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1

The Classic Measure of Disability in Activities of Daily Living Is Biased by Age but an Expanded IADL/ADL Measure Is Not  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate, by age, the performance of 2 disability measures based on needing help: one using 5 classic activities of daily living (ADL) and another using an expanded set of 14 activities including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), walking, getting outside, and ADL (IADL/ADL). Methods. Guttman and item response theory (IRT) scaling methods are used with a large (N = 25,470) nationally representative household survey of individuals aged 18 years and older. Results. Guttman scalability of the ADL items increases steadily with age, reaching a high level at ages 75 years and older. That is reflected in an IRT model by age-related differential item functioning (DIF) resulting in age-biased measurement of ADL. Guttman scalability of the IADL/ADL items also increases with age but is lower than the ADL. Although age-related DIF also occurs with IADL/ADL items, DIF is lower in magnitude and balances out without causing age bias. Discussion. An IADL/ADL scale measuring need for help is hierarchical, unidimensional, and unbiased by age. It has greater content validity for measuring need for help in the community and shows greater sensitivity by age than the classic ADL measure. As demand for community services is increasing among adults of all ages, an expanded IADL/ADL measure is more useful than ADL. PMID:20100786

2010-01-01

2

Trends in ADL and IADL Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Shanghai, China, 1998-2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated trends in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability from 1998 to 2008 among elder adults in Shanghai, China. Method. Our data came from 4 waves of the Shanghai Longitudinal Survey of Elderly Life and Opinion (1998, 2003, 2005, and 2008). ADL and IADL disabilities were recorded dichotomously (difficulty vs. no difficulty). The major independent variable was survey year. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomic conditions, family and social support, and other health conditions. Nested random-effect models were applied to estimate trends over time, referenced to 1998. Results. In comparison with the baseline year (1998), older adults in 2008 had lower odds of being ADL disabled, though the effect was no longer statistically significant when other health conditions were taken into account. Elders in 2003, 2005, and 2008 were 20%–26%, 17%–38%, and 53%–64% less likely to be IADL disabled than those in 1998, respectively, depending on the set of covariates included in the model. Discussion. Shanghai elders experienced substantial improvements in both ADL and IADL disability prevalence over the past decade. The trend toward improvement in IADL function is more consistent and substantial than that of ADL function. PMID:23525547

2013-01-01

3

Cognitive Impairment as a Strong Predictor of Incident Disability in Specific Adl-Iadl Tasks among Community-Dwelling Elders: The Azuchi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined differential effects of cognitive impairment on each of the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks. Design and Methods: In a 3-year follow-up of community-dwelling elderly persons in Azuchi, Japan, we assessed cognition by using the Hasegawa Dementia Scale. We examined (a) the…

Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Yamakawa, Masanobu; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotugu

2005-01-01

4

Calibrating ADL-IADL scales to improve measurement accuracy and to extend the disability construct into the preclinical range: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in measuring functional status among nondisabled older adults has increased in recent years. This is, in part, due to the notion that adults identified as 'high risk' for functional decline portray a state that is potentially easier to reverse than overt disability. Assessing relatively healthy older adults with traditional self-report measures (activities of daily living) has proven difficult because these instruments were initially developed for institutionalised older adults. Perhaps less evident, are problems associated with change scores and the potential for 'construct under-representation', which reflects the exclusion of important features of the construct (e.g., disability). Furthermore, establishing a formal hierarchy of functional status tells more than the typical simple summation of functional loss, and may have predictive value to the clinician monitoring older adults: if the sequence task difficulty is accelerated or out of order it may indicate the need for interventions. Methods This review identified studies that employed item response theory (IRT) to examine or revise functional status scales. IRT can be used to transform the ordinal nature of functional status scales to interval level data, which serves to increase diagnostic precision and sensitivity to clinical change. Furthermore, IRT can be used to rank items unequivocally along a hierarchy based on difficulty. It should be noted that this review is not concerned with contrasting IRT with more traditional classical test theory methodology. Results A systematic search of four databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychInfo) resulted in the review of 2,192 manuscripts. Of these manuscripts, twelve met our inclusion/exclusion requirements and thus were targeted for further inspection. Conclusions Manuscripts presented in this review appear to summarise gerontology's best efforts to improve construct validity and content validity (i.e., ceiling effects) for scales measuring the early stages of activity restriction in community-dwelling older adults. Several scales in this review were exceptional at reducing ceiling effects, reducing gaps in coverage along the construct, as well as establishing a formal hierarchy of functional decline. These instrument modifications make it plausible to detect minor changes in difficulty for IADL items positioned at the edge of the disability continuum, which can be used to signal the onset of progressive type disability in older adults. PMID:21846335

2011-01-01

5

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2012-01-01

6

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2011-01-01

7

Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments  

PubMed Central

Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data from a cross-national sample of community residing persons was conducted using 762,023 interRAI assessments. The development of the new IADL Hierarchy and a new IADL-ADL combined scale proceeded through a series of interrelated steps first examining individual IADL and ADL item scores among persons receiving home care and those living independently without services. A factor analysis demonstrated the overall continuity across the IADL-ADL continuum. Evidence of the validity of the scales was explored with associative analyses of factors such as a cross-country distributional analysis for persons in home care programs, a count of functional problems across the categories of the hierarchy, an assessment of the hours of informal and formal care received each week by persons in the different categories of the hierarchy, and finally, evaluation of the relationship between cognitive status and the hierarchical IADL-ADL assignments. Results Using items from interRAI’s suite of assessment instruments, two new functional scales were developed, the interRAI IADL Hierarchy Scale and the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale. The IADL Hierarchy Scale consisted of 5 items, meal preparation, housework, shopping, finances and medications. The interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale was created through an amalgamation of the ADL Hierarchy (developed previously) and IADL Hierarchy Scales. These scales cover the spectrum of IADL and ADL challenges faced by persons in the community. Conclusions An integrated IADL and ADL functional assessment tool is valuable. The loss in these areas follows a general hierarchical pattern and with the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale, this progression can be reliably and validly assessed. Used across settings within the health continuum, it allows for monitoring of individuals from relative independence through episodes of care. PMID:24261417

2013-01-01

8

Understanding the Complexities of Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: More Than Just Basic and Instrumental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (AD) is defined by both cognitive and functional decline; new criteria allow for identification of milder, non-functionally impaired patients. Understanding loss of autonomy in AD is essential, as later stages represent a significant burden and cost to patients, their families, and society. The purpose of the present analyses was to determine the factor structure of the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL) in a cohort of AD patients. Methods: Baseline ADCS-ADL assessments of 734 AD patients from the PLASA study were included in an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Because the ADCS-ADL was designed to assess change over time, change from baseline scores over 2 years were also analyzed using an EFA. Factorial solutions were evaluated based on cross-loading, non-loadings, and number of items per factor. Results: Mean age at baseline was 79.3, mean MMSE was 19.8 and 73.3‰ of participants were female. Baseline data suggested a 4-factor solution that included factors for basic ADLs (BADLs), domestic/household activities, communication/engagement with the environment, and outside activities. The change scores EFA suggested a 2-factor solution of BADLs and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Conclusions: Distinct factors of IADLs should be considered for further validation as areas of attention to catch early functional decline.

Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Coley, Nicola; Lepage, Benoit; Cantet, Christelle; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

2014-01-01

9

Expansion of Elderly Couples' IADL Caregiver Networks beyond the Marital Dyad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors influencing expansion of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) caregiver networks beyond the spouse/partner were studied, using data from the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) nationally representative sample of American elders (ages 70 and older). Analyses were based on 427 Black and White couples in which…

Feld, Sheila; Dunkle, Ruth E.; Schroepfer, Tracy; Shen, Huei-Wern

2006-01-01

10

Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

2014-01-01

11

Shallow encoding and forgetting are associated with dependence in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults living with HIV infection.  

PubMed

Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (?50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence. PMID:24695591

Fazeli, Pariya L; Doyle, Katie L; Scott, J Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

2014-05-01

12

Validity and reliability of the Arabic version of Activities of Daily Living (ADL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Activity of Daily Living (ADL) is an instrument that screens elderly respondents for physical functioning and assesses whether they are dependent or independent in their daily activities. This study demonstrates a translation procedure and obtains the reliability and validity of a translated, Arabic ADL. METHODS: The ADL was translated to Arabic through a forward translation method followed by

Ramzi Nasser; Jacqueline Doumit

2009-01-01

13

HomeADL for adaptive ADL monitoring within smart homes.  

PubMed

In this paper we present homeADL: a representation standard for an inference hierarchy of activities of daily living which may be monitored in a sensor equipped smart home. The approach allows a free exchange of ADL monitoring structures between different communities who share the same concern of providing high quality healthcare to the elderly. Its ability of matching different ADL protocols enables a mapping between an ADL protocol to a suitable smart home which makes an effective management of smart homes within a community hence, not only being able to satisfy an individual's healthcare requirements but also efficiently using monitoring resources at hand. PMID:19163419

Hong, Xin; Nugent, Chris D; Finlay, Dewar D; Mulvenna, Maurice

2008-01-01

14

Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation Beyond BADL and IADL Competencies  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions.?Design and Methods:?Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the ACS using a Q-sort (successive pile sort procedure), in which respondents sorted 39 nonbasic activities of daily living (non-BADL) and noninstrumental activities of daily living (non-IADL) tasks into four categories: “never performed,” “used to but no longer perform,” “hard to do,” and “easy to do.” Lifestyle-adjusted function was defined as the number reported easy/(number easy + number hard + number no longer performed).?Results:?Respondents reported that they found it easy to perform about 60% of the activities they ever performed. However, people reporting BADL and IADL disability found it easy to perform only 32% of these activities. Lower extremity performance and depressive symptoms were significant independent correlates of lifestyle-adjusted function in models that controlled for sociodemographic and clinical status. The same 2 correlates were significant in models that excluded people with self-reported BADL or IADL disability.?Implications:?Because this measure eliminates activities never performed, it can be considered “lifestyle adjusted.” Its ability to identify differences in competency among people who do not report BADL or IADL disability suggests that it may be a useful addition to functional assessment. PMID:19506030

Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

2009-01-01

15

Association of the Spatial Layout of the Home and ADL Abilities Among Older Adults With Dementia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between architectural space syntax measures describing the spatial layout of a home and activities of daily living (ADL) among people with dementia. We visited the homes of 82 participants in a dementia care comparative effectiveness clinical trial and measured the space syntax variables intelligibility and convexity along with several clinical variables, including ADLs. In regression models, we estimated the cross-sectional association between space syntax measures and ADLs. Higher convexity was associated with worse performance of basic but not instrumental ADLs (adjusted ? = 19.2, P = .02). Intelligibility was not associated with ADLs. These results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home resulting in better basic ADL performance. These results warrant further research on space syntax measures in the home environment of people with dementia, including longitudinal study, which we are pursuing. PMID:21282278

Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S.; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Samus, Quincy M.

2011-01-01

16

Malperformance in Verbal Fluency and Delayed Recall as Cognitive Risk Factors for Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maintaining independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is crucial for older adults. This study explored the association between cognitive and functional performance in general and in single IADL domains. Also, risk factors for developing IADL impairment were assessed. Methods: Here, 3,215 patients aged 75–98 years were included. Data were collected during home visits. Results: Cognitive functioning was

Mirjam Koehler; Matthias Kliegel; Birgitt Wiese; Horst Bickel; Hanna Kaduszkiewicz; Hendrik van den Bussche; Sandra Eifflaender-Gorfer; Marion Eisele; Angela Fuchs; Hans-Helmut Koenig; Hanna Leicht; Tobias Luck; Wolfgang Maier; Edelgard Moesch; Steffi Riedel-Heller; Franziska Tebarth; Michael Wagner; Siegfried Weyerer; Thomas Zimmermann; Michael Pentzek

2011-01-01

17

The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living Scale (B-ADL): Results from a Validation Study in Three European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living Scale (B-ADL) is a 25-item, informant-rated questionnaire which was developed as a brief and internationally applicable instrument for assessing functional disabilities. The scale’s target group are elderly patients suffering from mild to moderate dementia or cognitive impairment. To investigate the reliability and validity of different language versions, the B-ADL was administered in the UK, Germany,

Hellmut Erzigkeit; Hartmut Lehfeld; Jordi Peña-Casanova; Florian Bieber; Chirin Yekrangi-Hartmann; Markus Rupp; F. Rappard; Klaus Arnold; Ian Hindmarch

2001-01-01

18

ADL2Net v0.8 Reference Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADL2N is a multiplatform tool written in Java that provides an easy generation of behaviour models for the Fractal Component Model. Starting from a component specification written in ADL (Architecture Description Language), this application automatically generates the behaviour model expressed as an Labelled Transition System (in FC2 format). As input, the user should provide the ADL and implementations of the

Marcela Rivera

19

Type of High-School Credentials and Older Age ADL and IADL Limitations: Is the GED Credential Equivalent to a Diploma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Educational attainment is a robust predictor of disability in elderly Americans: older adults with high-school (HS) diplomas have substantially lower disability than individuals who did not complete HS. General Educational Development (GED) diplomas now comprise almost 20% of new HS credentials issued annually in the United States but it…

Liu, Sze Yan; Chavan, Niraj R.; Glymour, M. Maria

2013-01-01

20

Using a Body-Fixed Sensor to Identify Subclinical Gait Difficulties in Older Adults with IADL Disability: Maximizing the Output of the Timed Up and Go  

PubMed Central

Objective The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG) testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. Methods We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30±7.04 yrs, 76.62% female) participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit), walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability), all of whom did not have mobility disability. Results As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03), compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004) during turns, were slower (p<0.001), and had less consistent gait (p<0.02). Conclusions A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults. PMID:23922665

Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

21

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance Among People With Parkinson's Disease Without Dementia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the performance of cognitively demanding instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) without dementia. METHOD. Seventy-seven participants with PD and 57 participants without PD underwent standardized, performance-based IADL evaluation using the Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills. Activity performance was rated for independence, adequacy, and safety. RESULTS. The PD group had lower independence and adequacy scores than the non-PD group for almost every activity. Medication management, shopping, and sharp utensil use were the activities most sensitive to group differences. In the PD group, older age, lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and decreased motor function were associated with poorer IADL performance. CONCLUSIONS. People with relatively early and mild PD demonstrated measurable deficits in the performance of cognitively demanding IADLs. This work highlights the importance of using objective assessments of IADL function to detect early functional changes in people with PD. PMID:24797199

2014-01-01

22

Alexandria Digital Library Project The ADL Gazetteer Protocol  

E-print Network

Alexandria Digital Library Project The ADL Gazetteer Protocol Greg Jan�e gjanee@alexandria.ucsb.edu #12;Alexandria Digital Library Project 2Greg Jan�e / ESRI User Conference / July 11, 2001 Outline Goals Abstract gazetteer model Services Query language Examples #12;Alexandria Digital Library Project 3

Janée, Greg

23

UCPOP: A Sound, Complete, Partial Order Planner for ADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the ucpop partial order planningalgorithm which handles a subset ofPednault's ADL action representation. Inparticular, ucpop operates with actions thathave conditional effects, universally quantifiedpreconditions and effects, and with universallyquantified goals. We prove ucpop isboth sound and complete for this representationand describe a practical implementationthat succeeds on all of Pednault's andMcDermott's examples, including the infamous"Yale Stacking Problem"...

J. Scott Penberthy; Daniel S. Weld

1992-01-01

24

Composing architectural crosscutting structures in xADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing a software architecture is about defining and compos- ing highlevel design structures. Whereas describing several struc- tures is is fairly well supported, both non-aspect-oriented and aspect- oriented Architectural Description Languages (ADLs) fall short when it comes to documenting relations or compositions between architecturally- relevant crosscutting structures. This makes in turn separation of important concerns in the architecture hard, thereby

Nelis Boucke; Alessandro Garcia; Tom Holvoet

25

Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign Out Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation This measure ... Chart Title} Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation Download these ...

26

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairment Is Associated with Increased Amyloid Burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment in Alzheimer’s disease has been associated with global amyloid deposition in postmortem studies. We sought to determine whether IADL impairment is associated with increased cortical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention. Methods: Fifty-five subjects (19 normal older controls, NC, and 36 with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) underwent clinical assessments and dynamic PiB positron

Gad A. Marshall; Lauren E. Olson; Meghan T. Frey; Jacqueline Maye; J. Alex Becker; Dorene M. Rentz; Reisa A. Sperling; Keith A. Johnson

2011-01-01

27

Characteristic Profiles of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Different Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The purposes of this study were to describe restrictions in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to assess different patterns of IADL in each MCI subtype. Methods: A total of 566 participants, those not cognitively impaired (NCI; n = 311) and MCI patients (n = 255), 60–94 years old (71.25 ± 6.00), were

Kyung Ran Kim; Kang Soo Lee; Hae-Kwan Cheong; Jin-Sup Eom; Byoung Hoon Oh; Chang Hyung Hong

2009-01-01

28

Executive Function as a Predictor of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living(IADLs) in Community-dwelling Older Adults  

E-print Network

soccer ball when they saw intersecting arrows. In the first condition, the computer only showed the heart symbol and the words, or intersecting arrows and the words, separately. In the second condition, participants had to switch between the two...

Han, Ah-reum

2011-03-31

29

Audio Development Laboratory (ADL) User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ADL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Romero, Andy

2012-01-01

30

Characteristics of ADL ability on partially dependent older adults: comparison among different ambulatory activities levels.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of ADL ability among different ambulatory level groups. The subjects were 448 partially dependent older adults (PD; 126 male, 81.7 +/- 8.22 year; 322 female, 82.5 +/- 7.25 year) over 60 years of age, and they were divided into 3 groups based on ambulatory activity level; G1 could not walk without assistance; G2 could walk with a stick; G3 could walk without assistance. The PD were asked 17 ADL questionnaires representing seven ADL domains to evaluate the ADL ability. Total and domain ADL scores, and achievement rates for each item were calculated, and compared among different ambulatory activity groups. It is confirmed that ADL ability level in PD significantly relates to ambulatory level and becomes gradually higher as the ambulatory activity level advances. It is considered that in the G1, lower limb ability level is low, and the contribution of ability level regarding changing posture and manual activities to total ADL ability level is high. On the other hand, in the G3 the achievement levels in manual activities and high-difficulty ADLs using lower limbs reflects the differences in the ADL ability level among individuals. Gender differences for ADL ability are not found in any ADL domain, while age differences are found in only the G3. It is inferred that for the G1, the achievement levels of ADLs are largely influenced by disease morbidity and age contributes very little to the decline of ability level. PMID:10584396

Sato, S; Demura, S; Kobayashi, H; Goshi, F; Minami, M; Nagasawa, Y; Yamaji, S

1999-09-01

31

Functional evaluation distinguishes MCI patients from healthy elderly people — The ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with MCI may present minor impairments in activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this work was to\\u000a evaluate the ability of two versions of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study \\/ Activities of Daily Living scale adapted\\u000a for MCI patients (ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL18 and ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL24) to distinguish patients with MCI from healthy control subjects. Participants\\u000a were 60 years or

H. Pedrosa; A. De Sa; M. Guerreiro; J. Maroco; M. R. Simoes; D. Galasko; Alexandre de Mendonça

2010-01-01

32

Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features and parameters that must be selected in the design. Two appendices show example versions and initial results of the first few technical steps in the design approach. Some conclusions are then drawn, and in the final section, recommendations are provided, the most important of which are repeated here: 1. Continue the effort begun here. As detailed in this report, we have only uncovered much of the work that needs to be done in order to provide the foundation for a flexible, high- performance, robust ADL. 2. Seize the opportunity to begin testing in the MLS band. The wide bandwidths and low level of usage of this band make it an ideal one for proof-of-concept type testing. Other (non- aeronautical) organizations are likely to make claims on the band if it is not being used. The primary conclusion is that there is a real and pressing need for a new aviation data link. vi

Matolak, David W.

2003-01-01

33

ADL recognition based on the combination of RFID and accelerometer sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manual assessment of activities of daily living (ADLs) is a fundamental problem in elderly care. The use of miniature sensors placed in the environment or worn by a person has great potential in effective and unobtrusive long term monitoring and recognition of ADLs. This paper presents an effective and unobtrusive activity recognition system based on the combination of the

Maja Stikic; T. Huynh; K. Van Laerhoven; B. Schiele

2008-01-01

34

The performance of instrumental activities of daily living scale in screening for cognitive impairment in elderly community residents.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration (OMC) and Lawton's IADL data was performed to assess the association between instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and a rating of cognitive impairment, and to test whether IADL measures can be used to screen for dementia. The study analyzed data from 1,095 elderly community residents who were regarded as potentially benefiting from care coordination. Three IADL items (telephone use, self-medication, and handling finances) were statistically associated with cognitive impairment (OMC cutoff 10/11), independent of age and sex. An IADL indicator based on these items had only modest power in predicting cognitive impairment, its highest sensitivity being 0.71. Specificity was 0.75 at this point, but increased to 0.97 if higher indicator scores were used to define a positive result. In conclusion, the usefulness of an IADL indicator seems limited to ruling out further cognitive assessment rather than positively identify those with dementia. PMID:12654407

Cromwell, David A; Eagar, Kathy; Poulos, Roslyn G

2003-02-01

35

[DAD-6: an abbreviated version of the DAD scale (disability assessment for dementia). An instrument for detection of loss of autonomy at an early stage].  

