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1

Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL) questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis. Results An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL) was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required. PMID:25537940

Collingwood, Cecilia; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Kisoli, Aloyce; Dotchin, Catherine L.; Gray, William K.; Mbowe, Godfrey; Mkenda, Sarah; Urasa, Sarah; Mushi, Declare; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W.

2014-01-01

2

Higher-Level Hand Motor Function in Aging and (Preclinical) Dementia: Its Relationship with (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Life – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A causal relationship between physical activity such as walking and cognitive functions – particularly executive functions and memory – has been observed in elderly people with and without dementia. Executive functions play an important role in the (instrumental) activities of daily life [(I)ADL]. However, a close relationship has also been found between motor activity of the upper limb, particularly the

Erik Scherder; Welmoed Dekker; Laura Eggermont

2008-01-01

3

Understanding the Complexities of Functional Ability in Alzheimer’s Disease: More Than Just Basic and Instrumental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (AD) is defined by both cognitive and functional decline; new criteria allow for identification of milder, non-functionally impaired patients. Understanding loss of autonomy in AD is essential, as later stages represent a significant burden and cost to patients, their families, and society. The purpose of the present analyses was to determine the factor structure of the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL) in a cohort of AD patients. Methods: Baseline ADCS-ADL assessments of 734 AD patients from the PLASA study were included in an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Because the ADCS-ADL was designed to assess change over time, change from baseline scores over 2 years were also analyzed using an EFA. Factorial solutions were evaluated based on cross-loading, non-loadings, and number of items per factor. Results: Mean age at baseline was 79.3, mean MMSE was 19.8 and 73.3‰ of participants were female. Baseline data suggested a 4-factor solution that included factors for basic ADLs (BADLs), domestic/household activities, communication/engagement with the environment, and outside activities. The change scores EFA suggested a 2-factor solution of BADLs and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Conclusions: Distinct factors of IADLs should be considered for further validation as areas of attention to catch early functional decline. PMID:24635843

Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Coley, Nicola; Lepage, Benoit; Cantet, Christelle; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

2014-01-01

4

Alexandria Digital Library (ADL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ADL collection provides searching capabilities over geographically-referenced materials. Geographically-referenced means information objects are associated with one or more regions, often called footprints, on the Earth's surface. The ADL collection contains information that supports basic science, including the Earth and social sciences. The ADL collection offers geospatial search as the primary search mechanism. This collection contains photographs, digital elevation models, digital raster graphics, Landsat and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite imagery and world maps.

5

Factors Associated with ADL and IADL Dependency among Korean Centenarians: Reaching the 100-Year-Old Life Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the functional status of Korean centenarians, who have crossed the relatively rare but increasingly common life transition of living for a century. As functional health is one of the essential components of healthy aging, our primary objective is to identify the correlates of two aspects of functioning, activities of…

Kim, Hyunjee; Lee, Taeyong; Lee, Sokgoo; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Sungkook; Kam, Sin; Ahn, Sangnam; Cho, Jinmyoung; Ory, Marcia G.

2012-01-01

6

The clinical Swiss army knife. Empirical evidence on the validity of IADL functional status measures.  

PubMed

To encourage the clinical use of functional status measures, tools have been developed that are shorter and easier to administer. This study was conducted to provide empirical evidence concerning the validity of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales. Similar to previous findings, this study found that a 50-item questionnaire was suitable for patient self-completion. This scale also showed good reproducibility over a 2-week period, a unidimensional factor structure, internal consistency, predictable correlations with other health status measures, and the ability to distinguish formal service users from nonusers. On the other hand, the findings also clearly demonstrate that caution is warranted when choosing rating formats and scoring procedures, and when interpreting patient responses. Ratings of difficulty, nonperformance, and assistance received should not be assumed to be interchangeable nor to reflect underlying physical ability. A great deal of sample variability was found when the process validity, or the subjective meanings of these ratings was examined. Scalogram analysis also indicated that the assumption of hierarchical ordering is not justified. Based on these findings, minimal questioning, dichotomous responses categories, and aggregate scores are not recommended for discharge planning or monitoring individual patients. PMID:1583944

Myers, A M

1992-05-01

7

Trunk Control as an Early Predictor of Comprehensive Activities of Daily Living Function in Stroke Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Prediction of activities of daily living (ADL) functions at an early stage after a stroke is critical because it enables clinicians to set treatment programs and goals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between trunk control at an early stage and comprehensive ADL function (as assessed by combining basic ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL))

Ching-Lin Hsieh; Ching-Fan Sheu; I-Ping Hsueh; Chun-Hou Wang

2010-01-01

8

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance Among People With Parkinson’s Disease Without Dementia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the performance of cognitively demanding instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) without dementia. METHOD. Seventy-seven participants with PD and 57 participants without PD underwent standardized, performance-based IADL evaluation using the Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills. Activity performance was rated for independence, adequacy, and safety. RESULTS. The PD group had lower independence and adequacy scores than the non-PD group for almost every activity. Medication management, shopping, and sharp utensil use were the activities most sensitive to group differences. In the PD group, older age, lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and decreased motor function were associated with poorer IADL performance. CONCLUSIONS. People with relatively early and mild PD demonstrated measurable deficits in the performance of cognitively demanding IADLs. This work highlights the importance of using objective assessments of IADL function to detect early functional changes in people with PD. PMID:24797199

2014-01-01

9

Type of High-School Credentials and Older Age ADL and IADL Limitations: Is the GED Credential Equivalent to a Diploma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Educational attainment is a robust predictor of disability in elderly Americans: older adults with high-school (HS) diplomas have substantially lower disability than individuals who did not complete HS. General Educational Development (GED) diplomas now comprise almost 20% of new HS credentials issued annually in the United States but it…

Liu, Sze Yan; Chavan, Niraj R.; Glymour, M. Maria

2013-01-01

10

Clinical Characteristics with an Impact on ADL Functions of PD Patients with Cognitive Impairment Indicative of Dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is defined as cognitive decline severe enough to affect activities of daily living function (ADL). The aim of our exploratory study was to compare two groups of PD patients. Both groups had cognitive deficits severe enough to justify diagnosis of dementia, but they differed according to caregivers’ rating on ADL dysfunction. Parameters which differed between the two groups were interpreted to affect the caregivers’ perception of ADL dysfunction in PD patients with cognitive impairment indicative of Parkinson’s disease dementia. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty of 131 Parkinson’s disease patients fulfilled the Movement Disorders Society Task Force – recommended, cognitive Level-I-criteria for dementia. According to standardized caregiver ratings, volunteers were grouped into 18 patients with (ADL-) and 12 without instrumental activities of daily living dysfunction (ADL+). Caregiver activities of daily living function ratings closely correlated with self-estimates of patients and those of physician (p<0.001). ADL- patients performed worse on tests assessing visual-construction (p<0.05) and attention (p=0.03) than ADL+ patients. Moreover, the postural instability and gait disorder subtype was more frequent in ADL- patients (p=0.009). ADL- patients tended to have more communication problems (p=0.05), more anxiety (p=0.05) and showed a tendency to be treated more often with neuroleptics (p=0.049) than ADL+. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that worse attention, visual-construction abilities, the postural instability and gait disorder subtype, communication problems, medication and presence of anxiety are related to activities of daily living dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease patients with cognitive decline indicative of dementia. Our data suggests that not only cognitive factors but also non-cognitive factors seem to be linked to the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease dementia associated with significant impact on instrumental activities of daily living function. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify our results. PMID:24349393

Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Fruhmann Berger, Monika; Prakash, Deborah; Csoti, Ilona; Gräber, Susanne; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

2013-01-01

11

Algorithm integration using ADL (Algorithm Development Library) for improving CrIMSS EDR science product quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithm Development Library (ADL) is a framework that mimics the operational system IDPS (Interface Data Processing Segment) that is currently being used to process data from instruments aboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. The satellite was launched successfully in October 2011. The Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments that are on-board of S-NPP. These instruments will also be on-board of JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) that will be launched in early 2017. The primary products of the CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) include global atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP) and Ozone IP (Intermediate Product from CrIS radiances). Several algorithm updates have recently been proposed by CrIMSS scientists that include fixes to the handling of forward modeling errors, a more conservative identification of clear scenes, indexing corrections for daytime products, and relaxed constraints between surface temperature and air temperature for daytime land scenes. We have integrated these improvements into the ADL framework. This work compares the results from ADL emulation of future IDPS system incorporating all the suggested algorithm updates with the current official processing results by qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The results prove these algorithm updates improve science product quality.

Das, B.; Wilson, M.; Divakarla, M. G.; Chen, W.; Barnet, C.; Wolf, W.

2013-05-01

12

Form D: to be completed by patient INSTRUMENTAL ACITIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING SCALE (IADL)  

E-print Network

. Completely unable to shop 0 C. Food preparation___________________ 1. Plans, prepares and serves adequate 1 and prepares meals 0 or prepares meals but does not maintain adequate diet 4. Needs to have meals prepared 0

Oliver, Douglas L.

13

Using a Body-Fixed Sensor to Identify Subclinical Gait Difficulties in Older Adults with IADL Disability: Maximizing the Output of the Timed Up and Go  

PubMed Central

Objective The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG) testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. Methods We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30±7.04 yrs, 76.62% female) participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit), walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability), all of whom did not have mobility disability. Results As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03), compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004) during turns, were slower (p<0.001), and had less consistent gait (p<0.02). Conclusions A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults. PMID:23922665

Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

14

Correlates of ADL difficulty in a large hemodialysis cohort.  

PubMed

Needing assistance with activities of daily living (ADL) is an early indicator of functional decline and has important implications for individuals' quality of life. However, correlates of need for ADL assistance have received limited attention among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). A multicenter cohort of 742 prevalent HD patients was assessed in 2009-2011 and classified as frail, prefrail and nonfrail by the Fried frailty index (recent unintentional weight loss, reported exhaustion, low grip strength, slow walk speed, low physical activity). Patients reported need for assistance with 4 ADL tasks and identified contributing symptoms/conditions (pain, balance, endurance, weakness, others). Nearly 1 in 5 patients needed assistance with 1 or more ADL. Multivariable analysis showed increased odds for needing ADL assistance among frail (odds ratio [OR] 11.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.50-23.41; P?ADL assistance were lower among blacks compared with whites and were higher among patients with diabetes, lung disease, and stroke. Balance, weakness, and "other" (frequently dialysis-related) symptoms/conditions were the most frequently named reasons for ADL difficulty. In addition to interventions such as increasing physical activity that might delay or reverse the process of frailty, the immediate symptoms/conditions to which individuals attribute their ADL difficulty may have clinical relevance for developing targeted management and/or treatment approaches. PMID:24118865

Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Allman, Richard M; Bowling, C Barrett

2014-01-01

15

Barthel ADL Index: a comparison of administration methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barthel ADL Index is routinely used to assess elderly patients after discharge from hospital. Its inter-rater reliability and criterion validity have been well established. However, the inter-method reliability in administering this scale has not been sufficiently documentated. This study compares post, telephone and interview (visit) methods of administration to investigate their agreement. The index was administered by the three

D. Yeo; R. Faleiro; NB Lincoln

1995-01-01

16

ADL Logging Architecture JIGI determines all server addresses from  

E-print Network

ADL Logging Architecture JIGI logging server JIGI determines all server addresses from from the authentication server) JIGI user authentication server Note: JIGI authentication is logically; if the former, server adds sequence numbers to preserve record order (ODBC or other) middleware logging server

Janée, Greg

17

Automatic ADL-based Operand Isolation for Embedded Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutting-edge applications of future embedded systems demand highest processor performance with low power consumption to get acceptable battery-life times. Therefore, low power optimization techniques are strongly applied during the development of modern application specific instruction set processors (ASIPs). Electronic system level design tools based on architecture description languages (ADL) offer a significant reduction in design time and effort by automatically

A. Chattopadhyay; B. Geukes; D. Kammler; E. M. Witte; O. Schliebusch; H. Ishebabi; R. Leupers; G. Ascheid; H. Meyr

2006-01-01

18

Automatic ADL-based operand isolation for embedded processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutting-edge applications of future embedded systems demand highest processor performance with low power consumption to get acceptable battery-life times. Therefore, low power optimization techniques are strongly applied during the development of modern Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs). Electronic System Level design tools based on Architecture Description Lan- guages (ADL) offer a significant reduction in design time and ef- fort

Anupam Chattopadhyay; B. Geukes; David Kammler; Ernst Martin Witte; Oliver Schliebusch; Harold Ishebabi; Rainer Leupers; Gerd Ascheid; Heinrich Meyr

2006-01-01

19

UCPOP: A Sound, Complete, Partial Order Planner for ADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the ucpop partial order planningalgorithm which handles a subset ofPednault's ADL action representation. Inparticular, ucpop operates with actions thathave conditional effects, universally quantifiedpreconditions and effects, and with universallyquantified goals. We prove ucpop isboth sound and complete for this representationand describe a practical implementationthat succeeds on all of Pednault's andMcDermott's examples, including the infamous"Yale Stacking Problem"...

