retrospective medical record analysis, the incidence of complications associated with dorsal penile blockade in our institution was 0.075%. This was significantly higher than previously reported prompting a change in institutional policy that has eliminated penile block complications. PMID:27310901

  13. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  14. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  15. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings. PMID:18831129

  16. Safety Control and Safety Education at Technical Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Hiroshi

    The importance of safety education for students at technical institutes is emphasized on three grounds including safety of all working members and students in their education, research and other activities. The Kanazawa Institute of Technology re-organized the safety organization into a line structure and improved safety minds of all their members and now has a chemical materials control system and a set of compulsory safety education programs for their students, although many problems still remain.

  17. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  18. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance. PMID:25479704

  19. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seniors & Social Security Taxes Technology Trade Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Women The Administration People President Barack ... Office of Science and Technology Policy Council of Economic Advisers Council on Environmental Quality National Security Council ...

  20. Health services and policy research in the first decade at the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; McMahon, Meghan; Girard, Nadyne; Drake, Elizabeth; Nadigel, Jessica; Gaudreau, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health services and policy research is the innovation engine of a health care system. In 2000, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) was formed to foster the growth of all sciences that could improve health care. We evaluated trends in health services and policy research funding, in addition to determinants of funding success. Methods: All applications submitted to CIHR strategic and open operating grant competitions between 2001 and 2011 were included in our analysis. Age, sex, size of research team, critical mass, season, year and research discipline were retrieved from application information. A cohort of 4725 applicants successfully funded between 2001 and 2005 were followed for 5 years to evaluate predictors of continuous funding. Multivariate generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of funding success and sustained funding. Results: Between 2001 and 2011, 80 163 applications were submitted to open and strategic grant competitions. Over time, grant applications increased from 327 to 1137 per year, and annual funding increased from $12.6 to $48.0 million. Grant applications from young male researchers were more likely to be funded than those from female researchers (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.95), as were applications from larger research teams and institutions with a large critical mass. Only 24.0% of scientists whose first funded grant was in health services and policy research had sustained 5-year funding, compared with 52.8% of biomedical scientists (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49). Interpretation: The CIHR has successfully increased the amount of health services and policy research in Canada. To enhance conditions for success, researchers should be encouraged to work in teams, request longer duration grants, resubmit unsuccessful applications and affiliate themselves with institutions with a greater critical mass. PMID:27398366

  1. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  2. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  3. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  4. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  5. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. PMID:24583568

  6. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  7. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  8. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  9. The Findings and Policy Implications of the GAO Report and the Urban Institute Hiring Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Michael; Bean, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the two major elements (an employer survey and a hiring audit) of the General Accounting Office (GAO) study of discrimination related to implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). Notes some of the criticisms lodged against each element, and discusses policy implications of the report. (AF)

  10. Do the states now control energy policy?

    SciTech Connect

    Huard, David; Keen, Randall

    2007-04-15

    Ironically, in the year that has passed since adoption of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), it appears that EPAct has shifted the primary forum for M and A and infrastructure siting issues from the federal government to the states. The effect has been to stymie the transactions and infrastructure development that EPAct should have streamlined. (author)

  11. Addressing institutional amplifiers in the dynamics and control of tuberculosis epidemics.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis outbreaks originating in prisons, mines, or hospital wards can spread to the larger community. Recent proposals have targeted these high-transmission institutional amplifiers by improving case detection, treatment, or reducing the size of the exposed population. However, what effects these alternative proposals may have is unclear. We mathematically modeled these control strategies and found case detection and treatment methods insufficient in addressing epidemics involving common types of institutional amplifiers. Movement of persons in and out of amplifiers fundamentally altered the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis in a manner not effectively mitigated by detection or treatment alone. Policies increasing the population size exposed to amplifiers or the per-person duration of exposure within amplifiers potentially worsened incidence, even in settings with high rates of detection and treatment success. However, reducing the total population size entering institutional amplifiers significantly lowered tuberculosis incidence and the risk of propagating new drug-resistant tuberculosis strains. PMID:21212197

  12. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  13. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  14. Principles and process in the development of the Mayo Clinic's individual and institutional conflict of interest policy.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Gamble, Gail L; Kopecky, Stephen L; Wood, Michael B; Hockema, Marianne L

    2005-10-01

    In 1995, federal regulations required all academic medical centers to implement policies to manage individual financial conflict of interest. At the Mayo Clinic, all staff are salaried, and all medically related intellectual property from the staff belongs to the clinic. Hence, it was necessary to develop a policy for institutional conflict of interest to complement the policy for individual conflicts of interest. This article addresses the principles and process that led to the development of the Mayo Clinic's policies that guide the management of conflict of interest of individuals and of the institution. Empowered by the Bayh-Dole Act, the Mayo Clinic participates in technology transfer through its entity Mayo Medical Ventures. Individual conflicts of interest arising from such technology transfer are associated with Institutional conflicts because all individual intellectual property belongs to the institution, per clinic policy. This policy addresses conflicts of interest that arise in research, leadership, clinical practice, investments, and purchasing. Associated with the statutory annual disclosure on personal consulting and other relationships with Industry, which are guided by federal regulations, all research protocols or grant applications require financial disclosure on initial submission and in annual progress reports. The clinic's Conflict of Interest Review Board was established to review each disclosure and recommend management of individual and institutional conflicts of interest according to policy. PMID:16212147

  15. Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success. A Study of State and Institutional Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document was designed to inform members of the policy, education, and research communities about existing state and institutional policies and practices associated with four accelerated learning programs: Advanced Placement (AP), dual/concurrent enrollment, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program, and Tech-Prep. This effort was…

  16. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."…

  17. Higher Education Financing Policies: States/Institutions and Their Interaction. Proceedings of the Annual Finance Conference (Tucson, Arizona, December 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L., Ed.; Hyatt, James, Ed.

    Thirty papers from a 1980 University of Arizona conference on higher education financing policies and the state government-college relationship are presented. Papers and authors include the following: "Higher Education Financing Policies: A Context" (Ernest Boyer); "The State Board Perspective" (William Arceneaux); "The Chief Institutional Finance…

  18. Trade liberalisation and tobacco control: moving from a policy of exclusion towards a more comprehensive policy

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2007-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that it has been 10 years since empirical confirmation that trade liberalisation may increase tobacco consumption, tobacco control policy with respect to trade liberalisation and related processes remains largely underdeveloped. The most commonly articulated policy, that tobacco be excluded from the scope of trade agreements, is problematic for a number of reasons and has not been widely implemented. In light of this fact and the potential role of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, further research and policy development are needed in the area. PMID:17652245

  19. Early Contributions to the Evolution of the Canadian Scientific Integrity System: Institutional and Governmental Interaction in the Policy Diffusion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Academic institutions and research funders have in the last decade devoted considerable effort to developing policies to support academic integrity and prevent misconduct. In this study, we consider the extent to which various initiatives of Canadian federal and provincial (Québec) funders have affected the development of institutional research…

  20. College and University Commitments to Student Access and Success: An Overview of Institutional Postsecondary Opportunity Programs. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaade, Elizabeth Stransky

    2010-01-01

    The federal and state governments are placing greater emphasis on postsecondary attainment while concerns about rising college costs for students and families surge. Both groups are calling on institutions to do more to help improve student access and achievement rates. Further, recent research and policy have put pressure on institutions to admit…

  1. Institutional Policies and Practices Regarding Faculty in Higher Education. 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF-93). Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshstein, Rita J.; And Others

    This is the second publication released from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF), a study about faculty and instructional staff in U.S. higher education institutions. The document presents findings from the institution survey of NSOPF-93 regarding their policies and practices toward faculty and staff, including: full-time,…

  2. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  3. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the... governmental jurisdiction within or under the control of the United States for a civil or criminal law... event that any record is disclosed under such compulsory legal process, the Institute shall...

  4. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, G.; Deroubaix, J.-F.; Tassin, B.

    2014-09-01

    Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy instruments. Research

  5. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  6. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

  7. Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilakantan, K.

    2010-09-01

    This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.

  8. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  9. Esse Quam Videri, Perhaps: State Policy and Institutional Factors Impacting Low-Income Student Enrollment at North Carolina's Public and Private Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holly, Leslie Neal

    2012-01-01

    North Carolina is a state with a rich higher education history, which matches the diversity and number of higher education institutions that can be found there. The significant investment of both tax dollars and public support for higher education in North Carolina has created a unique environment in which public policy significantly impacts both…

  10. Current Status of Tobacco Policy and Control

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew; Cummings, K. Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tobacco use behaviors have changed significantly over the past century. Compared to 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20% and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking were aided by the United States Surgeon Reports which were issued on a nearly annual basis starting in 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in secondhand smoke pollution further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking. PMID:22847588

  11. Promoting tobacco control policies in northwest Indian tribes.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, E; Glasgow, R E; Lopez, K; Hall, R; McRae, S G; Meyers, G B

    1995-01-01

    A culturally sensitive consultative process to facilitate adoption by tribal councils of more effective tobacco control policies was developed and evaluated. Thirty-nine Northwest Indian tribes were randomized to early intervention or late intervention conditions. Early intervention tribes received a policy workbook and consultation by means of meetings and telephone calls. Late intervention tribes were assessed but received no assistance or encouragement regarding tobacco use policies. The stringency of the policies was assessed via telephone at baseline and after intervention. At postintervention, there were consistent, and generally statistically significant, differences in adoption of more stringent and comprehensive smoking policies for early intervention tribes compared with late intervention tribes. The intervention could be used in other Indian settings. PMID:7604928

  12. Contextual factors and alcohol consumption control policy measures: the AMPHORA study background.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    Drinking alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in European cultural and economic history, and European consumption trends have varied over time during the decades following WW II. How and why such consumption patterns have changed, and what are the roles that societies' transformations play in these changes are the AMPHORA project's focus. Preventive alcohol consumption control policies have been developed for a long time; during different eras, in different ways and in different countries. How have and do formal policies affect such changes? These questions stimulated a group of 40 researchers from 12 European countries and 14 institutions to investigate the interactions between selected socio-demographic and economic factors, alcohol control policy measures, alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm that occurred in 12 European countries between 1960 and 2008. PMID:24963555

  13. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk. PMID:22400205

  14. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the Phase I DOE/PRDA investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production and Chloride Control. The Phase I DOE/PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHE) also continued this month as the inlet particulate control system (installed September 1996) is maintaining the inlet particulate mass loading to the unit at an average value of 0.2 lb./MMBTU. The one-year tube wear analysis project conducted across this unit will be completed in the early part of March. At the completion of testing, a final inspection will be conducted before the unit is cleaned, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analysis. Once the unit is removed from the ECTC, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber unit will be assembled and configured back into the flue gas path for future testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter configuration) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. In February 1997, the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block continued. This PRDA project is being jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Department of Energy and is part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The pilot portion of the CLS/Anhydrite project is being conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process incorporating chloride control, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) production. While the three areas of the

  15. Schools and Suspensions: Self-Reported Crime and the Growing Use of Suspensions. Justice Policy Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    Though the media depicts U.S. youth as more criminally prone than they actually are and highlights school shootings, schools are still one of the safest places for youth to be. This policy brief adds perspective to punitive school policies (e.g., zero tolerance policies that require suspension or expulsion) in the face of stable or declining rates…

  16. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  17. The Impacts of State Control Policies on College Tuition Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun; Ko, Jangwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined state efforts to control tuition increases over the past 10 years. Using data from 50 states and 540 public 4-year universities and colleges, we examined average tuition increases in dollar amount and percentage of change by the type of state tuition control policy and by the authority for tuition-setting power. The state…

  18. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the DOE/PRDA Phase I investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production. The DOE/PRDA Phase I testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CH) was completed this month. This one-year tube wear analysis investigation was completed on 3/10/97, and a final inspection of the unit was made on 3/21/97. The CH unit and its related equipment are currently being removed from the ECTC test configuration, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analyses. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.

  19. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. Testing in October at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury control; (4) Catalytic methods for converting elemental mercury to oxidized mercury; and (5) Electrostatic charging of particulate material in the FGD inlet flue gas stream. The work during October continued to focus on catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury. These tests included the evaluation of two different loadings of catalyst CT-9 (carbon-based material) over extended periods (8-10 days) and an evaluation of FAB-2B (bulk bituminous fly ash taken from the first hopper of the

  20. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  1. Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of the prevention strategies, primordial involve improvement in socioeconomic status and literacy, adequate healthcare financing and public health insurance, effective national CVD control programme, smoking control policies, legislative control of saturated fats, trans fats, salt and alcohol, and development of facilities for increasing physical activity through better urban planning and school-based and worksite interventions. Primary prevention entails change in medical educational curriculum and improved healthcare delivery for control of CVD risk factors-smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Secondary prevention involves creation of facilities and human resources for optimum acute CVD care and secondary prevention. There is need to integrate various policy makers, develop effective policies and modify healthcare systems for effective delivery of CVD preventive care. PMID:21306620

  2. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  3. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  4. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  5. Off-policy reinforcement learning for H∞ control design.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-01-01

    The H∞ control design problem is considered for nonlinear systems with unknown internal system model. It is known that the nonlinear H∞ control problem can be transformed into solving the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, model-based approaches cannot be used for approximately solving HJI equation, when the accurate system model is unavailable or costly to obtain in practice. To overcome these difficulties, an off-policy reinforcement leaning (RL) method is introduced to learn the solution of HJI equation from real system data instead of mathematical system model, and its convergence is proved. In the off-policy RL method, the system data can be generated with arbitrary policies rather than the evaluating policy, which is extremely important and promising for practical systems. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)-based actor-critic structure is employed and a least-square NN weight update algorithm is derived based on the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed NN-based off-policy RL method is tested on a linear F16 aircraft plant, and further applied to a rotational/translational actuator system. PMID:25532162

  6. Infection control policies and guidelines--Scandinavian experience.

    PubMed

    Nyström, B

    1991-06-01

    In the Scandinavian countries few regulations govern hospital infection control. In Sweden a common procedure manual is used nationwide, consisting of guidelines covering a wide range of nursing and medical procedures performed by the nursing staff. It is revised every fifth year. A recent enquiry to over 150 wards in some 100 hospitals demonstrated that the manual is widely accepted and used. In the other Scandinavian countries, guidelines and policies on a variety of infection control topics have been published. PMID:1679772

  7. 75 FR 74045 - Guidance on Planning, Implementing, Maintaining, and Enforcing Institutional Controls at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Contaminated Sites AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: EPA... Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites. The Agency will consider the information gathered... Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites addresses some of the common issues that may...