PubMed

This paper presents the French version of DAD-6, a validated instrument for the assessment of IADL (instrumental activities of daily living) considered as intentional and complex activities. A loss of autonomy remains a major criterion in the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, IADL assessment is recommended as a primary outcome in dementia drug trials. Since the publication in 1969 by Lawton and Brody of an IADL scale, many instruments have been developed. However, their psychometric properties remain to be improved. The need for improving the early diagnosis yielded to the design of DAD-6, an instrument allowing capturing subtle difficulties in IADL management. The DAD-6 scale emphasizes the role of the cognitive function, mainly the executive function in early IADL impairment. DAD-6 requires the participation of an informant (a patient's proxy). Relative to patients' self-reports or performance-based methods, informant-based questionnaires are the most common and practical methods used in memory clinics. In previous work, DAD-6 score gradually decreased with increasing severity of the cognitive status. The present work shows the inter-rater reliability of DAD-6. The use of the scale with the same informants by one neurologist and two neuropsychologists, separately, indicated a high agreement between raters (alpha of Krippendorff>0.80).This work also highlights the main sources of bias in the context of evaluation based on subjective judgement. The authors stress the necessity of: 1--a clarification of the relationship between cognitive function and IADL; 2--the measurement of IADL performance in a routine neuropsychological assessment by experienced professionals. PMID:25245311

de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Djabelkhir, Leila; Seux, Marie-Laure; Hugonot, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

2014-09-01

36

Development and psychometric properties of the instrumental activities of daily living: compensation scale.  

PubMed

The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living - Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

2014-12-01

37

Functional impairment in mild cognitive impairment evidenced using performance-based measurement.  

PubMed

Older adults (OAs) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are traditionally thought to have preservation of activities of daily living (ADLs). However, recent evidence suggests OAs with MCI may have difficulty completing ADLs and specifically instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The ADLs are frequently evaluated through self- or collateral report questionnaires, while performance-based measures are infrequently utilized, despite the decreased bias and increased accuracy and sensitivity associated with these instruments. This investigation compared ADLs between community-dwelling OAs with (n = 20) and without MCI (n = 30) using a self-report questionnaire (Older American Resources and Services Activities of Daily Living Scale; OARS), a collateral report questionnaire (OARS), and a performance-based measure (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status-Revised). Consistent with our hypothesis, OAs with MCI had decreased ADLs and IADLs on the performance-based measure compared to cognitively intact OAs, while there were no differences in ADLs or IADLs on self-report questionnaires or collateral report questionnaires. Our results suggest OAs with MCI have decreased ability to complete IADLs. However, this investigation suggests these deficits may not be detected by questionnaires and are more likely to be found with performance-based testing. PMID:24763070

Puente, Antonio Nicolas; Terry, Douglas P; Faraco, Carlos C; Brown, Courtney L; Miller, L Stephen

2014-12-01

38

Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

2012-04-01

39

Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults. PMID:23221066

Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.

2013-01-01

40

Dr. Larry Lehman, Director Analytical and Diagnostics Laboratory (ADL)  

E-print Network

technical and instrument support for materials, process and device characterization, and failure analysis Systems Integration and Packaging Center (S3 IP) Binghamton University PO Box 6000 Binghamton, New York Field Emission TEM JEM 2100F from Jeol A microelectronics package being characterized by Scanning

Cho, Junghyun

41

Psychometric Properties of the PAT: An Assessment Tool for ADL Performance of Older People Living in Residential Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As the world population ages, the number of people with diminished performance on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) increases. A reliable and valid measure needs to be developed to determine the effects of interventions focused at increasing self-care abilities. We developed the Performance ADL Test (PAT) for this purpose. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate

Elizabeth Weening-Dijksterhuis; Yvo P. T. Kamsma; Marieke J. G. van Heuvelen

2011-01-01

42

Trends in late-life disability in Taiwan, 1989-2007: the roles of education, environment, and technology.  

PubMed

This analysis offers the first strong evidence of trends in late-life disability in an emerging economy. For the population of Taiwan aged 65 and older, consistent measures of limitations in seeing, hearing, physical functions, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and activities of daily living (ADLs) were available for three to six survey waves, depending on the outcome, from 1989 to 2007. Limitations in seeing, hearing, and IADLs declined substantially, but trends were mixed for physical functions and flat for ADLs. The remarkable reduction in difficulty telephoning, an IADL, may reflect changes in telecommunications infrastructure and highlights the roles of environment and technology in disability outcomes. Trends for urban residents were more advantageous than those for rural residents for seeing and hearing, but less so for physical functions and IADLs. Were it not for the substantial increase in educational attainment, trends in all outcomes would have been less favourable. PMID:21923619

Martin, Linda G; Zimmer, Zachary; Hurng, Baai-Shyun

2011-11-01

43

Subtle Deficits in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Greater cognitive and functional deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with higher rates of dementia. We explored the relationship between these factors by comparing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among cognitive subtypes of MCI and examining associations between IADL and neuropsychological indices. Methods We analyzed data from 1,108 MCI and 3,036 normal control subjects included in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set who were assessed with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). Results IADL deficits were greater in amnestic than nonamnestic MCI, but within these subgroups, did not differ between those with single or multiple domains of cognitive impairment. FAQ indices correlated significantly with memory and processing speed/executive function. Conclusions IADL deficits are present in both amnestic MCI and nonamnestic MCI but are not related to the number of impaired cognitive domains. These cross-sectional findings support previous longitudinal reports suggesting that cognitive and functional impairments in MCI may be independently associated with dementia risk. PMID:20798539

Teng, Edmond; Becker, Brian W.; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Lu, Po H.

2010-01-01

44

Country of birth, instrumental activities of daily living, self-rated health and mortality: a Swedish population-based survey of people aged 55–74  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is scant knowledge of the effects of country of birth on the health of individuals in the years prior to and after retirement. The aim of this study was to consider country of birth in relation to health status, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and all-cause mortality when adjusted for socioeconomic status (SES). Cross-sectional data were collected between

Sonja Pudaric; Jan Sundquist; Sven-Erik Johansson

2003-01-01

45

The in vitro pharmacology of the peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists, alvimopan, ADL 08-0011 and methylnaltrexone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized the pharmacology of the peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists, alvimopan, its metabolite,\\u000a ADL 08-0011, and methylnaltrexone. The activities of the compounds were investigated with respect to human or guinea pig opioid\\u000a receptor binding and function in recombinant cell lines and mechanical responsiveness of the guinea pig ileum. Alvimopan and\\u000a ADL 08-0011 had higher binding affinity than methylnaltrexone

D. T. Beattie; M. Cheruvu; N. Mai; M. O’Keefe; S. Johnson-Rabidoux; C. Peterson; E. Kaufman; R. Vickery

2007-01-01

46

Women Over 50: Caregiving Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caregiving involves direct personal assistance [assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs3) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs4)], as well as primary responsibility for the health and welfare of people receiving informal care in the community or formal\\u000a care in institutions. Many women over the age of 50 provide caregiving.

Rosalie J. Ackerman; Martha E. Banks

47

Dual Sensory Loss and Its Impact on Everyday Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the relation of dual and single sensory impairments, within the context of cognitive function, by using the framework of everyday competence in terms of the probability of difficulty with specific personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively). Design and Methods: The Longitudinal…

Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Su, Ya-ping

2005-01-01

48

Longitudinal Changes in Disabled Husbands' and Wives' Receipt of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: This study contrasts 2-year adjustments in disabled husbands' and wives' amount of received care following both worsening and recovery in personal (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and routine care (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]) disability. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data on 789 husbands and…

Noel-Miller, Claire

2010-01-01

49

Risk profiles for institutionalization in a cohort of elderly people with dementia or depression.  

PubMed

Seventy-five elderly persons with dementia or depression, served by a nursing outreach assessment and case management service in Belgium, were entered in a risk profiling study. Cluster analysis yielded three clusters, each presenting a different risk profile for institutionalization: (1) High Risk Profile, with subjects of moderately advanced age, highly dependent for activities of daily living (ADL), with severe cognitive impairment, poor communication skills, and behavioral problems; (2) Moderate Risk Profile, with subjects of advanced age, limited ADL-dependency, yet high care demands for Instrumental ADL (IADL), moderate to severe cognitive impairment, adequate communication competency, and some behavioral problems; and (3) Low Risk Profile, consisting of relatively young elderly, partially ADL and IADL-dependent, mild or no cognitive impairment, good communication abilities, and no particular behavioral problems. PMID:9419921

Steeman, E; Abraham, I L; Godderis, J

1997-12-01

50

Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:23245783

Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

2013-01-01

51

Racial/Ethnic Differences in ADL Disability among Older Adults with Arthritis: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate racial/ethnic differences in disability onset among older Americans with arthritis. We examined factors amenable to clinical and public health intervention that may explain racial/ethnic differences in incident disability. Methods Longitudinal data (1998?2004) from a national representative sample of 5818 non-Hispanic Whites, 1001 African Americans, 228 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish (Hispanic/Spanish), and 210 Hispanics interviewed in English (Hispanic/English), ages 51 or older with arthritis who did not have baseline disability were analyzed. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL) was identified from report of inability, avoidance, or needing assistance to perform one or more ADL tasks. Results Over six years, 28.0% African Americans, 28.5% Hispanic/Spanish, 19.1% Hispanic/English, and 16.2% Whites developed disability. The demographic-adjusted disability hazard ratio (AHR) were significantly greater among African Americans (AHR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.51?2.38) and Hispanic/Spanish (AHR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.35?2.71), but not significantly increased for Hispanic/English (AHR=1.41, 95% CI: 0.82?2.00) compared to Whites. Differences in health factors (comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and behaviors) explained over half the excess risk among African Americans and Hispanic/Spanish. Medical access factors (education, income, wealth, and health insurance) were substantial mediators of racial/ethnic differences in all minority groups. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences in the development of disability among older adults with arthritis were largely attenuated by health and medical access factors. Lack of health insurance was particularly problematic. At the clinical level, treatment of comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and promotion of physical activity and weight maintenance should be a priority to prevent the development of disability, especially in minority populations. PMID:17665484

Song, Jing; Chang, Huan J.; Tirodkar, Manasi; Chang, Rowland W.; Manheim, Larry M.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

2009-01-01

52

Health Status and ADL Functioning of Older Persons with Intellectual Disability: Community Residence versus Residential Care Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to study differences in aging phenomena among adults with intellectual disability (ID), who live in community residence versus their peers in residential care centers and to determine the contribution of health status, age, gender, etiology and level of ID to the decline in ADL function with age. Our study was based…

Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav; Morad, Mohammed

2008-01-01

53

A client-centred ADL intervention: three-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim was to study a client-centred activities of daily living (ADL) intervention (CADL) compared with the usual ADL intervention (UADL) in people with stroke regarding: independence in ADL, perceived participation, life satisfaction, use of home-help service, and satisfaction with training and, in their significant others, regarding: caregiver burden, life satisfaction, and informal care. Methods In this multicentre study, 16 rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to deliver CADL or UADL. The occupational therapists who provided the CADL were specifically trained. Eligible for inclusion were people with stroke treated in a stroke unit ?3 months after stroke, dependent in ?two ADL, not diagnosed with dementia, and able to understand instructions. Data were collected at inclusion and three months thereafter. To detect a significant difference between the groups in the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domain “participation”, 280 participants were required. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Results At three months, there was no difference in the outcomes between the CADL group (n = 129) and the UADL group (n = 151), or their significant others (n = 87/n = 93) except in the SIS domain “emotion” in favour of CADL (p = 0.04). Conclusion The CADL does not appear to bring about short-term differences in outcomes and longer follow-ups are required. PMID:24506231

Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Ranner, Maria; von Koch, Lena; Eriksson, Gunilla; Johansson, Ulla; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Tham, Kerstin

2014-01-01

54

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

2008-01-01

55

Relationship between physical strain during standardised ADL tasks and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 44 men with spinal cord injuries (C4-L5) performed a set of standardised tasks. The physical strain was defined as the highest heart rate response expressed as a percentage of the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The physical strain averaged over the subjects who performed all tasks (n = 24) was

T W J Janssen; C A J M van Oers; H E J Veeger; A P Hollander; L H V van der Woude; R H Rozendal

1994-01-01

56

Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years) and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years). The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p < 0.001), using a bus or a train (p < 0.001), and MCI. After adjusting for covariates, cognitive activity of any type remained significantly associated with MCI (p < 0.005) but not with the implementation of IADLs. Conclusions Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required. PMID:24348501

Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

57

Restoring ADL function after wrist surgery in children with cerebral palsy: a novel Bilateral robot system design.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy is a leading cause of disability in children and reducing its effects on arm function will improve quality of life. Our goal is to train children with CP after wrist tendon transfer surgery using a robotic therapy system consisting of two robot arms and wrist robots. The therapeutic goal is to determine if the robot training combined with surgery intervention improved functional outcomes significantly more than surgery alone. To accomplish this long-term goal we have developed a Bilateral ADL Exercise Robot, BiADLER aimed at training children with CP in reach to grasp coordination on ADLs. Specifically, the robot will provide active training using an assist-as-needed. This paper presents the design concepts. PMID:24187280

Holley, D; Theriault, A; Kamara, S; Anewenter, V; Hughes, D; Johnson, M J

2013-06-01

58

Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization  

PubMed Central

This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting. PMID:23202683

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

2012-01-01

59

Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations: immigration and other factors associated with institutionalization.  

PubMed

This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting. PMID:23202683

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

2012-09-01

60

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living.  

PubMed

Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients' independence. PMID:24795685

Bie?kiewicz, Marta M N; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M L; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

2014-01-01

61

ADL-reduction and need for technical aids among 70-year-olds. From the population study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg.  

PubMed

Six hundred and nineteen persons from the population study of 70-year-olds "The intervention study of the elderly in Göteborg" (IVEG) were examined. They were interviewed in their home environment concerning their ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL), and the definition "ADL-reduction" is based on seven of these ADL-measurements. One third of the 70-year-old population had reduced ADL-capability, some only slightly. Joint disorders, paresis and congestive heart failure were the most common problems among the ADL-reduced subjects. Forty-three per cent of the ADL-reduced subjects (19% of total) received help with their personal care and/or housekeeping. One third had technical aid, mostly quite simple and inexpensive. Half were provided with new technical aids. The need for technical aids and home help service was noted and intervention undertaken as and when necessary. The needs were correlated to physical activity and performance in functional tests. The results do not illustrate the occurrence of handicap but are aimed at illustrating the special needs that elderly people may have in their normal surroundings. PMID:3180153

Gosman-Hedström, G; Aniansson, A; Persson, G B

1988-04-01

62

The effects of ADL on recovery of swallowing function in stroke patients after acute phase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the association between the degree of recovery from dysphagia and changes in functional independence measure (FIM) items in stroke patients after acute phase by conducting a historical cohort study, because none explains the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) on recovery of swallowing function. Study patients included hospitalised stroke patients after acute phase in whom dysphagia was confirmed (n = 72). Change in nutritional intake method score was examined for association with age, days from stroke onset to admission, length of hospital stay and change in FIM score. Moreover, to examine characteristics of patients who were removed from tube feeding, all patients who required tube feeding at the time of admission were divided into two groups comprising those who required tube feeding at discharge and those who did not. A significant and positive association was observed between change in nutritional intake method and FIM for all items other than self-care of bathing, locomotion of stairs and problem solving. Patients who were removed from tube feeding were significantly younger than those who required tube feeding at the time of discharge (P < 0·041) and also showed significantly higher FIM scores for transfer and all cognitive FIM items at the time of admission (P < 0·05). This study demonstrated that nutritional intake methods improve in conjunction with FIM improvements in patients with dysphagia following the acute phase of stroke. Our results suggest that the age and cognitive function may influence the recovery of patient ability of oral intake. PMID:25041090

Nakayama, E; Tohara, H; Hino, T; Sato, M; Hiraba, H; Abe, K; Ueda, K

2014-12-01

63

Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e.,

Angela L. Jefferson; Lamia P. Barakat; Tania Giovannetti; Robert H. Paul; Guila Glosser

2006-01-01

64

Chiropractic Use and Changes in Health among Older Medicare Beneficiaries: A Comparative Effectiveness Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chiropractic on five outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries: increased difficulties performing Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), Instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and Lower Body Functions, as well as lower self-rated health and increased depressive symptoms. Methods Among all beneficiaries, we estimated the effect of chiropractic use on changes in health outcomes among those who used chiropractic compared to those who did not, and among beneficiaries with back conditions we estimated the effect of chiropractic use relative to medical care, both over a 2–15 year period. Two analytic approaches were used—one assumed no selection bias, while the other adjusted for potential selection bias using propensity score methods. Results Among all beneficiaries, propensity score analyses indicated that chiropractic use led to comparable outcomes for ADLs, IADLs, and depressive symptoms, although there were increased risks associated with chiropractic for declines in lower body function and self-rated health. Propensity score analyses among beneficiaries with back conditions indicated that chiropractic use led to comparable outcomes for ADLs, IADLs, lower body function, and depressive symptoms, although there was an increased risk associated with chiropractic use for declines in self-rated health. Conclusion The evidence in this study suggests that chiropractic treatment has comparable effects on functional outcomes when compared to medical treatment for all Medicare beneficiaries, but increased risk for declines in self-rated health among beneficiaries with back conditions. PMID:24144425

Weigel, Paula Anne; Hockenberry, Jason; Bentler, Suzanne; Wolinsky, Fredric D.

2013-01-01

65

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

66

The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, 899913, April 2003, www.plantcell.org 2003 American Society of Plant Biologists Members of the Arabidopsis Dynamin-Like Gene Family, ADL1,  

E-print Network

and ADL2, appear to be unique to plants (van der Bliek, 1999). These dy- namin-related proteins lackThe Plant Cell, Vol. 15, 899­913, April 2003, www.plantcell.org © 2003 American Society of Plant Biologists Members of the Arabidopsis Dynamin-Like Gene Family, ADL1, Are Essential for Plant Cytokinesis

Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

67

Fall Associated Difficulty with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in Functionally Independent Older Adults Aged 65 to 69 in the United States: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Falling is a risk factor for functional dependence in adults 75 years and older, but has not been systematically evaluated for younger and healthier older adults. This younger group of older adults may benefit from earlier identification of their risk. We hypothesizedthat falling would bea marker for future difficulty with activities of daily (ADL)that would vary by fall frequency and associated injury. Design, Setting, and Patients Nationally representative cohort of 2,020 community-living, functionally independent older adults 65-69 years of age at baseline followed between 1998-2008. Main Outcome Measurement ADL difficulty Results Experiencing one fall with injury in the prior 2 years (Odds = 1.78, 95% CI 1.29-2.48), at least 2 falls without injury in the prior 2 years (Odds = 2.36, 95% CI 1.80-3.09), or at least 2 falls with at least one injury in the prior 2 years (Odds = 3.75, 95% CI 2.55-5.53) were independently associated with higher rates of ADL difficulty after adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical covariates. Limitations HRS data are self-reported Conclusion Falling is an important marker for future ADL difficulty in youngerfunctionally independent older adults. Individuals who fall frequently or report injury are at highest risk. PMID:23311555

Choi, Hwajung; Hayward, Rodney A.; Langa, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

68

Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

2011-01-01

69

ADL ORVIS: An air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s-1 fringe-1, differences of 1-2 m s-1 across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS.

Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Cooper, Marcia A.

2014-04-01

70

Interrelationship of Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Impairment and Their Impact on the Functional Status in Older Patients Undergoing Orthopaedic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of postoperative delirium on post-discharge functional status of older patients remains unclear, and little is known regarding the interrelationship between cognitive impairment and post-operative delirium. Therefore, the main purpose was to evaluate the post-discharge functional status of patients who experience delirium after undergoing orthopaedic surgery and the interrelationship of postoperative delirium with underlying cognitive impairment. Method This prospective cohort study, conducted at a tertiary care medical center from April 2011 to March 2012, enrolled all subjects aged over 60 years who were admitted for orthopaedic surgery. The baseline characteristics (age, gender, BMI, and living arrangement), surgery-related factors (ASA class, admission type, type of surgery, and length of hospital stay), results of geriatric assessment (postoperative delirium, cognition, depressive mood, comorbidity, pain, malnutrition, polypharmacy, ADL, and instrumental [I]ADL) and 1–12-month postoperative ADL and IADL functional status were collected for analysis. Results Overall, 9.1% of 232 patients (mean age: 74.7±7.8 years) experienced postoperative delirium, which was significantly associated with IADL decline at only 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 6.22, 95% CI: 1.08–35.70 and RR: 12.54, 95% CI: 1.88–83.71, respectively). Delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment was a significant predictor for poor functional status at 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 12.80, 95% CI: 1.65–99.40 for ADL at the 6th month, and RR: 7.96, 95% CI: 1.35–46.99 at the 12th month; RR: 13.68, 95% CI: 1.94–96.55 for IADL at the 6th month, and RR: 30.61, 95% CI: 2.94–318.54 at the 12th month, respectively). Conclusion Postoperative delirium is predictive of IADL decline in older patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, and delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment is an independent risk factor for deterioration of ADL and IADL functional status. Early identification of cognitive function and to prevent delirium are needed to improve functional status following orthopaedic surgery. PMID:25402484

Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chu, Chin-Liang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Chen, Liang-Kung

2014-01-01

71

Predicting disabilities in daily functioning in older people with intellectual disabilities using a frailty index.  

