Franzke, Bernhard; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Peherstorfer, Heidemarie; Krejci, Klemens; Koller, Birgit; Geider, Karin; Baierl, Andreas; Tosevska, Anela; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Wessner, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz
Ageing goes hand in hand with altered DNA repair and defence mechanisms against DNA damage. To improve the body's overall resistance against chromosomal damage, maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is of great concern, especially in the elderly. As more and more people are getting older, they change from home living to an institutionalised situation, which is often accompanied by malnutrition, depression and inactivity. So far, there is a lack of data on chromosomal damage in relation to age and fitness status. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and aerobic fitness on endpoints of DNA damage in 105 institutionalised women and men (65-98 years) living in Vienna. Chromosomal damage was measured by conducting the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Aerobic fitness of the participants was assessed using the 6-min walking test. To investigate the effect of age on micronuclei (MN) frequency and evaluate the particular age group, our data were merged with data from a recent study by Wallner et al. (Effects of unconjugated bilirubin on chromosomal damage in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome measured with the micronucleus cytome assay. Mutagenesis 2012; 27: 731-735). Age and MN frequency correlated significantly for squared regression (r = 0.577; P = 0.000) and showed a levelling-off at ~60 years of age. Furthermore, we observed a significant negative linear correlation (r = -0.222; P = 0.03) between MN frequency and 6-min walking performance. There was a plateau-like effect of the MN frequency above the age of 60-70 years, indicating a higher resistance against chromosomal damage of the 'survivors' of the regular lifespan. This study suggests that aerobic fitness 'protects' against chromosomal damage at high age. PMID:25217503
Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls. PMID:27002926
Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S
Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560
Franzke, Bernhard; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Jandrasits, Waltraud; Baierl, Andreas; Tosevska, Anela; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Wessner, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz
Aging and its aligned loss of muscle mass are associated with higher levels of DNA damage and deteriorated antioxidant defence. To improve the body's overall resistance against DNA damage, maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is desirable, especially in the elderly. As people age, many have to change their residence from home living to an institution, which is often accompanied by malnutrition, depression and inactivity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of a 6-month progressive resistance training (RT), with or without protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training (CT), on DNA strand breaks in 105 Austrian institutionalised women and men (65-98 years). DNA damage was detected by performing the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Physical fitness was assessed using the chair rise, the 6-min-walking and the handgrip strength test. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were analysed. Basal DNA damage (lysis) increased significantly after 3 months of intervention in the RT group (T1 - T2 + 20%, P = 0.001) and the RTS group (T1 - T2 + 17%, P = 0.002) and showed a similar tendency in the CT group (T1 - T2 + 21%, P = 0.059). %DNA in tail decreased in cells exposed to H2O2 significantly in the RT (T1 - T2 - 24%, P = 0.030; T1 - T3 - 18%, P = 0.019) and CT (T1 - T2 - 21%, P = 0.004; T1 - T3 - 13%, P = 0.038) groups. Only RT and RTS groups showed significant differences overtime in enzyme activity (RT + 22% CAT-activity T1 - T3, P = 0.013; RTS + 6% SOD-activity T2 - T3, P = 0.005). Contrary to the time effects, no difference between groups was detected for any parameter at any time point. Our results suggest that both CT and RT improve resistance against H2O2 induced DNA damage and that a nutritional supplement has no further protective effect in institutionalised elderly. PMID:25527737
Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal
Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes. PMID:24431796
Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.
Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p < .001), debris score 2.87 ± 0.22 to 1.49 ± 0.34 (p < .001), denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p < .001), and denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047
Rogan, Frances; Wyllie, Aileen
This paper presents an analysis of a qualitative descriptive study exploring the effect of a structured educational program for beginning undergraduate nursing students undertaking clinical placements in Australian nursing homes. The study focuses on the students' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards the elderly. The analysis shows how the program with its supportive structure was able to engage the students in caring for the elderly person. Data gathered through questionnaires and focus groups demonstrate that negative attitudes toward the elderly had been modified or changed and that a surprising number of students were showing an interest in what traditionally has been an unpopular area of clinical practice. The results support some previous studies demonstrating that with the right educational support and structures beginning nursing students can engage in positive learning experiences with the elderly. PMID:19036324
Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo
It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money. PMID:24486359
Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the "morbidity mortality paradox". The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be "getting away" with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites. PMID:25516310
Leite, Soraia Cristina Coelho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
Leprosy is still a major public health problem and psychosocial rehabilitation services for patients suffering from the disease remain insufficient. This study aimed to assess the impact of therapeutic workshops on quality of life and symptoms of depression among institutionalised leprosy patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and generic World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) were used before and after the implementation of a series of therapeutic workshops over a period of six months. Sixty-two patients participated in the study. Almost all of the sample were elderly and had a low level of education. There was a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression scores after the intervention (p < 0,001) and a positive impact was shown for the psychological (p = 0,001), physical (p = 0,03) and environment (p < 0,001) domains, but not for the social relationships (p = 0,124) domain. Therapeutic workshops appear to a useful tool for psychosocial rehabilitation work with leprosy patients. PMID:26060961
Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were
Parkar, Shubhangi R.
This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727
Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel
The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented. PMID:27603886
Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.
Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…
Marshall, G R
A recurring theme in recent Australian reports on integrated catchment management (ICM) has been the need to institutionalise more formally the cost-sharing commitments made within this domain. This represents a significant departure from earlier visions of ICM as essentially promoting voluntary uptake of resource-conservation measures. Two important questions raised by this nascent policy shift are addressed in this paper. Firstly, how might cost-sharing arrangements be given greater formality without undermining the efforts of ICM to increase the preparedness of civil stakeholders to voluntarily, or informally, accept responsibility for sharing costs? Secondly, how is it possible to formalise cost-sharing arrangements so that the transaction costs of enforcing compliance with them remain affordable? Answers to these questions are explored through a case study of the Land and Water Management Planning Program now being successfully implemented in the irrigation districts of the central-Murray region of southern inland New South Wales (NSW) surrounding Deniliquin. The sophisticated system of institutional arrangements introduced in the program to facilitate monitoring, enforcement and adaptive management of cost-sharing commitments is discussed, and insights into how informally motivated cooperation can enhance the affordability and political feasibility of formal arrangements are presented. PMID:12171341
Iglesias Barreira, Rebeca; Albiñana Pérez, M Sandra; Rodríguez Penín, Isaura; Bilbao Salcedo, José
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon characterised by a chemical reaction involving the urine, plastic and certain enzymes from some sulphatase- and phosphatase-producing bacteria, including Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Morganella morganii, amongst others. Following this reaction, the catheter and the bag may be stained red, blue or purple. This phenomenon tends to occur in patients with multiple pathology and with urinary catheters, as part of a urinary tract infection. We describe two clinical cases of PUBS in institutionalised patients with permanent urinary catheters. PMID:23199817
Burrell, Beverley; Trip, Henrietta
Reform and community care: has de-institutionalisation delivered for people with intellectual disability? In this paper we provide a post structural analysis of the theoretical shifts informing changes to service delivery over the past 150 years in relation to people with intellectual disability. We utilise the New Zealand experience of reform as it reflected global knowledge at any given period. Firstly, we address the historical modes of treatment and care, with reference to the eugenics movement, the concepts informing 'Prisons of protection' and moral treatment. Secondly the paper traces reforms commencing in the 1960s where changes from institutional care to community care were informed by humanistic ideals, a key driver being the concept of normalisation. Theorists offered competing discourses that formed the bases of arguments for the status quo whilst resistant voices advocated change. Covering such significant changes leads us to assess the state of de-institutionalisation' as it stands today and how it may be perceived in the future. We assert that Foucault's genealogical approach provides analytic tools to uncover the dynamics of changing attitudes and approaches to service delivery. In applying a Foucauldian lens to the trajectory of reforms concerning institutionalisation to de-institutionalisation we question whether a form of re-institutionalisation may be occurring. PMID:21564398
The study suggests that institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic approach to internal quality assurance of higher education institutions inspired by the Bologna Process has regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive dimensions. It includes development of structures and procedures for quality assurance, as well as boosting of the…
Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn
Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. Design, setting and participants This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65 years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Intervention Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. Main outcome measures The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Results Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1 h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (p<0.005) to complete advance care directives. Conclusions Facilitated ACP in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. PMID:26319775
Parts of the socioscientific career of Jules Guérin, an orthopaedic surgeon, are presented in this article. The aim is to deepen the comprehension of intricate processes like specialisation and professionalisation of medicine and development of medical gymnastics. From this point of view Guérin's biography is very informative. The intention is to highlight the institutionalisation process of orthopaedics during two decades: the 1830s and 1840s. For the analysis the author tries to associate historical elements taken from the medical field and the socioeconomic context, however, without digressing too far from Guérin himself. First, Guérin's part in the institutionalisation process will be studied, second, his influence as a surgeon and theorist of spinal deformities and then his role as a controversial figure in the medical field. PMID:20405772
... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...