J. Scott Penberthy; Daniel S. Weld

1992-01-01

20

A state preserving approach to recognizing human behavior using wireless infrared and vibration sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some home monitoring research has tried to deal with a broad range of human behaviors such Activity of Daily Living (ADL) or Instrumented ADL (IADL) in an entire home, but most research results does not yet seem satisfactory. So we focused on modeling human behaviors in a bedroom, not an entire home. To do this, we define a behavior state

Seung Ho Cho; William D. Phillips; Ravi Sankar; Bonghee Moon

2012-01-01

21

Regional fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism and instrumental activities of daily living across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum  

PubMed Central

Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) begins as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. IADL impairment in AD dementia has been associated with inferior parietal, inferior temporal, and superior occipital hypometabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Objective To investigate the relationship between regional FDG metabolism and IADL in clinically normal (CN) elderly, MCI, and mild AD dementia subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods One hundred and four CN, 203 MCI, and 95 AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical assessments every 6 to 12 months for up to three years and baseline FDG PET. The subjective, informant-based Functional Activities Questionnaire was used to assess IADL. General linear models and mixed effects models were used, covarying for demographics, cogniton, and behavior. Results The cross-sectional analysis revealed middle frontal and orbitofrontal hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater IADL impairment. Additionally, the interaction of diagnosis with posterior cingulate and with parahippocampal hypometabolism showed a greater decline in IADL performance as metabolism decreased for the AD dementia relative to the MCI group, and the MCI group relative to the CN group. The longitudinal analysis showed that baseline middle frontal and posterior cingulate hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater rate of increase in IADL impairment over time. Conclusion These results suggest that regional synaptic dysfunction, including the Alzheimer-typical medial parietal and less typical frontal regions, relates to daily functioning decline at baseline and over time across the early AD spectrum. PMID:24898635

Roy, Kamolika; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Lorius, Natacha; Becker, J. Alex; Locascio, Joseph J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad A.

2014-01-01

22

Executive Function as a Predictor of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living(IADLs) in Community-dwelling Older Adults  

E-print Network

Studies have supported that executive function is a more sensitive and stronger predictor of functional impairment than other cognitive abilities. Since improvements in executive function may bring about improved functional ...

Han, Ah-reum

2011-03-31

23

Audio Development Laboratory (ADL) User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ADL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Romero, Andy

2012-01-01

24

Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsung heroes of today's faster prod- uct introductions might well be docu- mentation departments. They're tasked to document more products, with more fre- quent releases—often without more budget. Many documentation departments are meeting the challenge with advanced tools for document creation and distribution, as epitomized by the Texas Instruments (TI) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) product group. \\

TELEDYNE HASTINGS; JANE SAMPLE

2002-01-01

25

Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features and parameters that must be selected in the design. Two appendices show example versions and initial results of the first few technical steps in the design approach. Some conclusions are then drawn, and in the final section, recommendations are provided, the most important of which are repeated here: 1. Continue the effort begun here. As detailed in this report, we have only uncovered much of the work that needs to be done in order to provide the foundation for a flexible, high- performance, robust ADL. 2. Seize the opportunity to begin testing in the MLS band. The wide bandwidths and low level of usage of this band make it an ideal one for proof-of-concept type testing. Other (non- aeronautical) organizations are likely to make claims on the band if it is not being used. The primary conclusion is that there is a real and pressing need for a new aviation data link. vi

Matolak, David W.

2003-01-01

26

Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

2013-01-01

27

Developing An Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Tool as part of the Low Vision Assessment of Daily Activities protocol.  

PubMed

Purpose: To determine the validity, reliability and measurement characteristics using factor and Rasch analysis of the Very Low Vision Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL-VLV) in persons with severe vision loss. Methods: From an initial pool of 296 tasks, 25 were shortlisted after conducting a Delphi survey with persons designated legally blind. Using further input from occupational therapy and low vision professionals, 11 activities were chosen to be pilot tested. 40 legally blind participants (better eye visual acuity <20/200) underwent clinical assessments and functional tests as well as the 53 IADL tasks related to the 11 activities. The task pool was refined and condensed using factor and Rasch analysis. Results: Based on iterative principal component analyses, tasks were grouped together into the following domains: reading signs /information access, signature placement, clothes sorting, shelf search, gesture recognition, clock reading and table search. A final selection of 23 tasks yielded satisfactory measurement characteristics, differentiated between at least four different levels of IADL performance (person separation of 3.8), and had adequate task difficulty for the tested sample (person mean -0.61). In multivariate analyses, only visual acuity (VA) and percent of remaining visual field (VF) were associated with IADL performance. Conclusions: Using a large item pool, participant and expert input, as well as factor and Rasch analysis, we designed a valid and reliable assessment to measure vision-related IADL performance in persons with severe vision loss. This assessment tool can be used in clinical sight restoration trials. PMID:25425306

Finger, Robert P; McSweeney, Shane C; Deverell, Lil; O'Hare, Fleur; Bentley Haymes, Sharon A; Luu, Chi D; Guymer, Robyn; Ayton, Lauren N

2014-11-25

28

Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is an adverse outcome of frailty that places a burden on frail elderly people,\\u000a care providers and the care system. Knowing which physical frailty indicators predict ADL disability is useful in identifying\\u000a elderly people who might benefit from an intervention that prevents disability or increases functioning in daily life. The\\u000a objective of this

Joan Vermeulen; Jacques CL Neyens; Erik van Rossum; Marieke D Spreeuwenberg; Luc P de Witte

2011-01-01

29

Firearms in Frail Hands: An ADL or A Public Health Crisis!  

PubMed

The incidence of neurocognitive disorders, which may impair the ability of older adults to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), rises with age. Depressive symptoms are also common in older adults and may affect ADLs. Safe storage and utilization of firearms are complex ADLs, which require intact judgment, executive function, and visuospatial ability, and may be affected by cognitive impairment. Depression or cognitive impairment may cause paranoia, delusions, disinhibition, apathy, or aggression and thereby limit the ability to safely utilize firearms. These problems may be superimposed upon impaired mobility, arthritis, visual impairment, or poor balance. Inadequate attention to personal protection may also cause hearing impairment and accidents. In this article, we review the data on prevalence of firearms access among older adults; safety concerns due to age-related conditions; barriers to addressing this problem; indications prompting screening for firearms access; and resources available to patients, caregivers, and health care providers. PMID:25107933

Patel, Dupal; Syed, Quratulain; Messinger-Rapport, Barbara J; Rader, Erin

2014-08-01

30

Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

2012-04-01

31

Validation of an automatic video monitoring system for the detection of instrumental activities of daily living in dementia patients.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, the use of new technologies for the support of elderly people and in particular dementia patients received increasing interest. We investigated the use of a video monitoring system for automatic event recognition for the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in dementia patients. Participants (19 healthy subjects (HC) and 19 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients) had to carry out a standardized scenario consisting of several IADLs such as making a phone call while they were recorded by 2D video cameras. After the recording session, data was processed by a platform of video signal analysis in order to extract kinematic parameters detecting activities undertaken by the participant. We compared our automated activity quality prediction as well as cognitive health prediction with direct observation annotation and neuropsychological assessment scores. With a sensitivity of 85.31% and a precision of 75.90%, the overall activities were correctly automatically detected. Activity frequency differed significantly between MCI and HC participants (p < 0.05). In all activities, differences in the execution time could be identified in the manually and automatically extracted data. We obtained statistically significant correlations between manually as automatically extracted parameters and neuropsychological test scores (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the groups according to the IADL scale. The results suggest that it is possible to assess IADL functioning with the help of an automatic video monitoring system and that even based on the extracted data, significant group differences can be obtained. PMID:25362036

König, Alexandra; Crispim Junior, Carlos Fernando; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Bensadoun, Gregory; Petit, Pierre-David; Bremond, François; David, Renaud; Verhey, Frans; Aalten, Pauline; Robert, Philippe

2015-01-01

32

Longitudinal Changes in Disabled Husbands' and Wives' Receipt of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: This study contrasts 2-year adjustments in disabled husbands' and wives' amount of received care following both worsening and recovery in personal (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and routine care (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]) disability. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data on 789 husbands and…

Noel-Miller, Claire

2010-01-01

33

Long-Term Care Preferences Among Older Adults: A Moving Target?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates long-term care preferences across three hypothetical scenarios and over one year of time among a sample of disabled older women receiving informal care (n?=?420). Unpaid or paid help in one's home was preferred, given scenarios of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) needs; nursing home care was most preferred for dementia

Jennifer L. Wolff; Judith D. Kasper; Andrew D. Shore

2008-01-01

34

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2012), 18, 986995. Copyright E INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2012.  

E-print Network

are Associated with Poorer Everyday Functioning in Parkinson's Disease Eva Pirogovsky,1 Steven Paul Woods,2 J with Parkinson's disease (PD) evidence moderate deficits in prospective memory (PM), it is not known whether PM and endorsed significantly greater self-reported declines in PM and instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs

35

The Complex Association between Religious Activities and Functional Limitations in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To examine the longitudinal associations between 3 dimensions of religious involvement--religious attendance, use of religious media, and private religious activities--and 3 domains of functional status--limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mobility in…

Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; George, Linda K.; Koenig, Harold G.

2012-01-01

36

An empirical study with simulated ADL tasks using a vision-guided assistive robot arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an empirical study with healthy subjects with simulated ADL tasks using UCF-ARM - a 6-DOF assistive robot that is visually guided through a calibrated stereo camera system fitted in the gripper of Exact Dynamics' Manus ARM. The goal of the research is to reduce time to task completion and cognitive burden for users interacting with

Dae-Jin Kim; Ryan Lovelett; Aman Behal

2009-01-01

37

Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to the…

DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

2013-01-01

38

MDS-Based State Medicaid Reimbursement and the ADL-Decline Quality Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined the relationship between the quality indicator for decline in activities of daily living (ADL) and the use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) for determining Medicaid skilled nursing facility reimbursement. Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2004 National MDS Facility Quality Indicator reports as…

Bellows, Nicole M.; Halpin, Helen A.

2008-01-01

39

Differences In Rate Of ADL Loss Between Stroke Patients And Stroke-Free Adults Emerge Years Prior To Stroke Onset  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare typical age-related changes in activities of daily living (ADL) independence in stroke-free adults to long-term ADL trajectories before and after stroke. Study Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, observational cohort of 18,441 Health and Retirement Study participants who were stroke-free in 1998 and followed through 2008 (average follow-up=7.9 years). Measurements Strokes were assessed with self- or proxy-report of a doctor’s diagnosis and month/year of event. We used logistic regression to compare within-person changes in odds of self-reported independence in 5 ADLs among those who remained stroke free throughout follow-up (n=16,816); those who survived a stroke (n=1,208); and those who had a stroke and did not survive to participate in another interview (n=417). Models were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Results Even prior to stroke, those who later developed stroke had significantly lower ADL independence and were experiencing faster independence losses, compared to similar aged individuals who remained stroke free. Of those who developed a stroke, survivors experienced slower loss of ADL independence compared to those who died. ADL independence declined at the time of stroke and decline continued afterwards. Conclusion Among adults at risk of stroke, disproportionate ADL limitations emerge well before stroke onset. Excess disability among stroke survivors should not be entirely attributed to effects of acute stroke or quality of acute stroke care. Although there are many possible causal pathways between ADL and stroke, the association may alternatively be non-causal. For example, ADL limitations may be a consequence of stroke risk factors (e.g., diabetes) or early cerebrovascular ischemia. PMID:23668393

Capistrant, Benjamin D.; Wang, Qianyi; Liu, Sze Y.; Glymour, M. Maria

2015-01-01

40

Do Physical Activity, Smoking, Drinking, or Depression Modify Transitions from Cognitive Impairment to Functional Disability?  