PubMed

Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes compared to others of the same age. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more frequently and earlier frail compared to the general population. Frailty challenges much of health care, which will likely further increase due to the aging of the population. Before effective interventions can start, more information is necessary about the consequences of frailty in this, already disabled, population. Here we report whether frailty predicts disabilities in daily functioning. Frailty was measured with a frailty index (FI). At baseline and follow-up activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility were collected by informant report. For 703 older people with ID (?50 yr) baseline and follow-up measures were known. Multivariate linear regression models were used to predict ADL, IADL and mobility at follow-up. The FI was significantly associated with disabilities in daily functioning independent of baseline characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, Down syndrome) and baseline ADL, IADL or mobility. The FI showed to be most predictive for those with relative high independence at baseline. These results stress the importance for interventions that limit the progression of frailty and, thereby, help to limit further disability. PMID:24950014

Schoufour, Josje D; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

2014-10-01

72

AeroADL: applying the integration of the Suomi-NPP science algorithms with the Algorithm Development Library to the calibration and validation task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem for the off-line validation of the calibration algorithms and algorithm coefficients is being able to run science data through the exact same software used for on-line calibration of that data. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program solved part of this problem by making the Algorithm Development Library (ADL) available, which allows the operational algorithm code to be compiled and run on a desktop Linux workstation using flat file input and output. However, this solved only part of the problem, as the toolkit and methods to initiate the processing of data through the algorithms were geared specifically toward the algorithm developer, not the calibration analyst. In algorithm development mode, a limited number of sets of test data are staged for the algorithm once, and then run through the algorithm over and over as the software is developed and debugged. In calibration analyst mode, we are continually running new data sets through the algorithm, which requires significant effort to stage each of those data sets for the algorithm without additional tools. AeroADL solves this second problem by providing a set of scripts that wrap the ADL tools, providing both efficient means to stage and process an input data set, to override static calibration coefficient look-up-tables (LUT) with experimental versions of those tables, and to manage a library containing multiple versions of each of the static LUT files in such a way that the correct set of LUTs required for each algorithm are automatically provided to the algorithm without analyst effort. Using AeroADL, The Aerospace Corporation's analyst team has demonstrated the ability to quickly and efficiently perform analysis tasks for both the VIIRS and OMPS sensors with minimal training on the software tools.

Houchin, J. S.

2014-09-01

73

The Effects of an Aquatic Exercise Program on Pain, Fatigue, Physical Fitness, Disability in ADL, and Psychological Variables in Women with Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aquatic exercise on pain, fatigue, physical fitness, disability in ADL, and psychological variables in women with arthritis. Methods: With a quasi-experimental design, 46 women who has arthritis were assigned into an experimental group (n=23), or a control group (n=23). Data were ana- lyzed with SPSS\\/WIN using descriptive statistics,

Koung-Oh Chang

2009-01-01

74

Aeronautic instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

Everling, E; Koppe, H

1924-01-01

75

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

76

Exertion instruments  

E-print Network

This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

2011-01-01

77

Icing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The types and usage categories of icing instrumentation are discussed. The state-of-the-art for the technology governing the use of icing instrumentation is reported with particular emphasis on ground based facilities for icing tests.

Olsen, W.

1980-01-01

78

The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, engagement in social activities, and mortality among US adults aged 70 years or older, 1994-2006  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess associations among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disability as measured by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL), engagement in social activities, and death among elderly noninstitutionalized US residents. Materials and methods A nationally representative sample of 9,415 adults who were aged ?70 years and responded to the Second Supplement on Aging survey in 1994–1996 and mortality follow-up study through 2006 were assessed. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk of all-cause mortality in participants with COPD after accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Results At baseline, approximately 9.6% of study participants reported having COPD. Compared with participants without COPD, those with COPD were significantly more likely (P<0.05) to have difficulty with at least one ADL (44.3% versus [vs] 27.5%) and with at least one IADL (59.9% vs 40.2%), significantly less likely to be engaged in social activities (32.6% vs 26.3%), and significantly more likely to die by 2006 (70.7% vs 60.4%; adjusted risk ratio 1.15, P<0.05). The association between COPD and risk for death was moderately attenuated by disability status. Conclusion COPD is positively associated with disability and mortality risk among US adults aged ?70 years. The significant relationship between COPD and mortality risk was moderately attenuated, but was not completely explained by stages of ADL and IADL limitations and social activities. PMID:24477269

Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B; Anderson, Lynda A; Wheaton, Anne G; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Ford, Earl S

2014-01-01

79

Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC) in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years) diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years) were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activity of Daily Living (ADL), the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles. Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress), the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL) after the second REAC treatment cycle. Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment. PMID:21822377

Mannu, Piero; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Fontani, Vania; Castagna, Alessandro

2011-01-01

80

Recurrent falls among community-dwelling older Koreans: prevalence and multivariate risk factors.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for nonfallers versus fallers (1+ falls) and nonfallers/one-time fallers versus recurrent fallers (2+ falls) using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC(©)). Community-dwelling Koreans 65 and older (N = 411) comprised the sample. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors predictive of fallers and recurrent fallers. Eight predictive factors were statistically significant with regard to recurrent falls: unsteady gait, low scores related to performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), high pain scores, number of housing environmental hazards, use of an assistive device, fear of falling, and reduced vision. Based on the findings, it is important to assess the risk factors for recurrent falls and develop differentiation strategies that help prevent recurrent falls, including management of gait problems, pain control, use of appropriate assistive devices, a fear management program, regular eye examinations, making improvements to ADLs and IADLs, and creating a safer home environment. In addition, using a standardized tool such as the RAI-HC would help assess multivariate fall risk factors to facilitate comparisons across different community care settings. PMID:21634315

Yoo, In-Young

2011-09-01

81

Cognitive impairment and low physical activity are the components of frailty more strongly associated with disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the association of the five frailty criteria from the Cardiovascular Health Study, as well as cognitive impairment,\\u000a with prevalent disability for the instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional study of 475 community-dwelling subjects aged 70 and older, participating in the Mexican Study of Nutritional\\u000a and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Six probable frailty criteria were

José Alberto Ávila-Funes; S. D. Pina-Escudero; S. Aguilar-Navarro; L. M. Gutierrez-Robledo; L. Ruiz-Arregui; Hélène Amieva

82

Health and social status of an elderly urban population in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Although Sri Lanka has generally a young demographic profile, with decreasing overall mortality and birth rates, its population is aging gradually and will continue to do so in the future. In order to have an idea of the needs of the elderly a survey was conducted in a sample of randomly selected Sinhalese elders living in an urban community. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) assessments were done. Ten percent of the respondents had at least one ADL impairment. Another ten percent had only IADL impairment. The commonest ADL to be affected were bathing and feeding. Children and the family provide all care for the impaired elderly. The family support system should be encouraged and assisted to prevent the necessity for more formal and expensive institutional care. A large proportion of the elderly were handicapped with defects in vision and hearing and the absence of teeth. Correction of these defects would improve both quality of life of these subjects and reduce their risk of accidents. PMID:7725117

Nugegoda, D B; Balasuriya, S

1995-02-01

83

The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

Drumond Andrade, Flavia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrao, Maria Lucia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

2013-01-01

84

Instrumentation '79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

85

Oceanographic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

1994-01-01

86

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

87

Instrumented SSH  

SciTech Connect

NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

2009-05-27

88

Research Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

1992-01-01

89

Musical Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new instruments and controllers for performing live computer music is an exciting field of research that can lead to truly new music- making paradigms. The ever-increasing availability of sensing technologies that enable virtually any kind of physical gesture to be detected and tracked has indeed sprouted a wealth of experimental in- struments and controllers with which to

Sergi Jorda

90

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!). Conduct this activity in conjunction with Lesson 3 of the Sound and Light unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

91

Self-reported visual impairment and impact on vision-related activities in an elderly Nigerian population: report from the Ibadan Study of Ageing  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown an association between visual impairment and poor overall function. Studies from Africa and developing countries show high prevalence of visual impairment. More information is needed on the community prevalence and impact of visual impairment among elderly Africans. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling of households was implemented to select persons aged 65 years and over in the south-western and north-central parts of Nigeria. Impairments of distant and near vision were based on subjective self-reports obtained with the use of items derived from the World Health Organization multi-country World Health Survey questionnaire. Impairment was defined as reporting much difficulty to questions on distant and near vision. Disabilities in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were evaluated by interview, using standardized scales. Results A total of 2054 subjects 957 (46.6%) males and 1097 (53.4) females responded to the questions on vision. 22% (n=453) of the respondents reported distant vision impairment, and 18% (n=377) reported near vision impairment (not mutually exclusive). 15% (n= 312) however reported impairment for both far and near vision. Impairment of distant vision increased progressively with age (P < 0.01). Persons with self reported near vision impairment had elevated risk of functional disability in several IADLs and ADLs than those with out. Distant vision impairment was less associated with role limitations in both ADLs and IADLs. Conclusion The prevalence of self reported distant visual impairment was high but that for near visual impairment was less than expected in this elderly African population. Impairment of near vision was found to carry with it a higher burden of functional disability than that of distant vision. PMID:18780258

Bekibele, CO; Gureje, Oye

2010-01-01

92

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Beh?et's disease quality of life questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD) specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL). We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL. Results The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91). The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02), and IADL (but not ADL). Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients. PMID:21507231

2011-01-01

93

Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation  

PubMed Central

Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

2014-01-01

94

Fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n?=?255). It was found that there was significant difference between Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F) point averages and gender, education levels, marital status and economical status of patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the participants in this study, 36.5% had an anxiety disorder whereas 69.0% exhibited depression. In the study, it was determined that 85.5% of those were independent in their Katz's Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and 49.4% of those were independent in their Lawton and Brody's Index of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). This study has shown that VAS-F, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ADL and IADL instruments that measure the various aspects of health-related quality of living can contribute considerably to a more diversified understanding of the patients' situation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23577980

Karakurt, Papatya; Ünsal, Ayla

2013-04-01

95

The generic 15D instrument is valid and feasible for measuring health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the validity and feasibility of the generic 15D health related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compare parkinsonian patients with the general population. Much effort has gone into developing disease specific HRQoL measures for PD, but only generic measures allow comparisons with the general population. New HRQoL tools are needed for PD because earlier ones have low feasibility in elderly patients. Methods: The study comprised 260 patients with idiopathic PD and age and sex matched controls. HRQoL was evaluated using the disease specific questionnaire PDQ-39 and the 15D generic instrument. PD severity was assessed by Hoehn and Yahr staging, and the activities of daily living (ADL) and motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Results: The mean 15D score (scale 0–1; overall HRQoL) was lower in PD (0.77) than in controls (0.86). Patients with PD had significantly lower scores than controls in 13 of the 15 dimensions of 15D. Scores of the corresponding dimensions of PDQ-39 and 15D correlated significantly, confirming the convergent validity of 15D. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, the UPDRS ADL score explained 55% of the variation in the 15D score. Conclusions: 15D is a valid, feasible, and sensitive tool to assess quality of life in PD. PD has a major impact on HRQoL, which is related to disease progression. Mobility, eating, speech, and sexual functions are most affected. The ADL measure of the UPDRS and the 15D provide an easily assessable view of HRQoL in PD. PMID:15201353

Haapaniemi, T; Sotaniemi, K; Sintonen, H; Taimela, E

2004-01-01

96

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

97

Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

2009-01-01

98

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

99

Declining Cognition and Falls: Role of Risky Performance of Everyday Mobility Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Declining cognition is a risk factor for falls among older adults. The extent to which impaired judgment in performance of daily activities increases fall risk is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether engagement in mobility activities in a risky manner explains the association between declining cognition and rate of falls. Design This study was a secondary analysis of baseline and prospective data from older adults enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Two hundred forty-five community-dwelling older adults (79% female; mean age=79 years, SD=8.0) who were at risk for falls received physical, cognitive, and functional evaluations. Cognition was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Using interview and in-home assessment data, physical therapists determined whether participants were at risk for falls when performing mobility-related activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Falls were measured prospectively for 1 year using monthly falls diaries. Results Declining cognition was associated with increased number of mobility activities designated as risky (1.5% of mobility activities performed in a risky manner per SPMSQ point) and with increased rate of falls (rate ratio=1.16 for each unit change in SPMSQ score). Risky performance of mobility activities mediated the relationship between cognition and rate of falls. Limitations Risk assessment was based on the clinical judgment of experienced physical therapists. Cognition was measured with a relatively insensitive instrument, and only selected mobility activities were evaluated. Conclusions Engagement in mobility ADL and IADL tasks in a risky manner emerged as a link between declining cognition and increased number of falls, suggesting a mechanism through which the rate of falls may increase. Specifically, declining cognition is associated with performance of mobility activities in an unsafe manner, thereby increasing the risk for falls. PMID:24231226

Gleason, Carey E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Janczewski, Jodi; Shea, Terry; Mahoney, Jane E.

2014-01-01

100

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design and create musical instruments from common objects; their challenge is to create an instrument that can make three different tones. They investigate how energy is transferred from their hands to their instrument to create sound. Learners also compare the different instruments to understand how the different designs produce different sounds. Resource contains investigating questions to assess and extend learning.

Kempton, Adam

2013-01-01

101

Advanced Java bytecode instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bytecode instrumentation is a valuable technique for trans- parently enhancing virtual execution environments for pur- poses such as monitoring or profiling. Current approaches to bytecode instrumentation either exclude some methods from instrumentation, severely restrict the ways certain methods may be instrumented, or require the use of native code. In this paper we compare different approaches to bytecode in- strumentation in

Walter Binder; Jarle Hulaas; Philippe Moret

2007-01-01

102

Instrumentation for Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Projects  

NSF Publications Database

... Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Project (IMR-MIP) program in the Division of Materials ... for materials preparation and characterization essential for researchers studying materials in a ...

103

Piping inspection instrument carriage  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

1993-09-20

104

Regional Instrumentation Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

Cromie, William J.

1980-01-01

105

Make Your Own Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will give you some ideas on how to make your own musical instrument. So, you have to make your own musical instrument, huh? No idea where to start? Feeling overwhelmed? NEVER FEAR! Here are some great ideas. Although these websites talk about specific instruments which might not be what you want to make, they will get you started thinking. Often, the principles behind many instruments are the ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

106

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to apply the principles and concepts associated with energy and the transfer of energy in an engineering context by designing and making musical instruments. They choose from a variety of provided supplies to make instruments capable of producing three different tones. After completing their designs, students explain the energy transfer mechanism in detail and describe how they could make their instruments better.

Engineering K-Phd Program

107

Diagnosis of instrument fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of faults in instrumentation equipment can often be confused with faults in the system. The correct diagnosis of instrument faults is of importance. Here it is described how to detect instrument faults in non-linearity. Time-varying processes that include uncertainties such as modelling error, parameter ambiguity, and input and output noise. The design of state estimation filters with zero

K. Watanabe; A. Komori; T. Kiyama

1994-01-01

108

Polymorphic bytecode instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bytecode instrumentation is a widely used technique to implement aspect weaving and dynamic analyses in virtual machines such as the Java Virtual Machine. Aspect weavers and other instrumentations are usually developed independently and combining them often requires significant engineering effort, if at all possible. In this paper we introduce polymorphic bytecode instrumentation (PBI), a simple but effective technique that allows

Philippe Moret; Walter Binder; Éric Tanter

2011-01-01

109

Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

110

aladdin nulling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.

Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.

111

Ethnomusicology Musical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington Ethnomusicology Division houses over 400 musical instruments from around the world. Over the past six decades, the collection has grown substantially as musicians and collectors have donated all manner of instruments. First-time visitors should dive right in by clicking on the Idiophones section offered under Sample Searches. In case you are wondering, an idiophone happens to be any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating. Dozens of these instruments, including a dril-bu, a ghungru, and a range of gongs, are presented in this section of the collection. Visitors can also Browse Sound Files and Browse Video Files to hear and listen to some of these remarkable instruments.

112

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

113

Space applications instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1972-01-01

114

Instrument validation project  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

1996-06-01

115

Instrument performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

Swinth, K.L.

1993-03-01

116

TIRGO and its instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the general characteristics of the TIRGO infrared telescope, located on Gornergrat (Switzerland), and its most recent instrumentation. This telescope is specifically designed for infrared astronomical observations. Two newly designed instruments are presented: the imaging camera Arnica and the long-slit spectrometer LonGSp, both based on two-dimensional array detectors.

Baffa, Carlo; Gennari, Sandro; Hunt, Leslie K.; Lisi, Franco; Tofani, Gianni; Vanzi, Leonardo

1995-09-01

117

LMFBR Instrumentation and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor control and core surveillance instrumentation are important to the safety and economics of LMFBR design and operation. Considerable world wide effort has been expended during the past 10 years on such instrumentation. The results of these efforts in France will be tested in Phenix and the U.K. will test theirs in the PFR reactor when these reactors start up

G. R. Pflasterer

1973-01-01

118

Automated instrumentation system verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the efforts and results of automating systems verification for the instrumentation equipment used in high explosives testing. A complete checkout of instrumentation channels from sensor connection to, and including, data reduction is achieved by measuring linearity, frequency response, and dynamic range simultaneously of as large a group of channels as is practical at one time. Inputs are

J. F. Schneider

1983-01-01

119

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

120

Instrumentation in endourology  

PubMed Central

Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices. PMID:21904568

Khanna, Rakesh; Monga, Manoj

2011-01-01

121

Posterior instrumentation in scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of posterior fusion and instrumentation in scoliosis are to achieve and maintain correction of the deformity and balance the spine in three planes, whilst keeping the fusion as short as possible and protecting the spinal cord. Harrington developed the first generation of posterior instrumentation, which considered only frontal plane correction. Since that time there has been an evolution

J. K. Webb; R. G. Burwell; A. A. Cole; I. Lieberman

1995-01-01

122

Wire-Identification Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument automatically tests each wire in multiwire cable and identifies specified wire to be segregated or labeled and locates wire connected to specified connector pin. Instrument made with readily available CMOS integrated circuits. More efficient and reliable than conventional continuity testers and less expensive than computer controlled units.

Lonborg, J. O.

1985-01-01

123

NIRCam instrument overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST intended to conduct scientific observations over a five year mission lifetime. NIRCam's requirements include operation at 37 kelvins to produce high resolution images in two wave bands encompassing the range from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. In addition NIRCam is used as a metrology instrument during the JWST observatory commissioning on orbit, during the initial and subsequent precision alignments of the observatory's multiple-segment 6.3 meter primary mirror. JWST is scheduled for launch and deployment in 2012. This paper is an overview of the NIRCam instrument with pointers to several NIRCam subsystem papers to be presented in the same conference. This paper will introduce and explain at top level the structural, optical, mechanical and thermal subsystems of NIRCam.

Burriesci, Lawrence G.

2005-08-01

124

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

125

Functional disability in Alzheimer disease: a validation study of the Turkish version of the disability assessment for dementia scale.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale in the Turkish elderly population with Alzheimer disease (AD). The DAD scale was administered to the primary caregivers of 157 patients (age 77.7 ± 6.8 years) with AD. The Turkish version of the DAD scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach ? = .942), excellent test-retest, and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.996 and ICC = 0.994, respectively). The DAD scale was significantly correlated with activities of daily living (ADL; Modified Older Americans Research Survey ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; Lawton and Brody IADL) scales (r = .89, P < .001 and r = .90, P < .001). Disability Assessment for Dementia had a high negative correlation with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS; r = -.880, P < .001). Post hoc comparisons with Tukey test showed significant differences in the mean DAD scores in different GDS stages. Construct validity was estimated using total score correlation analyses between the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the DAD scale. Results revealed high and significant correlation between MMSE score and DAD scale (r = .812, P < .001). The results of multivariate analysis showed that DAD score was not correlated with gender, education, and age. The DAD total score was affected mostly by GDS, MMSE, and duration of the disease. Turkish version of the DAD scale was found to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in Turkish elderly patients with AD. This scale assists caregivers and physicians to decide for proper interventions. PMID:24763071

Tozlu, Mukaddes; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Kutluer, Ibrahim; Erkek, Burcu Manisal?; Halil, Meltem; Ulger, Zekeriya; Cosgun, Erdal; Ariogul, Servet

2014-12-01

126

Endurance and strength training outcomes on cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dementia is a common syndrome in the geriatric population. Subsequent impairment of cognitive functioning impacts the patient’s\\u000a mobility, ADLs, and IADLs. It is suggested that older persons with lower levels of cognition are less likely to achieve independence\\u000a in ADLs and ambulation (1–2). Frequently, nursing home residents are viewed as too frail or cognitively impaired to benefit\\u000a from exercise

P. C. Heyn; K. E. Johnsons; A. F. Kramer

2008-01-01

127

Paranal instrumentation programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development plan for instrumentation at the Paranal Observatory was outlined at SPIE in 2012. Its overall goal is to keep Paranal at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. In addition to the completion of the current second generation instruments, the installation of the Adaptive Optics Facility and execution of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer mid-term implementation plan, it will allow one new instrument, or instrument upgrade, to be initiated per year. The plan is divided into two phases. Over 2013-2017, instruments are selected and developed with the criteria of filling the VLT capabilities and maintaining the balance between dedicated and general purpose facilities. Beyond 2018, the instruments will be deployed in the era of maturity of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The strategy for the second phase derives from analysis of VLT science in the E-ELT era, to be fully shaped in the coming five years. The Call for ideas for a new instrument for the New Technology Telescope at La Silla, fully funded by the community, has just been issued.

Pasquini, Luca; Casali, Mark; Russell, Adrian

2014-07-01

128

SOLIS instrument control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Solar Observatory's SOLIS project is building a new solar telescope to replace the existing Vacuum Telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. Three new solar instruments will replace existing capabilities and provide new scientific capabilities over the expected 25 year lifetime. The SOLIS instruments are the VSM (Vector SpectroMagnetograph), FDP (Full Disk Patrol), and ISS (Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer). Each provides a unique solar physics science capability for magnetic, image, and spectral data. Part of the challenge for the SOLIS software has been controlling and coordinating these varied instruments to work efficiently in a synoptic observing environment.

Goodrich, Bret D.