This paper concentrates on the changes in knowledge transfer in northern Namibia with respect to sexual norms, behavioural advice and sexual health information. The research was conducted in a small village community in Ohangwena region, where over 100 semi-structured and structured interviews were held with a sample of 67 community members and 50 professionals dealing with HIV/AIDS issues. The results of the research indicate the change in social roles in family and community dynamics, especially between generations, and thus a change in trust, respect and responsibility attached to information sharing. This further exerts pressure on the classification, choice, adaptation and transmission of information at both the individual and family level. Secondly, and partly as a consequence of this, the levels of indigenous, community level information from elders to youth and the level of institutionalised information sharing leave space for variations in behavioural norms. The research contributes to the discussion on problems in information sharing, knowledge transfer and adaptation of behavioural advice in HIV/ AIDS work. PMID:25388979
Science Teacher, 2005
Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…
Aderibigbe, Semiyu Adejare; Ajasa, Folorunso Adekemi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of college tutors on peer coaching as a tool for professional development to determine its formal institutionalisation. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire was used for data collection, while analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics. Findings: The…
Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale were administered to 400 Australian hospitalized adults without psychiatric or neurological impairment in 4 age groups from 30 to 69 years. Compared to pre-1964 data, the subjects did not show gains in intelligence quotient as did younger age groups. (SLD)
Costa, A J
Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158
Holleran, Renee Semonin
Across the world, the population is aging. Adults 65 years and older make up one of the fastest growing segments of the US population. Trauma is a disease process that affects all age groups. The mortality and morbidity that result from an injury can be influenced by many factors including age, physical condition, and comorbidities. The management of the elderly trauma patient can present some unique challenges. This paper addresses the differences that occur in the management of elderly patient who has been injured. This paper also includes a discussion of how to prevent injury in the elderly. PMID:26039652
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...
... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...
Toye, Christine; White, Kate; Rooksby, Karen
Many frail older people are likely to suffer from fatigue, but tools to measure fatigue in this population are lacking. Stage one of this study explored and described the experiences of fatigue of 12 older people from Australian residential aged care facilities. Themes identified were pacing yourself, battling on, hitting rock bottom, feeling safe, and moving on. Findings indicated that, with support, frail elders may be able to manage fatigue effects themselves. A measure of fatigue was developed from stage one findings, with reference to the literature. In stage two of the study, the Frail Elder Fatigue Assessment Tool was subjected to panel review, piloting, and refinement. The refined tool comprises 20 items in three subscales: fatigue effects; fatigue resources; and adaptation to fatigue. Further work is required to establish the tool's psychometric properties, but it should then be useful for both research and clinical assessment purposes. PMID:16835559
Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Kril, Jillian; Rodriguez, Michael
The neuropathological correlates of suicide in older persons have received little research attention. Our recent study of elderly suicide victims from an Australian forensic medicine department (n = 143), unlike a previous case-control study, did not find an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older persons who committed suicide…
... for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse plays a diminishing role in later life suicides compared to younger suicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...
Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A
Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573
Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others
The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…
A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI) study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910)
trials in which supplements are administered to elderly participants. Results from ARCLI may help develop novel preventative health practices and nutritional/pharmacological targets in the elderly for cognitive and brain health. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000487910 PMID:22390677
Background This population-based retrospective cohort study aimed to clarify the impact of home and community-based services on the hospitalisation and institutionalisation of individuals certified as eligible for long-term care insurance (LTCI) benefits. Methods Health insurance data and LTCI data were combined into a database of 1,020 individuals in two farming communities in Hokkaido who were enrolled in Citizen's Health Insurance. They had not received long-term care services prior to April 1, 2000 and were newly certified as eligible for Long-Term Care Insurance benefits between April 1, 2000 and February 29, 2008. The analysis covered 565 subjects who had not been hospitalised or institutionalised at the time of first certification of LTCI benefits. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of hospitalisation or institutionalisation or death after the initial certification were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. The predictors were age, sex, eligibility level, area of residence, income, year of initial certification and average monthly outpatient medical expenditures, in addition to average monthly total home and community-based services expenditures (analysis 1), the use or no use of each type of service (analysis 2), and average monthly expenditures for home-visit and day-care types of services, the use or no use of respite care, and the use or no use of rental services for assistive devices (analysis 3). Results Users of home and community-based services were less likely than non-users to be hospitalised or institutionalised. Among the types of services, users of respite care (HR: 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.93) and rental services for assistive devices (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.92) were less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalised than non-users. For those with relatively light needs, users of day care were also less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalized than non-users (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.98). Conclusions
del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M
Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. PMID:25439641
Te Wierik, M J; Nguyen, D T; Beersma, M F; Thijsen, S F; Heemstra, K A
Recognition of infections with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among institutionalised elderly is rising. When HMPV was found to be the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a residential care facility for elderly in the Netherlands, an elaborate outbreak investigation was set up, including active surveillance for new cases. From clinical cases, defined by fever (> 38°C) and symptoms of respiratory tract infections, respiratory samples for analyses of viral pathogens by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) and blood samples for determination of HMPV-specific IgM and IgG antibody titres were taken. Five staff members and 18 residents fulfilled the clinical case definition. Of those, five residents tested positive for HMPV by rRT-PCR. The combination of rRTPCR and serology identified nine confirmed cases, six probable cases, six possible cases and ruled out two persons as cases. Among residents, the outbreak of HMPV had an attack rate, ranging from 5% for laboratory- confirmed cases, to 13% for clinical cases. This outbreak investigation shows that HMPV is a potential serious pathogen for institutionalised elderly. PMID:22490384
Lawrence, Geoffrey; Stehlik, Dani
Rural elderly in Australia lack access to health and welfare services, compounded by an increasingly aging population and downsizing of services. Successful strategies can be found in U.S. retirement communities and the Australian Community Aged Care Package program. However, these strategies often compete with a drive toward cost-effectiveness.…
Breen, Helen M.
The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…
Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J
Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472
The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:17348781
In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…
In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…
A series of highly publicized cases of alleged fraud in the Australian academic community are described. Each case reveals an apparent failure of peer review. The right to pursue investigations and make comments that may offend powerful figures within the scholarly community is precarious. (MLW)
Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer
In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…
Smart, Nigel, Ed.
This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants of Apprentice Training by Small and…
Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.
The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)
Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...
Stitt, Van J.
Constipation is a common problem that affects not only the young, but the elderly as well. Treatment in the elderly, however, may cause more problems than the constipation itself. A review of the prevalence of constipation in the elderly and its etiology and suggestions for treatment are presented. Some of the complications that may result from constipation or its treatment are described. PMID:6631998
Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen
The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…
Ubeda, Amalia; Ferrándiz, Luisa; Maicas, Nuria; Gomez, Cristina; Bonet, Montserrat; Peris, Jose E.