  8. 77 FR 9218 - Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... the Federal Register (72 FR 27297) (May 15, 2007, notice), operate career and technical education... Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and Extension... the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program (TCPCTIP),...

  9. Electric Power Esearch Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the EPRI Integrated SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal process, the DOE PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX), and support for the Semi-Continuous On-line Mercury Analyzer. The test configuration utilized in the EPRI Integrated SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal process included the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter (PJFF), and a new Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor installed at the ECTC. During this testing, O&M support was also required to conclude the test efforts under the EPRI Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. This included the on-site development efforts for the Semi-Continuous On-line Mercury Analyzer. In the DOE PRDA project with the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX), the effects of the increased particulate loading to the unit were monitored throughout the month. Also, the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.

  10. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  11. Participation Patterns in Adult Education: The Role of Institutions and Public Policy Frameworks in Resolving Coordination Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels of investment in the development and maintenance of…

  12. Challenging the Taken-for-Granted: How Research Analysis Might Inform Pedagogical Practices and Institutional Policies Related to Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Taken-for-granted pedagogical practices and institutional policies are often built without evidence of effectiveness, or can result from external calls for accountability that are often accepted given the lack of evidence to challenge them. We argue the need for evidence-based perspectives to support the rethinking of such practices and policies…

  13. Collection Development and Circulation Policies in Prison Libraries: An Exploratory Survey of Librarians in US Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    Prison libraries have traditionally fulfilled many purposes for their incarcerated patrons, and these libraries often carry a diverse collection to serve varied patron needs. However, during the trial of Steven Hayes for the Petit family murders, the prosecution questioned the collection development policies of the institutions where Hayes had…

  14. Police, Design, Plan and Manage: Developing a Framework for Integrating Staff Roles and Institutional Policies into a Plagiarism Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher; White, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    When student plagiarism occurs, academic interest and institutional policy generally assume the fault rests with the student. This paper questions this assumption. We claim that plagiarism is a shared responsibility and a complex phenomenon that requires an ongoing calibration of the relative skills and experiences of students and staff in…

  15. Politics of Leadership and Implementation of Educational Policies and Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, W. E.; Ifere, Francis O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines issues of politics of leadership and implementation of Educational policies and programmes of tertiary institutions in Cross River State with a view to determine the problems are situated and suggest the way forward. It examines the concept of politics of education, concept of leadership, meaning of planning and generation of…

  16. Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassanini, Andrea; Duval, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/price-setting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD countries over the period 1982-2003. In the "average" OECD…

  17. The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research: Working to Increase Our Practice and Policy Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnik, Joan Levy; Solt, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    This invitational update on the Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR) provides an overview of the work and progress toward strengthening the evidence base for social work practice and policy through research. The article includes information regarding IASWR work with its supporting social work organizations to provide a…

  18. Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Cofala, J.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Like other Central European countries, Poland faces the twin challenges of improving environmental quality while also promoting economic development. The study examines the cost of achieving alternative emission standards and the savings in abatement cost that might be achieved with policies that rely on economic incentives rather than with rigid command and control measures. A central element of the analysis is a dynamic model of least-cost energy supply in Poland that allows examination at a national level of the effects of different pollution standards and policies.

  19. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  20. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

  1. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  2. Nuclear nonproliferation, controls and US policy. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, R.E.

    1993-03-17

    The world has lived under a nuclear threat since the US used nuclear weapons in World War II. After the war, superpowers evolved that provided nuclear umbrellas to their alliances. The recent decline and breakup of the USSR was hailed by many as the notice that nuclear weapons could be greatly reduced and that the entire world would be a safer place. What has evolved, unfortunately, is a still dangerous and complex world where nations are scrambling for sovereignty, power and status with continued emphasis on nuclear weapons. The US is deeply involved in developing nonproliferation policy to encompass this new environment of a changed world structure and a new balance of power. This paper examines this problem in depth starting with the sheer magnitude of the problem and then delving into each of the more prominent nonproliferation controls measures. These measures are examined for advantages, disadvantages and applicability to US policy. The Iraq pursuit of nuclear weapons and the UN and US response and actions are examined as a case study to determine lessons learned for US policy. Finally, existing US policy is examined to allow suggestion of policy changes based on the paper research.

  3. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  4. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. Methods A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. Results A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Conclusion Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar). PMID:26448551

  5. Using Decision Analysis to Improve Malaria Control Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Randall; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Anderson, Richard M.; Fowler, Vance G.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Mutero, Clifford M.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and other vector-borne diseases represent a significant and growing burden in many tropical countries. Successfully addressing these threats will require policies that expand access to and use of existing control methods, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and artemesinin combination therapies for malaria, while weighing the costs and benefits of alternative approaches over time. This paper argues that decision analysis provides a valuable framework for formulating such policies and combating the emergence and re-emergence of malaria and other diseases. We outline five challenges that policy makers and practitioners face in the struggle against malaria, and demonstrate how decision analysis can help to address and overcome these challenges. A prototype decision analysis framework for malaria control in Tanzania is presented, highlighting the key components that a decision support tool should include. Developing and applying such a framework can promote stronger and more effective linkages between research and policy, ultimately helping to reduce the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:19356821

  6. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Patterns, Predictions, and Implications for Informing Policy Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and assess the readiness of "Potential" Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs)--institutions located within Latino communities projected to increase the number of Latino/a high school graduates. Institutions are described based on evaluation of institutional missions, planning documents, programs, and marketing…

  7. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced. PMID:19159968

  8. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  9. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  10. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  11. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  12. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  13. Undocumented Immigrants and Institutional Admission Policy Transformation in a Community College: Exploring Policy-Making and Its Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung; Chambers, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research on undocumented students has primarily addressed the effects of state policy on undocumented students' access to college and financial aid; it has also examined the educational experiences and challenges unique to undocumented students. However, current literature lacks a thorough investigation of how community colleges…

  14. Policy Analysis: An Analysis of Institutional Admissions and State Policies in Higher Education as They Impact Undocumented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Arcadio J., III

    2013-01-01

    The term residency and definition of that term is the driving force that acts as the foundation of many, if not all, state funded college and university admissions policies. With over 65,000 undocumented students graduating from American high schools every year, it is essential that state colleges and universities look at their admissions policies…

  15. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  16. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  17. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  18. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  19. Student Governance and Institutional Policy: Formation and Implementation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…

  20. Staff Governance and Institutional Policy Formation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John W., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The number of staff members serving American higher education institutions has more than doubled in the past twenty years, as occupations in technology, development, government relations, and even athletic administration have grown as never before in the history of the academy. As the number, variety, and importance of these positions have grown,…

  1. 77 FR 37399 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance to Troubled Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... System institution, it must compare the cost of liquidation to the cost of providing assistance to..., including liquidation of the System institution, and lists the steps for conducting the statutory least-cost... resolve a troubled System institution, it must compare the cost of liquidation to the cost of...

  2. The Relationship between Web Accessibility Policy and Practice in Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    From computer workstations to the world of the web, statutes and policies have afforded students with disabilities the right to participate in postsecondary education in a non-discriminatory manner. Automatic doors and adjustable tables are a commonplace on campuses and represent prime examples of accessible policy adherence, but what affect do…

  3. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  4. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  5. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  6. Policies for control of communicable disease in day care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Chouillet, A; Maguire, H; Kurtz, Z

    1992-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify the availability and quality of guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable disease and procedures in use in child day care centres within the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. A sample of 50 day care centres was investigated including those funded by social services and privately funded day care centres. Policies for the prevention and control of communicable disease for children and staff showed a wide variation between different centres. Exclusion criteria were unclear especially in relation to carriers of the hepatitis B virus and HIV positive children. Channels for reporting and seeking advice were inconsistent. It is recommended that clear and up to date written guidelines on the prevention and control of communicable diseases should be available in all day care centres with clear indications of good practice and channels for reporting and advice. It is desirable that guidelines are agreed by the different health and local authorities throughout the region. PMID:1417054

  7. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  8. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    PubMed

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them. PMID:24193606

  9. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  10. Tobacco control policies and their impacts. Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2014-02-01

    The 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health concluded that "Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action." The adoption of remedial actions over the next half century produced what is arguably the most important public health triumph of that period in the United States and in other developed nations. At the heart of the remedial actions were governmental policies. By raising cigarette price, taxation is especially effective at reducing smoking, encouraging some smokers to quit and others to reduce their daily consumption, while also discouraging the initiation of smoking by children. Smoke-free workplace policies have dramatically reduced workers' exposure to the toxins in cigarette smoke, smoking, employers' costs, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions. Other policies have also helped diminish the toll of smoking. The successes of tobacco control notwithstanding, future progress will occur slowly unless society finds new, possibly radical "endgame" strategies to hasten the arrival of a smoke-free society. PMID:24575991

  11. Framework for Institutional Policies and Procedures to Deal with Misconduct in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges' statement defines misconduct in research, discusses its prevention, and outlines suggested processes and policy for handling allegations of misconduct, appeal and final review, and disciplinary action. (MSE)

  12. Implementing a mandatory password change policy at an academic medical institution.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Michael W; Lin, Ching-Ping; Pai, Rakesh; Kalet, Ira J

    2007-01-01

    UW Medicine implemented a new policy requiring users to change passwords at least once every 120 days. In the first two password change cycles, many users did not take action upon notification, and their passwords expired, causing high help desk loads. Compliance and support loads improved in subsequent cycles. We conclude that policy changes requiring user behavior modification should be seen as a cultural change, and the implementation strategy should consider socio-technical factors. PMID:18693985

  13. A Multicase Study Analysis of the Intersection of Institutional and State Policy and Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kathleen Patrice

    2013-01-01

    American higher education institutions, specifically public universities and colleges, have reached a key point in their histories and it is within this moment that these institutions must transform operations, deliver education in new ways, and demonstrate unquestionable social and economic impact. Universities and colleges must increase…

  14. Knowledge Sharing: Exploring Institutional Policy and Educator Practice through ePortfolios in Music and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Rowley, Jennifer; Bennett, Dawn; Hitchcock, Matthew; Dunbar-Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many higher education institutions have embraced e-Learning and urge, or make compulsory, engagement by academics. Despite this, it is often the educators themselves who take the initiative to engage with innovative e-learning approaches. These approaches, in turn, can influence both peer-and institution-wide thinking about e-Learning. This paper…

  15. Global Trends, National Policies and Institutional Responses: Restructuring Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    2004-01-01

    A significant global trend during the 1990s is the restructuring of higher education systems. The essence of this restructuring process is a redefinition of the relationship between institutions of higher learning, the state, and the market, and a drastic reduction of institutional autonomy. This article is an analysis of the restructuring process…

  16. File Sharing, Napster, and Institutional Responses: Educative, Developmental, or Responsive Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.; Healy, Margaret A.

    2005-01-01

    Student use of the Internet for such purposes as sharing and downloading illegal copies of music and movies presents new and complex challenges in the relationship between the institution and student. This article reviews the development of the file sharing phenomena; and through analysis of existing institutional responses, legal advice, media…

  17. Complying with the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy to Facilitate Science Availability for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Social work researchers are making significant advances in science funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to improve the health of underserved and marginalized populations throughout the world. Unfortunately, research results are often only available to other scientists at academic institutions, limiting their impact. To facilitate the…

  18. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  19. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  20. Health and climate policy impacts on sulfur emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Russell, Lynn M.; Bradford, David F.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol from burning fossil fuels not only has strong cooling effects on the Earth's climate but also imposes substantial costs on human health. To assess the impact of addressing air pollution on climate policy, we incorporate both the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls. The combination of both climate and health objectives leads to an acceleration of global warming in the 21st century as a result of the short-term climate response to the decreased cooling from the immediate removal of short-lived sulfate aerosol. In the long term (more than 100 years), reducing sulfate aerosol emissions requires that we decrease fossil fuel combustion in general, thereby removing some of the coemitted carbon emissions and leading to a reduction in global warming.

  1. Reliable multicast protocol specifications flow control and NACK policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix presents the flow and congestion control schemes recommended for RMP and a NACK policy based on the whiteboard tool. Because RMP uses a primarily NACK based error detection scheme, there is no direct feedback path through which receivers can signal losses through low buffer space or congestion. Reliable multicast protocols also suffer from the fact that throughput for a multicast group must be divided among the members of the group. This division is usually very dynamic in nature and therefore does not lend itself well to a priori determination. These facts have led the flow and congestion control schemes of RMP to be made completely orthogonal to the protocol specification. This allows several differing schemes to be used in different environments to produce the best results. As a default, a modified sliding window scheme based on previous algorithms are suggested and described below.