PubMed

Background: Individual-level modifiers can delay onset of limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADLs) among cognitively impaired individuals. We assessed whether these modifiers also delayed onset of limitations in instrumental ADLs (IADLs) among individuals at elevated dementia risk. Objectives: To determine whether modifiable individual-level factors delay incident IADL limitations among adults stratified by dementia risk. Methods: Health and Retirement Study participants aged 65+ without activity limitations in 1998 or 2000 (n = 5,219) were interviewed biennially through 2010. Dementia probability, categorized in quartiles, was used to predict incident IADL limitations with Poisson regression. We estimated relative (risk ratio) and absolute (number of limitations) effects from models including dementia, individual-level modifiers (physical inactivity, smoking, no alcohol consumption, and depression) and interaction terms between dementia and individual-level modifiers. Results: Dementia probability quartile predicted incident IADL limitations (relative risk for highest versus lowest quartile = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.28-0.70). Most modifiers did not significantly increase risk of IADL limitations among the cognitively impaired. Physical inactivity (RR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.19) increased the risk of IADL limitations among the cognitively impaired. The interaction between physical inactivity and low dementia probability was statistically significant (p = 0.009) indicating that physical inactivity had significantly larger effects on incident IADLs among cognitively normal than among those with high dementia probability. Conclusion: Physical activity may protect against IADL limitations while smoking, alcohol consumption, and depression do not afford substantial protection among the cognitively impaired. Results highlight the need for extra support for IADLs among individuals with cognitive losses. PMID:25408214

Rist, Pamela M; Marden, Jessica R; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Wu, Qiong; Glymour, M Maria

2014-11-18

41

Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years) and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years). The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p < 0.001), using a bus or a train (p < 0.001), and MCI. After adjusting for covariates, cognitive activity of any type remained significantly associated with MCI (p < 0.005) but not with the implementation of IADLs. Conclusions Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required. PMID:24348501

Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

42

Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exercises were conducted for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Balance was measured with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Stand Test (OLST). Activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A paired t-test was used to measure pre- and post-experiment differences, and an independent t-test was used to measure between-group differences. [Results] The experimental and control groups showed significant differences for all pre- and post-experiment variables. In the between-group comparison, the experimental group was significantly difference from the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that performing aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns in the lower extremity enhances balance and ADL in stroke patients. PMID:25642076

Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

2015-01-01

43

Six-month walking program changes cognitive and ADL performance in patients with Alzheimer.  

PubMed

Motor inactivity is typical in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease although there is evidence that physical exercise can reduce depression and enhance performance of daily activities. The aim of this study was to determine whether a walking program could reduce the functional and cognitive decline of elderly nursing home residents in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 21 patients (84 ± 5 years) were randomly assigned to a walking program (WG) or to a control group (CG). A 6-minute walking test (6WT), the Barthel index of activities of daily living (ADLs), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) tests were performed before and after 24 weeks of the program. The WG showed significant improvement in the 6WT (20%) and ADLs (23%), while the CG decreased in MMSE (-47%), the WG had a slower decline (-13%). This study indicates that it is possible to stabilize the progressive cognitive dysfunctions in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease through a specific walking program. PMID:21852281

Venturelli, Massimo; Scarsini, Renato; Schena, Federico

2011-08-01

44

ADL: an integrated database for filing and study of malignant lymphoma patients.  

PubMed

The filing of clinical data must comply with purposes of logical organization for comparisons and evaluations. ADL (Archives of Data on Lymphomas) is an application program of dBASE III plus (Ashton-Tate) for personal computers, especially suitable for filing and studying patients afflicted with malignant lymphoma. It is subdivided into four data files: general data (private data, stage, therapy); disease data (sites of disease by tests and body area); immunological data (lymphocyte subpopulations, globulin and immunoglobulin dosage, delayed hypersensitivity skin tests); lost patients (register of patients not seen for at least 1 year). It has many utilities (descriptive statistics, clinical report, export service). Congruence checks and verification of names and dates input are included. This program stands as a valuable alternative to more traditional filing systems. PMID:1758214

Busetto, M; Polico, R; Antonello, M

1991-01-01

45

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

2008-01-01

46

Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e.,

Angela L. Jefferson; Lamia P. Barakat; Tania Giovannetti; Robert H. Paul; Guila Glosser

2006-01-01

47

Subjective report versus objective measurement of activities of daily living in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We compared subjective self-reports with objective performance ratings of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and identified variables associated with discordance of ratings between these two methods. Seventy-six PD patients completed a modified Older Americans Resources and Services scale, assessing ADLs and IADLs. These results were compared with structured performance tests of walking, eating, dressing, money, and medicine management administered in the clinic. Patient performance was rated on a five-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = no difficulty to 5 = completely unable to perform task. Significant differences were found between patients and clinicians' ratings on all tasks except walking. On the other four tasks, paired group t tests showed that patients reported better function compared with the clinician rating of medication management (1.33 vs. 2.80), eating (1.53 vs. 1.76), dressing (1.64 vs. 1.86), and managing money (1.44 vs. 2.06). A discrepancy was found between patients subjective reporting of ADL and IADL function and objective ratings. Patients overestimated their function on four of five tasks. Further study is necessary to identify whether subjective or objective performance ratings are more reflective of actual daily function. PMID:16482533

Shulman, Lisa M; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid; Anderson, Karen E; Stevenson, Rashida; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Reich, Stephen G; Weiner, William J

2006-06-01

48

Inter-rater reliability of the Barthel ADL Index: how does a researcher compare to a nurse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate whether a nonclinical research assistant, using standardized scoring criteria, can reliably administer the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index in a sample of elderly inpatients.Design: Paired comparison of nurse and nonclinical research assistant Barthel Index assessments.Setting: Acute hospital wards from two hospitals in a UK Healthcare Trust, with a catchment population of approximately 224 000 people.Methods:

Suzanne H Richards; Tim J Peters; Joanna Coast; David J Gunnell; Mary-Anne Darlow; John Pounsford

2000-01-01

49

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living.  

PubMed

Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients' independence. PMID:24795685

Bie?kiewicz, Marta M N; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M L; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

2014-01-01

50

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living  

PubMed Central

Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients’ independence. PMID:24795685

Bie?kiewicz, Marta M. N.; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

2014-01-01

51

The effects of ADL on recovery of swallowing function in stroke patients after acute phase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the association between the degree of recovery from dysphagia and changes in functional independence measure (FIM) items in stroke patients after acute phase by conducting a historical cohort study, because none explains the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) on recovery of swallowing function. Study patients included hospitalised stroke patients after acute phase in whom dysphagia was confirmed (n = 72). Change in nutritional intake method score was examined for association with age, days from stroke onset to admission, length of hospital stay and change in FIM score. Moreover, to examine characteristics of patients who were removed from tube feeding, all patients who required tube feeding at the time of admission were divided into two groups comprising those who required tube feeding at discharge and those who did not. A significant and positive association was observed between change in nutritional intake method and FIM for all items other than self-care of bathing, locomotion of stairs and problem solving. Patients who were removed from tube feeding were significantly younger than those who required tube feeding at the time of discharge (P < 0.041) and also showed significantly higher FIM scores for transfer and all cognitive FIM items at the time of admission (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that nutritional intake methods improve in conjunction with FIM improvements in patients with dysphagia following the acute phase of stroke. Our results suggest that the age and cognitive function may influence the recovery of patient ability of oral intake. PMID:25041090

Nakayama, E; Tohara, H; Hino, T; Sato, M; Hiraba, H; Abe, K; Ueda, K

2014-12-01

52

Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate how older people, dependent in ADL perceive their participation in a high-intensity, functional exercise program compared to the perceptions of those participating in a control activity. Forty-eight older people living in residential care facilities answered a questionnaire about their perceptions of participating in an activity for three months. They were aged 65-98, had a mean score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 14 on Barthel ADL Index. The participants had been randomized to exercise (n=20) or control activity (n=28). Differences in responses between exercise and control activity were evaluated using logistic and ordinal regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the exercise group perceived positive changes in lower limb strength, balance, and in the ability to move more safely and securely compared to a minority of the control group (p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in the exercise activity answered that they felt less tired due to the activity (p=0.027) and that they prioritized this activity above other activities (p=0.010). More exercise participants reported that meeting for three months was too short, and fewer that it was too long compared to the control group (p=0.038). This study shows that older people living in residential care facilities, dependent in ADL, and with mild or no cognitive impairment had positive perceptions about participating in high-intensity functional exercise. The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people. PMID:23768799

Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Gustafsson, S; Nygaard, J; Gustafson, Y; Nyberg, L

2013-01-01

53

Interrelationship of Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Impairment and Their Impact on the Functional Status in Older Patients Undergoing Orthopaedic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of postoperative delirium on post-discharge functional status of older patients remains unclear, and little is known regarding the interrelationship between cognitive impairment and post-operative delirium. Therefore, the main purpose was to evaluate the post-discharge functional status of patients who experience delirium after undergoing orthopaedic surgery and the interrelationship of postoperative delirium with underlying cognitive impairment. Method This prospective cohort study, conducted at a tertiary care medical center from April 2011 to March 2012, enrolled all subjects aged over 60 years who were admitted for orthopaedic surgery. The baseline characteristics (age, gender, BMI, and living arrangement), surgery-related factors (ASA class, admission type, type of surgery, and length of hospital stay), results of geriatric assessment (postoperative delirium, cognition, depressive mood, comorbidity, pain, malnutrition, polypharmacy, ADL, and instrumental [I]ADL) and 1–12-month postoperative ADL and IADL functional status were collected for analysis. Results Overall, 9.1% of 232 patients (mean age: 74.7±7.8 years) experienced postoperative delirium, which was significantly associated with IADL decline at only 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 6.22, 95% CI: 1.08–35.70 and RR: 12.54, 95% CI: 1.88–83.71, respectively). Delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment was a significant predictor for poor functional status at 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 12.80, 95% CI: 1.65–99.40 for ADL at the 6th month, and RR: 7.96, 95% CI: 1.35–46.99 at the 12th month; RR: 13.68, 95% CI: 1.94–96.55 for IADL at the 6th month, and RR: 30.61, 95% CI: 2.94–318.54 at the 12th month, respectively). Conclusion Postoperative delirium is predictive of IADL decline in older patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, and delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment is an independent risk factor for deterioration of ADL and IADL functional status. Early identification of cognitive function and to prevent delirium are needed to improve functional status following orthopaedic surgery. PMID:25402484

Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chu, Chin-Liang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Chen, Liang-Kung

2014-01-01

54

Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates several distinct measures, but provides one summary score to quantify overall level of functioning, for example for the identification of older adults at risk of poor functional outcome. Therefore, we selected four measures of functioning: Physical Functioning (PF), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and participation, and tested the possibility to aggregate these measures into one general measure of functioning. Methods A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided baseline data (n?=?407) consisting of PF (PF subscale, RAND-36; 10 items), ADL (KATZ index; 6 items), IADL (Lawton index; 7 items) and participation (KAP; 6 items). We tested two models with confirmatory factor analysis: first, a bifactor model with all four measures and second, a bifactor model with PF, ADL and IADL and a correlated but distinct subgroup factor for participation. Several model fit indexes and reliability coefficients, such as explained common variance (ECV) and omegas were computed for both models. Results The first model fitted the data well, but the reliability analysis indicated multidimensionality and unique information in the subgroup factor participation. The second model showed similar model fits, but better reliability; ECV?=?0.67, omega-t?=?0.94, low omega-s?=?0.18-0.22 on the subgroup factors and high omega of 0.82 on participation, which all were in favour of the second model. Conclusions The results indicate that PF, ADL and IADL could be aggregated into one general measure of functioning, whereas participation should be considered as a distinct measure. PMID:24192234

2013-01-01

55

The prediction of disability by self-reported physical frailty components of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI).  