2000-06-01

129

Mass spectrometers: instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a dominant role in most work using mass spectrometers. This is illustrated with recent results on the chemistry of C+.60 including the formation of covalent adducts with aromatic compounds. Quantitative analysis of methylated nucleosides and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug taxol are also discussed. A compendium of mass spectrometers constructed over the past three years is provided. This includes a variety of hybrid instruments, combinations of sector mass spectrometers with traps, instruments designed to study collision dynamics, and many more.

Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

1992-09-01

130

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

131

Wind instruments and headaches.  

PubMed

The authors illustrate the cases of two children with headaches, one diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation and the other with hydrocephalus, who played wind instruments. Both patients manifested that their headaches worsened with the efforts made during playing their musical instruments. We briefly comment on the probable role played by this activity on the patients' intracranial pressure and hypothesize that the headaches might be influenced by increases in their intracranial pressure related to Valsalva maneuvers. We had serious doubts on if we should advise our young patients about giving up playing their music instruments. PMID:22968210

Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Galarza, Marcelo; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel-Angel; López-Guerrero, Antonio L; Felipe-Murcia, Matías

2013-03-01

132

Safeguards instrumentation at NUCEF  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy/Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute research cooperation, a hybrid K-edge/x-ray fluorescence densitometer was developed and fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument, designed for accountability measurements and for International Atomic Energy Agency inspections, was installed at the analytical laboratory of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Institute in 1994. The system was calibrated with uranium solutions in 1995. This paper will describe the features of the instrument. They will also discuss the calibration of the instrument and compare the techniques of hybrid densitometry and chemical analysis for measuring routine samples.

Okazaki, S.; Miyauchi, M.; Okamoto, H. [Japanese Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Puckett, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Hsue, S.T.; Collins, M.; Cole, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-06-01

133

Multiple, but not traditional risk factors predict mortality in older people: the concord health and ageing in men project.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify the common risk factors for mortality in community-dwelling older men. A prospective population-based study was conducted with a median of 6.7 years of follow-up. Participants included 1705 men aged ?70 years at baseline (2005-2007) living in the community in Sydney, Australia. Demographic information, lifestyle factors, health status, self-reported history of diseases, physical performance measures, blood pressure, height and weight, disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs)), cognitive status, depressive symptoms and blood analyte measures were considered. Cox regression analyses were conducted to model predictors delete time until of mortality. During follow-up, 461 men (27 %) died. Using Cox proportional hazards model, significant predictors of delete time to time to mortality included in the final model (p?ADL and IADL disability and impaired chair stands. We found that overweight and obesity and/or being a lifelong non-drinker of alcohol were protective against mortality. Compared to men with less than or equal to one risk factor, the hazard ratio in men with three risk factors was 2.5; with four risk factors, it was 4.0; with five risk factors, it was 4.9; and for six or more risk factors, it was 11.4, respectively. We have identified common risk factors that predict mortality that may be useful in making clinical decisions among older people living in the community. Our findings suggest that, in primary care, screening and management of multiple risk factors are important to consider for extending survival, rather than simply considering individual risk factors in isolation. Some of the "traditional" risk factors for mortality in a younger population, including high blood pressure, hypercholesterolaemia, overweight and obesity and diabetes, were not independent predictors of mortality in this population of older men. PMID:25403157

Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela; Stanaway, Fiona F; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

2014-12-01

134

Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

1976-01-01

135

Tools and Instrumentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Development of new tools and instruments helps drive scientific progress. Recent development of specialized tools has led to new levels of understanding of matter by helping scientists detect, manipulate, isolate, measure, fabricate, and investigate nanos

Krajcik, Joseph S.; Sutherland, Leeann M.; Stevens, Shawn Y.

2009-10-14

136

Turning Ideas into Instruments  

E-print Network

engineers, and scientific instrument makers � Objet Eden 350 Polyjet 3D Printer for high accuracy strong steel, aluminum, and other materials used as needed � Access to glassblowing, coating, and anodizing

Hayden, Nancy J.

137

AIR Instrument Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

2003-01-01

138

Instrumentation for Materials Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

Claassen, Richard S.

1976-01-01

139

MUSE instrument software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE Instrumentation Software is the software devoted to the control of the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph instrument, installed at Paranal in January 2014. It includes an advanced and user-friendly GUI to display the raw data of the 24 detectors, as well as the on-line reconstructed images of the field of view allowing users to assess the quality of the data in quasi-real time. Furthermore, it implements the slow guiding system used to remove effects of possible differential drifts between the telescope guide probe and the instrument, and reach high image stability (<0.03 arcsec RMS stability). In this paper we report about the software design and describe the developed tools that efficiently support astronomers while operating this complex instrument at the telescope.

Zins, Gérard; Pécontal, Arlette; Larrieu, Marie; Girard, Nathalie; Jarno, Aurélien; Cumani, Claudio; Baksai, Pedro; Comin, Mauro; Kiekebusch, Mario; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Stuik, Remko; Vernet, Joel

2014-07-01

140

NIRCam instrument optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST intended to conduct scientific observations over a five year mission lifetime. NIRCam's requirements include operation at 32 to 37 K to produce high resolution images in two wave bands encompassing the range from ? = 0.6 to 5.0 microns. In addition NIRCam is used as a metrology instrument for the JWST observatory, providing critical data for alignment of the observatory's multiple-segment 6.3 meter primary mirror. JWST is scheduled for launch and deployment in 2012. This paper is an overview of the NIRCam instrument's optical hardware and performance. Detailed discussions of specific subassemblies will be presented in other papers in the same conference.

Huff, Lynn W.

2005-08-01

141

SABER instrument design update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design

Roy W. Esplin; Lorin Zollinger; J. Clair Batty; Steve Folkman; Mehrdad Roosta; Joseph J. Tansock; Mark Jensen; John Stauder; Jim Miller; Michael Vanek; Don Robinson

1995-01-01

142

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

143

[The instrument for thermography].  

PubMed

Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

2014-07-01

144

Advanced optical instruments technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William (uw319824)

1992-01-01

145

[Evaluation of the functional capacity of the elderly and factors associated with disability].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity and analyze the characteristics associated with the disability of elderly individuals attended in a Family Health Strategy Unit in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. The Lawton and Brody scale and the Katz scale were used and then analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. 286 elderly individuals were interviewed with ages ranging from 60 to 103 years and a mean age of 71.2 years (SD ± 8.3). Of these, 61.9% self-reported their independence in terms of functional capacity. The dependence only in IADL was positively associated with age ? 75 years (OR = 8.38), female gender (OR = 3.64) and heart disease (OR = 3.24). The dependence in IADL and ADL was positively associated with age ? 75 years (OR = 6.40), without a partner (OR = 3.26), those who had had a stroke (OR = 51.85), heart disease (OR = 4.18) and diabetes (OR = 3.35). The highest proportion of elderly was considered independent to carry out basic and instrumental activities of daily living. However, a significant portion still has impaired functional status. It is essential that the teams of the Family Health Strategy strive for health promotion and disease prevention, and therapeutic interventions that can minimize the factors that influence functional capacity. PMID:25119071

Barbosa, Bruno Rossi; Almeida, Joyce Marques de; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa

2014-08-01

146

Earth Sciences: Instrumentation and Facilities  

NSF Publications Database

... make complex and expensive instruments or systems of instruments broadly available to the Earth ... Planned research uses of requested instruments must include basic research on solid-Earth and ...

147

The keyboard instruments.  

PubMed

Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;). PMID:24925170

Manchester, Ralph A

2014-06-01

148

Building Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not many people go around wishing to be the Stradivarius of the hurdy-gurdy, but this website�s instructional materials might just make this dream a reality for some lucky individual. The staff at WannaLearn.com have brought together a set of resources for the aspiring musical instrument craftsperson that will be a source of delight, inspiration, and potentially, future innovation. Within categories that include flutes, guitars, and keyboard instruments, visitors can learn how to make wind chimes, banjos, a tinwhistle, and a dulcimer. Most of the instructional materials are quite easy to follow, and in no time at all, visitors can real the joy of creating their own instruments from such basic materials as plumbing pipe, wine boxes, and nylon string.

2006-10-31

149

Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

2014-07-01

150

Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2005-10-01

151

Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

1925-01-01

152

Frequency, severity and determinants of functional limitations in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: results of a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Older adults with joint pain and comorbidity are especially at risk of becoming functionally impaired. Therefore, we studied the frequency and severity of functional limitations and identified potential modifiable determinants that may reduce functional limitations. A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided cross-sectional baseline data (n=407). Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model, we measured Physical Functioning; PF, (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living; (I)ADL, and participation. Apart from examining the frequency and severity, we identified determinants of functional limitations with multivariate regression analyses, by adding determinants in two steps: (1) only physical determinants, (2) physical and psychosocial determinants. Limitations in PF, ADL, IADL and participation were present in 66%, 31%, 61% and 47% of the participants, respectively. About 22% reported limitations on all four measures. Of the physical determinants, especially frailty and higher pain intensity were related to functional limitations. Remarkably, adding psychosocial determinants to the model weakened some of these relations. The psychosocial determinants were especially related to poor PF (i.e. anxiety symptoms, activity avoidance and poor general health perception) and participation restrictions (i.e. depressive symptoms, less social support). An inverse relation was present between self-efficacy and both outcomes. In conclusion, our sample reported substantial levels of functional limitations. More depressive symptoms, more activity avoidance and less social support were indicative of more functional limitations, whereas higher perceived self-efficacy was indicative of better functioning. Such psychosocial determinants should receive more attention in research. PMID:24726180

Hermsen, Lotte A H; Leone, Stephanie S; Smalbrugge, Martin; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

2014-01-01

153

Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

1981-01-01

154

Standard NIM instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

Not Available

1990-05-01

155

Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

Shea, T.J.

1995-12-31

156

Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

Kounaves, Sam

2011-01-01

157

Microtechnology for instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

Mariella, R.

1998-01-01

158

Advanced sensors and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

1990-01-01

159

Instruments for Natural Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an extensive collection of images and descriptions of historical instruments used in the physical sciences. Images of over 1800 pieces of apparatus are included along with information and references about each. The collection is divided into topics covering all of classical physics. Many of the items were used for demonstrations, labs, or other teaching purposes.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2009-12-07

160

Instruments for environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government regulations require industry to monitor air and water for various gaseous pollutants, particulates, lead, and ''''priority pollutants.'' Instrumentation currently used for monitoring air and water pollution is described. Quality assurance considerations and research in air quality monitoring are also discussed. Techniques for monitoring atmospheric pollutants are more firmly established and more automated than techniques for monitoring water pollutants are.

D. M. Ottmers; D. C. Jones; L. H. Keith; R. C. Hall

1979-01-01

161

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

162

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

163

Women and Musical Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN answer to Prof. O. T. Mason's letter which appeared in a recent number of NATURE (vol. xlvi. p. 561), I may draw attention to the following facts which bear upon a part of the subject which he broaches, namely, the part played by savage women in the use of musical instruments. In the South Pacific the ``noseflute'' is very

Henry Balfour

1892-01-01

164

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

165

Designing Intelligent Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

2007-11-01

166

Women and Musical Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN looking over a very large collection of musical instruments from the aborigines of America, I am surprised to find that there is not one peculiar to women, and that those of the men are never played by the women. It is true that the females beat time on various objects and may now and then use the rattle. This

Otis T. Mason

1892-01-01

167

Instrumente zur Behandlungsoptimierung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Der bevorstehende Wandel in der Krankenhausfinanzierung mit der Einführung eines fallpauschalierenden Vergütungssystems auf dem Boden von Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) wird tief greifende Umgestaltungen in den Strukturen und Prozessen der Krankenhäuser zur Folge haben. Wirkungsvolle Instrumente zur Verbesserung der Organisation klinischer Prozesse sind „klinische Behandlungspfade“ (clinical pathways), die in vielen DRG-Einsatzländern erfolgreich eingesetzt werden. Im Gegensatz zu institutionellen Leitlinien

N. Roeder; P. Hensen; D. Hindle; N. Loskamp; H.-J. Lakomek

2003-01-01

168

Instrumentation Control Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

169

HARMONI instrument control electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

2014-07-01

170

Advanced Instrumentation for Reprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for ma...

B. B. Cipiti

2005-01-01

171

Scanning Hartmann instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometry is not adequate for surface measurement of large mirrors during the early stages of figuring. Edges tend to roll off with errors of many waves, and these errors are undetectable with interferometry. The Hartmann test has become very important in providing surface information during these early stages, but unfortunately, data reduction is quite slow. Itek now has an instrument

Richard C. Chase; Steven Keleti; Bryan R. Norman

1992-01-01

172

Elementary Instrumental Music Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

Smith, Dolores A.

173

Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

Ryan, Philip

174

Instrument for Textbook Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

Huetteman, Julie Doidge

175

Portable dynamic fundus instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

Taylor, Gerald R. (inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (inventor)

1992-01-01

176

New Instrumentation for the WHT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for the William Herschel Telescope to keep offering the best possible instrumentation in the future, it is important that new ideas and instruments are developed. For that reason, in June 1999 an announcement was sent out inviting novel ideas for new instrumentation for the WHT to be brought forward. The following four proposals for new instruments were received.

Rutten, R.

2000-03-01

177

Identifying functional decline: a methodological challenge  

PubMed Central

Background Functional decline (FD) in older people has commonly been measured in the hospital setting with instruments which have been validated on decrease over time in capacity to undertake basic activities of daily living (ADL). In a nonhospitalized sample of older people (independently community dwelling, but potentially on the cusp of FD), it is possible that other measures could be used to predict decline. Early, accurate, and efficient identification of older community-dwelling people who are on the cusp of FD can assist in identifying appropriate interventions to slow the rate of decline. Methods This paper reports on associations between four outcome measures which have been associated with FD (instrumental ADLs [IADLs], quality of life, hospitalizations and falls). The sample was older individuals who were discharged from one large metropolitan emergency department (ED) during 2011–2012, without an inpatient admission. Results Of 597 individuals aged 65+ who provided baseline information, 148 subjects provided four outcome measures at both 1 and 3 months follow up. Overall, approximately 24% demonstrated decreased IADL scores over the 3 months, with domains of home activities, laundry, shopping, and getting places declining the most. Over this time, 18% fell often, and 11% were consistently hospitalized. Between 1 and 3 months follow up, 41% declined in mental component scores, and 50% declined in physical component scores. Low mental and physical component quality of life scores were associated with downstream increased falls and hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life and IADLs. However, change in the four outcome measures was largely independent in factor analysis. Conclusion Measuring the four outcome measures over 3 months post-discharge from an ED presentation, showed that changes in one were not generally correlated with changes in another. This result suggests that a wider measurement net could be cast to identify individuals who may not be coping safely or independently in the community after a minor health crisis. Individuals who declined in at least one outcome measure at 1 month, generally continued to decline over the next 2 months, thus suggesting early opportunities to screen and intervene to slow FD. PMID:24009434

Grimmer, Karen; Beaton, Kate; Hendry, Kevan

2013-01-01

178

netherland hydrological modeling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many decision supports and evaluations. The main focus of the instrument is operational drought management and evaluating adaptive measures for different climate scenario's. It has also been used though as a basis to evaluate water quality of WFD-water bodies and measures, nutrient-leaching and describing WFD groundwater bodies. There is a toolkit to translate the hydrological NHI results to values for different water users. For instance with the NHI results agricultural yields can be calculated, effects on ground water dependant ecosystems, subsidence, shipping, drinking water supply. This makes NHI a valuable decision support system in Dutch water management.

Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

2012-04-01

179

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

180

THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

Singal, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fixsen, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levin, S.; Seiffert, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Limon, M. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 1027 Pupin Hall, Box 47, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lubin, P. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: jsingal@stanford.edu [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Caixa Postal 515, 12245-970-Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2011-04-01

181

Musical Instrument Makers Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With links to over 400 pages on acoustic guitar building, violin, dulcimer, flute, recorder, and bagpipe making, brass instrument building and repair, drum making and much, much more this is the site to visit to better understand how musical instruments are made and maintained. The Forum itself hosts a long list of topics which include discussions related to everything from splitting spruce billets to how to alter a violin to better fit a musician's hand to how to use bird's eye maple in guitar building. And as if all of that were not enough the site also provides links to appropriate books, magazines and hosts a tools store section with links to wood turning tools, hand tools and everything else that's needed to keep your fiddle, guitar or flute in tip top shape.

2006-10-17

182

Instrumentation for medical beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams have been clinically used at an increasing number of accelerator facilities worldwide. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation therapy of cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Descriptions are presented of diverse instruments that have been developed in modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, measuring the delivery of treatment beams, and controlling the treatment process to ensure patient safety.

Chu, W. T.

1995-05-01

183

Instruments and Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Galileo’s apprenticeship allowed him to build bridges to mathematicians, philosophers and several kinds of artist-engineers\\u000a and craftsmen, including mirror makers, military engineers, and machine builders. In the context of such a network, Galileo\\u000a cultivated and practiced all of these activities himself. He opened his own workshop in Padova, which produced mathematical\\u000a instruments for military officers; starting in 1610, upon his

Matteo Valleriani

184

Instrumentation for Mars Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main portion of the project was to support the "MAE" experiment on the Mars Pathfinder mission and to design instrumentation for future space missions to measure dust deposition on Mars and to characterize the properties of the dust. A second task was to analyze applications for photovoltaics in new space environments, and a final task was analysis of advanced applications for solar power, including planetary probes, photovoltaic system operation on Mars, and satellite solar power systems.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1997-01-01

185

Quine And Instrumentalism  

E-print Network

. Such is the ultimate duty of language, science, and philosophy, and it is in relation to that duty that- a conceptual scheme has finally to be appraised. His position here seems to be straightforwardly instrumentalist. According to instrumentalism, a scientific... status of theoretical entities in Quine's philosophy of science, I must clarify in what sense 'theoretical entity* is being taken. In the broadest sense, it can be taken to denote any entity assumed by the theory, thus embracing objects as diverse...

Jarasuis, Vida

1981-12-01

186

New anthropometric instruments.  

PubMed

Anthropometric examinations have been carried out since 1901 (USA) with the aim of developing and furthering the garment and footwear size system. The contribution to the solution of these problems was noticed in the last decades when a technical board was founded and the propositions in ISO norm series as well as in European norm (EN) series were prescribed. Two methods are employed in anthropometric measurements: the conventional one using anthropometric instruments and the one applying a 3D body scanner. The method using 3D scanning is faster and more accurate, but at the same time it is more complicated and expensive. In the framework of STIRP Croatian Anthropometric System the classical method was applied because out of the total number of examinees (0.68% of the whole population of the Republic of Croatia) 6,380 children up to the age of 5, 4 were examined. That was the reason why the development of new anthropometric instruments was taken up with the aim of developing and improving the existing ones. In this paper a new anthropometer with two legs has been described: it contributes to the stability of the instrument when a larger number of examinees has to be tested. In addition to this, new goniometers for determining the shoulder-tilt have been presented and described. PMID:18217454

Ujevi?, Darko; Nikoli?, Gojko; Dolezal, Ksenija; Szirovicza, Lajos

2007-12-01

187

An ice lithography instrument  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15

188

SABER instrument design update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design with a clam shell reimager and a one-axis scan mirror. The telescope is cooled below 210 K by a dedicated radiator. The focal plane assembly (consisting of a filter array, a detector array, a Lyot stop, and a window) is cooled to 75 K by a miniature cryogenic refrigerator. The conductive heat load on the refrigerator is minimized by a Kevlar support system that thermally isolates the focal plane assembly from the telescope. Kevlar is also used to thermally isolate the telescope from the spacecraft. Instrument responsivity drifts due to changes in telescope and focal plane temperatures as well as other causes are neutralized by an in-flight calibration system. The detector array consists of discrete HgCdTe, InSb, and InGaAs detectors. Two InGaAs detectors are a new long wavelength type, made by EG&G, that have a long wavelength cutoff of 2.33 micrometers at 77 K.

Esplin, Roy W.; Zollinger, Lorin; Batty, J. Clair; Folkman, Steve; Roosta, Mehrdad; Tansock, Joseph J.; Jensen, Mark; Stauder, John; Miller, Jim; Vanek, Michael; Robinson, Don

1995-09-01

189

Mandolin Family Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

190

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

Manche, Emanuel P.

1979-01-01

191

CARMENES instrument overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 ?m, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

2014-07-01

192

Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

Wood, H. John

2004-01-01

193

Evaluation Instruments for Technology Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Evaluation Resource Library (OERL) was developed for professionals seeking to design, conduct, document, or review project evaluations. OERL's instrument collection is designed to provide models for the development of new instruments. Users are encouraged to use or adapt instruments, sections, or individual questions to create instruments that are tailored to their projects. The instruments were selected from data collection forms and protocols developed especially for evaluations of actual NSF-funded projects. There are also some instruments from technology projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education. The instruments gather information that is not contained in data and indicators available from archival sources (such as registrar records of courses taken and grade-point averages). The instruments are grouped by respondent (e.g., teachers/faculty, students) and by type (e.g., questionnaires, surveys, interviews, assessments).

194

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

195

National Instruments: Online Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Instruments hosts this collection of free technical tutorials covering a variety of subjects. While some of the tutorials are specific to the company's products, most can be applied to general theory and practices related to engineering. People who are learning about signal processing will find the section on frequency domain measurements to be very insightful. It explains topics such as the power spectrum and the fast Fourier transform. Another tutorial describes image processing methods. A free online registration is required to access the tutorials.

196

Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

Hersey, M D

1924-01-01

197

TMT Science and Instruments  

E-print Network

To meet the scientific goals of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project, full diffraction-limited performance is required from the outset and hence the entire observatory is being designed, as a system, to achieve this. The preliminary design phases of the telescope and the first light adaptive optic facility are now approaching completion so that much better predictions of the system performance are possible. The telescope design and instrumentation are summarized in this presentation, with a brief description of some of the scientific programs that are foreseen.