  2. Male Control and Female Oppression. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    Following sections that define sexism, that give examples of individual, cultural, and institutional sexism, and that provide random thoughts on sexism and racism, statistics are listed for women and their relationship to various areas such as the economy, education, sports, the government, the media, and housing. Specific topics subsumed under…

  3. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  4. Institutional and policy analysis of wastewater (re)use for agriculture: case study Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Saldías, C; Speelman, S; Amerasinghe, P; van Huylenbroeck, G

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater constitutes an alternative water source for the irrigation sector. To fully benefit from it, and reduce possible adverse effects on public health and the environment, we need to look at the regulation of the practice. A prerequisite for this is an institutional analysis, and the points to consider are the institutional mandates. We used the city of Hyderabad, India, as a case study. There, irrigation with wastewater is not supported or recognized, but it happens in practice. It takes place in an indirect and unplanned way. Institutions fail at enforcing regulations, and little attention is given to formalization of the practice. With this article, we aim to untangle the institutional setup, and by doing so, identify the constraints surrounding development of a formal practice. Ultimately, we aim at contributing to the discussion on the agricultural use of wastewater. PMID:26177416

  5. Calling the shots: immunization finance policies and practices. Executive summary of the report of the Institute of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Guyer, B; Smith, D R; Chalk, R

    2000-10-01

    Federal, state, and private-sector investments in vaccine purchases and immunization programs are lagging behind emerging opportunities to reduce the risks of vaccine-preventable disease. Although federal assistance to the states for immunization programs and data collection efforts rapidly expanded in the early part of the 1990s, significant cutbacks have occurred in the last 5 years that have reduced the size of state grant awards by more than 50% from their highest point. During this same period, the vaccine delivery system for children and adults has become more complex and fragmented. This combination of new challenges and reduced resources has led to instability in the public health infrastructure that supports the U. S. immunization system. Many states have reduced the scale of their immunization programs and currently lack adequate strength in areas such as data collection among at-risk populations, strategic planning, program coordination, and assessment of immunization status in communities that are served by multiple health care providers. If unmet immunization needs are not identified and addressed, states will have difficulty in achieving the national goal of 90% coverage by the year 2010 for completion of the childhood immunization series for young children. Furthermore, state and national coverage rates, which reached record levels for vaccines in widespread use (79%, 1998), can be expected to decline and preventable disease outbreaks may occur as a result, particularly among persons who are vulnerable to vaccine-preventable disease because of their underimmunization status. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Immunization Finance Policies and Practices has therefore concluded that a renewal and strengthening of the federal and state immunization partnership is necessary. The goal of this renewed partnership is to prevent infectious disease; to monitor, sustain, and improve vaccine coverage rates for child and adult populations within more

  6. White Control and Minority Oppression. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    Salient facts about white control and minority oppression are provided for major areas such as the economy, health, housing, education, the media, government, and the census. Economic data on white control cover topics such as wealth, the stock exchange, businesses, banks, union control and membership, and others. Data per training to minority…

  7. 36 CFR 1211.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  8. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  9. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  10. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  11. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  12. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  13. 45 CFR 2555.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  14. Supervision Exercised by States over Privately Controlled Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin, 1934, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, John H.

    1934-01-01

    In most of the States there are privately controlled institutions providing higher education. An obligation rests upon the State in the interest of public welfare to insure the high quality of that higher education. The purpose of this inquiry is to analyze the extent of supervision exercised over privately controlled institutions of higher…

  15. Legislators' beliefs on tobacco control policies in Nevada.

    PubMed

    York, Nancy L; Pritsos, Chris A; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Nevada legislators' views on comprehensive smoke-free (SF) policy development. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) is a weak law that prohibits smoking in most indoor public places, excluding stand-alone bars and casino gaming areas. Nevada's state senators and assembly members were contacted to participate in the study. A literature review guided modifications of an instrument previously used to measure county-level officials' policy views in Kentucky. Descriptive statistics were conducted for selected variables, while independent t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences between various groups. 23 of 63 legislators participated. Even though the majority of officials recognized smoking as a health hazard and nicotine as addictive, there was not overwhelming support for strengthening the NCIAA, raising cigarette excise taxes or providing cessation benefits to citizens. Officials believed that the NCIAA was having a negative economic impact on smaller gaming businesses, but not on the casino industry. Democrats were more likely than Republicans to agree that raising the excise tax by $1 is important for needed state revenues. 63% of legislators believed that they would be persuaded to strengthen the NCIAA regardless of its financial impact on small businesses, if their constituents supported such a move. No other state relies on gaming revenues as much as Nevada. Given that legislators are strongly influenced by their constituents' views, policy advocates need to establish grassroots support for strengthening the current NCIAA and also tobacco control laws in general. PMID:21644023

  16. Measuring the Strength of State-Level Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Mosher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We describe a multi-step method of coding the strength of 18 alcohol policies included in the Alcohol Policy Information System for each of the 50 states. Method After thoroughly reviewing each policy area, we chose components that were most important in categorizing the strength or restrictiveness of the policy using the following criteria: overall reach, enforceability, and implementation. We determined a unique coding scheme for each policy area. Results The total number of categories per policy area ranged from two to six, with categories numbered in an ordered sequence from least to most restrictive. We provide three examples of our coding schemes: Keg Registration, Underage Possession, and Sunday Sales. We also rank the states on their alcohol policy sum score. Discussion This study demonstrates how alcohol policies can be measured quantitatively, an important step for assessing the effects of alcohol policies on various outcomes. PMID:25574422

  17. Overview of National Policy Contexts for Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth; Kitaev, Igor

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on seven national reports on national policies concerned with entrepreneurialism in universities as the context for a more detailed study of entrepreneurial behaviour in universities in the seven countries. It claims that the entrepreneurial university is a useful generic epithet to describe the manifold changes in mission,…

  18. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  19. Justice across Generations: What Does It Mean? A Publication of the Public Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lee M., Ed.

    In the introduction to this book, Lee Cohen notes that difficulties in allocating resources are as old as recorded history, and that just solutions must evolve and adapt with the changing society. The concluding statement that only with a full understanding of the divergent approaches to justice can intergenerational policies be forged leads to…

  20. 77 FR 45606 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance to Troubled Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... policy statement and invites all interested parties to review and provide comments. \\1\\ See 77 FR 37399... to James M. Morris, General Counsel, Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102...Lean, Virginia 22102, (703) 883- 4380, TDD (703) 883-4390. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 21,...

  1. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  2. Implementing General Education in Hong Kong: Government Policies, Institutional Responses, Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Gano-Phillips, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the implementation of the government mandate in Hong Kong to move from three-year to four-year undergraduate degree programs which include studies in general education (GE), through an analysis of policies and activities related to the curriculum reform. While the authors are interested in the substance of these…

  3. Migration, Race and Education: Evidence-Based Policy or Institutional Racism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The promise of evidence-based policy is that social scientific research can lead to rational planning that will lead to improved outcomes and life chances for people across the whole spectrum of social provision. This article argues that evidence is politically mobilised to legitimise the reproduction of racial and social advantage and construct…

  4. The Educational Production Function: Implications for Educational Manpower Policy. Institute of Public Employment Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, John; Perl, Lewis

    This monograph summarizes and evaluates "educational production function analyses"--studies of the relation between inputs and outputs in an education system--in order to aid in educational manpower policy making. In addition, data from New York state school districts and from a large national sample of high school students is subjected to…

  5. Excellence in Education. The States Take Charge. American Enterprise Institute Studies in Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.; Hartle, Terry W.

    This book presents a brief description and analysis of the activity of State governments in making educational policy during the past two years. The following three trends are cited as important in the States' increased role: (1) increased State spending on education relative to Federal and local spending; (2) court ordered school finance reform…

  6. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent research.…

  7. The Effect of Collective Bargaining on Policy Development at Institutions of Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring-Ellis, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    For over three decades, collective bargaining in higher education has given faculty a voice in which to be heard in decision making involving tenure, faculty appointments, salaries, and education policies. However, as recent as 2011, the voice once afforded to faculty through its collective bargaining rights has been threatened with attempts to…

  8. Dropouts and Institutional Educational Policies at Cumberland College, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Roger D.; Baker, George

    A study was conducted at Cumberland College, Kentucky, to determine whether educational policies of the school were related to student retention. A questionnaire was sent to the 126 students who had dropped out of the college during the 1975-76 academic year; 100 students responded either by mail or telephone, but it was determined that 29 of the…

  9. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  10. The National Energy Policy Institute (NEPI) at The University of Tulsa (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, Roger

    2013-10-31

    NEPI, a non-profit organization located at The University of Tulsa (TU), was established to develop and disseminate national energy policy recommendations. Research under this grant covered a wide variety of projects, including research into the future of nuclear power, oil market pricing, and the feasibility of biofuels.

  11. The Institution of Carlisle School: A Microcosm of 500 Years of Indian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Mike

    The history of the Carlisle Indian Boarding School is a microcosm of 500 years of Indian policy. Established through the efforts of career military man Richard Pratt in 1879, the school symbolized the emerging view of assimilation, an important change from earlier attempts at genocide and prior militant attitudes towards the Indians. Long…

  12. Building capacity for tobacco control research and policy

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F; Yang, G; Figueiredo, V; Hernandez‐Avila, M; Samet, J

    2006-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, “International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program” represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low‐ and middle‐income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epidemic of tobacco use. Many are now parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and capacity development to meet FCTC provisions. One initial grant provided through the FIC was to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) to support capacity building and research programmes in China, Brazil, and Mexico. The initiative's capacity building effort focused on: (1) building the evidence base for tobacco control, (2) expanding the infrastructure of each country to deliver tobacco control, and (3) developing the next generation of leaders as well as encouraging networking throughout the country and with neighbouring countries. This paper describes the approach taken and the research foci, as well some of the main outcomes and some identified challenges posed by the effort. Individual research papers are in progress to provide more in‐depth reporting of study results. PMID:16723670

  13. Building capacity for tobacco control research and policy.

    PubMed

    Stillman, F; Yang, G; Figueiredo, V; Hernandez-Avila, M; Samet, J

    2006-06-01

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, "International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program" represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low- and middle-income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epidemic of tobacco use. Many are now parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and capacity development to meet FCTC provisions. One initial grant provided through the FIC was to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) to support capacity building and research programmes in China, Brazil, and Mexico. The initiative's capacity building effort focused on: (1) building the evidence base for tobacco control, (2) expanding the infrastructure of each country to deliver tobacco control, and (3) developing the next generation of leaders as well as encouraging networking throughout the country and with neighbouring countries. This paper describes the approach taken and the research foci, as well some of the main outcomes and some identified challenges posed by the effort. Individual research papers are in progress to provide more in-depth reporting of study results. PMID:16723670

  14. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  15. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  16. Rankings and the Battle for World-Class Excellence: Institutional Strategies and Policy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Global rankings are creating a furore wherever or whenever they are published or mentioned. They have become a barometer of global competition measuring the knowledge-producing and talent-catching capacity of higher education institutions. These developments are injecting a new competitive dynamic into higher education, nationally and globally,…

  17. Quality Matters[TM] Accessibility Survey: Institutional Practices and Policies for Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; King, Denise K.

    2011-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) is a professional organization that offers a faculty-centered, peer review process to certify the quality of online and blended courses. The purpose of this white paper is to share the results of a Quality Matters accessibility benchmarking study administered to 84 subscriber institutions. The primary goal of the survey was to…

  18. School Consolidation and Transportation Policy: An Empirical and Institutional Analysis. A Working Paper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, Kieran; Sipple, John

    This study examines the relationship between school consolidation and district transportation costs, effects on instructional expenditures, and institutional factors supporting consolidation. Data on actual student transportation costs across the United States indicate that despite widespread school and school district consolidation,…

  19. [Policy related research: future tasks of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Mosbach-Schulz, Olaf; Henning, Klaus J; Hensel, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment wants to be a competent scientific adviser for politics, administration and the public in risk evaluation and risk communication regarding consumer products. Fields of research needed for this advice are compared with the research universities have to carry out. Examples were given. PMID:15188673

  20. User Agency Policies and Mechanisms for Utilizing the Resources of Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert

    Higher education institutions have the potential for creating and advancing programs for the betterment of society, but the programs should not be chosen haphazardly and without great thought. Universities, more specifically, can be involved in the areas of production of knowledge and research in domestic affairs, urban and environmental problems,…

  1. The Global Competition for International Students: Governmental Policies and Institutional Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Katina Louise

    2012-01-01

    As the number of students seeking higher education outside their home country continues to rise and the competition to attract these students becomes more expansive and more intense, governments and institutions strategize to draw international students to their countries and campuses. Motivations range from revenue generation to capacity…

  2. Student Drug Use. An Informal Survey of Institutional Policies and Practices, Summer, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloland, Paul A.; Nowak, Daniel B.

    An informal survey of colleges and universities was conducted in the Summer of 1967 to ascertain what positions they had taken with regard to the use of drugs by students. All of the institutions involved reported that they were aware of an urgent need to develop approaches for dealing with the problem, and were attempting to acquaint students…

  3. Cost Containment for Higher Education: Strategies for Public Policy and Institutional Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William Brand

    This book discusses long term strategies for cost containment for higher education that are currently in use or could be employed. Some of the strategies discussed are applicable at various levels of government, some relate to interinstitutional arrangements and some are options of the individual institutions. The chapters are as follows: (1)…

  4. Reconciling Federal, State, and Institutional Policies Determining Educational Access for Undocumented Students: Implications for Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, John C.; Ortega, Noe; Vidal Rodriguez, Angela; Frye, Joanna R.; Nellum, Christopher J.; Reyes, Kimberly A.; Hussain, Omar; Badke, Lara Kovacheff; Hernandez, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Given the intense efforts to change federal legislation, it is surprising that relatively little research has examined how postsecondary institutions respond to organizational pressures and local contexts. These "boundary activities" determine actual practice (Birnbaum, 1991) and may be the only way to remedy the exclusion of undocumented…

  5. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES... related activity pursuant to the provisions of Title 13 of the United States Code; (5) To a recipient...

  6. Relationship of Antimicrobial Control Policies and Hospital and Infection Control Characteristics to Antimicrobial Resistance Rates

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elaine L.; Quiros, Dave; Giblin, Tara; Lin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Antibiotic misuse and noncompliance with infection control precautions have contributed to increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Objectives To assess the extent to which resistance is monitored in infection control programs and to correlate resistance rates with characteristics of antimicrobial control policies, provider attitudes and practices, and systems-level indicators of implementation of the hand hygiene guideline of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods An on-site survey of intensive care unit staff and infection control directors of 33 hospitals in the United States was conducted. The following data were collected: antimicrobial control policies; rates during the previous 12 months of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae; an implementation score of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline; staff attitudes toward practice guidelines; and observations of staff hand hygiene. Variables associated with resistance rates were examined for independent effects by using logistic regression. Results Resistance rates for S aureus, enterococci, and K pneumoniae were 52.5%, 18.2%, and 16.0%, respectively. Ten (30.3%) hospitals had an antibiotic control policy. No statistically significant correlation was observed between staff attitudes toward practice guidelines, observed hand hygiene behavior, or having an antibiotic use policy and resistance rates. In logistic regression analysis, higher scores on measures of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline were associated with lower rates of resistant S aureus and enterococci (P=.046). Conclusions Organizational-level factors independent of the practices of individual clinicians may be associated with rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17322010

  7. Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, David

    This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

  8. Transition to an IP Environment. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (15th, Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000) with Thoughts on the Implications of Technological Change for Telecommunications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entman, Robert M.; Katz, Michael L.