PubMed

Disability is an important health outcome for older persons; it is associated with impaired quality of life, future hospitalization, and mortality. Disability also places a high burden on health care professionals and health care systems. Disability is regarded as an adverse outcome of physical frailty. The main objective of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the eight individual self-reported components of the physical frailty subscale of the TFI for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. This longitudinal study was carried out with a sample of Dutch citizens. At baseline the sample consisted at 429 people aged 65 years and older and a subset of all respondents participated again two and a half years later (N=355, 83% response rate). The respondents completed a web-based questionnaire comprising the TFI and the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) for measuring disability. Five components together (unintentional weakness, weakness, poor endurance, slowness, low physical activity), referring to the phenotype of Fried et al., predicted disability, even after controlling for previous disability and other background characteristics. The other three components of the physical frailty subscale of the TFI (poor balance, poor hearing, poor vision) together did not predict disability. Low physical activity predicted both total and ADL disability, and slowness both total and IADL disability. In conclusion, self-report assessment using the physical subscale of the TFI aids the prediction of future ADL and IADL disability in older persons two and a half years later. PMID:25042994

Gobbens, R J J; van Assen, M A L M; Schalk, M J D

2014-01-01

56

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities\\u000a of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS). This version was obtained with forward\\/backward translations, consensus panels and pre-testing.\\u000a The Portuguese KOS-ADLS and Medical Outcomes Study, 36-item Short Form (SF-36) questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS)\\u000a of pain, disability and discomfort, and a form for

Rui Soles Gonçalves; Jan Cabri; João Páscoa Pinheiro

2008-01-01

57

Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

2011-01-01

58

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

59

AeroADL: applying the integration of the Suomi-NPP science algorithms with the Algorithm Development Library to the calibration and validation task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem for the off-line validation of the calibration algorithms and algorithm coefficients is being able to run science data through the exact same software used for on-line calibration of that data. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program solved part of this problem by making the Algorithm Development Library (ADL) available, which allows the operational algorithm code to be compiled and run on a desktop Linux workstation using flat file input and output. However, this solved only part of the problem, as the toolkit and methods to initiate the processing of data through the algorithms were geared specifically toward the algorithm developer, not the calibration analyst. In algorithm development mode, a limited number of sets of test data are staged for the algorithm once, and then run through the algorithm over and over as the software is developed and debugged. In calibration analyst mode, we are continually running new data sets through the algorithm, which requires significant effort to stage each of those data sets for the algorithm without additional tools. AeroADL solves this second problem by providing a set of scripts that wrap the ADL tools, providing both efficient means to stage and process an input data set, to override static calibration coefficient look-up-tables (LUT) with experimental versions of those tables, and to manage a library containing multiple versions of each of the static LUT files in such a way that the correct set of LUTs required for each algorithm are automatically provided to the algorithm without analyst effort. Using AeroADL, The Aerospace Corporation's analyst team has demonstrated the ability to quickly and efficiently perform analysis tasks for both the VIIRS and OMPS sensors with minimal training on the software tools.

Houchin, J. S.

2014-09-01

60

The selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist ADL5510 reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia without affecting antiparkinsonian action in MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In Parkinson's disease (PD), dyskinesia develops following long-term treatment with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). Given the prominent role of the opioid system in basal ganglia function, nonselective opioid receptor antagonists have been tested for antidyskinetic efficacy in the clinic (naltrexone and naloxone), although without success. In the current study, ADL5510, a novel, orally active opioid antagonist with mu opioid receptor selectivity, was examined in L-dopa-treated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) macaques. Antidyskinetic effects were compared with those of naltrexone. Parkinsonian monkeys with established L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) received acute challenges with L-dopa (subcutaneously) in combination with either vehicle, ADL5510 (0.1, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg by mouth), or naltrexone (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg subcutaneously). Following treatments, behavior was monitored for 6 hours. Parameters assessed were total activity, parkinsonism, and dyskinesia. ADL5510 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) reduced activity and LID (chorea and dystonia) without affecting the antiparkinsonian benefits of L-dopa. The antidyskinetic effect of ADL5510 showed a U-shaped dose-response. It was inactive at 0.1 mg/kg, efficacious at 1 and 3 mg/kg (72% and 40% reductions, respectively), and then less effective at 10 mg/kg. The quality of ON time produced by L-dopa was improved, as indicated by a reduction in the percentage of ON time spent experiencing disabling dyskinesia (70% and 61% reductions with 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively, compared with L-dopa). Naltrexone, in contrast, did not alleviate LID or affect the antiparkinsonian actions of L-dopa. Mu-selective opioid antagonists have the potential to form the basis of novel antidyskinetic therapies for PD. PMID:21465551

Koprich, James B; Fox, Susan H; Johnston, Tom H; Goodman, Allan; Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Dolle, Roland E; DeHaven, Robert N; DeHaven-Hudkins, Diane L; Little, Patrick J; Brotchie, Jonathan M

2011-06-01

61

Exertion instruments  

E-print Network

This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

2011-01-01

62

Cordless Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

1981-01-01

63

Cognitive impairment and low physical activity are the components of frailty more strongly associated with disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the association of the five frailty criteria from the Cardiovascular Health Study, as well as cognitive impairment,\\u000a with prevalent disability for the instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional study of 475 community-dwelling subjects aged 70 and older, participating in the Mexican Study of Nutritional\\u000a and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Six probable frailty criteria were

José Alberto Ávila-Funes; S. D. Pina-Escudero; S. Aguilar-Navarro; L. M. Gutierrez-Robledo; L. Ruiz-Arregui; Hélène Amieva

64

Changes in activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly Chinese by marital status, living arrangement, and availability of healthcare over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The purpose of this study was to assess how changes from different baselines of activities of daily living (ADL) can be explained\\u000a by marital status, living arrangement and healthcare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Study conducted in 2002 and 2005, 8,099 surviving and 3,822 deceased\\u000a elderly aged 65 years and over were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  After

Dewen Wang; Jianmin Zheng; Michiko Kurosawa; Yutaka Inaba; Noriko Kato

2009-01-01

65

Atmospheric instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Atmospheric Sciences is now accepting proposals requesting only specialized research equipment or instrumentation. The division, within the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO), aims to echo the theme of increased support for instrumentation of the NSF fiscal 1984 budget request to Congress.Guidelines for proposals for specialized research equipment and instrumentation are the same as those for research proposals. Each potential major user should describe the research projects for which the equipment will be used. Some institutional contribution is encouraged for the equipment proposals. For additional information on the submission of instrumentation proposals, contact the specific program director in the grant programs section (see list below) or in the new Upper Atmospheric Facilities program in NSF's Centers and Facilities section (see related news item this issue). Guidelines for proposal preparation can be found in NSF publication 81-79, Grants for Scientific and Engineering Research.

66

Astronomical instruments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

Rai, R. N.

67

The Effects of Galantamine Treatment on Attention and Its Relationship with Cognition and Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The positive effects of galantamine on cognition and activities of daily living (ADL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are thought to be mediated via improvements in attention. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of galantamine on attention in AD patients using a computerized attention test and to elucidate the relationship between improvements in attention and change in cognition and ADL. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, prospective study, patients with mild to moderate AD received galantamine and then submitted to computerized attention tests, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, and instrumental ADL (IADL) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. The differences in reaction time on computerized tests were explored relative to the changes in cognition and IADL. Results After 12 weeks of taking the trial medication there was a significant reduction from baseline levels in the choice reaction time (baseline, 5,216±3,650 sec; 12 weeks, 4,139±2,920 sec; p<0.01) and the simple reaction time (baseline, 1,089±782 sec; 12 weeks, 908±606 sec; p<0.01). Correlation analyses of changes in choice or simple reaction times relative to cognition and ADL measures yielded no significant associations. The improvement in attention observed at 4 weeks of galantamine treatment was not associated with any significant changes in outcome measures at the end of trial. Conclusions This study found no significant association between the improvement in attention after treatment with galantamine and changes in cognition and ADL in patients with mild to moderate AD, despite the significant improvement in attention over the course of the treatment.

Hong, Yun Jeong; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kim, Beom Joon; Na, Duk-Lyul; Han, Seol-Heui; Park, Jong-Moo; Jeong, Jee-Hyang; Cha, Kyung-Ryeol

2015-01-01

68

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

69

Factors associated with functional incapacity in elders living in long stay institutions in Brazil: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The increase of the elderly population and the high prevalence of chronic diseases have contributed to the increasing importance of functional ability as a global public health problem. This study aimed to assess functional capacity in institutionalized elders, as well as undertake an exploratory analysis of its associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with institutionalized Brazilian elders. Functional capacity was assessed using the Katz Index for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Scale for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). The characteristics of dependent individuals were described and logistic regression models were developed for both scales. Multiple models that included all selected variables were developed using a hierarchical approach. We considered the results from the Wald test (p?ADL and 81.2% for IADL. We observed associations between ADL dependence and the following factors: self-report of stroke, difficulty of walking 400 meters, lower total scores in questions related to the temporal orientation section of the cognition test, and self-reports of frequently feeling upset. IADL dependence was associated with educational level, self-report of cancer, difficulty of walking 400 meters, use of glasses, and self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Sociodemographic and health conditions were associated with functional incapacity in institutionalized elders. Based on these findings, we emphasize the importance of both prevention and treatment of chronic conditions as well as social support in the maintenance of individuals’ autonomy. PMID:24731189

2014-01-01

70

Research Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

1992-01-01

71

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!). Conduct this activity in conjunction with Lesson 3 of the Sound and Light unit.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

72

RHIC instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

1998-12-01

73

RHIC instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-10

74

RHIC instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-01

75

Potent, orally bioavailable delta opioid receptor agonists for the treatment of pain: discovery of N,N-diethyl-4-(5-hydroxyspiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine]-4-yl)benzamide (ADL5859).  

PubMed

Selective delta opioid receptor agonists are promising potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of pain conditions. A spirocyclic derivative was identified as a promising hit through screening. Subsequent lead optimization identified compound 20 (ADL5859) as a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable delta agonist. Compound 20 was selected as a clinical candidate for the treatment of pain. PMID:18788723

Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Windh, Rolf T; Ajello, Christopher W; Leister, Lara K; Gu, Minghua; Chu, Guo-Hua; Tuthill, Paul A; Barker, William M; Koblish, Michael; Wiant, Daniel D; Graczyk, Thomas M; Belanger, Serge; Cassel, Joel A; Feschenko, Marina S; Brogdon, Bernice L; Smith, Steven A; Christ, David D; Derelanko, Michael J; Kutz, Steve; Little, Patrick J; DeHaven, Robert N; DeHaven-Hudkins, Diane L; Dolle, Roland E

2008-10-01

76

Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation  

PubMed Central

Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

2014-01-01

77

Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study  

PubMed Central

In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named “the Disability Health survey” was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%–1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

2014-01-01

78

Functional status, education, and the diagnosis of dementia in the Shanghai survey.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship of culturally adapted Chinese versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMS) and several functional measures to the effect of education on the clinical diagnosis of dementia in 554 subjects (55 to 95 years; median, 74) who had undergone intensive evaluation during the Shanghai survey of dementia. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of clinically diagnosed dementia. The standardized history and one functional scale (Pfeffer Outpatient Disability Scale [POD]) clustered closely with clinical diagnosis on factor analysis, whereas the CMMS, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL), and Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL) loaded additionally onto an education-weighted component. A logistic equation based on the CMMS, history, POD, and IADL was the best predictor of the clinical diagnosis of dementia, but history, POD, and IADL without a mental status score also predicted the diagnosis with a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 89.3%, a positive predictive value of 66.0%, and a negative predictive value of 97.1%. When dementia was diagnosed using an algorithm based on the three functional scales alone, low education continued to be associated with increased age-specific risk of dementia. PMID:8423878

Hill, L R; Klauber, M R; Salmon, D P; Yu, E S; Liu, W T; Zhang, M; Katzman, R

1993-01-01

79

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

80

Impact of physical and psychological resources on functional autonomy in old age.  