Objective The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people. Methods Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more) by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain). Results The mean patients’'age was 84 (SD=8) years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines). The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%), but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients. Conclusions The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists’ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes. PMID:24155822
van Isterdael, C E D; Stilma, J S; Bezemer, P D; Tijmes, N T
Aims To summarise the results of visual performance tests and other data of institutionalised people with intellectual disability referred to a visual advisory centre (VAC) between 1993 and 2003, and to determine trends in these data. Methods A retrospective medical record review was undertaken of 6220 consecutive people examined ophthalmologically according to a standard protocol by one VAC that specialised in visual assessment and treatment of people with intellectual disability, between 1993 and 2003. χ2 test for linear trend was used and linear regression coefficients were calculated. Results The proportion of people aged ⩾50 years increased from 19.3% to 34.2% between 1995 and 2003 (p<0.001); the combined figure of severe or profound intellectual disability decreased from 80.0% to 52.6% (p<0.001); the proportion of mobile people increased from 52.1% to 98.0% (p<0.001); the combined proportion of people with visual impairment or blindness decreased from 70.9% to 22.9% (p<0.001), and that of people with visual disorders decreased from 89.6% to 75.3% (p<0.001). Causes of intellectual disability were identified in 58.4% people; 20.8% had Down's syndrome. Conclusion Many ocular diagnoses were found, indicating the need for ophthalmological monitoring. Specialised centres are helpful, because assessment and treatment of people with intellectual disability is complicated and time consuming. Protocols for efficient referral will have to be developed. A major task lies ahead to improve the treatment rates of refractive errors, cataract and strabismus, and to find specific causes of intellectual disability. PMID:16854828
Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Briones, Mercedes; Muros, José Joaquín; Seiquer, Isabel; Sánchez, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Giménez, Rafael
Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4-14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3-2·31 mg/d, 58·7-69·6 µg/d and 6·32-27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups. PMID:26346647
Vaquero, M P
Imbalances between mineral intakes and recommended amounts have been observed in different groups of elderly subjects. Nevertheless, assessment of the status of magnesium and trace elements in the elderly is difficult, even for iron because infection and inflammation increases ferritin. Mineral bioavailability may change due to ageing. Therefore, formulation of mineral recommendations is complex and individual recommendations are sometimes necessary. A number of surveys show magnesium, zinc, selenium and chromium intakes by old persons to be lower than the corresponding reference nutrient intakes. Contrarily, intakes of iron are generally adequate or higher than recommended, and it has been suggested that increased storage of iron in the elderly may be related with the development of age-related diseases through the increase in oxidative stress. Low iron status together with iron excess may be common in an elderly population. The same applies for zinc. Magnesium and selenium deficiencies among the elderly are also well documented, especially among the institutionalised and people with pathologies. Chromium deficiency is associated with type II diabetes mellitus. Recommended iron intake is lower for elderly women compared to young, because menstruation ceases after menopause, but in old men, it is similar to that of young men. Dietary Reference Values for the rest of the elements are similar to those of adults, although several suggestions have been made about the quantities. This review examines various aspects of the changes in mineral bioavailability due to ageing, of data published on mineral intakes and status, and finally the dietary recommendations for this vulnerable population group. PMID:12166371
Dhar, H L
Mankind have been ravaged by diseases since primitive age and remedial measures were emprirical learnt either by accident, experience or superstition. But most elderly population were killed and hardly died of diseases. Fate of women were no better. Care for elderly came with civilization. They were little better in the East compared to the West. Although elderly population were better treated in India, China tops the list for elderly care. Even today the oldest man in the family is most respected. Civilized nations even today discriminate elderly population compared to children and adult, but apply the yardstick in a different manner, direct killing alone is not allowed. PMID:11227620
Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…
... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati
The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…
This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…
The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500
Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.
This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.
Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408
Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey
Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300
Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…
The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990
Ryan, R. J.
Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)
Cintra, Fernanda A; Delboux Diogo, Maria José; Filomena Ceolim, Maria
This Brazilian article bears interest for its qualitative methodology which allows us to get a feeling for the elderly of this country being able to relate the results of their lives and knowledge to our own. The lack of an educational health program for the elderly led the authors to create the Health Care Group for the Elderly (GRASI in Portuguese) in which we developed an educational program based on the social-historical perspective of L. S. Vygotsky. This current study analyzes the dynamic speeches recorded by a group of elderly in the GRASI educational program. A group of seven elderly people, from both sexes, having an age equal to or greater than 60, participated in an analysis of the content from meetings among themselves. To analyze the data obtained, in the underlying text as well as their recorded speech, the feelings and meanings of their conversations and stories were identified and separated into thematic units. The results obtained reveal that the opportunity to express their experiences regarding the transformation the elderly have lived during their lives, and to find new ways to treat health problems or how to carry out self health care, is an important resource for elderly nursing care which can lead to the development of health education programs. PMID:16304835
Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J
Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553
Finnegan, T P
The Australian Health care system is a mix of public and private provision. The Federal Government funds medical care and the pharmaceutical benefit scheme while the State Governments are responsible for funding the public hospitals. Geriatric Medical care is provided in the public hospital system. The Australian DRG system has evolved to more adequately explain illness severity by a greater use of the complications and comorbidities. The structure of the Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (SNAP) classification is outlined. While it is anecdotally said that the introduction of DRG-based funding is detrimental to the elderly, the published evidence does not support this. The potential benefits of a casemix system are discussed. PMID:11487958
Warner, L R
The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research. PMID:9673864
The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on Aging -- www.nia.nih.gov
Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Righini, Marc
Management of anticoagulation in elderly patients represents a particularly challenging issue. Indeed, this patient population is at high thromboembolic risk, but also at high hemorrhagic risk. Assessment of the benefit-risk balance of anticoagulation is the key point when decisions are made about introducing and/or continuing such treatments in the individual elderly patient. In order to maximise the safety of anticoagulation in the elderly, some specific considerations need to be taken into account, including renal insufficiency, modified pharmacodynamics of anticoagulants, especially vitamin K antagonists, and the presence of multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications. New anticoagulants could greatly simplify and possibly increase the safety of anticoagulation in the elderly in the near future.
... to an elder's affairs and possessions; unexplained sudden transfer of assets to a family member or someone ... living condition/arrangements (e.g., improper wiring, no heat, or no running water); unsanitary and unclean living ...
Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036
... Key References Elder ( Sambucus nigra L.) Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on May ... Wilkins; 2000:103–105. Elderberry. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on May ...
Richard-Devantoy, S; Turecki, G; Jollant, F
Suicide in the elderly is an underestimated and complex issue that has mainly been explored in sociological, clinical and psychological perspectives. Suicide in non-elderly adults has been associated with diverse neurobiological alterations that may shed light on future predictive markers and more efficient preventative interventions. The aim of this paper was to review studies specifically investigating the neurobiology of elderly suicidal behaviour. We performed a systematic English and French Medline and EMBASE search until 2013. Contrary to literature about the non-elderly, we found a paucity of studies investigating the biomarkers of suicidal risk in elderly adults. Main findings were found in the neurocognitive domain. Studies generally supported the existence of cognitive deficits, notably decision-making impairment and reduced cognitive inhibition, in patients with a history of suicidal act compared to patients without such history. However, replications are needed to confirm findings. Due to several limitations including the small number of available studies, frequent lack of replication and small sample size, no firm conclusions can be drawn. The authors encourage further investigations in this field as insight in the neurobiology of these complex behaviors may limit clichés about end of life and aging, as well as improve future prevention of suicide in the elderly. PMID:26743828
Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce
Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)
In collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a consortium of Australian Researchers is adapting the ASA24 system to the Australian context to account for variations in food consumed, portion sizes, and nutrient composition.
This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on "History,…
Horn, R V
"This article discusses the Australian statistics of ethnic origin, collected under the headings of race and ancestry in the Australian census, with particular reference to conceptual precision and neutrality and to validity of results. It deals with European and non-European groups, but not with the special problems of counting the Australian aboriginal population." PMID:12341346
Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine
Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…
... the Department of Family Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC has created educational materials in English and Spanish for caregivers of people with dementia about preventing elder abuse. The English brochure provides information about elder abuse, ...
... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...
NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.