    The Aspen Institute's Communications and Society Program convened leaders and experts in the telecommunications and related fields to address telecommunications regulation in an IP (Internet Protocols) environment at the 15th annual Aspen Institute Telecommunications Policy Conference (Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000). The report from this…

  9. Federal Student Aid Policy: Can We Learn from Experience? Proceedings of the New York Education Policy Seminar (3rd, Albany, New York, October 1985). [and Discussant Comments]. Rockefeller Institute Conference Proceedings, Number 7, Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of determining how effective student aid programs have been in promoting the college enrollment of lower income and disadvantaged students and analyzes the institutional means through which federal aid policies have been implemented. The importance of considering the key role of state and institutional responses to…

  10. Power of the policy: how the announcement of high-stakes clinical examination altered OSCE implementation at institutional level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been widely applied as a high-stakes examination for assessing physicians’ clinical competency. In 1992, OSCE was first introduced in Taiwan, and the authorities announced that passing the OSCE would be a prerequisite for step-2 medical licensure examination in 2013. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of the announced national OSCE policy on implementation of OSCE at the institutional level. Further, the readiness and the recognition of barriers toward a high-stakes examination were explored. Methods In 2007 and 2010, the year before and after the announcement of high-stakes OSCE policy in 2008, respectively, questionnaires on the status of OSCE implementation were distributed to all hospitals with active OSCE programs in Taiwan. Information on OSCE facilities, equipment, station length, number of administrations per year, and the recognition of barriers to the success of implementing an OSCE were collected. The missing data were completed by telephone interviews. The OSCE format, administration, and facilities before and after the announcement of the nationwide OSCE policy were compared. Results The data were collected from 17 hospitals in 2007 and 21 in 2010. Comparing the OSCE formats between 2007 and 2010, the number of stations increased and the station length decreased. The designated space and the equipment for OSCE were also found to have been improved. As for the awareness of OSCE implementation barriers, the hospital representatives concerned mostly about the availability and quality of standardized patients in 2007, as well as space and facilities in 2010. Conclusions The results of this study underscored an overall increase in the number of OSCE hospitals and changes in facilities and formats. While recruitment and training of standardized patients were the major concerns before the official disclosure of the policy, space and facilities became the focus of attention after

  11. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  12. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  13. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  14. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  15. Congress and the Executive Branch: The Struggle for Policy Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard Dallas

    The struggle between Congress and the executive branch for control of policy in education has created a complex set of organizations, rules, and forces affecting federal policy on education. This struggle has caused Congress to overreact by becoming heavily involved in policy implementation and, to a great degree, has witnessed the executive…

  16. Formalization, implementation, and modeling of institutional controllers for distributed robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José N; Silva, Porfírio; Lima, Pedro U; Martinoli, Alcherio

    2014-01-01

    The work described is part of a long term program of introducing institutional robotics, a novel framework for the coordination of robot teams that stems from institutional economics concepts. Under the framework, institutions are cumulative sets of persistent artificial modifications made to the environment or to the internal mechanisms of a subset of agents, thought to be functional for the collective order. In this article we introduce a formal model of institutional controllers based on Petri nets. We define executable Petri nets-an extension of Petri nets that takes into account robot actions and sensing-to design, program, and execute institutional controllers. We use a generalized stochastic Petri net view of the robot team controlled by the institutional controllers to model and analyze the stochastic performance of the resulting distributed robotic system. The ability of our formalism to replicate results obtained using other approaches is assessed through realistic simulations of up to 40 e-puck robots. In particular, we model a robot swarm and its institutional controller with the goal of maintaining wireless connectivity, and successfully compare our model predictions and simulation results with previously reported results, obtained by using finite state automaton models and controllers. PMID:23373975

  17. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Institute By Notice dated April 16, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2013, 78 FR... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits, reagents,...

  18. 44 CFR 19.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  19. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  20. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  1. 44 CFR 19.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  2. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  3. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  4. 38 CFR 23.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  5. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  6. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  7. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  8. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations. 15a.12 Section 15a.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... institution which is controlled by a religious organization to the extent application of this part would not... institution which wishes to claim the exemption set forth in paragraph (a) of this section shall do so...

  10. The Clearlake Hot Dry Rock geothermal project: Institutional policies, administrative issues, and technical tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Clearlake Project is a three-party collaboration between the California Energy Commission, City of Clearlake, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. It aims to develop a deep hot, dry geothermal resource under the city. The project is funded by the Commission, and administered by the City. Technical operations are conducted by Laboratory staff and resources seconded from the Hot Dry Rock program. In addition to the normal geothermal exploration problems of predicting geological and geophysical properties of the subsurface, there are uncertainties as to what further material and environmental parameters are relevant, and how they might be measured. In addition to technical factors, policy objectives are an influence in choosing the most appropriate development scenario. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Involving citizens in the ethics of biobank research: informing institutional policy through structured public deliberation.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Hawkins, Alice K; Burgess, Michael M

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and results of a structured public deliberation on human tissue biobanking conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2009. This study builds on previous work on the use of deliberative democratic principles and methods to engage publics on the social and ethical implications of human tissue biobanking. In a significant refinement of methods, we focus on providing public input to institutional practice and governance of biobanks using a tailored workbook structure to guide participants' discussion. Our focus is on the local context and practices of a particular institution, the BC BioLibrary. However, elements of both the methodological innovations and the ethical guidance implied by our findings are generalisable for biobanking internationally. Recommendations from the deliberative forum include issues of informed consent, privacy protections, collection of biospecimens, governance of biobanks, and how to manage the process of introduction between biobanks and potential donors. Notable findings include public support for research use of anonymised un-consented tissue samples when these come from archived collections, but lack of support when they are collected prospectively. PMID:22867865

  12. 78 FR 23958 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical...

  13. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  14. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  15. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Sanjoto, Hary; Cerisha, Ancila; Nungky, Saverina; Riono, Pandu; Simon, Sumanto; Farid, Muhammad Noor; Giriputra, Sardikin; Putra, Artawan Eka; Burhan, Erlina; Wahyuni, Chatarina U.; Mustikawati, Dyah; Widianingrum, Christina; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2016-01-01

    Background Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored. PMID:26928217

  16. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  17. Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

  18. Investigation of Perception in Electric Field based on Scholastic Tests of National Institute for Educational Policy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Kei; Sugimura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Toshiya; Kurebayashi, Shuji

    To investigate the perception of science and technology of university students, the scholastic test concerning electric field was conducted in this paper. The scholastic test, which was conducted to university students, is based on the scholastic test provided by the National Institute for Educational Policy Research of Japan's Curriculum Research Center. The result of the scholastic test showed that 1. For the questions related to “A4(i): Maintenance check and prevention of accidents of equipment” in the junior high school government guidelines for teaching, the percentage of correct answer was the lowest and 2. Not only liberal arts course students but also science course students do not have sufficient perception concerning the capability of “Device and Creativity”, because the percentage of correct answer to the questions concerning “Device and Creativity” was about 70%. The results of this study will give us the directivity of electricity education.

  19. Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

  20. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  1. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy improvement

    PubMed Central

    Maseko, Fresier Chidyaonga; Chirwa, Maureen Leah; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malawi has the highest incidents of cervical cancer followed by Mozambique and Comoros thus according to the 2014 Africa cervical cancer multi indicator incidence and mortality score card. Despite having an established cervical cancer prevention program, there is low screening coverage. Studies have been carried out to determine socio-cultural and economical barriers to cervical cancer prevention services utilization and very few have concentrated on health system and policy related barriers to cervical cancer prevention and control. The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights [SRHR] policy 2009 was done with an aim of understanding its context, goal and objectives. Analysis of the policy history provided insight into the conditions that led to the policy. Policies from countries within the region were referred in the review. Government officials were interviewed to solicit information on the policy. Results Malawi does not have a standalone policy on cervical cancer; however, cervical cancer is covered under reproductive cancer theme in the SRHR. Unlike some policies within the region, the Malawian SRHR policy does not mention the age at which the women should be screened, the frequency and who is to do the screening. The policy does not stipulate policy implications on the ministry of health, the SRH programs and health service providers on cervical cancer. Furthermore the policy does not include HPV vaccination as a key component of cervical cancer control and prevention. Conclusion the policy does not reflect fairly the best attempt to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer as such we recommend that the Reproductive Health Directorate to consider developing a

  2. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  3. From research to control: Translating research findings into health policies, operational guidelines and health products.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Although Africa's health research capacity is still weak, African R&D institutions are contributing immensely to the development of health policies, guidelines and products essential for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Africa's leading health problems. In order to increase Africa's contributions, all health research stakeholders should participate in setting health research priorities and agenda, followed by establishing health research networks and consortia, holistic capacity strengthening, and gathering of baseline data. The evaluation of candidate tools, and the research preceding it, must abide by international scientific and ethical standards, and must involve institutional and national regulatory authorities. The funding of product development and product availability in Africa benefits from national governments, bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic agencies. When a trial is over poses many social and ethical issues, and not infrequently existing guidelines may not be adequate. Mechanisms for making products available in resource constrained countries are presented, as are problems relating to manufacturing, markets and procurement. So are obligations to trial and research communities. The paper concludes by outlining the obligations of each stakeholder, in order to make research products readily available in resource constrained settings. PMID:19686696

  4. First birth cesarean proportion: A missed indicator in controlling policies

    PubMed Central

    Safari-Faramani, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaei, Nouzar; Foroudnia, Shohreh; Mahmoodabadi, Zahra; Safizadeh, Mansooreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Around one out of two mothers give births by cesarean section (CS) surgery in Iran and about half of this number is due to previous CS. Recently Health Sector Evolution (HSEP) program (started in April 2014) targets the high rate of CS in Iran. To assess the impact of the interventions, we emphasized that the First Birth Cesarean (FBC) proportion is one of the main indicators to assess the controlling programs. Methods: Data on the mode of delivery were collected in Kerman province between 21 March and 20 March 2015 classified by hospital ownership. FBC proportion is defined as the number of CS in the first pregnancies divided by the total number of first births. Chi-square test for trend was used to assess the trends. Results: Total number of births was around 34000. There were 8.9 and 13.1 percent reduction in CS and FBC proportion respectively. CS proportion was 54.5 at the end of the first quarter of the studied period and reached to 49.6 at the end of the period (p<0.0001). Also, FBC proportion was 54.1 percent at first and reached to 47 percent at the end of the study period. The main reason for CS was due to previous CS. At the hospital level, the highest reduction in CS and FBC proportion were in public hospitals. Conclusion: Results suggested more reduction in FBC proportion than the CS proportion, so this is a very good sign since more potential CS cases will be prevented. As repeated CS is one of the main indications for the operation, in the short term, even effective policies may change the overall proportion slightly, while the FBC proportion is more sensitive to reflect the impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to target the main fuel to reduce CS proportion effectively.

  5. Developing institutions for regional land-use planning and control: the Adirondack experience. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with the institutional structure of the most-significant regional land-use planning and control institution that has been created to date in New York State - i.e., the Adirondack Park Agency. In recent years a fairly substantial volume of literature has been generated about the Adirondack Park Agency and land-use controls in the Adirondacks. Much of that literature has focused on the substance of the land-use controls created in the Adirondack context and the types of legal issues likely to be confronted in the administration of those controls. The Adirondack Park Agency is examined here in terms of its structure as a land-use planning and control institution in order to identify those aspects of its structure that enhance or hinder the fulfillment of the purposes for which it was created - and to assess the importance of the Agency's institutional structure to its continued existence as a viable planning and regulatory entity. From this examination, it is hoped useful information will be provided to other efforts to establish viable regional land-use planning and control institutions.

  6. The politics of 'branding' in policy transfer: the case of DOTS for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Walt, Gill; Lush, Louisiana

    2003-07-01

    How and why policies are transferred between countries has attracted considerable interest from scholars of public policy over the last decade. This paper, based on a larger study, sets out to explore the processes involved in policy transfer between international and national levels. These processes are illustrated by looking at a particular public health policy--DOTS for the control and treatment of tuberculosis. The paper demonstrates how, after a long period of neglect, resources were mobilised to put tuberculosis back on international and national public policy agendas, and then how the policy was 'branded' and marketed as DOTS, and transferred to low and middle income countries. It focuses specifically on international agenda setting and policy formulation, and the role played by international organisations in those processes. It shows that policy communities, and particular individuals within them, may take political rather than technical positions in these processes, which can result in considerable contestation. The paper ends by suggesting that while it is possible to raise the profile of a policy dramatically through branding and marketing, success also depends on external events providing windows of opportunity for action. Second, it warns that simplifying policy approaches to 'one-size-fits-all' carries inherent risks, and can be perceived to harm locally appropriate programmes. Third, top-down internationally driven policy changes may lead to apparent policy transfer, but not necessarily to successfully implemented programmes. PMID:12753826

  7. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  8. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  9. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region. PMID:23057368

  10. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  11. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in two college communities, the present study: 1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol over-service in on-premise outlets; 2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems; and 3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. Methods We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents ages 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Results Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. Conclusions It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and

  12. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  13. Educational Policy in Scotland: Inclusion and the Control Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cate

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine educational policy and practice in Scotland, showing how the "comprehensive and coherent programme to promote social inclusion"--inculcating "readiness to learn", ensuring that education equips the young for adult life, creating a demand for lifelong learning, above all through the presumption of mainstreaming--is…

  14. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  15. Black Economic Advancement in the New Millennium: Globalization, Education, and Technology. Special Report: National Policy Institute (8th, Washington, DC, January 20-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This special issue presents, in capsule form, presentations from workshops at the Eighth National Policy Institute. The conference theme of black economic advancement in the new century focused on globalization, education, and technology. Ten workshops were the core of the conference, and their topics were: (1) overcoming the 2000 Census…

  16. Institutional Policies on Assessment of Pedagogy and Faculty Classroom Practices: Evidence from 4-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Myers, Scott M.; Stewart, Tammy; Nynas, Suzette

    2015-01-01

    This study used a multi-theoretical approach to examine the associations between institutional policies on the assessment of faculty pedagogy and faculty's use of learner-centred assessment (LCA) practices in their undergraduate classrooms in the United States. We found strong evidence that it was not the number of methods but the types of methods…

  17. Granting Credit for College Proficiency and Regents External Degree Examinations in New York State: A Summary of Institutional Policies, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Independent Study and Programs Development.