PubMed

Functional autonomy is a core condition of successful ageing. To maximize autonomous functioning is not only a claim of social policy but also primarily an individual need. Part of the challenge of preventing unnecessary dependence in old age is to recognize the diversity among the elderly and the different availability of their physical, psychological and social resources. The aim of this study is to examine the age- and time-related changes in functional autonomy (activities of daily living, ADL, and instrumental activities of daily living, IADL) and the psychophysical resources correlated with these changes in a sample of 441 healthy elderly persons aged 65-95. Furthermore, we are interested in the long-term predictive power of physical resources (objective and subjective health, physical strength) and psychological resources (memory) on functional autonomy. Results show significant age- and time-related deteriorations in functional autonomy and in most psychophysical resources. Structural equation model analyses were performed to test the long-term predictive power of these resources. Results suggest that ADL is better predicted by physical resources than by psychological ones, but for IADL the reverse is the case; here memory variables play a dominant role. Physical and psychological variables are thus specifically related to different components of functional autonomy. This has to be taken into account in the development of preventive and intervention programmes. PMID:17129923

Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Perrig, Walter J; Uebelbacher, Andreas; Stähelin, Hannes B

2006-11-01

81

Development of a body sensor network to detect motor patterns of epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of a remote monitoring system to monitor and detect simple motor seizures. Using accelerometer-based kinematic sensors, data were gathered from subjects undergoing medication titration at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Over the course of the study, subjects repeatedly performed a predefined set of instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs). During the monitoring sessions, EEG and video data were also recorded and provided the gold standard for seizure detection. To distinguish seizure events from iADLs, we developed a template matching algorithm. Considering the unique signature of seizure events and the inherent temporal variability of seizure types across subjects, we incorporated a customized mass-spring template into the dynamic time warping algorithm. We then ported this algorithm onto a commercially available internet tablet and developed our body sensor network on the Mercury platform. We designed several policies on this platform to compare the tradeoffs between feature calculation, raw data transmission, and battery lifetime. From a dataset of 21 seizures, the sensitivity for our template matching algorithm was found to be 0.91 and specificity of 0.84. We achieved a battery lifetime of 10.5 h on the Mercury platform. PMID:22717505

Dalton, Anthony; Patel, Shyamal; Chowdhury, Atanu Roy; Welsh, Matt; Pang, Trudy; Schachter, Steven; OLaighin, Gearóid; Bonato, Paolo

2012-11-01

82

Declining Cognition and Falls: Role of Risky Performance of Everyday Mobility Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Declining cognition is a risk factor for falls among older adults. The extent to which impaired judgment in performance of daily activities increases fall risk is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether engagement in mobility activities in a risky manner explains the association between declining cognition and rate of falls. Design This study was a secondary analysis of baseline and prospective data from older adults enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Two hundred forty-five community-dwelling older adults (79% female; mean age=79 years, SD=8.0) who were at risk for falls received physical, cognitive, and functional evaluations. Cognition was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Using interview and in-home assessment data, physical therapists determined whether participants were at risk for falls when performing mobility-related activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Falls were measured prospectively for 1 year using monthly falls diaries. Results Declining cognition was associated with increased number of mobility activities designated as risky (1.5% of mobility activities performed in a risky manner per SPMSQ point) and with increased rate of falls (rate ratio=1.16 for each unit change in SPMSQ score). Risky performance of mobility activities mediated the relationship between cognition and rate of falls. Limitations Risk assessment was based on the clinical judgment of experienced physical therapists. Cognition was measured with a relatively insensitive instrument, and only selected mobility activities were evaluated. Conclusions Engagement in mobility ADL and IADL tasks in a risky manner emerged as a link between declining cognition and increased number of falls, suggesting a mechanism through which the rate of falls may increase. Specifically, declining cognition is associated with performance of mobility activities in an unsafe manner, thereby increasing the risk for falls. PMID:24231226

Gleason, Carey E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Janczewski, Jodi; Shea, Terry; Mahoney, Jane E.

2014-01-01

83

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

84

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA)

1994-01-01

85

Evaluating musical instruments  

SciTech Connect

Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

Campbell, D. Murray

2014-04-01

86

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design and create musical instruments from common objects; their challenge is to create an instrument that can make three different tones. They investigate how energy is transferred from their hands to their instrument to create sound. Learners also compare the different instruments to understand how the different designs produce different sounds. Resource contains investigating questions to assess and extend learning.

Kempton, Adam

2013-01-01

87

Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

88

Instrument Control Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Instruments Instrument Control Fundamentals Series, your FREE resource for instrument control knowledge on the Web, presents technical content through theory, real-world examples, and interactive audiovisual tutorials. This series, organized into four general categories, is designed for a broad range of audiences, from experts who want to review a specific topic to new users who need easy-to-understand documentation for their projects. Subtopics include "What is instrument control?" "Instrument Control Hardware and Bus Technologies" "Instrument Control Software" and "Instrument Control System Architectures."

2013-06-21

89

Functional response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in a naturalistic Alzheimer’s disease cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Activities of daily living (ADL) are an essential part of the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A decline in ADL affects independent living and has a strong negative impact on caregiver burden. Functional response to cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment and factors that might influence this response in naturalistic AD patients need investigating. The aim of this study was to identify the socio-demographic and clinical factors that affect the functional response after 6 months of ChEI therapy. Methods This prospective, non-randomised, multicentre study in a routine clinical setting included 784 AD patients treated with donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, patients were assessed using several rating scales, including the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Demographic and clinical characteristics were investigated at baseline. The functional response and the relationships of potential predictors were analysed using general linear models. Results After 6 months of ChEI treatment, 49% and 74% of patients showed improvement/no change in IADL and in PSMS score, respectively. The improved/unchanged patients exhibited better cognitive status at baseline; regarding improved/unchanged PSMS, patients were younger and used fewer anti-depressants. A more positive functional response to ChEI was observed in younger individuals or among those having the interaction effect of better preserved cognition and lower ADL ability. Patients with fewer concomitant medications or those using NSAIDs/acetylsalicylic acid showed a better PSMS response. Conclusions Critical characteristics that may influence the functional response to ChEI in AD were identified. Some predictors differed from those previously shown to affect cognitive response, e.g., lower cognitive ability and older age predicted better cognitive but worse functional response. PMID:23126532

2012-01-01

90

Mars Miniature Science Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

2006-01-01

91

Spirocyclic delta opioid receptor agonists for the treatment of pain: discovery of N,N-diethyl-3-hydroxy-4-(spiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine]-4-yl) benzamide (ADL5747).  

PubMed

Selective, nonpeptidic delta opioid receptor agonists have been the subject of great interest as potential novel analgesic agents. The discoveries of BW373U86 (1) and SNC80 (2) contributed to the rapid expansion of research in this field. However, poor drug-like properties and low therapeutic indices have prevented clinical evaluation of these agents. Doses of 1 and 2 similar to those required for analgesic activity produce convulsions in rodents and nonhuman primates. Recently, we described a novel series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable delta opioid receptor agonists. The lead derivative, ADL5859 (4), is currently in phase II proof-of-concept studies for the management of pain. Further structure activity relationship exploration has led to the discovery of ADL5747 (36), which is approximately 50-fold more potent than 4 in an animal model of inflammatory pain. On the basis of its favorable efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile, 36 was selected as a clinical candidate for the treatment of pain. PMID:19694468

Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Windh, Rolf T; Leister, Lara K; Zhou, Q Jean; Ajello, Christopher W; Gu, Minghua; Chu, Guo-Hua; Tuthill, Paul A; Barker, William M; Koblish, Michael; Wiant, Daniel D; Graczyk, Thomas M; Belanger, Serge; Cassel, Joel A; Feschenko, Marina S; Brogdon, Bernice L; Smith, Steven A; Derelanko, Michael J; Kutz, Steve; Little, Patrick J; DeHaven, Robert N; DeHaven-Hudkins, Diane L; Dolle, Roland E

2009-09-24

92

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to apply the principles and concepts associated with energy and the transfer of energy in an engineering context by designing and making musical instruments. They choose from a variety of provided supplies to make instruments capable of producing three different tones. After completing their designs, students explain the energy transfer mechanism in detail and describe how they could make their instruments better.

Engineering K-Phd Program

93

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

Hunt, F L

1923-01-01

94

Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

95

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

96

[Sterilization of dental instruments].  

PubMed

Instruments used by dentists are often sterilized with steam sterilization. At this moment three types of processes are described in the European norms: Type N, S and B. According to the norms type N can be used for non-wrapped non-hollow instruments and non-porous instruments, type S can be used for instruments specified by the manufacturer and type B can be used for wrapped, hollow and porous instruments. The principles on which the sterilizors are based are described. It is concluded that before purchasing the sterilizor the method of working and instruments to be sterilized must specified. In most cases a type B process is preferable in order to gaurantee to be certain to have an effective and reproducible process. PMID:11486515

van Doornmalen, J P; Verschueren, M; Dankert, J; Rietmeijer, A G

2001-07-01

97

The Relationship between Health and Community across Aging Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Research is needed to examine the connection between older adults and their community as they age. This is important as increasing numbers of older adults wish to age in place. Regression models were examined across 3 cohorts testing relationships among social capital indicators (neighborhood trust, neighborhood support, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood participation, and telephone interaction) with health outcomes (self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)). Results showed that most social capital indicators remained significant for all health outcomes into very old age. Development of tools for individual and community interventions to ensure optimal fit between the aging individual and their environment is discussed, along with recommendations for enhancing social work theory and practice. PMID:25006460

Chan, Keith T.

2014-01-01

98

Anemia and functional capacity in elderly Brazilian hospitalized patients.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the association between anemia and physical functional capacity in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 709 hospitalized elderly patients aged 60 years and over admitted to the Madre Teresa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Mann-Whitney or "t" test, and chi-square or Fisher exact test were used for quantitative and categorical variables, respectively, and hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors. The presence of anemia was found in 30% of participants and was significantly associated with decreased functionality according to the two measures which were used - ADL (activities of daily living) and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). Anemia was also independently associated with older age. The results of this study demonstrate a strong association between the presence of anemia and lower levels of functional capacity. Further investigations are needed to assess the impact of anemia treatment on the functionality and independence of older people. PMID:23843000

Bosco, Raquel de Macedo; Assis, Elisa Priscila Souza; Pinheiro, Renata Rosseti; Queiroz, Luiza Cristina Viana de; Pereira, Leani S M; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

2013-07-01

99

Space applications instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1972-01-01

100

Elec 331 -Surgical Instruments Surgical Instruments  

E-print Network

Alloys - Substitutional Atoms · Same size as Fe · Positions normally occupied by Fe. #12;Elec 331 - Surgical Instruments 3 Alloys - Interstitial Atoms · Smaller than Fe · Occupy gaps · Greater solubility in Austenite (larger gaps) · Precipitate out during cooling Iron Alloy Atoms Substitutional Atoms · Chromium

Pulfrey, David L.

101

Instrumentation and Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter contains a broad introduction to astronomical instruments and detectors. The basic design principles for cameras, spectrometers, polarimeters, and interferometers are given, together with some practical material on instrument building techniques, including vacuum-cryogenic methods. Different detector technologies are introduced, such as CCDs and infrared arrays, together with basic information on semiconductors.

McLean, Ian S.; Larkin, James; Fitzgerald, Michael

102

Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

V. L. Chenakal

1975-01-01

103

Instrument Landing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

L. Sanders

1973-01-01

104

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

105

METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT (MID)  

E-print Network

METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT (MID) SCIENTIFIC SCOPE BEAMLINE CHARACTERISTICS DETECTOR TO USERS: January 2018 The Metrology and Instrumentation Development (MID) is a 3-pole wiggler beamline wavefront sensor developed at SOLEIL for wavefront metrology of adaptive optics A bi-prism interferometer

Ohta, Shigemi

106

Clinical immunoassay instrument markets  

SciTech Connect

The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

Not Available

1984-11-01

107

LMFBR Instrumentation and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor control and core surveillance instrumentation are important to the safety and economics of LMFBR design and operation. Considerable world wide effort has been expended during the past 10 years on such instrumentation. The results of these efforts in France will be tested in Phenix and the U.K. will test theirs in the PFR reactor when these reactors start up

G. R. Pflasterer

1973-01-01

108

One instrument, many voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Didjeridu: From Arabem Land to Internet is the first comprehensive study of the Australian Aboriginal instrument, the didjeridu, from a range of musical, cultural and sociological viewpoints. Written in an informed but accessible style, individual chapters analyse traditional uses of the instrument; its use in contemporary Aboriginal rock; the perspective of various accomplished players (both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal); and

Philip Hayward; K Neuenfeldt

1997-01-01

109

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

110

Instrumental Response Function for Filtergraph Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dopplergrams and magnetograms arising from filtergraph instruments such as the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), or the Hinode Narrow Band Filter Imager are generally associated with observation heights that are derived from the contribution function of the targeted absorption line, irrespective of the instrument characteristics. Observation heights are important for interpreting the phases of propagating waves, and for the diagnostics of the solar atmosphere. I show in this paper that the formalism presented by Ruiz Cobo and del Toro Iniesta ( Astron. Astrophys. 283, 129, 1994) provides a straightforward approach to associate an observation height for each observable given the instrumental algorithm, the transmission profiles and the local stratification at the point of observation. To demonstrate the method, I construct a simple radially symmetric sunspot model and calculate the mean observation height for various MDI observables as a function of horizontal location. It is shown that different ways of measuring the same quantity can result in different observation heights, that the offset velocity caused by the spacecraft motion has to be taken into account, and that observation heights in sunspots vary beyond the pure geometric effect of the Wilson depression.