Morley, J E; Mooradian, A D; Silver, A J; Heber, D; Alfin-Slater, R B
Nutritional modulation is one approach to successful aging. In animals, dietary restriction increases life span. Alterations in the macronutrient and micronutrient constituent of the diet can modulate gene expression. Anorexia is common in elderly persons. The results of studies in animals suggest that aging is associated with a decrease in the opioid feeding drive and an increase in the satiating effect of cholecystokinin. Unrecognized depression is a common, treatable cause of anorexia and weight loss in elderly persons. Protein synthesis decreases in elderly persons; nevertheless, nitrogen balance can be maintained in patients with fairly low intakes of protein. Carbohydrate intolerance is common and may be modulated by nutritional intervention and physical activity. The role of cholesterol in the development of heart disease in very old persons is controversial. Homebound and institutionalized elderly persons often do not expose their skin to sunlight; because the skin of older persons has a decreased ability to form vitamin D, the vitamin D status in these persons is precarious and they are at risk for osteopenia. Vitamins are often abused by elderly persons. Drug administration alters the vitamin requirements of persons. Borderline zinc state has been associated with deteriorating immune function, especially in persons who have diabetes mellitus or who abuse alcohol. Zinc administration appears to protect against the deteriorating vision associated with age-related macular degeneration. Selenium deficiency seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of cancer. PMID:3056165
Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.
The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.
Lo Bianco, Joseph
It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…
Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.
Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…
Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…
Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina
The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.
Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz
In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated. PMID:27359315
Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan
Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164
Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan
Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164
Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith
Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.
This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…
Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…
A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...
Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…
Lansbury, Russell D.; Davis, Edward M.
The Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 2,353 companies showed sporadic employee participation in decision making. Although case studies of Ford Motor, Australia Post, Lend Lease, Telecom Australia, and Woodlawn Mining illustrate successful programs, most managers appear cautious about industrial democracy. (SK)
Roberts, L J
In early 2015, the Medical Board of Australia commissioned research into international revalidation models and what might be applicable for Australia. This review examines the implications for Australian anaesthetists. What problem is revalidation seeking to address? What is happening in similar countries? Is there an issue with Australian anaesthetists' performance? Isn't continuing professional development enough? Could the Medical Board target known high-risk doctors? What is the evidence for the benefit of revalidation? How is and how should the profession be involved? Revalidation has been introduced in other developed countries. It commonly involves continuing professional development, feedback from colleagues, co-workers and patients, clinical audit and peer review. Although its evidence base is limited, the General Medical Council in the United Kingdom is evaluating its revalidation system, which should provide useful guidance for other countries. Australian anaesthetists and their professional organisations must remain informed about, and engaged in, the national debate about revalidation, to ensure that any new process is workable for Australian anaesthesia practice. PMID:26310418
Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony
Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…
Hine, Janet D.
A survey sought to compile comprehensive information about the cataloging codes, classification schemes, subject headings lists, and filing rules used in Australian libraries. Questionnaires were sent to 112 libraries, and 98 returns were received, included in the sample were national, state, public, university, college, and special libraries.…
Education in Rural Australia, 1999
Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…
This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…
Jones, Mark R; Ehrhardt, Ken P; Ripoll, Juan G; Sharma, Bharat; Padnos, Ira W; Kaye, Rachel J; Kaye, Alan D
Pain management in the elderly has increasingly become problematic in the USA as the aged population grows. The proportion of the population over 65 continues to climb and may eclipse 20 % in the next decade. In order to effectively diagnosis and treat these patients, a proper history and physical exam remain essential; pain assessment scales such as the Verbal Descriptor Scales (VDS), the Numerical Rating Scales (NRS), and the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) often but not always prove beneficial. The conditions most frequently afflicting this population include osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, and lower back pain which include spondylosis and radiculopathies. While the normal aging process does not necessarily guarantee symptoms of chronic pain, elderly individuals are far more likely to develop these painful conditions than their younger counterparts. There are many effective treatment modalities available as potential therapeutic interventions for elderly patients, including but not limited to analgesics such as NSAIDs and opioids, as well as multiple interventional pain techniques. This review will discuss chronic pain in the elderly population, including epidemiology, diagnostic tools, the multitude of co-morbidities, and common treatment modalities currently available to physicians. PMID:26896947
Vinick, Barbara H.
The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…
Ribera Casado, José Manuel
A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times. PMID:25777944
Innovative housing designs are needed for the growing number of elderly Americans who suffer because of the limited living options provided by inflexible housing. Creative alternatives include double houses, shared living, intergenerational housing, and adaptable houses. Long-term planning is needed to construct an attractive environment that does…
Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather
Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…
The causes of acute and chronic diarrheal disorders and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are common at all ages. The impact of diarrhea, however, may be more pronounced in the elderly due to various causes, such as age-related structural and functional intestinal changes, concomittant illnesses, consume of preventive and therapeutic drugs, impaired sense of hunger and thirst, compromised nutrition and hydration to withstand the effect of diarrhea, more frequent hospital admissions and courses of antibiotics, and more subtle clinical presentation than in younger patients. These aspects have to be considered when investigating and treating diarrhea of older patients. Diarrhea may have a devastating effect on quality of life in the elderly and above all, fecal incontinence is a common consequence. In elderly institutionalized persons, fecal impaction in the rectum with liquid stool leaking around the hard, dry fecal mass is often associated with fecal incontinence. In this article, general aspects of diarrhea in the elderly, clostridium difficile infection, ischemic colitis, microscopic colitis and incontinence due to fecal impaction are discussed. PMID:25154690
Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons; St. Clair, Robert N.
The co-directors of the 1998 Annual Symposium for Language Renewal and Revitalization describe how they came up with a focus and presenters for the symposium. They began by discussing their concern over the loss of indigenous languages and cultures, then decided to honor tribal elders by choosing one to represent them all as the symposium's…
Hypertension is a common finding in patients aged over 60 years, but the following questions need answering. How dangerous is it? Will lowering the blood pressure reduce the attendant risks? What is the 'cost' of such treatment in terms of side effects, drug-induced disease and health service finance? Two recently completed trials throw light on these problems: EWPHE (European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly), a European study based on hospital-clinic attenders, using a diuretic backed up with methyldopa; and HEP (randomized trial of treatment of Hypertension in Elderly Patients in Primary Care), based on general-practice screening in England and Wales using atenolol and bendrofluazide. The results of these trials were compared and the findings were broadly similar in the two studies. Some of the differences may be due to the different selection of patients. It is concluded that elderly patients with sustained blood pressures greater or equal to 170/90 mmHg would benefit from treatment by substantial reduction of stroke. Diuretics or beta-blockers, alone or together, are acceptable treatments in elderly subjects. PMID:3312529
Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959
Main, John, Ed.
The complex moral issues of dealing with elderly people are delineated in this manual for teachers responsible for changing the attitudes of young people toward this subject. Six major themes are considered: (1) attitudes toward the elderly; (2) the elderly in our society; (3) problems of the elderly; (4) the elderly and the work force; (5) the…
A disproportionate share of the U.S. elderly population lives in nonmetro areas and has substantially more poverty than the metro elderly population. The nonmetro elderly's poverty rate was 21% in 1980 versus 13% for metro elderly, while median incomes were $4,111 versus $5,003. Lower personal incomes of the nonmetro elderly, regression analysis…
Weisz, George M
Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510
Background In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a “good death” is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician’s ability to manage deaths well. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Conclusions Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development. PMID:25147481
Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A
Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.
Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D
An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744
Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia
This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. PMID:26568222
Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue
This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other press outlets in…
Lionakis, Nikolaos; Mendrinos, Dimitrios; Sanidas, Elias; Favatas, Georgios; Georgopoulou, Maria
The elderly are the most rapidly growing population group in the world. Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. The risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart disease, chronic kidney insufficiency and dementia is also increased in this subgroup of hypertensives. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to cardiovascular specialists and other practioners. During the last years and before the findings of the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial were published, the general medical opinion considered not to decrease blood pressure values similarly to other younger patients, in order to avoid possible ischemic events and poor oxygenation of the organs (brain, heart, kidney). The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of treating hypertension in aged population in order to improve their quality of life and lower the incidence of the cardiovascular complications. PMID:22655162
Ismail, Zabidah; Mohamed, Rafeezul; Mohd Hassan, Mohd Hashim; Wan Su, Kamaruzaman
The elderly consume many medications including traditional medicines. In 1986, it was found that 29% of elderly took traditional medicines although in 1996, the National Health Morbidity survey reported a 2.3% prevalence. However, studies from other countries showed much higher percentages. The Ministry of Health in Malaysia is concerned that some of these preparations maybe contaminated with steroids, antihistamines, hormones and other poisons. The aims of the study were to determine a). the health seeking behaviour of elderly Malays living in rural areas, b). the utilization of both modern and traditional medicines and c). the steroid content of the traditional medicines used. Methodology included interviews using structured questionnaires of elderly Malays living in rural areas of Kelantan, aged above 60 years. Samples of traditional medications collected were sent to the Pharmacology Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, for steroid content analysis using Thin Layer Chromatography. A total of 599 elderly respondents were interviewed comprising 62.4% females and 37.6% males. The 60–69 years cohort group made up 48.7%, followed by 70–79 years at 36.1% and the remainder 15.2% were more than 80 years. There were 82% of elderly taking medicines. The trends of utilization of modern and traditional medicine in the last two weeks among elderly were 59.3% and 40.9% respectively. The utilization of traditional medicine by rural elderly Malays was therefore much higher than that reported in the previous study and nearly similar to that of France and Australian studies. There were 102 samples of traditional medications collected and analysed for steroid content. Results showed that 27.5% were positive for prednisolone, 34.3% positive for unknown steroids (a total of 61.8%) and 38.2% were negative for both steroids. The present study therefore once again confirmed the high usage of traditional medicines where some of which are contaminated
Watters, James M.
The elderly (those 75 years of age or older) are a heterogeneous group. They present with both elective and urgent surgical problems, and risk assessment, decision-making and perioperative care are typically more challenging than in younger patients. An appreciation for this heterogeneity and an understanding of how physiologic changes of aging affect surgical care are essential if the best outcomes are to be achieved. PMID:11939651
This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem. PMID:21253160
Robles, Nicolas R; Macias, Juan F
Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. Aging is an inevitable part of life and brings along two inconvenient events: physiologic decline and disease state. High blood pressure (HBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. It is a significant and often asymptomatic chronic disease, which requires optimal control and persistent adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risks of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to geriatric and cardiovascular specialists and other practitioners. Furthermore, with the wide adoption of multiple drug strategies targeting subgroups of hypertensive patients with specific risk conditions to lower blood pressure (BP), difficult questions arise about how aggressive treatment of elderly patients should be. The purpose of the following chapter article is to review the pathophysiology of aging as well as the epidemiology and the clinical assessment of high blood pressure (HBP) in older people. PMID:25761101
Lasses y Ojeda, Luis Alberto; Gutiérrez, Jorge Luis Torres; Salazar, Eduardo
Age is an independent and unmodifiable risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. In Mexico, coronary heart disease is responsible for 50 % of the deaths for those older than 65 years of age. Aging produces major differences in the presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy in coronary heart disease. The goal of treatment is the prolongation of survival and the improvement of the quality of life. However, in the elderly, the aim of therapy should focus on attaining a meaningful quality of life thus allowing them to be functionally independent. Clinical trials demonstrate conclusively that lowering serum cholesterol levels will reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease irrespective of age. Dietary advise and life-style modifications are the first-line approach in the elderly. When these measures are insufficient to achieve target lipid reductions, statins are the drug of choice. Fibrates may be indicated if triglycerides are high and C-HDL is low. Given the grater coronary risk of older population, the absolute benefit will be greater in the elderly. PMID:15709510
Connon, Felicity V; Rosenthal, Mark A; Drummond, Katherine
Glioblastoma is the most malignant and most common primary brain tumour and is treated with resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, a significant amount of patients are older than 80 years, and such an approach may not be appropriate. Data on patients aged 80 or older with glioblastoma from two hospitals was collected using the CNS Tumour Database on the Australian Comprehensive Cancer Outcomes and Research Database (ACCORD) system operated by BioGrid. Between 2008 and July 2011, 40 patients aged 80 years or older were diagnosed with glioblastoma. The median ECOG PS was 2 and the ASA score was 3. All 40 patients underwent surgery and 33% had a gross total resection. Only six patients (15%) had either post-operative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The overall median survival was 4 months (range 0-18 months) and 28% of patients lived between 6 and 24 months. This is the largest reported cohort of very elderly patients with glioblastoma. Patients tolerated surgery but few went on to receive post-operative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This patient population requires special attention and in particular would benefit from participation in suitable clinical trials to determine the best care regime. PMID:26208944
Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. PMID:25331371
Hamacher, Duane W.
In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the
Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…
O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.
This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby); (2) "One…
Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…
Bennett, Brett M
Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086
Reviews the assistance provided by governments to students in Australian universities. First provides some background information on the history and structure of the Australian higher education sector and then discusses the two major forms of government financial assistance: assistance with fees and assistance through income support. (EV)
In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…
Kabir, Nahid Afrose
Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…
Nakata, Martin; Nakata, Vicky; Keech, Sarah; Bolt, Reuben
The challenges of finding more productive ways of teaching and learning in Australian Indigenous Studies have been a key focal point for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network. This article contributes to this discussion by drawing attention to new possibilities for teaching and learning practices amid the priority being…
This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…
The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…
Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161
Morris, Lilah F.; Zelada, Juliette; Wu, Bian; Hahn, Theodore J.
Introduction. The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is expected to increase in developed nations as the aged population grows. This review discusses issues related to PHPT in the elderly population with a focus on differences in disease presentation, medical and surgical management, and outcomes. Methods. Literature review of English-language studies of PHPT or parathyroidectomy (PTx) in the elderly was performed. Surgical literature reviewed included original clinical studies published after 1990. Priority was given to studies with >30 patients where institutional practice and outcomes have not changed significantly over time. Results. Elderly patients primarily present with nonclassic symptoms of PHPT that can sometimes be missed in favor of other diagnoses. They have equivalent surgical outcomes, including morbidity, mortality, and cure rates, compared with younger patients, although their length of hospital stay is significantly longer. Several recent studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of outpatient, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in an elderly population. Patients are referred for PTx less frequently with each advancing decade, although surgical referral patterns have increased over time in centers that offer minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Elderly patients experience increased fracture-free survival after PTx. The majority of elderly patients report symptomatic relief postoperatively. Conclusion. PTx can offer elderly patients with PHPT improved quality of life. PTx is safe and effective in elderly patients, and advanced age alone should not deter surgical referral. PMID:21159725
Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)
McGhee, Jerrie L.
Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…
Gheno, Ramon; Cepparo, Juan M.; Rosca, Cristina E.; Cotten, Anne
Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly. The resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population. The aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly, such as fractures, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, microcrystal disorders, infections, and tumors. PMID:22919553
Bruening, Martin H; Maddern, Guy J
A significant proportion of the Australian population resides nonmetropolitan regions. For the majority of these smaller regional centers, the surgical service delivery has been traditionally provided by either solo or two-person surgical practices. As medical students' interest in rural practice declined, new models were created to ensure medical care in these areas. This article outlines the past and current state of medical care in rural areas, highlighting models used in Port Augusta, Mount Gambier, and Port Lincoln. It concludes that these models are successful and should be further developed. PMID:19944815
Coffin, Millard F.
Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).
Clarke, Philip A.
Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045
The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267
Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.
Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)
Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D
The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109
Pytka, Dorota; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio. This constellation reduces immunity against a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and alters the response to vaccinations. CMV infection could also influence the pathophysiology of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, however, the mechanism of such influence is still not clear. It is not clear as well, whether CMV infection influences the all-cause and cardiovascular diseases-related mortality. In conclusion, CMV infection could intensify immunosenescence and contribute to age-related diseases, but inconsistent results of many experiments do not allow currently to define clear guidelines for the treatment of CMV infection in elderly. PMID:27526428
Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. PMID:24951302
González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela
The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment. PMID:26715222
Gallarda, T; Lôo, H
"Depression" and "old age" are often associated among our contemporaries. In this case, "depression" is understood to be "existential despair" and not a "depressive disease": an amalgam is made of the tragedy of the patient's existence and a pathological condition. Clinical pictures of depression, the pathological nature of which is obvious, are frequent in the elderly; however, the line between normal and pathological becomes less clear above a certain symptomatic threshold, in the presence of chronic evolutions and in situations of comorbidity. The nosographical tool, in spite of its limits, is precious. Epidemiological studies that include the comorbidities of the depressive episode with cognitive and/or somatic affections permit better estimations of the prevalence of the symptoms and the depressive problems among elderly populations. The formula "depression is depression at whatever age" harbours a certain truth if one takes into account the multiple factors that modify the symptomatic expression of depression in later life. The most documented factor is the comorbidity of depression with somatic affections that is present in the majority of those aged over 80. Other psychological or sociocultural factors are also apparent, but their influence has been studied less. The decline in cognitive performance observed during depression is not exclusive to the elderly but is undeniably more marked in this population. Making an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, conversely, eliminating this diagnosis in a depressed patient complaining of diminished cognition is an essential step in the subsequent management. Together with the neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging, required for diagnosis, a neuropsychogeriatric pluridisciplinary assessment is obviously required. The management of geriatric depression is based on various approaches that include somatic care, psychotropic drugs, brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy, but also requires
The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.
Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie
Abstract Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available. The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features. The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available. Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990
Haverd, V.; Raupach, M. R.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Davis, S. J.; Law, R. M.; Meyer, C. P.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Sherman, B.
This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2) budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990-2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP); net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC); riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock) and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial). Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012), a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05°) offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011), a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean) and 68 ± 15 TgC yr-1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes), which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr-1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr-1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP) is 36 ± 29 TgC yr-1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr-1) by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV) in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009-2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.
Kliewer, E V
The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261
Macchione, C; Tamietti, E
With the improvement of quality life in the elderly of technologically developed countries, sexuality has become an important aspect of aging. In the elderly there is a progressive decline of organic functions; the decrease of sexual and procreating activity is linked with the impaired male hormonal production. The four stages of sexual function are modified: 1. delayed erection; 2. plateau prolongation; 3. orgasm modifications; 4. fast penis detumescence. In addition to organic impairment, aesthetic, social, environmental and psychological factors can restrict sexual activity, as well as past sexual experiences and co-morbidity. There are specific aspects concerning sexuality in the elderly, such as the increased chances of public relations and emotional involvement, the more intense psychic activity and the stronger process of removal and sublimation of impulses. In conclusion the best way to deal with sexuality in the elderly is the multidimensional assessment. PMID:8252083
Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.
The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)
Detailed and wide-ranging suggestions are offered for reforming Australia's higher degree requirements. The author, an Australian PhD, compares them with requirements in other countries and finds them "particularly regressive, unenlightened, intellectually counterproductive, undemocratic, and uncivilized." (JSR)
Leslie, Tabi Anika
Itch is a common symptom in the elderly population over 65 years old, and is often a chronic condition lasting more than 6 weeks. As in all age groups, but especially in the elderly, there can be a significant effect on the general health status and quality of life, with impaired daily activities and lack of sleep, which can also lead in some cases to depression or anxiety. The cause of chronic itch in the elderly is often multifactorial due to physiological changes in the aging skin, including impaired skin barrier function, and also due to decline in immunological (immunosenescence), neurological, and psychological changes associated with age. Common causes of chronic pruritus in the aging skin include xerosis (dry skin), dermatological disorders (eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus), and systemic (renal, hepatic, endocrine), neurodegenerative, and psychological diseases. Comorbidities in the elderly population lead to polypharmacy, increasing the potential risk of drug side effects, which can result in causing or exacerbating itch in the elderly patient. It is essential to obtain a detailed history, including drugs, as well as a thorough clinical examination with appropriate subsequent investigations. Management of the elderly patient with chronic pruritus should include treatment with topical therapies such as emollients as well as other agents for symptomatic relief. Systemic therapies should be directed at any underlying cutaneous or systemic diseases. Often the cause of itch in the elderly cannot be found and some systemic treatments can be used for symptomatic control of the itch, including antihistamines, gabapentin, and selective antidepressants. A holistic approach needs to be taken on an individual basis to relieve chronic pruritus, as the management of itch in the elderly can be a challenge. PMID:27578088
Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin
Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future. PMID:26748448
Tiwari, S. C.; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Aditya; Kar, A. M.; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, V. K.; Agarwal, G. G.
Background: Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data. Materials and Methods: A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity. Results: The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses
Brown, James; Simpson, Graham
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569
Brown, James; Simpson, Graham
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569
Prasad, A S; Fitzgerald, J T; Hess, J W; Kaplan, J; Pelen, F; Dardenne, M
Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in "A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans" were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels. Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5'-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people. PMID:8353362
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers. PMID:22394662
Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael
International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…
Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.
This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and phrases used…
van Iersel, Marianne B; Jansen, David R M; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde
Older people differ in their level of multimorbidity, functional dependence and need for assistance. Frailty is a recently constructed syndromatic entity used to characterize vulnerable older people with an increased risk of functional decline, institutionalization and death. This is illustrated by the case history of a 97-year-old woman. In addition to somatic multimorbidity, she suffered from fatigue, weight loss, diminished strength and mood, fear of falling and a decreased gait velocity, without a clear link to a disease. The term 'frailty' is useful in such cases and its application is quickly expanding. Frailty highlights the need to individualize and integrate guidelines for treatment, and to prevent adverse outcomes by choosing health care interventions fit for such frail elderly. However, in practice the frailty syndrome is defined by diverse sets of criteria. As frailty is used to predict different adverse outcomes, a single definition is not possible. Awareness of the advantages and pitfalls of the frailty concept may lead to fruitful clinical application. PMID:20015415
Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad
Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old), DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is “go slowly and individualize” to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. PMID:26693423
Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad
Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60-65 years old), DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is "go slowly and individualize" to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. PMID:26693423
Moreaud, Olivier; David, Danielle; Brutti-Mairesse, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Matthieu; Mémin, Armelle
Aphasia is common in elderly patients in the context of vascular or neurodegenerative disorders. In some cases, aphasia is an isolated symptom, occurring suddenly after a stroke, or developing progressively as a primary progressive aphasia. The diagnosis and treatment are then very similar in older and younger patients. Therapy may be more complicated because of the high prevalence, in older patients, of associated non linguistic symptoms (attentional and dysexecutive symptoms, behavioral and psychological symptoms or sensorial deficits), fatigability, and comprehension deficits. It may then become very difficult to recognize aphasia among all these disorders and to appreciate the physiopathology. A complete evaluation of language, cognitive functions, psychopathology, and behavior is very helpful, as are neuroimaging techniques (MRI is the most relevant). A good knowledge of classical aphasic pictures associated with stroke, Alzheimer disease or related disorders, is highly recommended. Rehabilitation must be proposed even for older patients, so far as aphasia alters the communication abilities. It must be kept in mind that associated symptoms may limit considerably the therapy. PMID:20215098
Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.
The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847
Frey, William H.
Examines how 1990 state elderly populations have been affected by "new elderly births" (a state's population, ages 55-59 in 1985, which survived to ages 60-64 in 1990) as well as by migration components. During the 1985-90 period, elderly births exerted a greater impact than migration on elderly gains and demographic composition for all states.…
Thomson, Norman J.
The clearing of over 80% of the native vegetation from Australian agricultural areas has contributed significantly to the degradation classification applied to more than half this land. Soil erosion, siltation, and salinity damage continue to increase yearly. This situation not only threatens the productivity of the farm sector but has contributed to the estimated loss of 78 species of native flora, endangerment of an additional 2206 species, and the loss of 20 species of Australia's marsupials. Private returns diverge from social returns because the action (or inaction) of farmers has an impact upon others, both now and in the future. There is justification, therefore, for the public sector to intervene on behalf of society in an attempt to influence private decision making for the social good. This article argues for increased incentives from the public sector in Australia to encourage the voluntary cooperation of farmers to improve the balance between development and conservation. In contrast to the essentially temporary nature of man-made measures such as flood-mitigating capital works, increasing the area set aside to native bushland offers scope for the permanent stewardship of the resource—land.
Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.
The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.
The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…
Gross, Douglas; Capuzzi, Dave
A major problem of the elderly, alcoholism, has received little emphasis in counseling literature. This article presents physiological, sociological, and psychological aspects of alcoholism as they apply to the elderly. Conclusions and recommendations for counselor education programing are discussed. (Author)
Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Berrut, Gilles; Jeandel, Claude
Elderly people are more likely to develop severe infections diseases. Given the significant increase in the number of the elderly population, reducing the risk of infection by vaccination is a major preventive approach. The immunization schedule for 2014 in France yields, for the first time, vaccination recommendations for patients over 65 years. Tetanus-Diphtheria-Poliomyelitis vaccination is recommended to be given at the age of 65 years and then every 10 years, together with the pertussis vaccine to protect infants less than 6 months. Recommendation for vaccinations against seasonal influenza in autumn is maintained by the High Council for Public Health, which estimates that the population benefit persists despite the lower individual effectiveness in the elderly. The pneumococcal vaccine is recommended only in high-risk populations, and only once after the age 65. Zoster vaccine is recommended between 65 and 74, and the first year of its availability, can be proposed to elderly patients between 75 and 79 years. Vaccination in the elderly must be enhanced, and information about its advantages should be disseminated. PMID:26967928
Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita
The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033
Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.
Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…
Ater, E. Carolyn; Baugh, Carroll W.
Reviews problems of the elderly consumer and describes efforts to provide consumer education to rural elderly individuals through two series of one-day workshops. Evaluations indicated that consumer education can be effectively provided to rural elderly with a high degree of perceived usefulness and sharing of information. (Author/JAC)
Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés
The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided. PMID:22899142
McDaniel, Garry L.
The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…
Because the life expectancy of women is longer than that of men and because men seem to marry younger women, most of the literature on caregivers of the elderly has focusd on women who care for elderly, disabled husbands. In order to explore the role of men as caretakers of disabled wives, 25 elderly widowers (aged 63-93) participated in…
Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia
Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. PMID:23040954
The risks of polypharmacy are heightened in the elderly because of a number of factors including age-related physiologic changes and the presence of comorbid conditions. Polypharmacy is a strong predictor of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly in which harm may outweigh potential benefits. Despite available lists and criteria of PIMs from expert panels regarding inappropriate use of medications for older adults, prescribing of PIMs continues to be reported. Empowering clinicians with evidence-based guidance to safely and effectively discontinue PIMs by "deprescribing" is the subject of current research. Pharmacists can play an important role as part of the circle of care for the elderly. The acronym "MINDFUL" serves as a reminder of steps commonly used by pharmacists to assess appropriateness of medications and optimize health outcomes for their senior patients. PMID:26350893
Rehabilitation of elderly amputees raises several issues. Taking into account that amputations are frequently performed in elderly patients, with vascular diseases, it seems relevant to ask whether it is preferable to perform an amputation and quickly rehabilitate the patient or to attempt revascularisation and save the patient's limb. The knowledge of the outcome of amputation is crucial for the choice of treatment. Therefore, we discuss limb amputation in old patients in terms of epidemiology, aetiology, functional characteristics, specific problems and results with regards to expectations. Types and characteristics of prostheses, as well as rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness are briefly discussed. It is concluded that amputation is a mutilating procedure which carries for the elderly a poor outcome in terms of rehabilitation. Consequently any surgical procedure that may spare the limb should be preferred. PMID:9697394
Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah
The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite. PMID:25287294
Jordan, Justin T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Cahill, Daniel P; Plotkin, Scott R
Glioblastoma is common among elderly patients, a group in which comorbidities and a poor prognosis raise important considerations when designing neuro-oncologic care. Although the standard of care for nonelderly patients with glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, the safety and efficacy of these modalities in elderly patients are less certain given the population's underrepresentation in many clinical trials. The authors reviewed the clinical trial literature for reports on the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma to provide evidence-based guidance for practitioners. In elderly patients with glioblastoma, there is a survival advantage for those who undergo maximal safe resection, which likely includes an incremental benefit with increasing completeness of resection. Radiotherapy extends survival in selected patients, and hypofractionation appears to be more tolerable than standard fractionation. In addition, temozolomide chemotherapy is safe and extends the survival of patients with tumors that harbor O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. The combination of standard radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide has not been studied in this population. Although many questions remain unanswered regarding the treatment of glioblastoma in elderly patients, the available evidence provides a framework on which providers may base individual treatment decisions. The importance of tumor biomarkers is increasingly apparent in elderly patients, for whom the therapeutic efficacy of any treatment must be weighed against its potential toxicity. MGMT promoter methylation status has specifically demonstrated utility in predicting the efficacy of temozolomide and should be considered in treatment decisions when possible. Cancer 2016;122:189-197. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26618888
Nentwich, Lauren M; Grimmnitz, Benjamin
Neurologic diseases are a major cause of death and disability in elderly patients. Due to the physiologic changes and increased comorbidities that occur as people age, neurologic diseases are more common in geriatric patients and a major cause of death and disability in this population. This article discusses the elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with acute ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, seizures, and central nervous system infections. This article reviews the subtle presentations, difficult workups, and complicated treatment decisions as they pertain to our older patients." PMID:27475016
Valenti, G; Fabbo, A
Grade 2,3 and 4 hypothyroidism in the elderly, globally defined as subclinical hypothyroidism, is the object of this minireview. Attention is focused on the prevalence, on the causes and particularly on the clinical features that, in spite of the definition, frequently occur: these are summarized in cognitive impairment, mood disorders, lipid dysmetabolism, cardiovascular abnormalities. Finally a diagnostic algorithm is proposed for the selection of patients to be treated. The authors are of the opinion that a general screening with serum TSH assay for elderly hospitalized patients is worthwhile. PMID:18653098
Tareen, Naureen; Martins, David; Nagami, Glenn; Levine, Barton; Norris, Keith C.
Disorders of sodium imbalance are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can have a substantial impact on the prognosis of the patient. These disorders are more common in the elderly. Sodium disorders can cause serious neurologic symptoms and even death, particularly among hospitalized patients. The identification of sodium abnormalities and appropriate clinical intervention are critical for improving patient outcomes. Early recognition of hyponatremia and hypernatremia can provide a clue to an underlying disorder. In this update, we have summarized age-related homeostatic changes that impair sodium balance, medications that alter salt and water handling, and the recognition and management of sodium disorders in elderly patients. PMID:15712785
Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.
Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview
Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry
The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…
Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas
In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…
Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug
This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…
Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…
Ashwell, K W S
Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and
Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.
Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)
Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.
Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey
The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan. PMID:25271030
Baum, Steven K.
Although researchers have investigated the chronological age-subjective age discrepancy in several ways, they have, for the most part, ignored where and how older persons live. The lifestyles of elderly Los Angeles residents (N=308), i.e., institutionalized, socially active in the community, or socially inactive in the community, were taken into…
Chappell, Neena L.
This paper briefly summarizes and discusses the current state of knowledge in the area of social gerontology. The major emphasis is on interactions with family and friends, particularly in the caregiving role. The health status of the elderly and their general life situation are also discussed. (Author)
Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio
Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728
Gordon, Michael; Isenberg, Yoel; Bain, Jerald
Hyperthyroidism in the elderly can mimic symptoms suggestive of aging or concomitant illnesses. The disease can cause serious problems and disabilities in older individuals. A strong sense of suspicion, the appropriate use of screening tests, and, when indicated, more definitive investigations usually results in the accurate diagnosis of a condition for which there is effective treatment. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21221299
Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)
Overall poverty rate increased from 12.1% in 1969 to 15.2% in 1983. Nonmetropolitan rates were 17% in both years. While poverty among elderly decreased, especially in nonmetropolitan areas, poverty among children rose. In 1981, 60% of metropolitan and 39% of nonmetropolitan children in poverty were in families headed by women. (NEC)
Polliack, Max R.