    A guide is presented for students on the policies and practices of public and private New York colleges and universities in regard to granting credit, course waiver, or advanced standing to those who pass the College Proficiency Examinations (CPEs) and the Regents External Degree Examinations (REDEs). A chart indicates, for each institution and…

  18. Putting English Language Learners on the Educational Map: The No Child Left Behind Act Implemented. Education in Focus: Urban Institute Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cohen, Clemencia Cosentino; Clewell, Beatriz Chu

    2007-01-01

    To expand knowledge about young immigrant populations and to document how the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) affects the education of English language learner (ELL) and limited English proficient (LEP) students, the Urban Institute was funded by the Foundation for Child Development to undertake a series of reports. This policy brief draws on this…

  19. The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost…

  20. At the Scene of the Crime: Law Enforcement Agencies and Lawmakers Rely on Studies from the Institute for Social Research To Inform Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Institute for Social Research operates eight centers that conduct policy-related research on criminal justice, criminology, delinquency, and social problems. Projects have focused on inequities in criminal sentencing in New Mexico, juveniles' access to and use of guns, New Mexico's need for a juvenile prison, and the…

  1. The Development of a Departmental Policy Relative to the Distribution of Salary Increases for the Faculty of the Industrial Engineering Technology Department at the Southern Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannerman, James W.

    It was the purpose of a practicum to develop a policy for distribution of salary increases in the industrial engineering technology department, using modern wage and salary administration techniques and the management expertise of the faculty. The dean of the Southern Technical Institute and the department head jointly identified seven criteria…

  2. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  3. INL SITEWIDE INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR CERCLA RESPONSE ACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    JOLLEY, WENDELL L

    2008-02-05

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the 'Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites', which required a Site-wide institutional controls plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. This revision identifies and consolidates the institutional controls and operations and maintenance requirements into a single document.

  4. Alcohol Control Policies and Alcohol Consumption by Youth: A Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Kypri, Kypros

    2009-01-01

    Aims The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Design Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption, and national adolescent survey data. Setting Data are from 26 countries. Participants Adolescents (15-17 years old) who participated in the 2003 ESPAD (European countries) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Measurements Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking, and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys; per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Analysis Correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past-30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking, and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. Findings More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were inversely related to the past-30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking 3-5 times and 6 or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also inversely related to the prevalence of past-30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. Conclusions More comprehensive and

  5. Family Care or Foster Care? How State Policies Affect Kinship Caregivers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-34. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boots, Shelley Waters; Geen, Rob

    In 1997, the Urban Institute surveyed state foster care administrators to gather information on state policies for identifying, licensing, and financially supporting kinship care families. For purposes of this brief, "kinship care" refers to a child whose placement was arranged by child welfare authorities. States were found to differ in three…

  6. Promoting Evidence to Policy Link on the Control of Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria: Outcome of A Multi-Stakeholders Policy Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ebeh Ezeoha, Abel; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Nigeria, malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis are among infectious diseases of poverty (IDP) with severe health burden and require effective policy strategies for their control. In this study, we investigated the value of policy brief and policy dialogue as excellent policymaking mechanisms that enable policymakers to adapt effective evidence informed policy for IDP control. Methods: A policy brief was developed on the control of malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis and subjected to deliberations in a one-day multi-stakeholder policy dialogue held in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A modified cross sectional intervention study design was used in this investigation. Structured pre-tested questionnaires were used to evaluate the policy brief document and policy dialogue process at the end of the policy dialogue. Results: Forty-seven policymakers participated in the dialogue. An analysis of the response on the policy brief regarding context, different features of the problem; policy options and key implementation considerations indicated the mean ratings (MNRs) mostly ranged from 6.40-6.85 on 7 point scale. The over-all assessment of the policy brief had MNR at 6.54. The analysis of the response on the policy dialogue regarding the level of priority of policy issue, opportunity to discuss different features of the problem and options for addressing the problem, and the MNRs mostly ranged from 6.50-6.82. The overall assessment of the policy dialogue had MNR at 6.72. Conclusion: Policy dialogues can allow research evidence to be considered together with views, experiences and tacit knowledge of policymakers and can enhance evidence-to-policy link. PMID:26290826

  7. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  8. Federal Control Out of Control: The Office for Civil Rights' Hidden Policies on Bilingual Education. CEO Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Jim

    This report examines the policies and practices of the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) for determining whether school systems are providing appropriate educational services to language minority students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Data are drawn from OCR documents in the public domain, including…

  9. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Educational... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.205 Educational... regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled...

  10. 40 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 5.205 Section 5.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  11. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  12. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  13. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  15. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amigud, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public…

  16. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 618.205 Section 618.205 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  17. 43 CFR 41.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 41.205 Section 41.205 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage...

  18. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  19. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  20. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  1. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  2. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  3. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  4. 12 CFR 303.245 - Waiver of liability for commonly controlled depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... controlled depository institutions. (a) Scope. Section 5(e) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)) creates...)(6), (7) and (8), the FDI Act also permits the FDIC, in its discretion, to exempt any insured... liability pursuant to section 5 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)(5)(A)). (b) Definition. Conditional...

  5. 12 CFR 303.245 - Waiver of liability for commonly controlled depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... controlled depository institutions. (a) Scope. Section 5(e) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)) creates...)(6), (7) and (8), the FDI Act also permits the FDIC, in its discretion, to exempt any insured... liability pursuant to section 5 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)(5)(A)). (b) Definition. Conditional...

  6. 12 CFR 303.245 - Waiver of liability for commonly controlled depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... controlled depository institutions. (a) Scope. Section 5(e) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)) creates...)(6), (7) and (8), the FDI Act also permits the FDIC, in its discretion, to exempt any insured... liability pursuant to section 5 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)(5)(A)). (b) Definition. Conditional...

  7. 12 CFR 303.245 - Waiver of liability for commonly controlled depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... controlled depository institutions. (a) Scope. Section 5(e) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)) creates...)(6), (7) and (8), the FDI Act also permits the FDIC, in its discretion, to exempt any insured... liability pursuant to section 5 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)(5)(A)). (b) Definition. Conditional...

  8. 12 CFR 303.245 - Waiver of liability for commonly controlled depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled depository institutions. (a) Scope. Section 5(e) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)) creates...)(6), (7) and (8), the FDI Act also permits the FDIC, in its discretion, to exempt any insured... liability pursuant to section 5 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1815(e)(5)(A)). (b) Definition. Conditional...

  9. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Research Triangle Institute Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on July 25, 2013,...

  10. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  11. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access... Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional practitioner. (a... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  13. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 15a.12 Section 15a.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... identifying the provisions of this part which conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization....

  15. Case studies from community coalitions: advancing local tobacco control policy in a preemptive state.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Malinda R; Manion, Candida A; Hall-Harper, Vanessa D; Terronez, Kristina M; Love, Corey A; Chan, Andie

    2015-01-01

    Policies that shield people from the harm of tobacco exposure are essential to protect the health of the population. Coalitions have often led the way in safeguarding community health by promoting social norm change though policy adoption. In some states, tobacco control laws are weak, in part because of a tobacco industry tactic of prohibiting or pre-empting communities from enacting ordinances that are more protective. In spite of strong state-level preemptions, local coalitions in Oklahoma have implemented hundreds of voluntary policies in tobacco control that have improved the protection and health of their communities while not violating preemption. Three case studies of policy change are presented that exemplify the key approach of local coalitions working with strong allies and informed decision makers to establish tobacco-free businesses, schools, and outdoor recreational areas. In each of the cases, the policy changes surpassed the protection provided by the state laws and inspired additional policy changes. The key strategies and lessons learned may help tobacco control coalitions in other states limited by preemption to garner more support and momentum for important policy changes within their communities and states. PMID:25528703

  16. [Risks and control of complete market-oriented reforms of medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannong; Tian, Yongquan

    2014-04-01

    Marketization has become the mainstream since the new public management emerges globally in second half of the 20th century. Some countries infuse private capital into medical institutions which used to be managed by the government originally, and cause the medical industry reforms to be market-oriented. Market-oriented reforms of medical institutions may have risks in the following aspects: the risk of uneven distribution of medical resources, the risk of market failure, the moral risk of government renting-seeking and corruption and the decay of social justice values. Measures of controlling these risks include defining the function orientation of the government, completing the institution-building of healthcare system, improving primary medical system and strengthening social consciousness of hospitals. PMID:24820269

  17. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  18. Selected aspects of tobacco control in Bulgaria: policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to outline the challenges of tobacco consumption control in the transitional economy of Bulgaria. It focuses on issues of taxation, high unemployment, and smuggling while attempting to meet European Union (EU) requirements for tobacco control legislation that reduces smoking consumption. The issue of tobacco control is not a simple one and requires a multi-pronged approach. While Bulgaria has made some progress in adopting legislation, it needs to strengthen its efforts in terms of enforcement, stronger legislation and increased taxation of cigarettes. PMID:22571023

  19. The challenges of tobacco control in Romania. Policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates elements of tobacco control issues in Romania. Using European Union requirements for tobacco control legislation as a backdrop, it examines the key issues of smuggling, taxation, and unemployment in a transitional economy. Romania has made some progress by adding text and pictorial warnings to cigarette packages and offering comprehensive help to quit smoking. Using empirical examples, it is argued that more progress in tobacco control is needed in the area of increased taxation, enforcement of non-smoking bans, and new legislation requiring advertising bans at point of sale, kiosks, and billboards. This article draws wider public attention to the problems that smuggling and taxation present for tobacco control, helps identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulates effective interventions. PMID:24053066

  20. Managing ISR sharing policies at the network edge using Controlled English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Preece, Alun; Zerfos, Petros

    2013-05-01

    In domains such as emergency response and military operations the sharing of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets among different coalition partners is regulated through policies. Traditionally, poli­ cies are created at the center of a coalitions network by high-level decision makers and expressed in low-level policy languages (e.g. Common Information Model SPL) by technical personnel, which makes them difficult to be understood by non-technical users at the edge of the network. Moreover, policies must often be modified by negotiation among coalition partners, typically in rapid response to the changing operational situation. Com­ monly, the users who must cope first with situational changes are those on the edge, so it would be very effective if they were able to create and negotiate policies themselves. We investigate the use of Controlled English (CE) as a means to define a policy representation that is both human-friendly and machine processable. We show how a CE model can capture a variety of policy types, including those based on a traditional asset ownership model, and those defining team-based asset sharing across a coalition. The use of CE is intended to benefit coalition networks by bridging the gap between technical and non-technical users in terms of policy creation and negoti­ ation, while at the same time being directly processable by a policy-checking system without transformation to any other technical representation.

  1. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of C. difficile and MRSA in the Light of Current NHS Control Policies: A Policy review

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Maliha

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, and are estimated to cost the United Kingdom National Health Service £1 billion annually. The current health care infection rates suggest that the level of performance to avoid HCAIs is not maintained consistently. Increasing screening, improving local accountability and performance management, careful use of antibiotics in the management of emergency patients, health economy wide approaches, and improved hand washing will be effective in lowering the rate of HCAIs. This paper reviews current NHS Control Policies in place for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and C. difficile. PMID:26257907

  2. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  3. School Decentralization and Community Control: Policy in Search of a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Harriet

    The relationship between research and educational policy in the areas of school system decentralization and community control is analyzed in this dissertation. The literature on decentraliztion and community control is reviewed. It is contended that existing empirical research on these subjects has not systematically tested the assumptions…

  4. A Case Study in Policy Change: Mayoral Control in New York City's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Adam

    2010-01-01

    During the 33 years New York City schools were controlled primarily by community school boards, the city's mayors posited that greater mayoral influence was the cure for the ills afflicting the city's schools. This paper applies theories of policy change to the 30-year battle for control of New York's schools while highlighting the role of the…

  5. Prevention and control of iron deficiency: policy and strategy issues.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Substantial efforts have been made in the past several decades to implement programs to reduce iron deficiency. Yet, compared with other micronutrients such as vitamin A and iodine, overall progress in reducing iron deficiency has been limited. Such limited progress is not attributed to a lack of scientific knowledge about the prevalence, causes or consequences of iron deficiency, but to limited implementation of effective interventions and ineffective communication tools. The challenge is to coordinate and balance research efforts more constructively with the implementation of practical and effective intervention programs. More attention must be paid to evaluating the operational feasibility of various intervention strategies to demonstrate their effectiveness under normal field conditions. Moreover, intervention efforts must be supported by substantially increased attention to communications to achieve effective advocacy for policy support and resource mobilization, foster partnerships and alliances, clarify priority target groups, including infants and young children, and support behavioral change. Through collaboration, researchers, program implementers and communicators can achieve substantial progress in reducing iron deficiency. PMID:11925485

  6. Policy Space and the Governance of Education: Transnational Influences on Institutions and Identities in the Netherlands and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of two country-specific cases. The comparative analysis is situated within the broad domain of the changing knowledge economy landscape for educational policy. The two cases examine the transfer, embedding and enactment of policies during the interactions between supranational, national, institutional…

  7. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos' Mechanical Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  8. Knowledge based systems: From process control to policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, J.G.

    1993-06-01

    Los Alamos has been pursuing the use of Knowledge Based Systems for many years. These systems are currently being used to support projects that range across many production and operations areas. By investing time and money in people and equipment, Los Alamos has developed one of the strongest knowledge based systems capabilities within the DOE. Staff of Los Alamos` Mechanical & Electronic Engineering Division are using these knowledge systems to increase capability, productivity and competitiveness in areas of manufacturing quality control, robotics, process control, plant design and management decision support. This paper describes some of these projects and associated technical program approaches, accomplishments, benefits and future goals.