Wachter, R.

2008-09-01

111

Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

2012-01-01

112

Multiple, but not traditional risk factors predict mortality in older people: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify the common risk factors for mortality in community-dwelling older men. A prospective population-based study was conducted with a median of 6.7 years of follow-up. Participants included 1705 men aged ?70 years at baseline (2005-2007) living in the community in Sydney, Australia. Demographic information, lifestyle factors, health status, self-reported history of diseases, physical performance measures, blood pressure, height and weight, disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs)), cognitive status, depressive symptoms and blood analyte measures were considered. Cox regression analyses were conducted to model predictors delete time until of mortality. During follow-up, 461 men (27 %) died. Using Cox proportional hazards model, significant predictors of delete time to time to mortality included in the final model (p?ADL and IADL disability and impaired chair stands. We found that overweight and obesity and/or being a lifelong non-drinker of alcohol were protective against mortality. Compared to men with less than or equal to one risk factor, the hazard ratio in men with three risk factors was 2.5; with four risk factors, it was 4.0; with five risk factors, it was 4.9; and for six or more risk factors, it was 11.4, respectively. We have identified common risk factors that predict mortality that may be useful in making clinical decisions among older people living in the community. Our findings suggest that, in primary care, screening and management of multiple risk factors are important to consider for extending survival, rather than simply considering individual risk factors in isolation. Some of the "traditional" risk factors for mortality in a younger population, including high blood pressure, hypercholesterolaemia, overweight and obesity and diabetes, were not independent predictors of mortality in this population of older men. PMID:25403157

Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela; Stanaway, Fiona F; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

2014-12-01

113

Paranal instrumentation programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development plan for instrumentation at the Paranal Observatory was outlined at SPIE in 2012. Its overall goal is to keep Paranal at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. In addition to the completion of the current second generation instruments, the installation of the Adaptive Optics Facility and execution of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer mid-term implementation plan, it will allow one new instrument, or instrument upgrade, to be initiated per year. The plan is divided into two phases. Over 2013-2017, instruments are selected and developed with the criteria of filling the VLT capabilities and maintaining the balance between dedicated and general purpose facilities. Beyond 2018, the instruments will be deployed in the era of maturity of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The strategy for the second phase derives from analysis of VLT science in the E-ELT era, to be fully shaped in the coming five years. The Call for ideas for a new instrument for the New Technology Telescope at La Silla, fully funded by the community, has just been issued.

Pasquini, Luca; Casali, Mark; Russell, Adrian

2014-07-01

114

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

115

Aircraft Speed Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

Beij, K Hilding

1933-01-01

116

Mass spectrometers: instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a dominant role in most work using mass spectrometers. This is illustrated with recent results on the chemistry of C+.60 including the formation of covalent adducts with aromatic compounds. Quantitative analysis of methylated nucleosides and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug taxol are also discussed. A compendium of mass spectrometers constructed over the past three years is provided. This includes a variety of hybrid instruments, combinations of sector mass spectrometers with traps, instruments designed to study collision dynamics, and many more.

Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

1992-09-01

117

MUSE instrument software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE Instrumentation Software is the software devoted to the control of the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph instrument, installed at Paranal in January 2014. It includes an advanced and user-friendly GUI to display the raw data of the 24 detectors, as well as the on-line reconstructed images of the field of view allowing users to assess the quality of the data in quasi-real time. Furthermore, it implements the slow guiding system used to remove effects of possible differential drifts between the telescope guide probe and the instrument, and reach high image stability (<0.03 arcsec RMS stability). In this paper we report about the software design and describe the developed tools that efficiently support astronomers while operating this complex instrument at the telescope.

Zins, Gérard; Pécontal, Arlette; Larrieu, Marie; Girard, Nathalie; Jarno, Aurélien; Cumani, Claudio; Baksai, Pedro; Comin, Mauro; Kiekebusch, Mario; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Stuik, Remko; Vernet, Joel

2014-07-01

118

Radiation measuring instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four radiation measuring instruments were developed. These are: (1) improved detector probe, (2) neutron spectrometer--dosimeter, (3) portable ultraviolet spectro-radiometer; and (4) pocket ionization chamber radiation dosimeter. A brief description of each of these devices is presented.

Piltingsrud, H. V.

1975-01-01

119

Low cost instrumentation amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

Sturman, J. C.

1974-01-01

120

Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

2010-01-01

121

Instrumentation for Materials Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

Claassen, Richard S.

1976-01-01

122

Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

1976-01-01

123

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

124

Medical instrument data exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model

Suman Gumudavelli; Paul K. McKneely; Pongnarin Thongpithoonrat; D. Gurkan; Frank M. Chapman

2008-01-01

125

Short Dietary Assessment Instruments  

Cancer.gov

Short dietary assessment instruments, often called screeners, may be useful in situations that do not require assessment of the total diet or quantitative accuracy in dietary estimates. Recognizing the need for these tools, the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) has developed several short instruments that assess intake of fruits and vegetables, percentage energy from fat, fiber, added sugars, whole grains, calcium, dairy products, and red and processed meats.

126

Advanced optical instruments technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William (uw319824)

1992-01-01

127

Medical instrument data exchange.  

PubMed

Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments. PMID:19163033

Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

2008-01-01

128

Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

1923-01-01

129

Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

1923-01-01

130

[Quantification of dementia-related disabilities in daily behavior with the DAFS (Direct Assessment of Functional Status): reliability and validity of a German test version].  

PubMed

The DAFS (Direct Assessment of Functional Status) is a new test for the assessment of competence of demented patients in situations of everyday life. The present study assesses objectivity, temporal stability, concurrent and discriminative validity of a German version of the DAFS. Sixteen patients with a DSM-III-R-diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type, 8 of which with a mild (MMSE 18-25) and 8 with a moderate (MMSE 12-17) dementia, and 8 control subjects without any symptoms of dementia (MMSE 28-30), matched with the patient groups in age, gender and education, were assessed three times within 3 weeks with the DAFS and once with the NOSGER (an ADL rating scale). The DAFS showed high objectivity (correlation between two test administrators r = .97) and stability (2 week retest reliability r = .98) and was able to discriminate significantly between the study groups and with a strong effect size. Correlations with the total score and the IADL subscale score of the NOSGER were high (r = .81 and r = .86, resp.), whereas correlations with the mood and the disturbing behavior subscale were much lower (both r = .54). This investigation could demonstrate that the DAFS is an objective, stable and valid test instrument. It has a high power to discriminate between demented and non-demented subjects as well as between various degrees of severity of illness. The test items are highly relevant for everyday functioning and the test itself is a good and necessary addition to the use of ADL or IADL rating scales. PMID:8767019

Hochrein, A; Jonitz, L; Hock, C; Bell, V; Plaum, E; Engel, R R

1996-01-01

131

Functional Status and Nutrient Intake from the Council on Aging Meal and Total Daily Intake of Congregate, Adult Day Care and Homebound Program Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional status and nutrient intake among 52 congregate, 30 day care and 31 homebound Council on Aging (COA) participants were evaluated by data from three 24-hour dietary recalls, ADLs and IADLs along with demographic variables and analyzed by analysis of variance. Congregate subjects had fewer functional status limitations. The COA meals provided one-third of the RDA for most nutrients; however,

M. Sue Hoogenboom; Alice A. Spangler; Royda Crose

1998-01-01

132

Issues in Shuttle System Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purose: a) Customer's perspective on Space Shuttle Return to Flight instrumentation; b) Focus on the difficult instrumentation issues; and c) Enable a discussion of new technologies (i.e.- NANO/MEMS/Small Tech) that could enhance Shuttle instrumentation posture. The T-10 Umbilical allows the vehicle instruments to be monitored and recorded prior to each launch and retract during launch.Launch Complex Instrumentation are instruments needed for assessment of Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) Salt-air and launch environments are issues. Instrumentation (Drag-On Instrumentation) can be added as needed to the vehicle for non-flight use. The current Roll-out Fatigue Testing is a primary example.

James, George

2004-01-01

133

Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2005-10-01

134

Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

1925-01-01

135

The AFTA coronagraph instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (AFTA) study in 2012-2013 included a high-contrast stellar coronagraph to complement the wide-field infrared survey (WFIRST) instrument. The idea of flying a coronagraph on this telescope was met with some skepticism because the AFTA pupil has a large central obscuration with six secondary mirror struts that impact the coronagraph sensitivity. However, several promising coronagraph concepts have emerged, and a corresponding initial instrument design has been completed. Requirements on the design include observations centered 0.6 deg off-axis, on-orbit robotic serviceability, operation in a geosynchronous orbit, and room-temperature operation (driven by the coronagraph's deformable mirrors). We describe the instrument performance requirements, the optical design, an observational scenario, and integration times for typical detection and characterization observations.

Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Foote, Marc; Rodgers, Michael; Underhill, Michael; Marchen, Luis; Klein, Dan

2013-09-01

136

Instrumentation in Learning Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In physics experiments, a great deal of effort is spent calibrating instruments. These include instruments that precipitate some event, and instruments that measure the effects of those events. Design research in the learning sciences often focuses on precipitating learning events, but it does not pay equal attention to designing effective measures. We present the results of a study that compared two types of instruction on students working alone or in pairs. We show how one measure, common to most studies of learning, failed to detect any effects. Then we show how a second measure, called a Preparation for Future Learning measure, detected important differences. Specifically, pairs working to invent solutions to problems in statistics were more prepared to learn about new, related types of statistics than pairs who were shown how to solve the original problems, as well as individuals who invented or were shown how to solve the original problems.

Sears, David A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

2009-07-13

137

Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

Shea, T.J.

1995-12-31

138

Standard NIM instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

Not Available

1990-05-01

139

Animation of MARDI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

140

Kenyon College: Acoustics Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an extensive collection of images and descriptions of historical instruments used in the teaching acoustics. Many of the items were used for demonstrations, labs, or other teaching purposes. This is part of a large collection of image covering all classical physics topics.

Greenslade Jr., Thomas

2011-04-09

141

Graphical Programming National Instruments  

E-print Network

LabVIEW Graphical Programming LabVIEW LabVIEW National Instruments Phone: (512) 794-0100 · Fax: (512) 683-8411 · info@natinst.com · www.natinst.com 61 Better Productivity LabVIEW is a highly analysis, and data presentation. Integrated Hardware LabVIEW has built-in compatibility with hardware

Wedeward, Kevin

142

BNL instrumentation research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the BNL Light Water Reactor Development Program is to obtain measurements of the volumetric vapor generation rates in flashing steam-water flows under steady and transient conditions of interest in accident analysis. Instrumentation in support of this activity was developed and constructed to obtain both local and global measurements of the appropriate information, i.e., void fraction and phase

N. Abuaf; G. A. Zimmer; O. C. Jr. Jones

1978-01-01

143

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

144

Update on ureteroscopy instrumentation  

PubMed Central

The authors present an objective review of what is new in endourology instrumentation, based on up-to-date scientific data gathered from meetings, state-of-art lectures and current literature. The main scope of this review is to highlight the most recommended device options for each step of an ureteroscopy, in order to offer best care to patients. PMID:21116357

Pedro, Renato N.; Monga, Manoj

2010-01-01

145

Survey overview Instrument Construction  

E-print Network

#12;Outline Survey overview Instrument Construction Survey Logistics Response Rates Uses of Survey, to develop new initiatives for faculty on campus. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room 174 Madison, WI 53703-2636 #12;Survey Overview

Sheridan, Jennifer

146

Instrument for Textbook Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

Huetteman, Julie Doidge

147

University Reactor Instrumentation Grant  

SciTech Connect

A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

S. M. Bajorek

2000-02-01

148

Portable dynamic fundus instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

Taylor, Gerald R. (inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (inventor)

1992-01-01

149

Instrumentation Control Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

150

Elementary Instrumental Music Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

Smith, Dolores A.

151

Preparing Remote Sensing Instrument  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS collaborator Scott Saleska (University of Arizona) works with research team members to prepare a remote sensing instrument for installation near the top of a 213-foot (65-meter) tower at the Amazon forest study site near Santarém, Brazil.  Data from the sensor system are being used ...