Some problems of the elderly are discussed in relation to a survey undertaken in an urban practice by a primary care team consisting of a family physician, a nurse, and a medical social worker. It was found that 10·6 per cent of the practice population were over the age of 65. Chronic disease was diagnosed in 87 per cent of these, with a high prevalence of multiple pathology and life-threatening and debilitating illnesses which interfered with their ability to function in their daily life. A large proportion of the elderly suffered from psychoneurosis, depression, and social problems. One sixth of the men and more than half the women had been widowed and were living alone. The elderly took up three times as many hospital days as the younger age groups and their admission rates were also three times as high. Nevertheless, admission rates and hospital days of patients from the practice were about half the local rates. This was attributed to the organized supervision and follow-up of this age group by the primary medical team. These findings are discussed in relation to the need for the family physician to undertake increasing responsibility for more comprehensive care of the elderly with the help of a geriatric consultant and his team, members of the primary care team, and other community agencies. PMID:6775076
D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo
Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082
Grognet, Allene Guss
For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…
van Melick, E J M
Central criteria for the definition of atypical antipsychotics are antipsychotic efficacy and minimal or none extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). This last criterium is of importance in the differentiation with the traditional antipsychotics. Of the four atypical antipsychotics which are discussed here, clozapine is the most atypical. The best proof is its good efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson psychosis with minimal adverse effects on motor function. Clozapine is the best choice for this indication. At this moment there is not enough evidence available concerning quetiapine. Risperidon and olanzapine give more Dopamine2-occupancy with higher doses and can evoke EPS, but this is still less compared to the traditional antipsychotics. All four atypical drugs cause less tardive dyskinesia. Atypical antipsychotics are not well studied in the treatment of elderly patients with functional psychosis. However the available information and the literature on the treatment of young adults makes it probable that the atypical antipsychotics are at least as effective in the elderly as the traditional antipsychotics. The median daily doses are lower for elderly than for younger patients. Risperidon has been proven effective in the treatment of agressive behaviour in dementia. Atypical antipsychotics have their 'own' adverse effects. Those which have the most impact in the elderly are discussed. PMID:15704604
Sleep disturbances are common in the elderly. Endogen regulation mechanisms are often unstable. Light treatment and melatonin are proved chronobiological interventions. Cataract surgery is effective to enhance the sleep-wake-rhythm.Mandibular advancement devices are a reliable alternative to continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). PMID:27509339
McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce
Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality
Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.
Hoffman, K; Nekhlyudov, L; Deligdisch, L
Endometrial carcinoma remains the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy. Increased longevity is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC) in elderly women. While recent studies have looked at aging and its relation to ovarian, breast, and cervical cancer, few have focused on EC in the growing elderly population. This study analyzed 35 histologic specimens of EC in women 75-92 years of age. Findings revealed that only 23% of the tumors were Stage I, G1. The majority (77%) were deeply invasive or of advanced stage (IC-IV). These were G2, G3, or "virulent" types of nonendometrioid EC (undifferentiated, clear cell, uterine serous papillary, and squamous cell carcinoma). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were endometrioid, of which 9% were mixed, including a rare case of nongestational choriocarcinoma. The nonendometrioid tumors, compared to the endometrioid types, were more often high-stage tumors with vascular invasion. They were also more often associated with atrophic (vs hyperplastic) uninvolved endometrium. Clinical risk factors (nulliparity, obesity, estrogen replacement therapy) were assessed and correlated with the histologic findings. It was shown that tumors in the elderly were less likely to be estrogen-related. It was concluded that EC in this age group is more aggressive, histologically less differentiated, and often nonendometrioid compared with EC in the general population. The increased virulence of EC in the elderly may be related to the tumor's independence from hormonal factors, to the poorly understood but well-known diminished immunologic defense against cancer in general in elderly patients, and/or to the belated diagnosis of the disease in this population. PMID:7622105
Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T
Erythropoietin (Epo) is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development that either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of Epo or promote Epo production, which stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents under active investigation include continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) or proline hydroxylase inhibitors that increase hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), thereby stimulating Epo production and iron availability and supply. Erythropoietic agents have been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and to decrease post-stroke infarct size in mouse models. They have also been reported to shorten survival when used to treat anemia in many cancer patients and to increase thromboembolism. In contrast, rapid decrease of Epo levels as observed in astronauts and high-altitude dwellers upon rapid descent to sea level leads to the decrease of erythroid mass, a phenomenon known as "neocytolysis." The relative decrease in the serum Epo level is known to occur in some subjects with otherwise unexplained anemia of aging. Anemia by itself is a predictor of poor physical function in the elderly and is a significant economic burden on society. One out of every five persons in the United States will be elderly by 2050. Erythropoietic agents, by preventing and treating otherwise unexplained anemias of the elderly and anemia associated with other disease conditions of the elderly, have the potential to improve the functional capacity and to decrease the morbidity and mortality in the elderly, thereby alleviating the overall burden of medical care in society. PMID:18809098
Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal
Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic disease over the past 50 years. Its incidence increases the most rapidly in the senior population, i.e. among people older than 65. In a number of countries 1/4 of the people with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Geriatrics now examines numerous differences regarding the senior patients, which often lead to somewhat different therapeutic procedures as compared to the treatment of other adult patients. This paper aims to show some different aspects of the treatment of an elderly patient with diabetes. The intensity of diabetes treatment in the elderly is mainly defined by the incidence of symptoms caused by diabetic decompensation which negatively affect quality of life and are likely to increase mortality. The treatment goals expressed by HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, should be set individually based on age, initial HbA1c, present comorbidities and the level of frailty of an elderly patient. An effort to reduce weight regarding people at an older age is probably inappropriate and maybe even harmful, while physical activity reduces mortality and slows muscle catabolism at every age. Ideal is normal walking for 20-30 minutes a day. Except for "very fit elders" without renal insufficiency, the sulfonylurea treatment is unsuitable and perhaps even harmful. It significantly increases the incidence of different types of hypoglycemia and very likely overall mortality as well. The basis of diabetes treatment for the elderly is the effort to perform any regular exercise. In regard to medication treatment it is recommended to choose metformin or gliptin following the rule "start low, go slow", i.e. start with low medication doses and increase them at a slow pace. The main goal of the treatment is to maintain the good quality of life as long as possible, without symptoms associated with hyperglycemia with minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia development. PMID:25894262
Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T.
Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development, which either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of erythropoietin or promote erythropoietin production that stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents stimulating erythropoiesis (such as continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) or proline hydroxylase inhibitors that increase HIF-1 thereby stimulating erythropoietin production and iron availability and supply) are under active investigation. Erythropoietic agents have been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and to decrease post-stroke infarct size in mouse models. They have also been reported to shorten survival when used to treat anemia in many cancer patients and to increase thromboembolism. In contrast, rapid decrease of erythropoietin levels as observed in astronauts and high-altitude dwellers upon rapid descent to sea level leads to the decrease of erythroid mass, a phenomenon known as neocytolysis. The relative decrease in the serum erythropoietin level is known to occur in some subjects with otherwise unexplained anemia of aging. Anemia by itself is a predictor of poor physical function in the elderly and is a significant economic burden on society. One out of every five persons in the United States will be elderly by 2050. Erythropoietic agents, by preventing and treating otherwise unexplained anemias of the elderly and anemia associated with other disease conditions of the elderly, have the potential to improve the functional capacity and to decrease the morbidity and mortality in the elderly, thereby alleviating the overall burden of medical care in society. PMID:18809098
This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…
In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…
Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W
Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845
The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…
Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry
Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…
Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…
Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…
Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…
Todd, Ross J.
Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…
Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.
This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…
Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep
A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…
Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan
The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…
Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell
In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…
This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…
Lo Bianco, Joseph
Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…
Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra
This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…
McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John
While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…
Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)