  9. The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Brisibe, Seiyefa Fun-Akpa; Ordinioha, Best; Gbeneolol, Precious K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity, emotional stress and financial cost to the affected patients and health care institutions; and infection control policy has been shown to reduce the burden of SSIs in several health care institutions. This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy on the prevalence of SSI in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of the records of all Caesarean sections carried out in the hospital, before and 2 years after the implementation of the infection control policy was conducted. Data collected include the number and characteristics of the patients that had Caesarean section in the hospital during the period and those that developed SSI while on admission. Results: The proportion of patients with SSI decreased from 13.33% to 10.34%, 2 years after the implementation of the policy (P-value = 0.18). The implementation of the policy did not also result in any statistically significant change in the nature of the wound infection (P-value = 0.230), in the schedule of the operations (P-value = 0.93) and in the other predisposing factors of the infections (P-value = 0.72); except for the significant decrease in the infection rate among the un-booked patients (P-value = 0.032). Conclusion: The implementation of the policy led to a small decrease in SSI, due to the non-implementation of some important aspects of the WHO policy. The introduction of surveillance activities, continuous practice reinforcing communications and environmental sanitation are recommended to further decrease the prevalence of SSI in the hospital. PMID:26229228

  10. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  11. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  12. Bimanual coordination as task-dependent linear control policies.

    PubMed

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Dowling, Noreen

    2009-06-01

    When we perform actions with two hands in everyday life, coordination has to change very quickly depending on task goals. Here, we study these task-dependent changes using a bimanual reaching task in which participants move two separate cursors to two visual targets, or move a single cursor, displayed at the average position of the two hands, to a single target. During the movement, one of the hands is perturbed in a random direction using a viscous curl field. We have previously shown that feedback control, the structure of noise, and adaptation change between these two tasks as predicted by optimal control theory: feedback control is independent when the hands control two cursors, but becomes dependent when they move one cursor together. The same changes are observed even on trials in which no visual feedback about the cursor position is given. One assumption in this model is that coordinative motor commands can be described as a linear function of the state of the left and right hands. Here we test the assumption by studying the feedback corrections for 25 combinations of force fields applied to the two hands. Our study shows that feedback gains are constant across all levels of force fields strength, providing strong evidence that intermanual coordination for this task can accurately be explained by optimal task-dependent linear feedback gains. PMID:19131136

  13. Electrical Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-02-18

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the EPRI/ADA Technologies dry sorbent sampling unit and the testing of Hg catalysts/sorbents in this low-flow, temperature controlled system. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

  14. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  15. Advance and Retreat: Tobacco Control Policy in the U.S. Military

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This archival study explored why military tobacco control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking rates will require health policymakers to better anticipate and counter political opponents. The findings also suggest that effective tobacco control policies may require strong, explicit implementation instructions and high-level Department of Defense support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund Morale, Recreation, and Welfare Programs. PMID:19160617

  16. The University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy CCD camera control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jim, K. T. C.; Yamada, H. T.; Luppino, G. A.; Hlivak, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy CCD Camera Control System consists of a NeXT workstation, a graphical user interface, and a fiber optics communications interface which is connected to a San Diego State University CCD controller. The UH system employs the NeXT-resident Motorola DSP 56001 as a real time hardware controller. The DSP 56001 is interfaced to the Mach-based UNIX of the NeXT workstation by DMA and multithreading. Since the SDSU controller also uses the DPS 56001, the NeXT is used as a development platform for the embedded control software. The fiber optic interface links the two DSP 56001's through their Synchronous Serial Interfaces. The user interface is based on the NeXTStep windowing system. It is easy to use and features real-time display of image data and control over all camera functions. Both Loral and Tektronix 2048 x 2048 CCD's have been driven at full readout speeds, and the system is intended to be capable of simultaneous readout of four such CCD's. The total hardware package is compact enough to be quite portable and has been used on five different telescopes on Mauna Kea. The complete CCD control system can be assembled for a very low cost. The hardware and software of the control system has proven to be quite reliable, well adapted to the needs of astronomers, and extensible to increasingly complicated control requirements.

  17. State Policies for Assessing and Supporting Kinship Foster Parents. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Bess, Roseana; Geen, Rob

    This study provides updated information about states' kinship care policies for children in foster care based on a survey conducted in 1999. Almost all states give preference to and seek out kin when placing a child in foster care. However, states vary in the way that they assess and support kinship care. Most states assess kin differently than…

  18. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Song, Rui-Zhuo; Sun, Qiu-Ye; Xiao, Wen-Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304079 and 61374105), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 4132078 and 4143065), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530527), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-14-119A2), and the Open Research Project from State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, China (Grant No. 20150104).

  19. The effect of school district nutrition policies on dietary intake and overweight: a synthetic control approach.

    PubMed

    Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    School nutrition policies aim to eliminate ubiquitous unhealthy foods and beverages from schools to improve adolescent dietary behavior and reduce childhood obesity. This paper evaluates the impact of an early nutrition policy, Los Angeles Unified School District's food-and-beverage standards of 2004, using two large datasets on food intake and physical measures. I implement cohort and cross-section estimators using "synthetic" control groups, combinations of unaffected districts that are reweighted to closely resemble the treatment unit in the pre-intervention period. The results indicate that the policy was mostly ineffective at reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity 8-15 months after the intervention but significantly decreased consumption of two key targets, soda and fried foods. The policy's impact on physical outcomes appears to be mitigated by substitution toward foods that are still (or newly) available in the schools. PMID:23891422

  20. Cancer prevention through stealth: science, policy advocacy, and multilevel governance in the establishment of a "National Tobacco Control Regime" in the United States.

    PubMed

    Studlar, Donley T

    2014-06-01

    The role of the US federal government in developing tobacco control through a cooperative, interactive program with state and local private and public organizations has been underestimated. This article investigates how the government initiated and sustained a program of "capacity building" through the scientific authority of the National Cancer Institute, beginning in the 1980s. There are several major questions to be answered: (1) How did this program manage to be adopted and sustained despite the well-documented hindrances to effective tobacco control policy at the federal level? (2) How did a tobacco control policy program become incorporated into the scientific research agenda of the National Cancer Institute? (3) How have science, social factors, and government at various levels interacted in this capacity-building program? The study emphasizes how the US federal government, blocked by a tobacco-friendly Congress from enacting effective tobacco control legislation, utilized its scientific research role and, with the cooperation of other levels of government and large, private antitobacco organizations, established an ongoing policy effort. PMID:24879831

  1. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  2. WIPP Case Study - Compliance Monitoring, Passive Institutional Controls, and Record Keeping

    SciTech Connect

    WAGNER, STEPHEN W; BEAUHEIM, RICHARD L.; PFEIFLE, TOM W.; BETHEL, AMY; SOSA-YATES, GRACE ANN; WILLIAMS, CECELIA V.; MILLIGAN, MARGARET; FOX, MICHAEL

    2002-07-01

    The WIPP Case Study describes the compliance monitoring program, record keeping requirements, and passive institutional controls that are used to help ensure the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will safety contain radioactive waste and indicate dangers and location of the wastes. The radioactive components in the waste are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while the hazardous components in the waste are regulated by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). This paper addresses monitoring relating to radionuclide containment performance, passive institutional controls, and record keeping over a 10,000-year time frame. Monitoring relating to the hazardous components and the associated regulator are not addressed in this paper. The WIPP containment performance is mandated by release limits set by regulation. Regulations also require the radioactive waste containment performance of the WIPP to be predicted by a ''Performance Assessment.'' The EPA did not base the acceptance of the WIPP solely on predicted containment but included additional assurance measures. One such assurance measure is monitoring, which may be defined as the on-going measurement of conditions in and around the repository. This case study describes the evolution of the WIPP monitoring program as the WIPP project progressed through the planning, site characterization, regulatory promulgation, and eventual operational stages that spanned a period of over 25 years. Included are discussions of the regulatory requirements for monitoring, selection of monitoring parameters, trigger values used to identify unexpected conditions, assessment of monitoring data against the trigger values, and plans for post-closure monitoring. The United EPA established the requirements for Passive Institutional Controls (PICs) for disposal sites. The requirements state the a disposal site must be designated by the most permanent markers, records, and other passive institutional controls

  3. Report to the Higher Education Policy Commission. West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System Statewide Institution Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System was formed as a method for instituting statewide standardization of space use and classification; to serve as a vehicle for statewide data acquisition; and to provide statistical data that contributes to detailed institutional planning analysis. The result thus far is the production…

  4. Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Underperforming Performance Measure for Determining Institutional Funding Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Rene; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities have been in existence in the United States since the mid-1800s. Currently there are 105, which include private and public institutions, with most being four-year programs. In this study, we compare graduation rates of Historically Black Colleges and Universities to predominately White institutions and…

  5. A Theory of Motivation and Ontological Enhancement: The Role of Disability Policy in Student Empowerment and Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2009-01-01

    As debate continues around the nature and values of education, it is important to ask the question of what factors motivate a student to engage with the ends of an educational institution. In this paper, a broad, holistic view of learner motivation, derived from Aristotelian ethics, is used to provide a model to drive institutional change.…

  6. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  8. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center monthly report to the Steering Committee, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-02

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot FGD unit continued this month with High Velocity Scrubbing and the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Tailored Collaboration test block. Additionally, Phase III of the Toxics Removal/Carbon Injection test block was conducted concurrently with FGD testing. At the beginning of the month, a second phase of third-party testing began for Suncor, Inc. The Suncor Gypsum Sample Collection test block (MSUN) began on June 5 on the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet FGD unit. Testing was completed on June 13. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, testing continued this month as ammonia slip measurements were conducted under low catalyst inlet temperatures and at baseline conditions.

  9. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  10. State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

  11. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  12. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  13. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of "confirmation bias" apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  14. Fine-grained policy control in U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Grueneberg, Keith; Wood, David; Calo, Seraphin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) consists of a number of colocated relational databases representing a collection of data from various sensors. Role-based access to this data is granted to external organizations such as DoD contractors and other government agencies through a client Web portal. In the current MMSDB system, access control is only at the database and firewall level. In order to offer finer grained security, changes to existing user profile schemas and authentication mechanisms are usually needed. In this paper, we describe a software middleware architecture and implementation that allows fine-grained access control to the MMSDB at a dataset, table, and row level. Result sets from MMSDB queries issued in the client portal are filtered with the use of a policy enforcement proxy, with minimal changes to the existing client software and database. Before resulting data is returned to the client, policies are evaluated to determine if the user or role is authorized to access the data. Policies can be authored to filter data at the row, table or column level of a result set. The system uses various technologies developed in the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science (ITA) for policy-controlled information sharing and dissemination1. Use of the Policy Management Library provides a mechanism for the management and evaluation of policies to support finer grained access to the data in the MMSDB system. The GaianDB is a policy-enabled, federated database that acts as a proxy between the client application and the MMSDB system.

  15. Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J

    2006-01-01

    Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality. PMID:17684673

  16. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  17. 2003 Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Assessment Report for Hanford CERCLA Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    TEIMOURI, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this assessment as specified in the Institutional Controls (IC) Plan was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of ICs associated with ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA) Records of Decision (RODs); and (2) to identify corrective actions as necessary. Additionally, this assessment covered an assessment of sitewide ICs at the Hanford Site. The IC Plan was approved by the Tri-Party agencies July 2002, ''Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for Hanford CERCLA Response Actions,'' DOE/RL-2001-41, Revision 0. The goal of the Plan was to identify ICs for current CERCLA response actions, describe how they are implemented and maintained, and serve as a reference for the selection of ICs in the future. Section 4.2 of the IC Plan summarizes the objectives for the assessment as follows: ''A focused and periodic self-assessment and reporting of ICs provides for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the controls and the opportunity for cost-effective improvements.

  18. Incomplete Markets and Imperfect Institutions: Some Challenges Posed by Trust for Contemporary Health Care and Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Gray, Bradford H

    2016-08-01

    As contemporary health policy promotes evidence-based practices using targeted incentives, policy makers may lose track of vital aspects of care that are difficult to measure. For more than a half century, scholars have recognized that these latter aspects play a crucial role in high-quality care and equitable health system performance but depend on the potentially frail reed of providers' trustworthiness: that is, their commitment to facets and outcomes of care not easily assessed by external parties. More recently, early experience with pay for performance in health settings suggests that enhancing financial rewards for the measurable undermines providers' commitment to the unmeasurable, degrading the trustworthiness of their practices. Reformers have looked to revised professional norms or reorganized practice arrangements to bolster the intrinsic motivations required for trustworthiness. We suggest here that these responses are likely to prove inadequate. We propose that they be complemented by a renewed policy-making commitment to nonprofit ownership among health care providers, insurers, and integrated delivery systems. We identify some of the concerns raised in the past with ownership-based policies and propose a set of responses. If these are pursued in combination, they hold the promise of a sustainable ownership-based policy reform for the United States. PMID:27127254

  19. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  1. Perioperative Glycemic Control in Plastic Surgery: Review and Discussion of an Institutional Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dortch, John D; Eck, Dustin L; Ladlie, Beth; TerKonda, Sarvam P

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a well-known risk factor for surgical morbidity such as wound healing, infection, and prolonged hospitalization. This association has been reported for a number of surgical subspecialties, including plastic surgery. Specialty-specific guidelines have become increasingly available in the literature. Currently, glucose management guidelines for plastic surgery are lacking. Recognizing that multiple approaches exist for perioperative glucose, protocol-based models provide the necessary structure and guidance for approaching glycemic control. In this article, we review the influence of diabetes on outcomes in plastic surgery patients and propose a practical approach to perioperative blood glucose management based on current Endocrine Society and Mayo Clinic institutional guidelines. PMID:27301370

  2. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-15

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System and the Pulse Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B and W/CHX Heat Exchanger project. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Inspections of these idled systems were conducted this month.