152

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

153

Rain radar instrument definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of

N. Vincent; J. Chenebault; Noel Suinot; P. L. Mancini

1996-01-01

154

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

155

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

156

Deep Impact instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [~1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ~9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ~1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ~1%. Spectrometer read noise is ~2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ~10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of ~2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ~0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

Klaasen, K.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Baca, M.; Delamere, A.; Desnoyer, M.; Farnham, T.; Groussin, O.; Hampton, D.; Ipatov, S.; Li, J.-Y.; Lisse, C.; Mastrodemos, N.; McLaughlin, S.; Sunshine, J.; Thomas, P.; Wellnitz, D.

2008-09-01

157

Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

Bisset, K.R.

1998-09-01

158

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

159

Musical Instrument Makers Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With links to over 400 pages on acoustic guitar building, violin, dulcimer, flute, recorder, and bagpipe making, brass instrument building and repair, drum making and much, much more this is the site to visit to better understand how musical instruments are made and maintained. The Forum itself hosts a long list of topics which include discussions related to everything from splitting spruce billets to how to alter a violin to better fit a musician's hand to how to use bird's eye maple in guitar building. And as if all of that were not enough the site also provides links to appropriate books, magazines and hosts a tools store section with links to wood turning tools, hand tools and everything else that's needed to keep your fiddle, guitar or flute in tip top shape.

2006-10-17

160

The JANUS XCAT Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Astrophysics Nascent Universe Satellite (JANUS) mission is designed to measure redshifts of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and quasars in the range 5instrument and its capabilities.

Burrows, David N.; Falcone, A.; Palmer, D.; Barthelmy, S.

2010-02-01

161

Proposal for research instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of the progress to date using two new laser\\/multichannel detection systems obtained with DOD-University Research Instrumentation Program funding. Progress has been made in several different areas including: (1) high-speed mapping of gas concentrations in turbulent flows, (2) use of Rayleigh scattering for temperature mapping in turbulent diffusion flames, (3) measurement of the full three-dimensional scalar gradient

Marshall B. Long; Richard K. Chang; Boa-Teh Chu

1985-01-01

162

The ozone monitoring instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet\\/visible (UV\\/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 km×24 km. Trace gases measured include O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. In addition,

Pieternel F. Levelt; Marcel R. Dobber; Anssi Mälkki; Huib Visser; Johan de Vries; Piet Stammes; Jens O. V. Lundell; Heikki Saari

2006-01-01

163

Superfluid helium tanker instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumentation system for a 1992 Space Shuttle flight demonstration of superfluid-helium tanker and transfer technology is presented. The system measures helium temperatures, pressures, flow rates and mass and the amount of liquid or vapor present. It consists of analog and digital portions which provide a fault-tolerant, compact, relatively lightweight, space-qualified electronics system. The data-processing hardware and software are ground-commandable,

C. E. Woodhouse; A. Kashani; A. T. Lukemire

1989-01-01

164

An ice lithography instrument  

PubMed Central

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

2011-01-01

165

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

166

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

Manche, Emanuel P.

1979-01-01

167

CARMENES instrument overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 ?m, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

2014-07-01

168

Childhood Sexual Abuse is Associated With Physical Illness Burden and Functioning in Psychiatric Patients 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) with cumulative illness burden, physical function, and bodily pain (BP) in a sample of male and female psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. Previous research on the health consequences of sexual abuse has focused on nonpsychiatric samples of younger-age adults, especially women. The health implications of abuse for mixed-gender samples of older psychiatric patients have not been explored. Methods Participants were 163 patients with primary mood disorders. Sexual abuse histories were collected via patient self-report, as was BP. The measure of medical illness burden was based on chart review. Clinical interviewers rated physical function, using the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales. Linear and logistic regressions examined the association between CSA and health outcomes. Results As hypothesized, severe childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher cumulative medical illness burden, worse physical function, and greater BP. Comparisons of regression coefficients revealed that severe CSA’s influence on illness burden is roughly comparable to the effects of adding 8 years of age. For ADL impairment and BP, the effects are comparable to adding 20 years of age. Conclusions Strong relationships exist between CSA and medical illness burden, function, and pain among psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. These relationships cannot be ascribed to shared method variance. Early detection of patients’ abuse histories could inform targeted interventions to prevent or decelerate the progression of morbidity in this high-risk group. PMID:19251869

Talbot, Nancy L.; Chapman, Ben; Conwell, Yeates; McCollumn, Kelly; Franus, Nathan; Cotescu, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul R.

2009-01-01

169

Outsider's look at flight instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents ideas and speculations on possible diagnostic instrumentation for use in missile flight testing. A plea is made for increased instrumentation efforts. There is some discussion of telemetry methods.

Lundy, A.S.

1981-01-01

170

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

171

MRI Instrumentation and Pulse Sequences  

E-print Network

1 MRI Instrumentation and Pulse Sequences Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based. Figures are from the textbook except otherwise noted. Yao Wang, NYU-Poly EL5823/BE6203: MRI Instrumentation 2 Lecture Outline · Review of MRI physics and imaging principle · MRI instrumentation ­ Magnet

Suel, Torsten

172

Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

1989-01-01

173

Instrumentation for Deep Ocean Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments for use in the deep ocean must operate under great hydrostatic pressure. The current practice of enclosing instruments in pressure resistant housings may become obsolete since many electronic components have been found to operate satisfactorily even at a pressure of 1000 atmospheres. The instrument system which successfully located and identified the THRESHER hulk contains interesting acoustic, magnetic, and photographic

Chester L. Buchanan

1966-01-01

174

ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

Kaukler, William

2001-01-01

175

Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

1998-01-01

176

Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

177

Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

Hersey, M D

1924-01-01

178

Proposal for research instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary is given of the progress to date using two new laser/multichannel detection systems obtained with DOD-University Research Instrumentation Program funding. Progress has been made in several different areas including: (1) high-speed mapping of gas concentrations in turbulent flows, (2) use of Rayleigh scattering for temperature mapping in turbulent diffusion flames, (3) measurement of the full three-dimensional scalar gradient in a plane, and (4) measurement of multipoint three-component velocities in a large volume. A summary of research in these areas is given along with a description of future studies to be carried out using the equipment acquired under this program.

Long, Marshall B.; Chang, Richard K.; Chu, Boa-Teh

1985-12-01

179

TMT Science and Instruments  

E-print Network

To meet the scientific goals of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project, full diffraction-limited performance is required from the outset and hence the entire observatory is being designed, as a system, to achieve this. The preliminary design phases of the telescope and the first light adaptive optic facility are now approaching completion so that much better predictions of the system performance are possible. The telescope design and instrumentation are summarized in this presentation, with a brief description of some of the scientific programs that are foreseen.

David Crampton; Luc Simard; David Silva

2008-01-23

180

Diamonds for beam instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

Griesmayer, Erich [CIVIDEC Instrumentation GmbH Schottengasse 3A/1/41, A-1010 Vienna (Austria)

2013-04-19

181

Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

Iufer, E. J.

1978-01-01

182

The QUIET Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

2012-01-01

183

An Instrumental Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

1978-01-01

184

Instruments and method of air navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include magnetic and astronavigation instruments; flight beyond ground visibility; aircraft radio navigation instruments and communication radio sets; instrument landing systems; and ground controlled landing systems.

1977-01-01

185

Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 Hypertext Format Academic Research Instruments ... 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 ...

186

Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 Hypertext Format Academic Research Instruments ... 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994

187

Instrumented Architectural Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

1987-01-01

188

Instruments speak global language  

SciTech Connect

If all goes as planned, companies that use instruments for measurement and control will get more complete, reliable and repeatable information about their processes with advanced digital devices that speak a global language. That language, in technical terms, is known as international fieldbus. But it's not much different from English's role as the international language of business. Companies that use a remote measurement device for environmental applications, such as pH control and fugitive emissions control, are candidates for fieldbus devices, which are much faster and measure more process variables than their counterpart analog devices. With the advent of a global fieldbus, users will see digital valves, solenoids and multivariable transmitters. Fieldbus technology redefines the roles of the control system and field devices. The control system still serves as a central clearinghouse, but field devices will handle more control and reporting functions and generate data that can be used for trending and preventive maintenance.

Nudo, L.

1993-07-01

189

Undergraduate instrumental analysis  

SciTech Connect

This book contains: a new chapter on surface analysis that examines ESCA, Auger spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion microprobe mass spectrometry, and depth of sample analyzed - with special attention to equipment, analytical applications, and quantitative analysis; extensive revisions of chapters on electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and plasma emission spectroscopy - covering major instrumental methods of analysis with the latest information and explaining the physical bases, equipment, chief uses, and significant shortcomings of each method; and updating throughout, treating such objects as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared absorption, thermal analysis, x-ray spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, colorimetry, ultraviolet molecular and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and much more - giving a survey of the field for non-chemistry, premed, engineering, environmental science, and chemistry majors alike.

Robinson, J.W.

1987-01-01

190

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

191

Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.  

PubMed

Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

Zigler, S S

2009-08-01

192

Ideology as instrument.  

PubMed

Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

2007-12-01

193

Virtual instrument simulator for CERES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-12-01

194

Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-01-01

195

The instruments of the bonesetter.  

PubMed

Orthopaedic surgeons use a variety of instruments to help correct, treat, and heal bone disease. The development of these instruments mirrors the history of orthopaedic surgery. The history of bonesetting, the treatment and replacement of joints, and of those who performed these techniques, appears to originate deep in antiquity. Changing ideas within medicine and surgery over the last 200 years have shaped the discovery and evolution of orthopaedic instruments and of the bonesetters themselves. Advances have led to the use of computers as instruments in the navigational guidance of arthroplasty surgery, the use of robotics, the development of cordless drills and improvements in the design of blades to cut bone. Yet some of the old instruments remain; plaster of Paris bandages, the Thomas Splint, Liston's bonecutter, Gigli's saw, bone nibblers and Macewan's osteotomes are still in use. This paper presents a historical review of bonesetters and examines how orthopaedic instruments have evolved from antiquity to the 21st century. PMID:21196555

Phillips, S-A; Biant, L C

2011-01-01

196

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

197

Zach's instruments and their characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astronomically interested Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) hired Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) as court astronomer in 1786. Immediatedly Zach started to make plans for instrumentation for a new observatory. But first they travelled with their instruments (a 2-foot Ramsden transit instrument, the Sisson quadrant, three Hadley sextants, two achromatic refractors and chronometers) to southern France. In Hyàres a tower of the wall around the town was converted into an observatory in 1787. For the building of the new observatory Zach had chosen a place outside of Gotha on the top of the Seeberg. The three main instruments were an 8-foot transit instrument made by Ramsden, a northern and southern mural quadrant made by Sisson and a zenith sector made by Cary, in addition an 8-foot circle made by Ramsden. By analysing the whole instrumentation of Gotha observatory, we can see a change around 1800 in the kind of instruments, from quadrants and sextants to the full circles and from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. The decline of the Gotha observatory started with the early death of the Duke in 1804 and the subsequent departure of Zach in 1806.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

198

Status of Instrument Landing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past ten years a large number of instrument landing systems have undergone development and tests and a considerable fund of information has been accumulated concerning the shortcomings and advantages of each. The major airlines of the United States, the Federal Communications Commission, the Bureau of Air Commerce, and the Subcommittee on Instrument Landing Devices of the Radio Technical

W. E. Jackson

1938-01-01

199

Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

Stinson, Stephen

1981-01-01

200

Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a ‘cold temperature surface operational’ version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for

P. E. Clark; P. S. Millar; P. S. Yeh; S. Feng; D. Brigham; B. Beaman

2011-01-01

201

Instrumentation needs for ocean biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development in ocean engineering, particularly in the areas of deep ocean drilling and platform construction, have progressed remarkably in the past few decades. By and large, instrumentation for biological ocean research, in comparison, remains simplistic. A brief review of marine biological sampling devices is provided, indicating the relative inadequacies of marine bio-instrumentation. Equipment for plankton, benthos, and nekton