David Crampton; Luc Simard; David Silva

2008-01-23

198

Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

199

A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

Torbert, Roy B.

1993-01-01

200

Instruments for Water Quality Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

1975-01-01

201

Instrumentation for the Energy Frontier  

E-print Network

The Instrumentation Frontier was set up as a part of the Snowmass 2013 Community Summer Study to examine the instrumentation R&D needed to support particle physics research over the coming decade. This report summarizes the findings of the Energy Frontier subgroup of the Instrumentation Frontier.

Ulrich Heintz; Daniela Bortoletto; Marcus Hohlmann; Thomas LeCompte; Ron Lipton; Meenakshi Narain; Andrew White

2013-08-31

202

Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

1998-01-01

203

Automated instrumentation system verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the efforts and results of automating systems verification for the instrumentation equipment used in high explosives testing. A complete checkout of instrumentation channels from sensor connection to, and including, data reduction is achieved by measuring linearity, frequency response, and dynamic range simultaneously of as large a group of channels as is practical at one time. Inputs are a triangular wave signal and a noise signal. The checkout data are recorded in the same way as test data. A table that is ordered by recorder track and voltage controlled oscillator center frequencies is produced in the course of the computer program to contain percent linearity, 3 dB bandwidth, percent deviation from standard bandwidth, dynamic range in decibels, and noise floor in millivolts for every channel measured. Hardcopy plots of the nonlinearity deviations, the frequency response, and the noise floor spectrum can be produced during processing when requested. The computer program is friendly, the order of channel measurements can be completely arbitrary, repeated measurements replace the respective previous entries.

Schneider, J. F.

1983-04-01

204

An Instrumental Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

1978-01-01

205

Scanning Hartmann instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometry is not adequate for surface measurement of large mirrors during the early stages of figuring. Edges tend to roll off with errors of many waves, and these errors are undetectable with interferometry. The Hartmann test has become very important in providing surface information during these early stages, but unfortunately, data reduction is quite slow. Itek now has an instrument to automate the Hartmann test using a scanning laser beam and a solid state sensor. A narrow laser beam scans the testpiece in an appropriate raster. A solid state detector senses the reflected spot in the vicinity of the center of curvature. Knowing the positioning of the beam, and the position of the reflected spot is sufficient information for a mirror slope determination of that raster position. A computer program integrates the slope data to produce a surface wavemap of the testpiece. This wavemap can be displayed on a contour plot within a few minutes or routed to a computer controlled Milacron robot to appropriately refigure the testpiece. A null lens is unnecessary. The measurement accuracy of the instrument is about 1/5 to 1/2 waves surface rms.

Chase, Richard C.; Keleti, Steven; Norman, Bryan R.

1992-03-01

206

The QUIET Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

Bischoff, C.; et al.

2012-07-01

207

The QUIET Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

2012-01-01

208

XEUS mission and instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main interest in the first DSC.

Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

2002-01-01

209

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

210

Instrumented Architectural Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

1987-01-01

211

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

212

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

213

Electrical Instrumentation Signals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Instrumentation Signals, is the ninth chapter in Volume I âÂÂDirect Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Analog and Digital signals, Current signal systems, Tachogenerators, and Strain Gauges. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-11

214

Virtual instrument simulator for CERES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-12-01

215

Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-01-01

216

[Stainless steels for medical instruments].  

PubMed

Both in the USSR and abroad similar types of martensitic and austenitic stainless steel are used for the manufacture of medical instruments. Martensitic steel, the cheapest and most economically alloyed, has the best combination of properties necessary for medical instruments. The analysis of the Soviet and foreign experience in using different grades of steel for the production of medical instruments demonstrates the expediency and possibility of improving the quality of martensitic steel and rolled stock, as well as that of medical instruments manufactured from these materials, by improving, the operations of the metallurgical and technological processes and by specifying more precisely the requirements for medical instruments. The possibility and expediency of using, in some technically justified cases, lower grades of alloyed steel instead of grade 12X18H9T for clamps and other instruments made of stainless steel, as well as highly corrosive grades of steel for microinstruments, have been established. PMID:7300626

Feofilov, R N

1981-01-01

217

Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

1990-01-01

218

Experimenting with string musical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

LoPresto, Michael C.

2012-03-01

219

Adjustable Support For Instrument Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong, lightweight structure designed to support instrument package. Provides choice of attachment locations to accommodate variety of sizes and shapes. Composed of seven webbed metal parts. Honeycomb panels cover vertical sides of structure. Instrumentation package, such as telescope or infrared sensor, bolted to top of structure. Accompanying electronics boxes mounted on inside surfaces of panels. Weight of instrumentation carried in direct paths through webbed members to base plate. Structure used for submillimeter-wave astronomy satellite.

Sneiderman, Gary

1991-01-01

220

Optical distance measuring instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

221

The tissue diagnostic instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

2009-05-01

222

Ultrasonics and space instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

1987-01-01

223

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission  

E-print Network

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) provides in situ capabilities that enable atomic-resolution imaging

224

Instrumentation for Materials Research (IMR)  

NSF Publications Database

... Instrumentation for Materials Research (IMR) Division of Materials Research Synopsis of Program ... for Materials Research (IMR) program in the Division of Materials Research (DMR) is designed to ...

225

D0 Instrument Air System  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

1988-09-15

226

Policy instruments for environmental innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question how different environmental policy instruments in- duce innovation and to what extent market-driven innovation can lead to lowering envi- ronmental impacts of products and processes. It contains the results of a literature review and four case studies. In the case studies, the innovation impact of different policy ap- proaches and instruments is assessed relating

Frans Oosterhuis; Onno Kuik

227

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

228

Luminescence techniques: instrumentation and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena – thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the state

Lars BØtter-Jensen

1997-01-01

229

Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

230

Career Education Materials Analysis Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument for analyzing career education curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check the educational soundness and accuracy of career education materials. The booklet is divided into two main sections. Part I is a modified version of the…

Hedstrom, Judith E.; Williams, Constance M.

231

Instrumental Music for Special Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how music teachers can include students with disabilities in their instrumental music classes. Explains how the teachers can adapt the musical instruments, the social environment, the music, teaching and evaluation techniques, and promote parental involvement. Includes a bibliography of resources for accommodating students with…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.

2001-01-01

232

Introduction to Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module contains instructional materials on instrumentation to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need as beginning instrumentation technicians. The module addresses the nature of accessing, measuring, and controlling phenomena such as level, flow, pressure, and temperature. Students are introduced to the devices and…

Brown, A. O., III

233

Instrument Remote Control Application Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

2006-01-01

234

Philippe Aldrin From An Instrument To The Instrumentalization  

E-print Network

Opinion". A historical sociology of Community instruments for the measure of opinions and management of the public space In: MANGENOT (Michel) and ROWELL (Jay), eds., A Political Sociology of The European Union. Reassessing Constructivism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

236

Two-Dimensional Velocimetry Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This a brief report on the acquisition and implementation of instrumentation which will be used to make two-dimensional velocimetry measurements in a study of premixed turbulent flames. Two-dimensional velocimetry. (eg)

D. A. Santavicca

1990-01-01

237

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

2011-03-22

238

NCL Instrumentation - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory  

Cancer.gov

The mention of trade names and manufacturers is for informational purposes only. The NCL does not endorse any of the suppliers listed below. Equivalent instrumentation from alternate vendors can be substituted.

239

Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

Deming, Richard L.; And Others

1982-01-01

240

Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

1986-01-01

241

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

242

Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument  

NASA Video Gallery

David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

243

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

244

SSM\\/I instrument evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) instrument and scan geometry are briefly described. The results of investigations of the stability of the gain, calibration targets and spin rate, the radiometer noise and sensitivity, the coregistration, the beam width and main-beam efficiency of the antenna beams, and the absolute calibration and geolocation of the instrument are presented. The results of this effort

J. P. Hollinger; J. L. Peirce; G. A. Poe

1990-01-01

245

Instrumentation for transport and slurries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advanced fossil energy processes require the continuous transport of crushed coal into high pressure vessels. The most common methods of doing this are sequenced pneumatic injection from pressurized lock hoppers and pumping of a coal-liquid slurry. Operation of these and other coal feeding systems is outlined and standard instrumentation for monitoring coal feed is reviewed. Applicable new and developmental instrumentation is discussed.

O'Fallon, Nancy M.

1981-02-01

246

CARMENES. IV: instrument control software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German- Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols.

Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Morales, Rafael; Abril, Miguel; Galadí-Enríquez, David; Seifert, Walter; Sánchez Carrasco, Miguel A.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Mandel, Holger

2012-09-01

247

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

248

Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques  

E-print Network

#12;Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques Second Edition Francis Rouessac : modern instrumentation and methods and techniques / Francis Rouessac and Annick Rouessac ; translated #12;Chemical Analysis Second Edition #12;Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods

Short, Daniel

249

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2010-01-01

250

Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

1974-01-01

251

Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica (thermal) IR instruments from Antarctica  

E-print Network

Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica (thermal) IR instruments from Antarctica: what can Antarctica Atmospheric optical thickness spectrum #12;Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica Paranal Dome C (30m) Atmospheric transmission #12;Ralf Siebenmorgen

Siebenmorgen, Ralf

252

On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

2007-01-01

253

Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever had a penchant to check out an ancient flageolet or a historic bass horn, this delightful online collection from the Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection is just the ticket. The project was developed by Professor George Caird and his colleagues at Birmingham City University, and funding for the project was provided by Arts & Humanities Research Council. From the homepage, visitors can browse the catalog of instruments by name or by maker, look over a host of images, and listen to some excellent audio samples of the instruments. The instruments are divided into categories that include "Trombones", "Plucked Strings", "Keyboards", and "Serpents, Ophicleides and Bass Horns". Each instrument is accompanied by information about its place of origin, its maker, its overall size, and numerous photographs. Moving on, the "Audio Resources" area is quite a pip, and visitors can listen to expert musicians playing everything from an 1836 piccolo to a folded coach horn making its way through Mozart's Post Horn Serenade.

254

The Quito Astronomical Instruments Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quito Astronomical Observatory was build in the 1873s thanks to the generous sponsoring of the president of the Republic of Ecuador Dr. Gabriel García Moreno who desire was to build a long-lasting monument to Ecuadorian science . Thanks to the collaboration of father J. B. Menten one of the leading german astronomer the President' s dream came true. The Observatory with its splendid buildings was in fact equipped with a series of very important instruments such as the 30-cm Mertz refractor a large Molteni meridian instrument and a Bamber of 10 cm. Other instruments were subsequently added in the course of the 20th century. Recently we have performed a detailed inventory of all the historical instruments still preserved at the Observatory. This paper is dedicated to briefly trace the history of the Quito Observatory and describe its most characteristic instruments. Moreover it is presented the work done for preserving this important scientific heritage and discuss some of the typical problems that the researchers the students amateur astronomers and the public find in a still active scientific institution in a developing country.

Lopez, Ericsson

255

A Revised Activities of Daily Living\\/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Instrument Increases Interpretive Power: Theoretical Application for Functional Tasks Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As the number of adults in older age groups expands, difficulty performing usual activities of daily life is a rising health concern. A common exercise regimen employed to attenuate functional decline and disability has been resistance strength training. However, recent evidence suggests that functional tasks exercise may be more effective in preventing disability. Objective: Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

Robert Fieo; Roger Watson; Ian J. Deary; John M. Starr

2010-01-01

256

Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview  

SciTech Connect

The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

1992-10-01

257

Instrumentation for the CCAT Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a first cut instrument design package for the proposed 25 meter Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT). The primary science for CCAT can be achieved through wide field photometric imaging in the short submillimeter through millimeter (200 ?m to 2 mm) telluric windows. We present strawman designs for two cameras: a 32,000 pixel short submillimeter (200 to 650 ?m) camera using transition edge sensed bare bolometer arrays that Nyquist samples (@ 350 ?m) a 5'×5' field of view (FoV), and a 45,000 pixel long wavelength camera (850 ?m to 2 mm) that uses slot dipole antennae coupled bolometer arrays with wavelength dependent sampling that covers up to a 20' square FoV. These are our first light instruments. We also anticipate "borrowed" instruments such as direct detection and heterodyne detection spectrometers will be available at, or nearly at first light.

Stacey, G. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Bradford, C. M.; Dowell, C. D.; Cortes-Medellin, G.; Nikola, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Herter, T. L.; Radford, S. J.; Lloyd, J. P.; Blain, A. W.; Brown, R. L.; Campbell, D. B.; Giovanelli, R.; Goldsmith, P.; Harvey, P. M.; Henderson, C.; Langer, W. D.; Phillips, T. G.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Woody, D. P.

2006-06-01

258

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

259

Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately.

Kennedy, W.N.

1998-09-30

260

An improved instrument mounting arm.  

PubMed

Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator. PMID:11320829

Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

2001-02-01

261

Vibration specifications for VLT instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO invested enormous effort in developing and commissioning the VLT-Interferometer (VLT-I), a unique facility providing a spatial resolution equivalent to that of a 200m-telescope. Complementary to the regular VLT operations, latterly additional 230 nights per year were scheduled to execute scientific observations with large VLT-I baselines. But to the same degree as the VLT-I performance and stability were improving over the past years, likewise the vibration sensitivity of the optical system was increasing and stricter requirements on mechanical stability were necessary. As a consequence ESO started years ago an extensive program to identify and mitigate potential vibration issues. In the scope of this work, the mechanical vibrations induced by cryo-coolers, widely used in ESO's VLT instrumentation suite, were diagnosed as one of the major disturbance sources. In order to be able to better control their impact, the development of a more significant vibration specification for VLT instruments became essential. In the course of preparing such a specification, we first followed an experimental approach where we installed a dedicated dummy instrument equipped with current ESO standard cryo-coolers in different VLT foci configurations and performed a comprehensive vibration measurement test campaign under real VLT/VLT-I operation conditions. All obtained vibration measurement data were spectral analyzed with respect to the actual VLT-I optical path length difference acceptance levels. This campaign gave valuable information about typical cryo-cooler induced vibration levels and their consequence for VLT-I operations. It also enabled the release if novel conform cryo-cooler instrument design and operation recommendations. This paper describes the applied vibration measurement methodology on the basis of examples, the development and description of the significant VLT instrument vibration specification, and a proposal for a generic verification procedure for standalone instruments or sub-units prior final acceptance.

Jakob, Gerd; Lizon, Jean-Louis

2014-08-01

262

Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

Mouroulis, Pantazis

2004-01-01

263

Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments  

SciTech Connect

Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

Rio, Yvon [CEA/IRFU/Sap, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2009-05-11

264

Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

Rio, Yvon

2009-05-01

265

TCTE Instrument Performance and Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSI Continuity Transfer Experiment (TCTE) instrument is nearly identical to the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) that has been providing high accuracy total solar irradiance measurements from the NASA/SORCE spacecraft since 2003. To maintain continuity in this essential climate data record, for which stability and inter-instrument overlap are critical, the TCTE on the Air Force STP-Sat3 spacecraft is intended to acquire solar irradiance measurements bridging the current aging SORCE mission and the future NOAA/JPSS/TSIS mission. We describe the TCTE measurement requirements, calibration accuracies, operations plans, and post-launch status.

Kopp, G.; Boyle, B.; Heuerman, K.; Pilewskie, P.; Seidel, D.; Swieter, D.; Ucker, G.

2013-12-01

266

Linking C-Reactive Protein to Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation, measured by interleukin-6, predicts incident disability among elderly people. However, little is known about the relation of C-reactive protein (CRP) to disability. Method Participants (>60 years old, N = 1680) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), lower extremity mobility (LEM), and general physical activities (GPA) was obtained by self-report. Peak muscle power was the product of isokinetic peak leg torque and peak force velocity. Functional limitations were evaluated via habitual walking speed, which was obtained from a 20-foot timed walk. CRP levels were quantified by using latex-enhanced nephelometry. Results Elevated CRP levels were associated with disability in IADL, LSA, LEM, and GPA, independent of basic demographics, chronic medical diseases, health behaviors, as well as nutritional markers. The corresponding odds ratios of disability for each standard-deviation increase in natural-log-transformed CRP were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.35), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.00–1.39), 1.17 (95% CI, 1.03–1.33), and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05–1.31), respectively. The relationship diminished after additional adjustment of leg power and/or walking speed, meaning that impairment in leg power and limitations in gait speed likely mediate the association between CRP and disability. CRP had an inverse relationship to leg power and walking speed. Likewise, additional adjustment for leg power substantially diminished the association between CRP and walking speed, suggesting a mediating effect of power between CRP and gait speed. Conclusions Independent of chronic diseases, elevated CRP is associated with multiple domains of disability through mediation of muscle power, habitual gait speed, or both. Future research is needed to understand CRP as a risk factor for disability in older populations. PMID:16611705

Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Bean, Jonathan F.; Yen, Chung-Jen; Leveille, Suzanne G.

2008-01-01

267

Evaluation of an eHealth Intervention in Chronic Care for Frail Older People: Why Adherence is the First Target  

PubMed Central

Background Older people suffering from frailty often receive fragmented chronic care from multiple professionals. According to the literature, there is an urgent need for coordination of care. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an online health community (OHC) intervention for older people with frailty aimed at facilitating multidisciplinary communication. Methods The design was a controlled before-after study with 12 months follow-up in 11 family practices in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Participants consisted of frail older people living in the community requiring multidisciplinary (long-term) care. The intervention used was the health and welfare portal (ZWIP): an OHC for frail elderly patients, their informal caregivers and professionals. ZWIP contains a secure messaging system supplemented by a shared electronic health record. Primary outcomes were scores on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL), mental health, and social activity limitations. Results There were 290 patients in the intervention group and 392 in the control group. Of these, 76/290 (26.2%) in the intervention group actively used ZWIP. After 12 months follow-up, we observed no significant improvement on primary patient outcomes. ADL improved in the intervention group with a standardized score of 0.21 (P=.27); IADL improved with 0.50 points, P=.64. Conclusions Only a small percentage of frail elderly people in the study intensively used ZWIP, our newly developed and innovative eHealth tool. The use of this OHC did not significantly improve patient outcomes. This was most likely due to the limited use of the OHC, and a relatively short follow-up time. Increasing actual use of eHealth intervention seems a precondition for large-scale evaluation, and earlier adoption before frailty develops may improve later use and effectiveness of ZWIP. PMID:24966146

Perry, Marieke; Robben, Sarah HM; Schers, Henk J; Heinen, Maud M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM; Melis, Rene F

2014-01-01

268

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

269

Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

LoPresto, Michael C.

2003-01-01

270

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

271

Instrumentation for the CCAT Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a first cut instrument design package for the proposed 25 meter Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT). The primary science for CCAT can be achieved through wide field photometric imaging in the short submillimeter through millimeter (200 mum to 2 mm) telluric windows. We present strawman designs for two cameras: a 32,000 pixel short submillimeter (200 to 650 mum) camera

G. J. Stacey; S. R. Golwala; C. M. Bradford; C. D. Dowell; G. Cortes-Medellin; T. Nikola; J. Zmuidzinas; T. L. Herter; S. J. Radford; J. P. Lloyd; A. W. Blain; R. L. Brown; D. B. Campbell; R. Giovanelli; P. Goldsmith; P. M. Harvey; C. Henderson; W. D. Langer; T. G. Phillips; A. C. S. Readhead; D. P. Woody

2006-01-01

272

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

Scales, John W., Ed.

273

Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

Traeger, R.K.

1984-05-01

274

Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

Haig, Brian D.

2005-01-01

275

Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

2008-01-01

276

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

Scales, John W., Ed.

277

Evaluation, comparison and calibration of oceanographic instruments  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews oceanographic instrumentation. The parameters for which instrumentation is reviewed are limited to those where continuous monitoring is possible. The discussion is also limited to parameters of interest to physical oceanography and ocean engineering. Specific instruments reviewed include: meterological sensors and instruments; wave sensors; ocean current sensors; pressure sensors; and CTD sensors. Various types of oceanographic measurements are also evaluated.

Not Available

1985-01-01

278

Residual Organic Debris on Processed Surgical Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study describes the degree of cleanliness of three categories of surgical instruments after processing (ie, decontamination, inspection, sterilization). The three categories were reusable laparoscopic, reused disposable laparoscopic, and conventional surgical instruments. The objective of the study was to identify from visual inspection and microscopic examination residual particles, stains, or liquid on processed instruments. The investigators studied 32 instruments

Jean-Gaston DesCôteaux; Eric C. Poulin; Maryse Julien; Robert Guidoin

1995-01-01

279

Real world applications of synthetic instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current focus of many instrumentation and automatic test equipment (ATE) designers is the area of synthetic instrumentation. This instrumentation, which consists of physically separate building blocks or modules, provides the opportunity to reduce the system's overall hardware content by eliminating common hardware functionality located within each traditional instrument. This modular design provides opportunities for lower lifecycle cost, smaller physical

S. Brown

2004-01-01

280

Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments  

SciTech Connect

In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery.

Pott, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brechtel, C.E. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

1992-12-31

281

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-07

282

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-08-13

283

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-09-09

284

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-01

285

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-10-01

286

The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or

R. Basedow; P. Silverglate; W. Rappoport; R. Rockwell; D. Rosenberg; K. Shu; R. Whittlesey; E. Zalewski

1993-01-01

287

In Situ Instruments: Overview of In Situ Instruments for Deployment in Extreme Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews the design and specifications for several instruments for deployment in extreme environments. The instruments are: (1) In Situ Geochronology Instrument, (2) Laser Ablation Sampling Instrument, (3) Micro Hygrometer (4) Micro Lidar, (5) Atmospheric Electron X-Ray Spectrometer and (6) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. Included in the descriptions are the contact people and the objective of each instrument.