  3. Effectiveness of Hospital-Wide Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection Control Policies Differs by Ward Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies. PMID:24340085

  4. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  5. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  6. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  7. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:23706414

  8. Local Control of Schools: Is Local Governance a Viable Option? Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    The historical and current balance among the federal, state, and local levels in the control of education is reviewed in this report, with a focus on effective schools research and the management of change. Five policy instruments are described, which include mandates, inducements, capacity-building, system-changing, and leadership. A conceptual…

  9. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity…

  10. Weight Control Belief and Its Impact on the Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Policies on Quit Attempts: Findings from the ITC 4 Country

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thompson, Mary; Siahpush, Mohammad; Ridgeway, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight concerns are widely documented as one of the major barriers for girls and young adult women to quit smoking. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether smokers who have weight concerns respond to tobacco control policies differently than smokers who do not in terms of quit attempts, and how this difference varies by gender and country. Objective This study aims to investigate, by gender and country, whether smokers who believe that smoking helps control weight are less responsive to tobacco control policies with regards to quit attempts than those who do not. Methods We use longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Policy (ITC) Evaluation Project in the US, Canada, the UK, and Australia to conduct the analysis. We first constructed a dichotomous indicator for smokers who have the weight control belief and then the disparity in policy responsiveness in terms of quit attempts by directly estimating the interaction terms of policies and the weight control belief indicator using generalized estimating equations. Findings We find that weight control belief significantly attenuates the policy impact of tobacco control measures on quit attempts among US female smokers and among UK smokers. This pattern was not found among smokers in Canada and Australia. Conclusions Although our results vary by gender and country, the findings suggest that weight concerns do alter policy responsiveness in quit attempts in certain populations. Policy makers should take this into account and alleviate weight concerns to enhance the effectiveness of existing tobacco control policies on promoting quitting smoking. PMID:25646173

  11. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances. PMID:25935054

  12. Changes in Tobacco Smoke Exposure following the Institution of a Smoke-Free Policy in the Boston Housing Authority

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Douglas E.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Fang, Shona C.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To protect residents from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE), the Boston Housing Authority (BHA) prohibited smoking in BHA-owned apartments beginning in 2012. Our goal was to determine if the smoke-free policy reduced TSE for non-smoking BHA residents. Methods We compared TSE before the smoke-free policy (2012) and one year later among BHA residents as well as residents of the neighboring Cambridge Housing Authority (CHA) where no such policy was in place. Participants were a convenience sample of adult non-smoking BHA and CHA residents cohabitating with only non-smokers. Main outcomes were 7-day airborne nicotine in participants’ apartments; residents’ saliva cotinine; and residents’ self-reported TSE. Results We enrolled 287 confirmed non-smokers (192 BHA, 95 CHA). Seventy-nine percent (229) were assessed at follow-up. At baseline, apartment and resident TSE were high in both housing authorities (detectable airborne nicotine: 46% BHA, 48% CHA; detectable saliva cotinine: 49% BHA, 70% CHA). At follow-up there were significant but similar declines in nicotine in both sites (detectable: -33% BHA, -39% CHA, p = 0.40). Detectable cotinine rose among BHA residents while declining among CHA participants (+17% BHA vs. -13% CHA, p = 0.002). Resident self-reported TSE within and outside of the housing environment decreased similarly for both BHA and CHA residents. Conclusions Apartment air nicotine decreased after the introduction of the smoke-free policy, though the decline may not have resulted from the policy. The BHA policy did not result in reduced individual-level TSE. Unmeasured sources of non-residential TSE may have contributed to BHA residents’ cotinine levels. PMID:26360258

  13. Infection Control Practice in the Operating Room: Staff Adherence to Existing Policies in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Tennant, Ingrid A; McGaw, Clarence D; Harding, Hyacinth; Walters, Christine A; Crandon, Ivor W

    2013-01-01

    Context: Infection control interventions are important for containing surgery-related infections. For this reason, the modern operating room (OR) should have well-developed infection control policies. The efficacy of these policies depends on how well the OR staff adhere to them. There is a lack of available data documenting adherence to infection control policies. Objective: To evaluate OR staff adherence to existing infection control policies in Jamaica. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all OR staff to assess their training, knowledge of local infection control protocols, and practice with regard to 8 randomly selected guidelines. Adherence to each guideline was rated with fixed-choice items on a 4-point Likert scale. The sum of points determined the adherence score. Two respondent groups were defined: adherent (score > 26) and nonadherent (score ≤ 26). We evaluated the relationship between respondent group and age, sex, occupational rank, and time since completion of basic medical training. We used χ2 and Fisher exact tests to assess associations and t tests to compare means between variables of interest. Results: The sample comprised 132 participants (90 physicians and 42 nurses) with a mean age of 36 (standard deviation ± 9.5) years. Overall, 40.1% were adherent to existing protocols. There was no significant association between the distribution of adherence scores and sex (p = 0.319), time since completion of basic training (p = 0.595), occupational rank (p = 0.461), or age (p = 0.949). Overall, 19% felt their knowledge of infection control practices was inadequate. Those with working knowledge of infection control practices attained it mostly through informal communication (80.4%) and self-directed research (62.6%). Conclusion: New approaches to the problem of nonadherence to infection control guidelines are needed in the Caribbean. Several unique cultural, financial, and environmental factors influence adherence in this region, in contrast to

  14. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  15. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. PMID:23466261

  16. Results from an evaluation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, PinPin; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla; Kegler, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale international events such as World Expos and Olympic Games have the potential to strengthen smoke-free norms globally. The Shanghai 2010 World Expo was one of the first large-scale events to implement and evaluate the adoption of strict tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate implementation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China. Methods This mixed methods evaluation was conducted from July to October 2010. Observations were conducted in all 155 pavilions and outdoor queuing areas, all 45 souvenir shops, a random sample of restaurants (51 of 119) and selected outdoor non-smoking areas in all sections of the Expo. In addition, intercept surveys were completed with 3022 visitors over a 4-month period. Results All pavilions and souvenir shops were smoke-free. Restaurants were smoke-free, with only 0.1% of customers observed smoking. Smoking was more common in outdoor non-smoking areas, but still relatively rare overall with only 4.5% of visitors observed smoking. Tobacco products were not sold or marketed in any public settings except for three pavilions that had special exemptions from the policy. Overall, 80.3% of visitors were aware of the smoke-free policy at the World Expo, 92.5% of visitors supported the policy and 97.1% of visitors were satisfied with the smoke-free environment. Conclusions Tobacco control policies at the World Expo sites were generally well-enforced and accepted although compliance was not 100%, particularly in outdoor non-smoking areas. PMID:23708269

  17. Leveraging the water-energy-food nexus for a sustainability transition: Institutional and policy design choices in a fragmented world (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the critical - but often subtle - feedbacks between water, energy, and food security, a nexus approach that integrates management and governance across sectors and scales is increasingly being advocated in research and policy circles. As a first step, such an approach calls for an integrated multi-disciplinary assessment of the externalities across sectors and tradeoffs involved in enhancing security in one sector on the other sectors. Recent research efforts have focused on understanding these tradeoffs, say, through estimating the energy costs of expanding irrigation for greater food security; or estimating the embodied land and water costs in increased energy production. While such efforts have increased awareness about the inter-connectedness of such issues, the fundamental question of how such an understanding influences decision-making and how it can lead to coordinated action towards a transition to more sustainable pathways still remains largely unanswered. The long legacy of sectoral organization of political and bureaucratic structures has led to a fragmentary policy and institutional landscape, on which cross-sectoral public action and coordination poses several challenges. Moreover, poorly defined property rights, imperfect or absent markets, and uncertainty about resource dynamics imply that economic signals about relative scarcity in one sector are not necessarily clear to decision makers in the other sectors. In this study, we examine these issues related to water-energy food nexus in the context of semi-arid groundwater irrigated regions of western and southern India. Using a social-ecological systems framework, we begin by characterizing some of the key inter-dependencies among food, water, and energy at the farm household, village and state level. We then examine the factors that influence decision-making at these levels, and the extent to which these decisions internalize the externalities. Specifically, we examine the role of energy

  18. Stimulating Innovation in Russia: The Role of Institutions and Policies. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 539

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianella, Christian; Tompson, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of innovation policy in enhancing long-term productivity growth in Russia. It begins by exploring the role of framework conditions for business in encouraging innovative activities, particularly with respect to intellectual property rights and competition. Realising Russia's innovation potential will also…

  19. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND... Research of Concern AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). ACTION: Notice; request for.... Jones, Assistant Director--Chemical and Biological Countermeasures, Office of ] Science and...

  20. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  1. Employment and Training Policy in the United States during the Economic Crisis. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 10-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.; Eberts, Randall W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines labor market conditions and public employment policies in the United States during what some are calling the Great Recession. We document the dramatic labor market changes that rapidly unfolded when the rate of gross domestic product growth turned negative, from the end of 2007 through early 2009. The paper reviews the…

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Institutional Policy, Organisational culture and E-Learning Use in Four South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Brown, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between policy (conceptualised as goals, values and resources), organisational culture and e-learning use. Through both qualitative and quantitative research methods, we gathered data about staff and student perspectives from four diverse South African universities representing a selection of ICT in…

  3. High Stakes Accountability in Urban Elementary Schools: Challenging or Reproducing Inequality? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, John B.; Spillane, James P.

    In this paper, the authors use data from interviews and observations in four urban elementary schools, two high and two low performing, to examine how schools respond to high stakes accountability policies. The authors argue that school responses to high stakes accountability depend on school context. In low performing schools, responses focus…

  4. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  5. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  6. Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes: Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    One of the long-standing priorities of the international community is to reduce gender disparity in developing countries. Yet, the overall picture is still gloomy: women continue to be excluded from access to resources and employment and are denied basic human rights. This Policy Brief explains why progress has been so minimal and what should be…

  7. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  8. Management Information in Tertiary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    A college or university's management information system corresponds roughly to the institution's structure, with these elements in descending order in the hierarchy: policy and planning, a planning system, control and coordination, and typical operating systems (payroll, exams, scheduling, library, facilities assignments, and accounting…

  9. [Diflucortolone-21-valerate Reference Standard (Control 871) of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hiroshige, R; Murai, M; Tokunaga, H; Okada, S; Kimura, T

    1989-01-01

    Diflucortolone-21-valerate was tested for the preparation of "Diflucortolone-21-valerate Reference Standard (Control 871)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: loss on drying, 0.05%; infrared spectrum, 1745, 1727, 1667, 1625, 1611, 1169 cm-1; ultraviolet spectrum, lambda max = 239 nm; absorbance, E1%1cm (239 nm) = 348.8; optical rotation, [alpha]20D: + 100.8 degrees; melting point, 203.2 degrees C; thin-layer chromatography, three contaminants were detected; high-performance liquid chromatography, two contaminants were detected; fluorine, 8.06%. On the basis of those results, this material was authorized as the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences Reference Standard (Control 871). PMID:2636922

  10. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful. PMID:23848371

  11. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764

  12. Assessing the Quality of Randomized Controlled Urological Trials Conducted by Korean Medical Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality of randomized controlled urological trials conducted by Korean medical institutions. Materials and Methods Quality assessment was conducted by using the Jadad scale; in addition, the van Tulder scale and the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool were used as individual indices. All assessments were performed by two reviewers. If the outcomes differed, the two reviewers and a third reviewer adjusted the discrepancy in the results through discussion. Starting from 1986, a quality analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in 1-year and 5-year units. The quality assessment was conducted by subject, type of intervention, presence of double blinding, presence of funding, and review by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results Whereas the number of RCTs published has gradually increased, there was no significant difference in the quality of the RCTs according to publication year. Drug studies, double-blind studies, studies with funding, and studies reviewed by IRBs had higher quality scores and a higher percentage of high-quality RCTs than did other studies. Thirty-six RCTs were published in journals included in the Science Citation Index and 20 RCTs were published in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded. The largest number of RCTs (32.32%) were published by the Korean Journal of Urology. Conclusions A quantitative increase was observed in RCTs over time, but no qualitative improvement in the RCTs was observed. It seems necessary to put effort into the quality improvement of RCTs at the design stage. PMID:23700493

  13. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  14. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  15. Australian pharmaceutical policy: price control, equity, and drug innovation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Evan; Alexander Henry, David

    2008-04-01

    This paper outlines the increasing salience of drug "innovation" in the debate for reform of Australia's pharmaceutical policy, particularly change to Australia's price control mechanisms. The pharmaceutical industry has consistently criticised the central role of price control in Australia's pharmaceutical regulatory regime as an impediment to drug innovation and industry growth. Despite ambivalent or contrary evidence on the impact of price control on drug innovation, this criticism, and the appeals for reform it supports, appear to be increasingly influential in directing pharmaceutical policy. This is particularly evident in the implementation of the Australia/United States Free Trade Agreement, which has led to a weakening of the historical process of evidence-based reference pricing in Australia. Should drug innovation come to dominate Australian pharmaceutical policy, there is the potential to precipitate a devaluing of the current public orientation of regulation and diminish equitable access to affordable pharmaceuticals. The manner in which trade policy has effectively undermined a publicly funded pharmaceutical benefits scheme has clear implications for many countries that maintain such programmes. PMID:18368023

  16. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. Methods: A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Results: Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and

  17. Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 2. National Institute of Justice Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellam, Sheppard G.; Prinz, Ron; Sheley, Joseph F.

    This booklet contains conference presentations from the 1999 National Institute of Justice's research forum on preventing school violence. The theme of the conference was "Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research." Three researchers were asked to speak on topics of school violence since effective preventive policy and practices are…

  18. Creating and Disseminating Knowledge for Educational Reform: Policy Management of the National Institute of Education's Regional Educational Laboratories and National Research and Development Centers. A Report to the National Council on Educational Research. [Executive Summary and Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Leadership Development, Los Angeles, CA.