Taylor, M.; Cardell, G.

2000-01-01

288

Musical Instruments, Models, and Machines.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional musical instrument is an analog computer that integrates equations of motion based on applied boundary conditions. We are approaching a remarkable time when advances in transducers, real-time computing, and mathematical modeling will enable new technology to emulate and generalize the physics of great musical instruments from first principles, helping virtuosic musicians to do more and non-musicians to engage in creative expression. I will discuss the underlying problems, including non-contact sensing and state reconstruction for nonlinear systems, describe exploratory performance collaborations with artists ranging from Yo-Yo Ma to Penn & Teller, and then consider the broader implications of these devices for the interaction between people and machines. Part B of program listing

Gershenfeld, Neil

1996-11-01

289

Systematic Differences Between Radiosonde Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deviations of radiosonde reports' geopotential heights from the zonal mean are examined. In the summer Northern Hemisphere stratosphere, systematic differences are found between radiosonde instrument types. Persistent meridional wind anomalies, approximately constant in magnitude and fixed in location, have previously been reported in the summer stratosphere, and one such anomaly over Europe is found to be co-located with boundaries between regions in which differing types of radiosonde instruments are used. The magnitude and orientation of the radiosonde geopotential height biases are consistent with the wind anomalies. Because the overall winds tend to be light in this region and season, these wind anomalies can represent significant perturbations of the flow and must be considered when interpreting the results of trajectory and diagnostic studies.

Lait, Leslie R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

290

Holy Trinity of Instrumentation Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being user friendly should be the main guidance, beside the self-understood high performance, in today's instrumentation development. Here we identify three components of the user-friendly policy: the all-in-one concept, customization, and connectivity. All-in-one is the concept of unification of various building blocks and thus various functionalities in one product. The customization is enabled by the product's reconfigurability that allows a product to grow and support new requirements and applications without changing hardware. The consequence of the two is the capacity of the single instrument to perform a variety of tasks that before were split among different devices. The last of the three is connectivity that improves the relationship between controls and beam diagnostics, brings out-of-the-crate freedom, and opens unforeseen possibilities for intra-accelerator cooperation and remote technical support.

Urši?, Rok; Šolar, Borut

2004-11-01

291

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

292

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-08-01

293

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-01-01

294

Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

1989-01-01

295

Calibration of the AATSR instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on ESA's ENVISAT mission is the latest in a series of instruments designed to measure global sea-surface-temperatures to an accuracy of 0.3K and to monitor global vegetation coverage and cloud properties. The accuracy of the SST and other scientific products depends on the accuracy of the top-of-atmosphere radiometric measurements. To ensure that AATSR

D. L. Smith; J. Delderfield; D. Drummond; T. Edwards; C. T. Mutlow; P. D. Read; G. M. Toplis

2001-01-01

296

Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

Bly, Vince

2007-01-01

297

Cyclic Fatigue of Protaper Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work evaluated the influence of the curved segment length of artificial root canals (the arc) and the number of cycles necessary to fracture engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. ProTaper F3 25-mm files at 250 rpm were used in two artificial canals. The artificial canals were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.04 mm, a total length

Hélio Pereira Lopes; Edson Jorge Lima Moreira; Carlos Nelson Elias; Renata Andriola de Almeida; Mônica Schultz Neves

2007-01-01

298

The Magnetometer Instrument on MESSENGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magnetometer (MAG) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission is a low-noise,\\u000a tri-axial, fluxgate instrument with its sensor mounted on a 3.6-m-long boom. The boom was deployed on March 8, 2005. The primary\\u000a MAG science objectives are to determine the structure of Mercury’s intrinsic magnetic field and infer its origin. Mariner\\u000a 10 observations indicate a

Brian J. Anderson; Mario H. Acuña; David A. Lohr; John Scheifele; Asseem Raval; Haje Korth; James A. Slavin

2007-01-01

299

The Instruments of Dudley Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dudley Observatory, founded in 1852, is the nation's oldest independent organization dedicated to astronomical research and education. While Dudley no longer operates a physical observatory, it is home to a number of historically important scientific instruments and telescopes. Dudley's first operating telescope, a Clark Comet-seeker, remains in Dudley's collection today. This 4-inch refractor provided the first discovery of a comet by a Dudley astronomer in 1857 and is one of only four telescopes of this size produced by Alvan Clark. Also in Dudley's collection is the Olcott Meridian Circle which was the primary working telescope at the observatory for over 75 years. This telescope, made by Pistor & Martins and which operated both at the Dudley Observatory in Albany, NY and the San Luis Observatory in Argentina, was used to conduct all of the observations for the Preliminary General Catalog of 6788 Stars (1908) and the General Catalog of 33,343 Stars (1937). The gem of Dudley's collection is the Pruyn Equatorial Telescope, built by the Warner and Swasey Company and equipped with a 12-inch lens made by John Brashear. It was installed in 1893 to conduct both research observations and public observing sessions. After remaining in storage for many decades, this historic telescope will soon resume its role after being refurbished and installed at the Arunah Hill Natural Science Center in Cummington, MA. While Dudley retains its interest in astronomical instruments it has also moved into the areas of space studies and astronomical education. The key projects in the areas of instrumentation and astronomical outreach, which include the instruments above as well as the Rising Star Internship and Space Campership educational programs, will be detailed in the remainder of this paper.

Gino, M. C.

2002-12-01

300

Advanced instrumentation for QELS experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) experiments have become an important tool in both research and quality control applications during the past 25 years. From the crude beginnings employing mechanically driven spectrum analyzers, an impressive array of general purpose digital correlators and special purpose particle sizers is now commercially available. The principles of QELS experiments are reviewed, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and new instrumentation is described.

Tscharnuter, Walther; Weiner, Bruce; Thomas, John

1989-01-01

301

Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

Kriss, J. P.

1973-01-01

302

Innovative Technology in Hearing Instruments  

PubMed Central

Hearing instrument technology research is almost entirely focused on the projected needs of the consumer market in the developed world. However, two thirds of the world’s population with hearing impairment live in developing countries and this proportion will increase in future, given present demographic trends. In developing regions, amplification and other hearing health needs may differ from those in industrialized nations, for cultural, health, or economic reasons. World Health Organization estimates indicate that at present only a small percentage of individuals in developing countries who are in need of amplification have access to hearing aid provision. New technologies, such as trainable hearing aids, advanced noise reduction algorithms, feedback reduction circuitry, nano coatings for hearing aid components, and innovative power options, may offer considerable potential benefits, both for individuals with hearing impairment in developing countries and for those who provide hearing health care services in these regions. This article considers the possible supporting role of innovative hearing instrument technologies in the provision of affordable hearing health care services in developing countries and highlights the need for research that considers the requirements of the majority of the world population in need of hearing instrument provision. PMID:22068223

2011-01-01

303

Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

Lentell, R.L. [AWD Technologies, Inc., Boise, ID (US); Byrne, J. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (US)

1993-09-01

304

Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

305

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

306

The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp -1).

Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Randall, R. F.; Odem, D. L.; Remington, S. L.; Averkamp, T. F.; Debower, M. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Huff, R. L.; Kirchner, D. L.

1995-01-01

307

The space instrument SODISM and the ground instrument SODISM II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PICARD is a French space scientific mission. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. The launch is scheduled for 2010 on a Sun Synchronous Orbit at 725 km altitude. The mission lifetime is two years, however that can be extended to three years. The payload consists of two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability PICARD) is an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI. It also carries a bolometer used for increasing the TSI sampling and ageing control. PREMOS (PREcision MOnitoring Sensor) radiometer is provided by the PMOD/WRC (Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium of Davos / World Radiation Center) to measure the TSI and the Spectral Solar Irradiance. SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper), is an 11-cm Ritchey-Chr´etien imaging telescope developed at CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) by LATMOS (Laboratoire, ATmosphere, Milieux, Observations Spatiales) ex Service d'A´eronomie, associated with a 2Kx2K CCD (Charge-Coupled Device), taking solar images at five wavelengths. It carries a four-prism system to ensure a metrological control of the optics magnification. SODISM allows us to measure the solar diameter and shape with an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds, and to perform helioseismologic observations to probe the solar interior. In this article, we describe the space instrument SODISM and its thermo-elastic properties. We also present the PICARD payload data center and the ground instrument SODISM II which will observe together with the space instrument.

Meftah, M.; Meissonnier, M.; Irbah, A.; Abbaki, S.; Assus, P.; Bertran, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Ducourt, E.; Dufour, C.; Marcovici, J. P.; Poiet, G.; Vieau, A. J.; Thuillier, G.

2010-07-01

308

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

Eaton, H N

1923-01-01

309

Use of Electrical and Electronic Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a trend survey of the present and planned use of electrical and electronic instruments. Microprocessors were found to have the highest predicted growth rate of all instruments included in the survey. (SL)

Mosbacher, C. J.; Thomas, E. J.

1977-01-01

310

[Development of embedded ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument].  

PubMed

We developed an ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument by optimizing the embedded platform and system units construction to realize miniaturization and portability. The instrument can accurately and safely control the target temperature by using PID feedback algorithm. PMID:23777059

Yang, Bo; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Sheng; Su, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Mengyuan

2013-03-01

311

Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

1964-01-01

312

Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

313

Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

314

Maser observations with new instruments  

E-print Network

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) have recently begun probing the Universe. Both provide the largest collecting area available at locations on a high dry site, endowing them with unparalleled potential for sensitive spectral line observations. Over the next few years, these telescopes will be joined by other telescopes to provide advances in maser science, including NOEMA and the LMT. Other instruments of note for maser science which may commence construction include the North American Array, the CCAT, and an enlarged worldwide VLB network outfitted to operate into the millimeter wavelength regime.

Wootten, Alwyn

2012-01-01

315

Maser observations with new instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)‡, and the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) have recently begun probing the Universe. Both provide the largest collecting area available at locations on a high dry site, endowing them with unparalleled potential for sensitive spectral line observations. Over the next few years, these telescopes will be joined by other telescopes to provide advances in maser science, including NOEMA and the LMT. Other instruments of note for maser science which may commence construction include the North American Array, the CCAT, and an enlarged worldwide VLB network outfitted to operate into the millimeter wavelength regime.

Wootten, Alwyn

2012-07-01

316

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

317

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth`s climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-05-01

318

Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish this. This paper describes the technologies being developed and integrated onto the NASA Ames K9 prototype Mars rover to both accomplish this in one cycle, and to extend the complexity and duration of operations that a Mars rover can accomplish without intervention from mission control.

Pedersen, Liam; Bualat, Maria; Kunz, C.; Lee, Susan; Sargent, Randy; Washington, Rich; Wright, Anne; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

319

Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)  

SciTech Connect

Emerging technologies in the field of "Test & Measurement" have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW®, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past.

Vargo, Timothy D.

1999-06-07

320

Instrumentation for complex fluid flows  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an overview of laboratory methods aimed at quantitative studies of flow behavior. The book describes the basis for different experimental methods aimed at obtaining information on turbulence structure and intensity, flow regime detection, phase interactions, and holdup, entrainment and deposition, and interfacial phenomena in two-phase flows. Typical experimental set-ups are described along with the advantages/disadvantages and precision of various instruments and methods. Discussions of data interpretation and regression are also covered along with guidelines and recommendations for laboratory automation of advanced experimental methods. Where possible, direction is given for adapting certain techniques to commercial units for trouble-shooting and control.

Cheremisinoff, N.P.

1986-01-01

321

Fast Flux Test Facility Instrumentation Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the major irradiation test facility planned for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program. This paper discusses the facility instrumentation requirements, placing particular emphasis on out-of-core instrumentation. In-core instrumentation requirements are described in more general terms due to their greater dependence on reactor concept decisions. Out-of-reactor instrumentation requirements included in these discussions

C. D. Swanson

1969-01-01

322

Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

1972-01-01

323

Instrumentation and process control for coal conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work has been performed in several areas of coal conversion: updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments, process control analysis, and organization of the symposium on instrumentation and control for coal conversion. A Solids\\/Gas Flow Test Facility (S\\/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work

LeSage

1978-01-01

324

Instrument support modules for the SOAR telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOAR Telescope, near completion on Cerro Pachon - Chile, will carry Instrument Support Modules (ISMs) mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. Each ISM has three focal stations and is capable of making rapid instrument changes between them. Both ISMs also carry a Comparison Lamp System (CLS), guider and an acquisition camera, which are shared between the three instruments. One

Fernando G. Santoro; Thomas E. Ingerson; Hugo E. Schwarz; Roberto Tighe; Manuel Martinez; Juan Gallardo; Hugo Ochoa

2004-01-01

325

Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate…

Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

326

Animations in an Instrumental Methods Chemistry Class?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an introduction to animations as a tool for teaching instrumental techniques in the instrumental analysis course - why one might wish to use animations, some information on how to go about developing them, and it provides a number of examples of animations for analytical instrumentation. The site should prove a valuable resource to college educators teaching analytical chemistry.

Chasteen, Thomas G.

2011-04-11

327

Instrumentness for creativity mediation, materiality & metonymy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and playability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The paper performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support creativity,

Olav W. Bertelsen; Morten Breinbjerg; Søren Pold

2007-01-01

328

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

Ulf Leonhardt

2003-01-01

329

ROLES OF INSTRUMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

What roles have instruments played in psychology and related disciplines? How have instruments affected the dynamics of psychological research, with what possibilities and limits? What is a psychological instrument? This article provides a conceptual foundation for specific case studies concerning such questions. The discussion begins by challenging widely accepted assumptions about the subject and analyzing the general relations between scientific

Thomas Sturm; Mitchell G. Ash

2005-01-01

330

ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 14, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

NONE

1997-07-01

331

Are Musical Instrument Gender Associations Changing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researcher sought to examine gender associations across three decades to determine if changes in the sex stereotyping of musical instruments has occurred. First, the study examined the paired comparison gender-instrument rankings of 180 college students. The results confirmed a reduction of instrument gender associations reported in the 1990s.…

Abeles, Hal

2009-01-01

332

Endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instrument systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the nineteenth century, automated root canal instrumentation has been available, but systems had many problems. The challenges of increased canal blockage, instrument breakage, and insufficient canal debridement were related to the use of stainless steel instruments and have been dramatically improved with the introduction of nickel -titanium (NiTi) files. The first useable NiTi alloy was developed

Lieutenant Brent; J. Crumpton; Captain Scott McClanahan

333

Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis Klaus Havelund  

E-print Network

X is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. Another core element of JPaX is an observation package that supports the analysis of the generated eventProgram Instrumentation and Trace Analysis Klaus Havelund Allen Goldberg Kestrel Technology NASA

Filman, Robert E.

334

Instrumentation curriculum: from ATE to VXI  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the instrumentation curriculum provides a number of opportunities for change through the use of modern ATE equipment in the electrical engineering laboratory. New interface buses like VXIbus provide opportunities for advanced digital interface design and implementation of custom instrumentation interfaces. The use of integrated software packages like LabWindows and LabView allows the creation of virtual instruments.

John L. Schmalzel; Parimal A. Patel; Hemal N. Kothari

1992-01-01

335

ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 13, Fall 1996  

SciTech Connect

The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

NONE

1996-12-01

336

Chemical Instrumentation for the Visually Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple, relatively inexpensive, and easily implemented approach for introducing visually handicapped students to chemical instrumentation via experiments on operational amplifiers as examples of some of the electronic building blocks of chemical instrumentation. The approach is applicable to other chemical instruments having electrical…

Anderson, James L.

1982-01-01

337

The Seasat microwave instruments in historical perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The R&D history of the four remote sensing instruments on Seasat: the scatterometer, radiometer, altimeter, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is reviewed. The characteristics and capabilities of each instrument are outlined. The successful performance of these instruments made possible the organization of a major new operational-demonstration satellite for the 1980s called NOSS (National Oceanic Satellite System).

Barrick, D. E.; Swift, C. T.

1980-01-01

338

Instrumentation: Analytical Capabilities on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of Mars will consist of a series of long-term missions, with early missions focusing upon establishing the Mars base, and undertaking basic field reconnaissance. A capable laboratory on Mars is an essential element in the exploration strategy. Analytical equipment both in the field and in the laboratory serves to extend the senses of the crew and help them sharpen their sampling skills as they learn to recognize rocks in the field and understand their geologic context and significance. On-site sample analyses allow results to be incorporated into evolving surface exploration plans and strategies, which will be developing in real-time as we learn more about Mars. Early Mars missions will focus on reconnaissance EVAs to collect rock and soil samples, maximizing the amount of Mars material returned to Earth. Later missions will be increasingly devoted to both extensive field campaigns and laboratory analyses. The capabilities and equipment described below will be built up at the Mars base incrementally over many missions, with science payloads and investigative infrastructure being partitioned among launch opportunities. This discussion considers what we require to measure, observe, and explore on a new planetary territory. Alternatively, what do we need to know and how do we equip ourselves to provide ample capabilities to acquire these data? Suggestions follow describing specific instruments that we could use. Appendix 5 lists a strawman science instrument payload, and a feasibility study of equipment transportation into the field on pressurized or unpressurized rovers.

Westall, Frances; Allen, Carl; Braiser, Martin; Farmer, Jack; Massell, Wulf; Agee, Carl B.; Steele, Andrew; Fortson, Russ

1998-01-01

339

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

340

Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several attempts have been made recently to apply techniques such as model checking and theorem proving to the analysis of programs. This shall be seen as a current trend to analyze real software systems instead of just their designs. This includes our own effort to develop a model checker for Java, the Java PathFinder 1, one of the very first of its kind in 1998. However, model checking cannot handle very large programs without some kind of abstraction of the program. This paper describes a complementary scalable technique to handle such large programs. Our interest is turned on the observation part of the equation: How much information can be extracted about a program from observing a single execution trace? It is our intention to develop a technology that can be applied automatically and to large full-size applications, with minimal modification to the code. We present a tool, Java PathExplorer (JPaX), for exploring execution traces of Java programs. The tool prioritizes scalability for completeness, and is directed towards detecting errors in programs, not to prove correctness. One core element in JPaX is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. The instrumentation is driven by a user provided script that specifies what information to log. Examples of instructions that such a script can contain are: 'report name and arguments of all called methods defined in class C, together with a timestamp'; 'report all updates to all variables'; and 'report all acquisitions and releases of locks'. In more complex instructions one can specify that certain expressions should be evaluated and even that certain code should be executed under various conditions. The instrumentation package can hence be seen as implementing Aspect Oriented Programming for Java in the sense that one can add functionality to a Java program without explicitly changing the code of the original program, but one rather writes an aspect and compiles it into the original program using the instrumentation. Another core element of JPaX is an observation package that supports the analysis of the generated event stream. Two kinds of analysis are currently supported. In temporal analysis the execution trace is evaluated against formulae written in temporal logic. We have implemented a temporal logic evaluator on finite traces using the Maude rewriting system from SRI International, USA. Temporal logic is defined in Maude by giving its syntax as a signature and its semantics as rewrite equations. The resulting semantics is extremely efficient and can handle event streams of hundreds of millions events in few minutes. Furthermore, the implementation is very succinct. The second form of even stream analysis supported is error pattern analysis where an execution trace is analyzed using various error detection algorithms that can identify error-prone programming practices that may potentially lead to errors in some different executions. Two such algorithms focusing on concurrency errors have been implemented in JPaX, one for deadlocks and the other for data races. It is important to note, that a deadlock or data race potential does not need to occur in order for its potential to be detected with these algorithms. This is what makes them very scalable in practice. The data race algorithm implemented is the Eraser algorithm from Compaq, however adopted to Java. The tool is currently being applied to a code base for controlling a spacecraft by the developers of that software in order to evaluate its applicability.

Havelund, Klaus; Goldberg, Allen; Filman, Robert; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

341

The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and weight.

Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

1993-01-01

342

The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and weight.

Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

343

Infrared Instrument for Detecting Hydrogen Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows an instrument incorporating an infrared camera for detecting small hydrogen fires. The instrument has been developed as an improved replacement for prior infrared and ultraviolet instruments used to detect hydrogen fires. The need for this or any such instrument arises because hydrogen fires (e.g., those associated with leaks from tanks, valves, and ducts) pose a great danger, yet they emit so little visible light that they are mostly undetectable by the unaided human eye. The main performance advantage offered by the present instrument over prior hydrogen-fire-detecting instruments lies in its greater ability to avoid false alarms by discriminating against reflected infrared light, including that originating in (1) the Sun, (2) welding torches, and (3) deliberately ignited hydrogen flames (e.g., ullage-burn-off flames) that are nearby but outside the field of view intended to be monitored by the instrument. Like prior such instruments, this instrument is based mostly on the principle of detecting infrared emission above a threshold level. However, in addition, this instrument utilizes information on the spatial distribution of infrared light from a source that it detects. Because the combination of spatial and threshold information about a flame tends to constitute a unique signature that differs from that of reflected infrared light originating in a source not in the field of view, the incidence of false alarms is reduced substantially below that of related prior threshold- based instruments.

Youngquist, Robert; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Immer, Christopher; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Cox, Robert; Taylor, John

2006-01-01

344

Instrumentation at the Anglo-Australian Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) has an instrumentation group for engineering, design, and fabrication that integrates tightly with an energetic group of instrument scientists1 to develop complex astronomical instruments. This instrumentation group puts ideas for innovative technical solutions generated by the instrument scientist group into reality. One demonstration of past achievement is the highly ambitious and successful 2dF instrument that yielded invaluable scientific insight into the cosmological structure of the universe. The more recent successes of the instrumentation group include the OzPoz fiber positioner for the FLAMES facility on the VLT and the award-winning, imaging and multi-object IRIS-2 infrared spectrograph for the AAT. VPH gratings were first put into action in LDSS++ on the AAT and numerous VPH gratings are now in routine use on the 6dF spectrograph for the UKST. Under development are a completely new and unique fiber positioning scheme (Echidna) for use in the FMOS instrument for Subaru; a double-beamed, VPH-based, bench-mounted spectrograph for 2dF; new IR and optical detector controllers; a renovation of the telescope and instrument control systems for the AAT; and a feasibility study for an Echidna-style positioner for the Gemini telescopes. Several other design studies are underway for new instrument technologies using leading edge and innovative concepts in robotics and fibers. The synergy between our scientists and engineers establishes a sound basis for solving the instrumentation challenges facing us.

Barden, Samuel C.

2004-09-01

345

Endoscopes integrated into instruments for spinal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimally invasive approaches the visual path to guide instruments becomes constricted. Often one is unable to visualize adequately interaction of the instrument with tissue. We have incorporated 1.2-mm diameter 10,000 pixel fiberoptic endoscopes into instruments for spinal surgery. With these instruments one has a direct view of the instrument's interaction with the surgical anatomy. We have studied a variety of endoscopic instruments including malleable forceps, retractors and punches in over 40 cases of lateral disc herniations, migrated disc fragments and spinal stenosis. The instruments provided excellent visualization of spinal structures. The size and effect of the pathologic process could be readily evaluated, as could neural decompression. Operative times were not significantly increased and there were no complications attributable to the instruments. This preliminary work documents that 'seeing instruments' can be safely used and add to our appreciation of operative anatomy. It is suggested that these instruments may provide more complete decompression through a more limited, less invasive, access. Further study of these instruments may provide better understanding of their overall utility.

Frank, E.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Winn, Shelley R.

2000-06-01

346

Is pre-fracture functional status better than cognitive level in predicting short-term outcome of elderly hip fracture patients?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to determine to what extent severe cognitive impairment impacts short-term rehabilitation outcomes of elderly patients with proximal hip fracture. Material and methods A total of 337 community-dwelling elderly patients with acute hip fracture were observed during a 12-month period at a major teaching hospital in Serbia. Cognitive status was assessed at admission with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Outcome after 4 months was analysed with respect to presence of severe cognitive impairment, defined as an SPMSQ score of < 3. Outcome assessment included presence of postoperative complications, absolute motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gain, Activities of Daily Living index (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score (IADL), and walking ability. Results An SPMSQ score of < 3 was observed in 36 patients (10.7%) with acute hip fracture. Patients with an SPMSQ score of < 3 achieved worse short-term outcomes regarding all observed variables. However, cognitive status was found to be an independent predictor only with respect to mortality at 4 months (odds ratio (OR) = 0.969, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.947-0.992, p = 0.009). In contrast, pre-fracture motor FIM independently predicted mortality (OR = 2.982, 95% CI = 1.271-7.000, p = 0.012), and preserved walking ability at 4 months follow-up (OR = 0.945, 95% CI = 0.912-0.980, p = 0.002). Correspondingly, pre-fracture ADL was an independent predictor of absolute motor FIM gain at 4 months follow-up (OR = 0.175, 95% CI = 0.405-11.426, p = 0.035). Conclusions Failure to consider functional status prior to fracture might overestimate the impact of cognitive status on functional outcome of hip fracture patients. PMID:22457685

Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana; Matanovic, Dragana; Grajic, Mirko; Krstic, Nevena; Bumbasirevic, Marko

2012-01-01

347

Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

1980-05-01

348

Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors  

E-print Network

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/P12002

2010-01-01

349

(Analytical instrumentation in clinical chemistry)  

SciTech Connect

As chairman of the Expert Panel on Instrumentation (EPI) of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), I presided over its closed and open meetings held on June 29, 1987, and July 2, 1987, respectively. As chairman-elect of the Organizing Committee of the 1990 International Congress on Clinical Chemistry, I also attended the meeting of the IFCC Congress Committee to give a progress report. This report was subsequently also presented to the IFCC Executive Board and Council and to its corporate members. These meetings were held prior to, or in conjunction with, the 13th International Congress of Clinical Chemistry. Consequently, I had an opportunity to attend several of the scientific sessions and the Trade Exposition of the Congress.

Burtis, C.A.

1987-07-14

350

Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation  

E-print Network

In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

Schmickler, Hermann

2001-01-01

351

Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 100 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

352

Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4), 197–200 (2004)], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3), 324 (2001); Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4), 283–286 (2002)], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45), 847–852 (2002)]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. Results: A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85%) of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g). Mean operative time was 214 min (45–390 min). The conversion rate was 11.5% (n = 3). Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3–30 days). Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS. PMID:21206648

Dalvi, A. N.; Thapar, P. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Rege, S. A.; Prabhu, R. Y.; Supe, A. N.; Kamble, R. S.

2005-01-01

353

Recent development in PET instrumentation.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr(3), and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

Peng, By Hao; Levin, Craig S

2010-09-01

354

Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHY: Normal aging changes and health problems frequently show themselves as declines in the functional status of older adults. Decline may place the older adult on a spiral of iatrogenesis leading to further health problems. One of the best ways to evaluate the health status of older adults is through functional assessment which provides objective data that may indicate future

Meredith Wallace; Mary Shelkey

2007-01-01

355

Adl et al. 2012 FIG. 1.--Maximum likelihood  

E-print Network

on bacteria x Naegleria fowleri (facultative patogen of humans) · acrasid slime molds Dictyostelium #12 · in intestinates of the ligniperdous insects (thermits), Oxymonads also host symbiotic bacteria, wood decay kinetoplastids and diplonemids. #12;Euglenozoa Figure 1. An illustration of euglenozoan relationships

356

Making instruments work on the European ELT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title of this paper was chosen to highlight the fact that the installation and operation of instrumentation on Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will not be entirely simple or straightforward. The cost of construction and operation of ELTs will be such that substantial pressures will develop for proportional increases in the level of performance of the instrumentation, using as much of the electromagnetic information arriving at the focal plane as possible. This in turn will require complex instruments using adaptive optics, multiple channels or highly spatially multiplexed instruments. In the case of the European ELT, it will be a facility much in demand by ESOs 4000+ community of astronomers. The instrument infrastructure must therefore be able to accommodate the full range of projects likely to be undertaken. In this paper, we will discuss the instrument interfaces and infrastructure as envisioned in the current baseline for the European ELT and the requirements underpinning them.

Casali, Mark M.; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; D'Odorico, Sandro

2008-07-01

357

Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

2012-09-01

358

Remote Monitoring of Instrumentation in Sealed Compartments  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been exploring the instrumentation of sealed canisters where the flight application will not tolerate either the presence of a chemical power source or penetration by power supply wires. This paper will describe the application of a low power micro-controller based instrumentation system that uses magnetic coupling for both power and data to support a flight application.

Landron, Clinton; Moser, John C.

1999-05-20

359

Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and\\u000adevelopment of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong\\u000acost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science\\u000arequirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal\\u000aof shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be\\u000acounterproductive. Instrument optimization is

J. R. Fisher; R. F. Bradley; W. F. Brisken; W. D. Cotton; D. T. Emerson; A. R. Kerr; R. J. Lacasse; M. A. Morgan; P. J. Napier; R. D. Norrod; J. M. Payne; M. W. Pospieszalski; A. Symmes; A. R. Thompson; J. C. Webber

2009-01-01

360

Planck high-frequency instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Frequency Instrument of the Planck satellite is dedicated to the measurement of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its main goal is to map the CMB with a sensitivity of ?T/T=2.10-6 and an angular resolution of 5 arcmin in order to constrain cosmological parameters. Planck is a project of the European Space Agency based on a wide international collaboration, including United States and Canadian laboratories. The architecture of the satellite is driven by the thermal requirements resulting from the search for low photon noise. Especially, the passively cooled telescope should be at less than 50K, while a cascade of cryo-coolers will ensure the cooling of the HFI bolometers down to 0.1K. This last temperature will be produced by a gravity insensitive 3He/4He dilution cooler. This will be achieved at the L2 Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system. The whole sky will be observed two times in the 14 months mission with a scanning strategy based on a 1RPM rotation of the satellite. In addition to the cosmological parameters that can be derived from the CMB maps, Planck will deliver nine high sensitivity submillimeter maps of the whole sky that will constitute unique data available to the whole astronomical community.

Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Puget, Jean L.; Piat, M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Lange, Andrew E.; Benoit, Alain; De Bernardis, Pierluigi; Bouchet, F. R.; Bock, James J.; Desert, F. X.; Emery, Roger J.; Giard, Martin; Maffei, Bruno; Murphy, J. A.; Torre, Jean-Pierre; Bhatia, Ravinder; Sudiwala, Rashmi V.; Yourchenko, V.

2003-03-01

361

The JEM-EUSO instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the JEM-EUSO instrument. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) will observe Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. It will detect UV-light of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by UHECRs traversing the Earth's atmosphere. For each event, the detector will determine the energy, arrival direction and the type of the primary particle. The advantage of a space-borne detector resides in the large field of view, using a target volume of about 1012 tons of atmosphere, far greater than what is achievable from ground. Another advantage is a nearly uniform sampling of the whole celestial sphere. The corresponding increase in statistics will help to clarify the origin and sources of UHECRs and characterize the environment traversed during their production and propagation. JEM-EUSO is a 1.1 ton refractor telescope using an optics of 2.5 m diameter Fresnel lenses to focus the UV-light from EAS on a focal surface composed of about 5,000 multi-anode photomultipliers, for a total of ?3?105 channels. A multi-layer parallel architecture handles front-end acquisition, selecting and storing valid triggers. Each processing level filters the events with increasingly complex algorithms using FPGAs and DSPs to reject spurious events and reduce the data rate to a value compatible with downlink constraints.

Casolino, Marco; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor

2014-10-01

362

Lidar instruments proposed for Eos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar, an acronym for light detection and ranging, represents a class of instruments that utilize lasers to send probe beams into the atmosphere or onto the surface of the Earth and detect the backscattered return in order to measure properties of the atmosphere or surface. The associated technology has matured to the point where two lidar facilities, Geodynamics Laser Ranging System (GLRS), and Laser Atmospheric Wind Sensor (LAWS) were accepted for Phase 2 studies for Eos. A third lidar facility Laser Atmospheric Sounder and Altimeter (LASA), with the lidar experiment EAGLE (Eos Atmospheric Global Lidar Experiment) was proposed for Eos. The generic lidar system has a number of components. They include controlling electronics, laser transmitters, collimating optics, a receiving telescope, spectral filters, detectors, signal chain electronics, and a data system. Lidar systems that measure atmospheric constituents or meteorological parameters record the signal versus time as the beam propagates through the atmosphere. The backscatter arises from molecular (Rayleigh) and aerosol (Mie) scattering, while attenuation arises from molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption. Lidar systems that measure distance to the Earth's surface or retroreflectors in a ranging mode record signals with high temporal resolution over a short time period. The overall characteristics and measurements objectives of the three lidar systems proposed for Eos are given.

Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.

1990-01-01

363

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

364

New instruments for solar research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In fulfilment of its goal to develop early detection and warning of emerging solar magnetic fields, the Center for Applied Solar Physics (CASP) has designed and constructed a solar vector magnetograph (VMG) that will provide unique data on the sunspot regions where flares originate. The instrument is reportedly beginning to approach its goals of measuring all three components of the solar magnetic field with a sensitivity of 50 to 100 G and a spatial resolution on the sun of about 700 km (1 arcsec). Importance of new high-resolution capabilities is stressed and the interpretation of VMG measurements is discussed. The performance of the solar VMG, installed in a 6-m dome at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, New Mexico, and its construction and environment are described; particular attention is given to the use and function of the filters. Initial results are examined, including a description and analysis of a magnetogram obtained after installation of an improved blocking filter.

Rust, David M.; O'Byrne, John W.; Sterner, Raymond E., II

1990-01-01

365

Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

2000-01-01

366

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01

367

LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

Guzman, Felipe

2010-01-01

368

Human pavlovian-instrumental transfer.  

PubMed

The vigor with which a participant performs actions that produce valuable outcomes is subject to a complex set of motivational influences. Many of these are believed to involve the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, which act as an interface between limbic and motor systems. One prominent class of influences is called pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT), in which the motivational characteristics of a predictor influence the vigor of an action with respect to which it is formally completely independent. We provide a demonstration of behavioral PIT in humans, with an audiovisual predictor of the noncontingent delivery of money inducing participants to perform more avidly an action involving squeezing a handgrip to earn money. Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that this enhanced motivation was associated with a trial-by-trial correlation with the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the nucleus accumbens and a subject-by-subject correlation with the BOLD signal in the amygdala. Our data dovetails well with the animal literature and sheds light on the neural control of vigor. PMID:18184778

Talmi, Deborah; Seymour, Ben; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

2008-01-01

369

Development of Egyptian instrumentation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During early 1977, USAID/CAIRO engaged Dor. Huston and two UW/ISC staff members, Mr. Weckel and Mr. Falk, as consultants. The purpose of this engagement was to prepare technical specifications and submit procurement plans for scientific instruments, apparatus, and equipment required for the National Research Center in Cairo. More than 2 man months were spent in Cairo and 2 man months in Wisconsin in performing these tasks. Mr. Falk made 2 additional trips to Cairo in August 1977 and December 1978 in performing work ancillary to the earlier assignments. The outcome of this engagement was the initiation of procurement for about two million dollars worth of equipment. In the course of these interactions a detailed familiarity was obtained with the NRC and SIC facilities and a close rapport was established with the Egyptian managers, scientists and engineers associated with them. Another program detailing with the development of maintenance and repair programs within the Egyptian scientific community was undertaken under NSF sponsorship in 1978.

Huston, N. E.; Falk, E. D.

370

LISA Pathfinder instrument data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtrac-tion techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology Subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of pre-flight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

Guzman, Felipe

371

Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... in hypertext and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing ... 1993, Needs 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993 ...

372

Residual stress instrument at the HANARO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A residual stress instrument was developed and measurement service has been available since early 2000 at the HANARO. The instrument is an optional instrument to a high-resolution powder diffractometer sharing its sample table and monochromator with changeable optical components and a linear position-sensitive detector unit. We report here the installation of the residual stress instrument at the HANARO and its early measurements on the samples of VAMAS and some engineering components. A short description of future plans is also included.

Moon, M.-K.; Lee, C.-H.; Em, V. T.; Kim, H.-J.

373

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

ScienceCinema

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2014-02-10

374

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2013-11-21

375

CICADA, CCD and Instrument Control Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerised Instrument Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) is a software system for control of telescope instruments in a distributed computing environment. It is designed using object-oriented techniques and built with standard computing tools such as RPC, SysV IPC, Posix threads, Tcl, and GUI builders. The system is readily extensible to new instruments and currently supports the Astromed 3200 CCD controller and MSSSO's new tip-tilt system. Work is currently underway to provide support for the SDSU CCD controller and MSSSO's Double Beam Spectrograph. A core set of processes handle common communication and control tasks, while specific instruments are ``bolted'' on using C++ inheritance techniques.

Young, Peter J.; Brooks, Mick; Meatheringham, Stephen J.; Roberts, William H.

376

Computational and experimental study of instrumented indentation  

E-print Network

The effect of characteristic length scales, through dimensional and microstructural miniaturizations, on mechanical properties is systematically investigated by recourse to instrumented micro- and/or nanoindentation. This ...

Chollacoop, Nuwong, 1977-

2004-01-01

377

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

378

Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.  

PubMed

Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

2013-10-18

379

26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (ii) Step two: Construct the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument. The equivalent fixed rate debt instrument has terms that are...rate debt instrument, except that the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument provides for the...

2012-04-01

380

26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (ii) Step two: Construct the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument. The equivalent fixed rate debt instrument has terms that are...rate debt instrument, except that the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument provides for the...

2011-04-01

381

26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (ii) Step two: Construct the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument. The equivalent fixed rate debt instrument has terms that are...rate debt instrument, except that the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument provides for the...

2013-04-01

382

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2010-01-01

383

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2011-01-01

384

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2014-01-01

385

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2012-01-01

386

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2013-01-01

387

31 CFR 800.206 - Convertible voting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Convertible voting instrument. 800.206 Section 800.206...PERSONS Definitions § 800.206 Convertible voting instrument. The term convertible voting instrument means a financial instrument...

2010-07-01

388

31 CFR 800.206 - Convertible voting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Convertible voting instrument. 800.206 Section 800.206...PERSONS Definitions § 800.206 Convertible voting instrument. The term convertible voting instrument means a financial instrument...

2012-07-01

389

31 CFR 800.206 - Convertible voting instrument.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Convertible voting instrument. 800.206 Section 800.206...PERSONS Definitions § 800.206 Convertible voting instrument. The term convertible voting instrument means a financial instrument...

2014-07-01

390

31 CFR 800.206 - Convertible voting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Convertible voting instrument. 800.206 Section 800.206...PERSONS Definitions § 800.206 Convertible voting instrument. The term convertible voting instrument means a financial instrument...

2011-07-01

391

31 CFR 800.206 - Convertible voting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Convertible voting instrument. 800.206 Section 800.206...PERSONS Definitions § 800.206 Convertible voting instrument. The term convertible voting instrument means a financial instrument...

2013-07-01

392

The Relationship between Postsecondary Instrumental Student's Musical Independence and Grade-Level, Instrument Family, Gender, and Instrumental Ensemble.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the relationship between MI (musical independence) and placement in college instrumental ensembles, the influence of instrument family and gender on the development of MI in postsecondary students, and identification of those outstanding MI students most at risk of dropping music as their college major. Instrumentalists (N=354)…

Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others

393

Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 200 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

394

Instrumentation in Health Education and the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) Instrument  

E-print Network

the validity and reliability of data collected from 1,992 Indiana middle and high school students with the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) instrument. The AHRBS instrument was created using the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM) theoretical framework...

Smith, Matthew L.

2010-01-14

395

Aeronautic instruments. Section I : general classification of instruments and problems including bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended as a technical introduction to the series of reports on aeronautic instruments. It presents a discussion of those subjects which are common to all instruments. First, a general classification is given, embracing all types of instruments used in aeronautics. Finally, a classification is given of the various problems confronted by the instrument expert and investigator. In this way the following groups of problems are brought up for consideration: problems of mechanical design, human factor, manufacturing problems, supply and selection of instruments, problems concerning the technique of testing, problems of installation, problems concerning the use of instruments, problems of maintenance, and physical research problems. This enumeration of problems which are common to instruments in general serves to indicate the different points of view which should be kept in mind in approaching the study of any particular instrument.

Hersey, Mayo D

1923-01-01

396

Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

2008-01-01

397

Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

Peletier, D. P.

1973-01-01

398

Unique broad-spectrum neutron sensing instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the design and operation of a transportable neutron spectrometer. Four of these instruments were produced and have been widely used for applications such as the assessment and classification of radiation hazards at field sites in the United Kingdom and Europe. An overview of the instrument hardware is presented, together with a description of the six sensor channels,

J. A. Weaver; M. J. Joyce; A. J. Peyton; J. Roskell; M. J. Armishaw

2001-01-01

399

Instrumental Conditioning II: Modeling Action Selection  

E-print Network

errors) · in another condition: no action selection, subjects only indicate the side the `computer' hasInstrumental Conditioning II: Modeling Action Selection PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, computational and neural perspectives how to model instrumental conditioning? Marr

Niv, Yael

400

Instrumentation for liquid sodium in nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the instrumentation for the measurement of ; physical and chemical characteristics of liquid sodium in reactor coolant and ; related applications. It covers flow, temperature, acceleration and pressure, ; displacement, void fraction and level. Also included are the descriptions of ; instruments for monitoring the general purity and the specific impurities of ; oxygen, hydrogen and

1974-01-01

401

Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements  

SciTech Connect

A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

1981-01-01

402

Instrumented impact testing at high velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact loading of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic CFRP) aircraft parts is a major concern. Birds or hailstones striking an aircraft generally have a low mass and a high velocity, whereas typically instrumented impact experiments are performed with a high mass and a low velocity. Our aim has been to build an instrumented impact facility with a low-mass projectile capable of simulating

Daniel Delfosse; Gilles Pageau; Roger Bennett; Anoush Poursartip

1993-01-01

403

VELA: A Microprocessor-Based Laboratory Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a general description of a preprogramed, microprocessor-based laboratory instrument, discussing its use in monitoring: (1) environmental changes; (2) distribution of count rates from a radioactive source, and (3) motion on an air tract. Includes list of the instrument's various capabilities: frequency meter, voltmeter, interval timer, and…

Lambert, Andrew

1983-01-01

404

Instrumentation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)  

E-print Network

Instrumentation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) David Delene Department of Atmospheric Sciences on at the University of North Dakota. · What are the prospects for UAS measurements? Right Wing of Citation Research Spectrometer Are some Instrument just to complex for UAS operations? #12;Airborne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

Delene, David J.

405

Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.

2011-01-01

406

Project DAME: Tactical instrumented missile simulation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a previous program - an instrumented modified 14-inch bomb dummy unit BDU flown on an F-111 aircraft - were applied, analytically, to an AIM-7E Sparrow Motor. An inert Sparrow motor was instrumented with accelerometers, strain and stress gages, and thermocouples. It was then subjected to thermal, dynamics, and captive-flight simulation tests that cover the expected range of loadings

J. D. Burton

1976-01-01

407

Project DAME - Tactical Instrumented Missile Simulation Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a previous program -- an instrumented modified 14-inch bomb dummy unit (BDU) flown on an F-111 aircraft -- were applied, analytically, to an AIM-7E (Sparrow) motor. An inert Sparrow motor was instrumented with accelerometers, strain and stress ...