    Drawing on interviews, documents, and eight studies, this policy research study offers information and recommendations in order to fulfill the responsibility of the National Council on Educational Research to establish general policies for, and review the conduct of, the National Institute of Education (NIE). Questions guiding this study are: the…

  19. The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies. PMID:24921015

  20. The status and future challenges of tobacco control policy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies. PMID:24921015

  1. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  2. Free-Energy-Based Design Policy for Robust Network Control against Environmental Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Takuya; Kominami, Daichi; Murata, Masayuki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Bioinspired network control is a promising approach for realizing robust network controls. It relies on a probabilistic mechanism composed of positive and negative feedback that allows the system to eventually stabilize on the best solution. When the best solution fails due to environmental fluctuation, the system cannot keep its function until the system finds another solution again. To prevent the temporal loss of the function, the system should prepare some solution candidates and stochastically select available one from them. However, most bioinspired network controls are not designed with this issue in mind. In this paper, we propose a thermodynamics-based design policy that allows systems to retain an appropriate degree of randomness depending on the degree of environmental fluctuation, which prepares the system for the occurrence of environmental fluctuation. Furthermore, we verify the design policy by using an attractor selection model-based multipath routing to run simulation experiments. PMID:26167525

  3. Birth control policies in Iran: a public health and ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Aloosh, Mehdi; Saghai, Yashar

    2016-06-01

    In less than one generation, a unique demographic transition has taken place in Iran. A population growth rate of 4.06% in 1984 fell to 1.15% in 1993 and a total fertility rate of 6.4 births per woman in 1984 declined to 1.9 in 2010. In 2012, Iranian policymakers shifted away from a birth control policy towards a pro-natalist policy. At first glance, this may seem reasonable since its goal is to avoid the consequences of an aging population. However, we argue that the policy package raises serious public health, socioeconomic, environmental and ethical concerns and is likely to fail on its own terms. PMID:26759127

  4. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  5. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  10. College Readiness Policy Implementation in the Massachusetts Public Higher Education System from Policy to Practice: An Analysis of the Implementation of the State College Placement Testing (CPT) Policies at the Four Year Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jibril

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, with assistance from the Developmental Assessment and Placement Advisory Committee, adopted an assessment policy that set standards for college placement testing at Massachusetts public colleges and universities. The purposes of the policy were to place students more adequately suited for…

  11. Preclinical assessment of abuse liability of biologics: In defense of current regulatory control policies.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, David V; Zimmermann, Zachary J; Baird, Theodore J

    2015-10-01

    Current regulatory policies of both the US Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration do not delineate automatic exceptions for biologics with respect to preclinical assessments for abuse liability of all new entities. As defined in current guidance documents and drug control policies, an exception may be given upon thorough review of available data, therapeutic target and in consultation with the Controlled Substances Staff within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research of the FDA, but a blanket exception for all biological entities is not currently available. We review the abuse liability testing of four known biologics with definitive positive abuse liability signals in the three core abuse liability assays, self-administration, drug discrimination, and dependence potential described in the FDA draft guidance document. Interestingly, while all four examplars have positive abuse liability signals in all three assays, two of these biologics are controlled under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act (CSA, 1970) and the other two are not currently controlled. Admittedly, these four biologics are small molecule entities. However, there is no reference to "molecular size" in the legally-binding statutory definition of biologics under the FD&C act or in the Controlled Substances Act. Neither of these drug control policy mandates have a bifurcated control status in which to make exceptions based solely on molecular size. With the current pharmaceutical focus on new technologies, such as "Trojan Horses", targeting the active transport of large molecule entities directly into the CNS, an argument to automatically exempt new molecular entities solely on molecular size is untenable. We argue that for the safety and health of general public the current regulatory control status be maintained until definitive criteria for exceptions can be identified and amended to both the FD&CA and CSA, if warranted. PMID:26107292

  12. Recommendations on Future of the Community College System and Area Vocational-Technical Institutes. A Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board, St. Paul.

    The final recommendations are presented for the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board's study to assess the future viability of Minnesota's community colleges and vocational-technical institutes (V-TEC). After introductory material noting that the study was initiated in anticipation of enrollment declines and fiscal hardships, the report…

  13. Actualizing panarchy within environmental policy: mechanisms for tweaking institutional hierarchies to mimic the social-ecological systems they manage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping approaches to sustainability. In particular, the role of legal instruments, institutions, and the relationship of law to the inherent variability in social-ecological systems is critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the insti...

  14. Explorations of the Policy Drive to Foster a Research Culture within a Dual Sector Scottish HE Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) celebrated the accolade of university title, becoming Scotland's newest university. Modelled on a federal, collegiate university based on a number of existing and geographically dispersed Further Education (FE) colleges and research institutions, the UHI has clearly abandoned the…

  15. Getting Serious about Institutional Performance in Student Retention: Research-Based Lessons on Effective Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Ziskin, Mary; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what they have learned in two distinct but complementary research projects that focus on institutional efforts to enhance student persistence and graduation--one funded by the Lumina Foundation for Education and the second by the College Board. Together, these projects have helped them develop a fuller picture of…

  16. The Visioning of Policy and the Hope of Implementation: Support for Graduate Students' Teaching at a Canadian Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoessler, Carolyn; Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students teach within the complex higher education environment of financial constraint, greater student diversity, and growing graduate enrolment (e.g., Austin, 2003). Teaching roles offer financial support and skill development while multiplying responsibilities (Price, 2008). Across the national working papers and institutional reports,…

  17. Practice and Policy to Enhance Student Induction and Transition: A Case Study of Institution-Wide Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsford, Sally; Rose, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This case study gives an analytical account of institutional development in induction provision. Driven by student experience concerns, a London post-1992 University set up an "enhanced induction project" to provide a more integrated, personalised approach through more coordinated processes. In a large, diverse context, university-wide…

  18. An Examination of Latina/o Transfer Students in California's Postsecondary Institutions. Latino Policy & Issues Brief. Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Martha A.; Perez, Jeanette; Alvarez, Crystal R.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    California's three-tier public postsecondary system is meant to provide equal access to higher education for all students in the state. Yet even though Latina/os will soon make up the majority of students in K-12 education, the enrollment of Latina/os in the state's postsecondary institutions remains low. When compared to the percentage of…

  19. Geological control of flow in the Institute and Möller Ice Streams, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Bingham, R. G.; Rippin, D. M.; Le Brocq, A.; Siegert, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The conditions at the base of an ice sheet influence its flow, and reflect the ongoing interaction between moving ice and the underlying geology. Critical influences on ice flow include subglacial topography, bed lithology, and geothermal heat flux. These factors are influenced either directly by local geology, or by the regional tectonic setting. Geophysical methods have been used in many parts of Antarctica, such as the Siple Coast, to reveal the role subglacial geology plays in influencing ice flow. Until recently, however, the Institute and Möller Ice Streams, which drain ~20% of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Weddell Sea, were only covered by sparse airborne radar (~50 km line spacing), and reconnaissance aeromagnetic data, limiting our understanding of the geological template for this sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Here we present our geological interpretation of the first integrated aerogeophysical survey over the catchments of the Institute and Möller Ice Streams, which collected ~25,000 km of new aerogeophysical data during the 2010/11 field season. These new airborne radar, magnetic and gravity data reveals both the subglacial topography, and the subglacial geology. Our maps show the fastest flowing coastal part of the Institute Ice Stream crosses a sedimentary basin underlain by thinned continental crust. Further inland two distinct ice flow provinces are recognised: the Pagano Ice Flow Province, which follows the newly identified, ~75 km wide, sinistral strike-slip Pagano Fault Zone at the boundary between East and West Antarctica; and the Ellsworth Ice Flow Province, which is controlled by the Permo-Triassic structural grain of folded Middle Cambrian-Permian meta-sediments, and Jurassic granitic rocks which form significant subglacial highlands. Our new data highlight the importance of understanding subglacial geology when explaining the complex pattern of ice flow observed in the ice sheet interior.

  20. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  1. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, Myrthe J.; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kramer, Boris W.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W.; Reiss, Irwin K.; Mol, Ben W.; Been, Jasper V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000–2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign. PMID:27103591

  2. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Myrthe J; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W; Reiss, Irwin K; Mol, Ben W; Been, Jasper V

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000-2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign. PMID:27103591

  3. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

  4. Individual rights advocacy in tobacco control policies: an assessment and recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could be assisted if the tobacco control movement gave greater emphasis to the issue of individual rights. Benefits that may accrue from the promotion of a clear individual rights perspective in tobacco control include adding coherence to the tobacco control advocacy agenda and winning support from those who may have been concerned about loss of personal freedom, excessive governmental power, use of social coercion, or the rights of smokers. Risks also attend to such a policy. It might inadvertently assist the tobacco industry, stir resistance to ETS limitation efforts, or confuse tobacco control supporters. On balance, though, liabilities are outweighed by the ethical and operational merits in tobacco control of a heightened pro-individual rights stance. PMID:16046700

  5. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  6. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  7. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. Also, several installation activities were initiated this month for the testing of a new EPRI/ADA Technologies sorbent sampling system in December. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

  8. The fuzzy control policy implementation of software and hardware adopted in automatically changing receiver system of 25m radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Jin; Aili, Yu

    2005-09-01

    It is difficult to control a system based only on its precise mathematic model by classical control policy in the condition that their precise mathematic models can not be found and their parameters are variable in outer environment. With the rapid development in software and hardware, a system using the fuzzy control policy can get very good effects in some conditions. According to the system environment, fuzzy control policy is selected to implement automatically changing receivers in the base of PC hardwares and Windows2000/XP operation system.

  9. NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

  10. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  11. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  12. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  13. Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Tze; Mitchell, Cary; Yih, Yuehwern

    In order to build a decision-making tool for choosing a control policy from a set of predefined policies for a water-treatment system, a simulation was developed. This technology-independent simulation focuses on the functions of a simplified representation of the water system based on documentation by NASA in the Baseline Value and Assumption Documents (BVAD). The clean-water requirement (consumption) and dirty-water generation (production) are based on crewmember demographics, activity schedules, and intensity of each activity. The water system consists of hygiene and potable-water subsystems. The hygiene-water subsystem supplies water for purposes such as laundry, urinal flush, dish wash, oral hygiene, and shower. The potable-water subsystem supplies water for drinking and re-hydration of food. Due to a lack of stochastic property descriptions for a real-world system in the BVAD, stochastic variables are introduced in this research to reflect a more realistic system. These variables describe the magnitude of deviation of system variables from their theoretical values through predetermined statistical distributions. These variables include hygiene and potable-water-treatment efficiencies, amounts of hygiene and potable water consumed, and amount of dirty water produced following potable-water consumption. Conditions of the system occurring hourly result from the intricate interaction of crewmembers and the water system. The primary measure of the condition of the system is the "state" representation of the system, assessed at the beginning of every hour. Conditions of the system examined include the amount of clean water available for consumption, amount of overflow (in excess of storage capacity) of clean and dirty water, amount of hourly water deficiency, amount of accumulated water deficiency, etc. State transitions of the system based on these assessments are affected by the stochastic properties of the system described above. The transitions also depend on

  14. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed. PMID:23794743

  15. The importance of environmental variability and management control error to optimal harvest policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, C.M.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    State-dependent strategies (SDSs) are the most general form of harvest policy because they allow the harvest rate to depend, without constraint, on the state of the system. State-dependent strategies that provide an optimal harvest rate for any system state can be calculated, and stochasticity can be appropriately accommodated in this optimization. Stochasticity poses 2 challenges to harvest policies: (1) the population will never be at the equilibrium state; and (2) stochasticity induces uncertainty about future states. We investigated the effects of 2 types of stochasticity, environmental variability and management control error, on SDS harvest policies for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) model, and contrasted these with a harvest policy based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Increasing stochasticity resulted in more conservative SDSs; that is, higher population densities were required to support the same harvest rate, but these effects were generally small. As stochastic effects increased, SDSs performed much better than MSY. Both deterministic and stochastic SDSs maintained maximum mean annual harvest yield (AHY) and optimal equilibrium population size (Neq) in a stochastic environment, whereas an MSY policy could not. We suggest 3 rules of thumb for harvest management of long-lived vertebrates in stochastic systems: (1) an SDS is advantageous over an MSY policy, (2) using an SDS rather than an MSY is more important than whether a deterministic or stochastic SDS is used, and (3) for SDSs, rankings of the variability in management outcomes (e.g., harvest yield) resulting from parameter stochasticity can be predicted by rankings of the deterministic elasticities.

  16. Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine state alcohol control policy implementation by policy efficacy and intent. Design A descriptive longitudinal analysis of policy implementation. Setting The United States, 1999–2011. Participants Fifty states and the District of Columbia. Measurements Twenty-nine state-level policies were rated based on an implementation rating (IR; range = 0.0–1.0) gathered from the Alcohol Policy Information System, government and industry reports and other sources; and expert judgment about policy efficacy for addressing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among the general population and youth, respectively. Findings On average, implementation of the most effective general population policies did not change [mean IR = 0.366 in 1999; 0.375 in 2011; slope for annual change = 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) for the slope −0.001, 0.002]. In contrast, implementation increased over time for less effective policies (mean IR = 0.287 in 1999; 0.427 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.009; slope 95% CI = 0.002–0.007), for youth-oriented policies (mean IR = 0.424 in 1999; 0.511 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.007; slope 95% CI = 0.005–0.009), and for impaired driving policies (mean IR = 0.493 in 1999; 0.608 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.0105; slope 95% CI = 0.007–0.014). Conclusions Implementation of politically palatable state alcohol policies, such as those targeting youth and alcohol-impaired driving, and less effective policies increased during 1999–2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies that may maximally protect public health remained underused. PMID:25138287

  17. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  18. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Objective Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Data sources Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Study selection All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Data extraction Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second‐hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. Data synthesis The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. Conclusion While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use. PMID:17130631

  19. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    SciTech Connect

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kornov, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in a

  20. Collaboration With Behavioral Health Care Facilities to Implement Systemwide Tobacco Control Policies — California, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lauren; Modayil, Mary V.; Pavlik, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) administered 4 regional trainings in 2012 to staffers at CTCP-funded projects, tobacco control coalitions, several county departments of mental health and alcohol and drug, and administrators and providers from behavioral health care facilities. These trainings focused on the special tobacco use cessation needs and opportunities for cessation among persons with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, and they provided information about cessation and smoke-free policies. CTCP surveyed county and private behavioral health care programs to assess their readiness for adopting tobacco control strategies at treatment facilities. Between baseline and follow-up we found a decrease in the proportion of organizations at the precontemplation or contemplation stages of change and twice as many organizations at the action and maintenance stages of change. Significant obstacles remain to implementing policy: many agencies have concerns about going tobacco-free. But significant progress has been made, as evidenced by new policies and a growing number of tobacco-free coalitions consisting of public health agencies, behavioral health care agencies, and local hospitals. PMID:25654218