J. D. Burton

1976-01-01

408

Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Model and  

E-print Network

systems around distant stars, and perhaps the origins of life itself (see Fig. 1) [1]. The SIM instrumentSpace Interferometry Mission Instrument Model and Astrometric Performance Validation IPEK BASDOGAN optical interferometer. The lack of signal from the science targets precludes using the star as a feedback

Basdogan, Ipek

409

Strong-Motion Instrumentation Programs in Taiwan  

E-print Network

by the Central Weather Bureau. 2. Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program by IES 2.1 Strong-Motion Accelerographs64 Strong-Motion Instrumentation Programs in Taiwan T. C. Shin Central Weather Bureau, Taipei- able amounts of resources have been devoted to seismic instru- mentation in general, and strong-motion

Wu, Yih-Min

410

Measurement hardware emulator: synthetic instrumentation and CASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Instrumentation is a class of test devices, including measurers and stimulators, implemented primarily with software and supported with minimal hardware conditioning for the test signals. This philosophy permits frequent reuse of the hardware elements (processors, A\\/Ds, D\\/As, signal conditioners and switches) when commanding different instrument functions. Substantially lower purchase cost and life cycle cost per function are therefore achieved.

Leslie A. Orlidge; Eric D. Stoll

1999-01-01

411

A laser tracking dynamic robot metrology instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research work over several years has resulted in the development of a laser tracking instrument capable of dynamic 3-D measurements of robot end-effector trajectories. The instrument characteristics and experiments to measure the static and dynamic performance of a robot in an industrial manufacturing environment are described. The use of this technology for space applications is examined.

Parker, G. A.; Mayer, J. R. R.

1989-01-01

412

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

413

Achievement goals, learning strategies and instrumental performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers to support students in order

Siw Graabraek Nielsen

2008-01-01

414

Lasso Methods for Gaussian Instrumental Variables Models  

E-print Network

In this note, we propose the use of sparse methods (e.g., LASSO, Post-LASSO, p LASSO, and Post-p LASSO) to form first-stage predictions and estimate optimal instruments in linear instrumental variables (IV) models with ...

Belloni, Alexandre

2011-02-25

415

Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews

David Y H Pui; Benjamin Y H Liu

1988-01-01

416

Instrumented hardness testing using a flat punch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumented hardness tests using a flat punch were performed and analysed using an original approach. The quality of the hardness-flow stress correlation using this particular type of indenter is investigated. It is found that some characteristic force values of the instrumented hardness test are very well correlated to yield and tensile strength.

M. Scibetta; E. Lucon; R. Chaouadi; E. van Walle

2003-01-01

417

Nontraditional Intelligence Testing: Samples of Humorous Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In keeping with a model of intelligence that identifies at least 12 intelligence "talents," formal and informal intelligence or talent assessments have been developed. This paper presents some of these informal instruments that can be used to assess convergent and divergent forms of intelligence. These nontraditional instruments have been designed…

Lemire, David

418

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis

N. T. Raczka

2000-01-01

419

HIGHDIMENSIONAL INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES REGRESSION AND CONFIDENCE SETS  

E-print Network

HIGH�DIMENSIONAL INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES REGRESSION AND CONFIDENCE SETS ERIC GAUTIER AND ALEXANDRE B for partial identification. Our procedure, called STIV (Self Tuning Instrumental Variables) estimator, is realized as a solution of a conic program. The joint confidence sets can be obtained by solving K convex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Instrumentation remote control through internet with PHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a set of PHP based tools created to develop applications for instrumentation remote control through Web browsers. These tools include a PHP module for GPIB (general purpose interface bus) control in a Win32 platform and a set of PHP classes that make easier the creation of GUIs in Web browsers for instrument control and data visualization. The

João Santos; José Mendonça; João C. Martins

2008-01-01

421

Means for Positioning and Repositioning Scanning Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for positioning a scanning instrument to point toward the center of the desired scan wherein the scan is achieved by rotating unbalanced masses (RUMs) rotating about fixed axes of rotation relative to and associated with the instrument, the RUMs being supported on drive shafts spaced from the center of the mass of the instrument and rotating 180 degrees out-of-phase with each other and in planes parallel to each other to achieve the scan. The elevation and cross-elevation angles of the instrument are sensed to determine any offset and offset time rate-of-change, and the magnitude and direction are converted to a RUM cycle angular velocity component to be superimposed on the nominal velocity of the RUMs. This RUM angular velocity component modulates the RUM angular velocity to cause the speed of the RUMs to increase and decrease during each revolution to drive the instrument toward the desired center of the scan.

Polites, Michael E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

422

The cleaning of instruments and syringes  

PubMed Central

The dangers to the handler of syringes used for routine injections were found to be negligible, but known infected syringes and those contaminated with antibiotics should be autoclaved before handling as a high proportion of these carry pathogenic organisms. Mechanical methods of cleaning syringes and instruments are assessed. The use of an artificial soil for testing purposes is described. Using this soil, ultrasonics by themselves are inadequate for cleaning syringes and instruments. Agitation with ultrasonics is essential for syringes, but is insufficient for instruments. Detergents are therefore an essential adjunct to the cleaning process. For syringes Pyroneg proved to be the most satisfactory, particularly if they had been previously siliconized. The best detergent for instruments contaminated with these types of soil was Penesolve 814 at a temperature of 95°C. but the instruments must be adequately rinsed after this treatment. A number of other detergents and cleaning agents are discussed. PMID:14247708

Darmady, E. M.; Hughes, K. E. A.; Drewett, S. E.; Prince, D.; Tuke, Winifred; Verdon, Patricia

1965-01-01

423

Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

2001-01-01

424

Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.

Lagzdina, Erika

2010-01-01

425

Gender Association of Musical Instruments and Preferences of Fourth-Grade Students for Selected Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides research findings concerning the musical instrument preferences of fourth grade students. Finds that, although gender associations with certain instruments have lessened, they remain noticeably present. Identifies drums, saxophone, and flute as the most popular instruments. Notes a moderate relationship between student perceptions of peer…

Delzell, Judith K.; Leppla, David A.

1992-01-01

426

Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with molten fluoride salt at 700 C (1,292 F) as part of a reactor cooling loop. The motor-pump combination during normal operation would be red-hot (Figure 1). This environment challenges every facet of the design including seals, wiring, magnetic materials, and sensors. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of sensor design in extreme environments and specifically the sensor design for a high-temperature fluoride salt coolant pump. This pump will be used as a test-bed for embedded I&C development and validation in extreme environments.

Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

2013-01-01

427

Instrument support modules for the SOAR telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SOAR Telescope, near completion on Cerro Pachon - Chile, will carry Instrument Support Modules (ISMs) mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. Each ISM has three focal stations and is capable of making rapid instrument changes between them. Both ISMs also carry a Comparison Lamp System (CLS), guider and an acquisition camera, which are shared between the three instruments. One ISM supports IR instruments. The other is used for "Optical" instruments operating at wavelengths below 900nm. Beam steering mechanisms direct light from the SOAR science field or the CLS to the instrument in use. In the IR-ISM, light is sent to the lateral ports by dichroic mirrors which reflect IR and transmit wavelengths from 400-900nm to the guider. In the Optical-ISM, light is directed to the lateral ports by the use of first surface pick-off mirrors. Guiding is done off-axis. During operation, both ISMs can be rotated by 360° and must carefully control differential flexure between the guider and focal planes. A method of accurate relative flexure measurement has been developed where the ISM is rotated on its handling cart while carrying instrument mass simulators which reproduce its nominal payloads. In this paper, the ISM and its support sub-modules are described. Results of flexure measurements and tests of the CLS are provided.

Santoro, Fernando G.; Ingerson, Thomas E.; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Tighe, Roberto; Martinez, Manuel; Gallardo, Juan; Ochoa, Hugo

2004-10-01

428

Endodontic instruments after torsional failure: nanoindentation test.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate effects of torsional loading on the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments using the nanoindentation technique. ProFile (PF; size 30, taper 04; Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) and stainless steel (SS; size 30, taper 02; Mani, Japan) instruments were subjected to torsional test. Nanoindentation was then performed adjacent to the edge of fracture (edge) and at the cutting part beside the shank (shank). Hardness and elastic modulus were measured under 100-mN force on 100 locations at each region, and compared to those obtained from the same regions on new instruments. It showed that PF and SS instruments failed at 559?±?67 and 596?±?73 rotation degrees and mean maximum torque of 0.90?±?0.07 and 0.99?±?0.05?N-cm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus ranged 4.8-6.7 and 118-339?GPa in SS, and 2.7-3.2 and 52-81?GPa in PF. Significant differences between torsion-fractured and new instruments in hardness and elastic modulus were detected in the SS system used. While in PF system, the edge region after torsional fracture had significantly lower hardness and elastic modulus compared to new instruments. The local hardness and modulus of elasticity of endodontic instruments adjacent to the fracture edge are significantly reduced by torsional loading. PMID:24610598

Jamleh, Ahmed; Sadr, Alireza; Nomura, Naoyuki; Ebihara, Arata; Yahata, Yoshio; Hanawa, Takao; Tagami, Junji; Suda, Hideaki

2014-01-01

429

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

430

Reusable instruments are more cost-effective than disposable instruments for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Health care costs are rising rapidly, and surgeons can play a role in limiting costs of operations. Of the 600,000 cholecystectomies performed each year in the United States, approximately 80% are performed with laparoscopic technique. The purpose of this study was to compare the costs of reusable vs disposable instruments used during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The costs to the hospital of reusable and disposable instruments were obtained. Instruments studied were the Veress needle, trocars and sleeves (two 10 mm and two 5 mm), reducers, clip appliers, and clips. In addition, the costs of sterilization and sharpening for reusable instruments were calculated. The cost of reusable instruments was based on an assumed instrument life of 100 cases. Data from three private hospitals and a Canadian university hospital were collected and examined. Data from the four hospitals revealed that the costs of reusable instruments per case were $46.92-$50.67. The comparable costs for disposable instruments were $330.00-$460.00 per case. Theoretical advantages of disposable instruments such as safety, sterility, and better efficiency are not borne out in literature review. In addition, the environmental impact of increased refuse from disposable instruments could not be exactly defined. With the consideration of significant cost savings and the absence of data demonstrating disadvantages of their use, reusable instruments for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, are strongly recommended. PMID:8153862

Apelgren, K N; Blank, M L; Slomski, C A; Hadjis, N S

1994-01-01

431

Hedonic and Instrumental Motives in Anger Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—What motivates,individuals to regulate their emotions? One answer, which has been highlighted in emotion-regulation research, is that individuals are mo- tivatedbyshort-termhedonicgoals(e.g.,themotivationto feel pleasure). Another answer, however, is that individu- als are motivated by instrumental goals (e.g., the moti- vation to perform,certain behaviors). We suggest that both answers,have merit. To demonstrate,the role instrumental goalsmay playinemotionregulation,wepitted short-term hedonic,motives and,instrumental,motives against each other,

Maya Tamir; Christopher Mitchell; James J. Gross

2008-01-01

432

Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using support from NASA Grant No. NAG 2-963, SRI International successfully completed the project, entitled, 'Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation.' This effort (SRI Project 7383) covered the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a real-time aerosol speciation instrument in NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Spring 1996 SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission. This final technical report describes the pertinent details of the instrument design, its abilities, its deployment during SUCCESS and the data acquired from the mission, and the post-mission calibration, data reduction, and analysis.

Coggiola, Michael J.

1998-01-01

433

Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13  

SciTech Connect

The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

1995-04-01

434

Applications of transputers to astronomical instruments  

SciTech Connect

Parallel processing techniques based on transputers are being applied to astronomical instruments under development. On the COSMOS photographic plate measuring machine, a data farm of transputers allows backgrounds to be determined in realtime instead of requiring 1.5 hours of offline VAX processing per plate. Transputers have been adopted as the embedded processors in a submillimetre bolometer array instrument and their use is planned in demanding future applications such as thermal infrared array instruments and data compression applied to remote observing. The techniques of interfacing transputers to external hardware and to VAX/VMS computers are discussed.

Stewart, J.M.; Beard, S,M.; Kelly, B.D.; Paterson, M.J. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

1990-04-01

435

A Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Musica Antiqua, a group of musicians based at Iowa State University who recreate the music of the Renaissance and Middle Ages, have created a web page that showcases their large collection of 12th to 17th century replica instruments. At this site, users can view pictures and descriptions of the Hurdy-Gurdy, Dulcian, Rebec, Recorder, Crumhorn, and many other lesser and better known old instruments. Descriptions of each instrument include a history, construction, and how they are played. In addition, most include a short bibliography and a recorded sample in .wav format.

Antiqua., Musica

436

Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

2013-12-01

437

Condensation Of Volatile Contaminant In An Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of deposition of contaminant of cooled optical detectors in Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC), an instrument in Hubble Space Telescope. To understand phenomenon, initially thought to be deposition of water from graphite/epoxy optical-bench material in instrument, researchers mounted several diagnostic instruments on access plate to monitor interior of WF/PC housing and optical bench. Temperature-controlled quartz-crystal microbalance (TQCM) measures adsorbed and desorbed volatile condensible material on surfaces in WF/PC.

Hansen, Patricia A.; Jenkins, Teresa K.; Maag, Carl R.; Taylor, Daniel M.

1992-01-01

438

Design and performance of the Spider instrument  

E-print Network

Here we describe the design and performance of the Spider instrument. Spider is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background polarization imager that will map part of the sky at 90, 145, and 280 GHz with sub-degree resolution and high sensitivity. This paper discusses the general design principles of the instrument inserts, mechanical structures, optics, focal plane architecture, thermal architecture, and magnetic shielding of the TES sensors and SQUID multiplexer. We also describe the optical, noise, and magnetic shielding performance of the 145 GHz prototype instrument insert.

Runyan, M C; Amiri, M; Benton, S; Bihary, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bonetti, J A; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Dore, O; O'Dea, D; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L; Gandilo, N; Golwala, S R; Gudmundsson, J E; Hasselfield, M; Halpern, M; Hilton, G; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Morford, T A; Montroy, T E; Netterfield, C B; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Schenker, M A; Shariff, J; Soler, J D; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, R S; Tucker, C; Turner, A; 10.1117/12.857715

2011-01-01

439

Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the basic elements of the NFI 1 detector array. With a DROID-based array of 48 times 10 elements covering the NFI 1 field of view of 0.5 arcmin, the number of signal wires would already be reduced by a factor 2.4 compared to a 48 times 48 array of single pixels. While the present prototype DROIDS are still covered with a 480 nm thick SiOx insulation layer, this layer could easily be reduced in thickness or omitted. The detection efficiency of such a device with a 500 nm thick Ta absorber would be >80% in the energy range of 100-3000eV, without any disturbing contributions from other layers as in single STJs. Further developments involve devices of lower Tc-superconductors for better energy resolution and faster diffusion (e.g. Mo). The narrow field imager 2 The NFI 2 will consist of an array of 32 times 32 detector pixels. Each detector is a microcalorimeter which consists of a a superconducting to normal phase transition edge thermometer (transition edge sensor, TES) with an operating temperature of 100 mK, and an absorber which allows a detection efficiency of >90% and a filling factor of the focal plane in excess of 90%. Single pixel microcalorimeters with a Ti/Au TES have already shown an energy resolution of 3.9 eV at 5.89 keV in combination with a thermal response time of 100 mus. These results imply that they the high-energy requirement for XEUS can be met, in terms of energy resolution and response time. It has been demonstrated that bismuth can be applied as absorber material without impeding on the detector performance. Bi increases the stopping power in excess of 90 % and allows for a high filling factor since the absorber is can be modeled in the shape of a mushroom, allowing that the wiring to the detector and the thermal support structure are placed under the hat of the mushroom. In order to realize the NFI 2 detector array, there are two major development areas. Firstly, there is the development of micromachined Si and SiN structures that will provide proper cooling for each of the pixels and the production of small membranes to support the

Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

440

A nano-stepping robotic instrumentation platform  

E-print Network

The development of an Autonomous Nano-stepping Tool (ANT) system is presented. Each ANT is a small, tripodal, robotic instrument capable of untethered precision motion within a quasi-three-dimensional workspace of arbitrary ...

Wahab, Adam Joseph

2013-01-01

441

Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

Tyc, Tomáš

2011-09-01

442

40 CFR 1065.915 - PEMS instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...same specifications as each lab instrument it replaces...Repeatability 1 Noise 1 Engine speed transducer f n 1 s 1...measurements, to estimate engine speed, torque, and brake-specific...the overall performance of any speed, torque, or BSFC...

2010-07-01

443

40 CFR 1065.915 - PEMS instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...same specifications as each lab instrument it replaces...Repeatability 1 Noise 1 Engine speed transducer f n 1 s 1...measurements, to estimate engine speed, torque, brake-specific...the overall performance of any speed, torque, or BSFC...

2011-07-01

444

ChemLab - Instruments and Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains information on using and caring for common chemistry lab instruments as well as information on performing common laboratory techniques. Included is information on an analytical balance, pH meter, spectrometer, calorimetry, centrifugation, titration, and vacuum filtration.

2011-06-22

445

NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

446

Paranal instruments: installation, maintenance, optimization, and operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present the status of the scientific instruments and their associated systems at the Paranal observatory and the approach used to integrate, commission and to keep them at their maximum performances.

Gonte, Frederic; Smette, Alain

2012-09-01

447

Case-finding instruments for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the validity of a two-question case-finding instrument for depression as compared with six previously validated\\u000a instruments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  The test characteristics of a two-question case-fidning instrument that asks about depressed mood and anhedonia were compared\\u000a with six common case-finding instruments, using the Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule as a criterion standard for the diagnosis\\u000a of major depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Urgent care clinic at

Mary A. Whooley; Andrew L. Avins; Jeanne Miranda; Warren S. Browner

1997-01-01

448

Patient Matched Instruments and Total Knee System  

MedlinePLUS

Smith & Nephew Technologies: VISIONAIRE™ Patient Matched Instruments and LEGION™ Total Knee System You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal ...

449

NASA's MISR Instrument Sees Arizona Wildfires Burn  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation from NASAâ??s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra spacecraft show the Wallow and Horseshoe 2 Fires burning in Arizona mid-morning (local time) on Jun...

450

47 CFR 73.258 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and...

2013-10-01

451

47 CFR 73.258 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and...

2011-10-01

452

47 CFR 73.258 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and...

2010-10-01

453

47 CFR 73.258 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and...

2012-10-01

454

Continuing Education Instrumentation Training in Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)

LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra

1980-01-01

455

Field instrumentation for vocalizing avian survey  

E-print Network

We present automated instruments to facilitate the monitoring of vocalizing species in their environment with minimal disruption. These devices offer recording and acoustic localization of bird calls and relay data via the ...

Elliott, Grant (Grant Andrew)

2007-01-01

456

IRIS Optical Instrument and Light Paths  

NASA Video Gallery

The optical portion of the instrument and the light paths from the primary and secondary mirror of the telescope assembly into the spectrograph. The spectrograph then breaks the light into 2 Near U...

457

PIONIER : A Four Telescope VLTI Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pionier is a guest instrument, the first four-telescope recombiner at ESO's VLTI. We discuss salient design features and illustrate selected scientific results from the first 2 1/2 years of operation.

Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-L.; Berger, J.-P.; Zins, G.; Haguenauer, P.; Gitton, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Feautrier, P.; Jocou, L.; Kern, P.; Magnard, Y.; Moulin, Y.; Rochat, S.; Stadler, E.; Labeye, P.; Benisty, M.; Kluska, J.; Perraut, K.; Knudstrup, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Traub, W.; Absil, O.

2014-04-01

458

Microrhythmic characteristics of musical instrument initial transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microrhythmic analysis of initial transients of the violin, the guitar, the saxophone, the clarinet, and percussion instruments has been performed. They show characteristic patterns between instrument families, concerning the derivation of microrhythmic intervals within the tonal frequency range compared to psychoacoustic discrimination tasks by listeners. Microrhythm here is defined as the temporal distance between two amplitude peaks. As initial transients are a crucial part of the sound in terms of identification of instruments and the initial is just in the range of the second integration time of the ear, where frequency components can just be identified, these microrhythmic patterns could be a possibility for listeners to identify the instrument families. This is because microrhythmic intervals are instantaneously present and do not need an integration time span.

Bader, Rolf

2005-04-01

459

An instrument thermal data base system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rationale for the implementation of an Instrument Thermal Data Base System (ITDBS) is discussed and the potential application of a data base management system in support of future space missions, the design of scientific instruments needed, and the potential payload groupings is described. Two basic data files are suggested, the first containing a detailed narrative information list pertaining to design configurations and optimum performance of each instrument, and the second consisting of a description of the parameters pertinent to the instruments' thermal control and design in the form of a summary record of coded information, and serving as a recall record. The applicability of a data request sheet for preliminary planning is described and is concluded that the proposed system may additionally prove to be a method of inventory control.

Bartoszek, J. T.; Csigi, K. I.; Ollendorf, S.; Oberright, J. E.

1981-06-01

460

Advanced Instrumentation Concepts for Environmental Control Subsystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and ...

P. Y. Yang, F. H. Schubert, J. R. Gyorki, R. A. Wynveen

1978-01-01

461

Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

Wallace, J. F.

1993-01-01

462

Transverter Assembly for the Advanced Instrumentation Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a physical description of the S84789 Transverter Assembly which is part of the Advanced Instrument Radar Relay System. The environmental and electrical requirements are also provided along with the descriptions and results of evaluati...

J. M. Simons

1988-01-01

463

Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underly modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry...

S. E. Derenzo, T. F. Budinger

1985-01-01