R. R. COLWELL; PAUL S. TABOR

1978-01-01

202

Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

2011-01-01

203

MISR Instrument Data Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

2008-01-01

204

Current and Nascent SETI Instruments  

E-print Network

Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

2011-01-01

205

Patient and Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Depression in Caregivers of Patients with Dementia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Many patients with dementia who live at home would require nursing home care if they did not have the assistance of family caregivers. However, caregiving sometimes has adverse health consequences for caregivers, including very high rates of depression. The goal of this study was to determine the patient and caregiver characteristics associated with depression among caregivers of patients with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING Five thousand six hundred and twenty-seven patients with moderate to advanced dementia and their primary caregivers upon enrollment in the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration (MADDE) at 8 locations in the United States. MEASUREMENTS Caregiver depression was defined as 6 or more symptoms on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Patient characteristics measured included ethnicity and other demographic characteristics, income, activities of daily living (ADL) function, Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) score, and behavioral problems. Caregiver characteristics measured included demographic characteristics, relationship to the patient, hours spent caregiving, and ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) function. We used ?2 and t tests to measure the bivariate relationships between patient and caregiver predictors and caregiver depression. We used logistic regression to determine the independent predictors of caregiver depression. RESULTS Thirty-two percent of caregivers reported 6 or more symptoms of depression and were classified as depressed. Independent patient predictors of caregiver depression included younger age (odds ratio [OR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 2.76 in patients less than 65 years compared to patients over 85 years), white (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.99) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.69 to 3.70) compared to black ethnicity, education (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.33 for those with less than a high school education), ADL dependence (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.90 for patients dependent in 2 or more ADL compared to patients dependent in no ADL), and behavioral disturbance, particularly angry or aggressive behavior (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.69 for patients with angry or aggressive behavior). Independent caregiver predictors of depression included low income (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.77 for less than $10,000/per year, compared to >$20,000 per year), the relationship to the patient (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.31 to 5.72 for wife, compared to son of male patient), hours spent caregiving (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.38 for 40 to 79 hours/week compared to less than 40 hours/week), and functional dependence (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.01 for ADL dependent compared to IADL independent). CONCLUSION Caregiver depression is a complex process, influenced by ethnicity as well as diverse patient and caregiver characteristics. Efforts to identify and treat caregiver depression will need to be multidisciplinary and focus on multiple risk factors simultaneously. PMID:14687259

Covinsky, Kenneth E; Newcomer, Robert; Fox, Patrick; Wood, Joan; Sands, Laura; Dane, Kyle; Yaffe, Kristine

2003-01-01

206

Solid motor diagnostic instrumentation. [design of self-contained instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of typical surveillance and monitoring practices followed during the flight phases of representative solid-propellant upper stages and apogee motors was conducted to evaluate the need for improved flight diagnostic instrumentation on future spacecraft. The capabilities of the flight instrumentation package were limited to the detection of whether or not the solid motor was the cause of failure and to the identification of probable primary failure modes. Conceptual designs of self-contained flight instrumentation packages capable of meeting these reqirements were generated and their performance, typical cost, and unit characteristics determined. Comparisons of a continuous real time and a thresholded hybrid design were made on the basis of performance, mass, power, cost, and expected life. The results of this analysis substantiated the feasibility of a self-contained independent flight instrumentation module as well as the existence of performance margins by which to exploit growth option applications.

Nakamura, Y.; Arens, W. E.; Wuest, W. S.

1973-01-01

207

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

208

Burried broken extraction instrument fragment  

PubMed Central

Despite adequate effort to perform tooth removal carefully, some accidents may happen when defective instruments are unknowingly used. This article reports of a non-symptomatic case of a retained fractured dental elevator tip during an uneventful extraction a decade earlier. Patient was not aware till routine radiographic examination revealed its presence. Use of three dimensional imaging techniques in this case is highlighted. Rarely, instruments breakage may occur during surgical procedures. It is duty of the dentists to check the surgical instrument for signs of breakage and be prepared to solve a possible emergency. Retained fragments should be carefully studied prior to attempt of removal. PMID:23662269

Balaji, S. M.

2013-01-01

209

Foundations of measurement and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

Warshawsky, Isidore

1990-01-01

210

Instrument detects bacterial life forms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

Plakas, C.

1971-01-01

211

Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

1974-01-01

212

An " Instrumentalism to Realism " Hypothesis  

E-print Network

It is proposed here that all successful and complete theories always proceed through an intermediate stage of instrumentalism to the final stage of realism. Examples from history of science (both classical and modern) in support of this hypothesis are presented.

Afsar Abbas

2005-11-05

213

Instruments and attachments for electronystagmography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable set of instruments and devices was developed which makes it possible to record spontaneous nystagmus with open and closed eyes. Rotational, caloric, position, and pressure nystagmus under any conditions may also be recorded.

Mironenko, Y. T.; Vilenskiy, A. A.

1980-01-01

214

Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry  

PubMed Central

Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

215

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

2011-03-22

216

Acoustic emission, principles and instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a tutorial paper. It first covers the general physical principles encountered in the field of acoustic emission. It then discusses different types of instrumentation and signal analysis techniques used with signal channel acoustic emission tests.

Beattie

1983-01-01

217

Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

1986-01-01

218

ISIS Support for Dawn Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS ISIS system now includes support for the Dawn FC and VIR instruments with ingestion and camera/sensor model software. This provides the scientific community with the means to process Dawn image data into geologic maps.

Becker, K. J.; Anderson, J. A.; Barrett, J. M.; Sides, S. C.; Titus, T. N.

2012-03-01

219

NCL Instrumentation - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory  

Cancer.gov

The mention of trade names and manufacturers is for informational purposes only. The NCL does not endorse any of the suppliers listed below. Equivalent instrumentation from alternate vendors can be substituted.

220

Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

1934-01-01

221

Tailoring Instrumentation to the Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides guidelines in selecting appropriate instrumentation for water treatment facilities. Major areas of concern include: technical operating requirements of the process; equipment design and quality; installations; and mechanical aptitude of personnel. (CS)

Abplanalp, Glen H.; Menzenhauer, Fred C.

1978-01-01

222

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

223

Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments  

PubMed Central

Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the instruments that best suit their particular situations and purposes. PMID:18292706

Samet, Sharon; Waxman, Rachel; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Hasin, Deborah S.

2007-01-01

224

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

225

CARMENES. IV: instrument control software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German- Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols.

Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Morales, Rafael; Abril, Miguel; Galadí-Enríquez, David; Seifert, Walter; Sánchez Carrasco, Miguel A.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Mandel, Holger

2012-09-01

226

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2010-01-01

227

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2011-01-01

228

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2010-01-01

229

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2011-01-01

230

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2010-01-01

231

Course Syllabus Chem 413: Instrumental Lab  

E-print Network

, Holler and Crouch, Principles of Instrumental Analysis Harris, Quantitative Chemical Analysis Course analysis using modern analytical instrumentation. A major component of the course is the formulation and instrumental protocols (written report): 25% Preliminary analysis (written report): 10% Final written report

Wagner, Diane

232

Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

1974-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2013-01-01

234

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2014-01-01

235

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2014-01-01

236

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2012-01-01

237

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2012-01-01

238

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2014-01-01

239

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2013-01-01

240

14 CFR 27.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 27.1381 Section 27.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2014-01-01

241

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

2012-01-01

242

High Data Rate Instrument Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

1999-01-01

243

On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

2007-01-01

244

Evaluation of an eHealth Intervention in Chronic Care for Frail Older People: Why Adherence is the First Target  

PubMed Central

Background Older people suffering from frailty often receive fragmented chronic care from multiple professionals. According to the literature, there is an urgent need for coordination of care. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an online health community (OHC) intervention for older people with frailty aimed at facilitating multidisciplinary communication. Methods The design was a controlled before-after study with 12 months follow-up in 11 family practices in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Participants consisted of frail older people living in the community requiring multidisciplinary (long-term) care. The intervention used was the health and welfare portal (ZWIP): an OHC for frail elderly patients, their informal caregivers and professionals. ZWIP contains a secure messaging system supplemented by a shared electronic health record. Primary outcomes were scores on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL), mental health, and social activity limitations. Results There were 290 patients in the intervention group and 392 in the control group. Of these, 76/290 (26.2%) in the intervention group actively used ZWIP. After 12 months follow-up, we observed no significant improvement on primary patient outcomes. ADL improved in the intervention group with a standardized score of 0.21 (P=.27); IADL improved with 0.50 points, P=.64. Conclusions Only a small percentage of frail elderly people in the study intensively used ZWIP, our newly developed and innovative eHealth tool. The use of this OHC did not significantly improve patient outcomes. This was most likely due to the limited use of the OHC, and a relatively short follow-up time. Increasing actual use of eHealth intervention seems a precondition for large-scale evaluation, and earlier adoption before frailty develops may improve later use and effectiveness of ZWIP. PMID:24966146

Perry, Marieke; Robben, Sarah HM; Schers, Henk J; Heinen, Maud M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM; Melis, René F

2014-01-01

245

Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever had a penchant to check out an ancient flageolet or a historic bass horn, this delightful online collection from the Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection is just the ticket. The project was developed by Professor George Caird and his colleagues at Birmingham City University, and funding for the project was provided by Arts & Humanities Research Council. From the homepage, visitors can browse the catalog of instruments by name or by maker, look over a host of images, and listen to some excellent audio samples of the instruments. The instruments are divided into categories that include "Trombones", "Plucked Strings", "Keyboards", and "Serpents, Ophicleides and Bass Horns". Each instrument is accompanied by information about its place of origin, its maker, its overall size, and numerous photographs. Moving on, the "Audio Resources" area is quite a pip, and visitors can listen to expert musicians playing everything from an 1836 piccolo to a folded coach horn making its way through Mozart's Post Horn Serenade.

246

Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview  

SciTech Connect

The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

1992-10-01

247

FTIR instrumentation for atmospheric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, extensive observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the spectral region from 3.6 - 20 micrometers with resolving powers of 1000 - 4000 have been made, both from the ground and nadir viewing from NASA high altitude aircraft. Two recent field experiments in which both instruments participated are the FIRE II/SPECTRE experiment Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, KS and the STORMFEST experiment Feb. - Mar. 1992 in Seneca, KS. Experience with these instruments has led to instrument designs for advanced sounders on geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. Applications include remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and water vapor for improved weather forecasting, measurement of cloud radiative impact for improvement of global climate modelling, and trace gas retrieval for climate and air pollution monitoring.

Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L.

1993-09-01

248

Vibration specifications for VLT instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO invested enormous effort in developing and commissioning the VLT-Interferometer (VLT-I), a unique facility providing a spatial resolution equivalent to that of a 200m-telescope. Complementary to the regular VLT operations, latterly additional 230 nights per year were scheduled to execute scientific observations with large VLT-I baselines. But to the same degree as the VLT-I performance and stability were improving over the past years, likewise the vibration sensitivity of the optical system was increasing and stricter requirements on mechanical stability were necessary. As a consequence ESO started years ago an extensive program to identify and mitigate potential vibration issues. In the scope of this work, the mechanical vibrations induced by cryo-coolers, widely used in ESO's VLT instrumentation suite, were diagnosed as one of the major disturbance sources. In order to be able to better control their impact, the development of a more significant vibration specification for VLT instruments became essential. In the course of preparing such a specification, we first followed an experimental approach where we installed a dedicated dummy instrument equipped with current ESO standard cryo-coolers in different VLT foci configurations and performed a comprehensive vibration measurement test campaign under real VLT/VLT-I operation conditions. All obtained vibration measurement data were spectral analyzed with respect to the actual VLT-I optical path length difference acceptance levels. This campaign gave valuable information about typical cryo-cooler induced vibration levels and their consequence for VLT-I operations. It also enabled the release if novel conform cryo-cooler instrument design and operation recommendations. This paper describes the applied vibration measurement methodology on the basis of examples, the development and description of the significant VLT instrument vibration specification, and a proposal for a generic verification procedure for standalone instruments or sub-units prior final acceptance.

Jakob, Gerd; Lizon, Jean-Louis

2014-08-01

249

Sample acquisition and instrument deployment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

Boyd, Robert C.

1995-01-01

250

Instruments Sniff Organic Surface Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable instruments detecting both nonvolatile and volatile organic surface contaminants in real time developed. Instruments easy to use: operate under ordinary ambient atmospheric conditions, without need to use messy liquid solvents or install and remove witness plates, and without need to cut specimens from surfaces to be inspected. Principle of detection involves sweeping pure, activated gas across surface spot inspected, then monitoring light emitted at wavelengths characteristic of excited molecules formed by chemical reactions between activated gas and contaminants. Gas activated by dc discharge, radio-frequency induction, microwave radiation, laser beam, hot filaments, or any other suitable means that excites some of gas molecules.

Adler-Golden, Steven; Matthew, Michael W.

1995-01-01

251

Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

Zhang, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

252

[Hardware removal after spinal instrumentation].  

PubMed

Because of the increasing number of patients with surgically treated injuries of the spine we more often have to answer the question of indication for hardware removal. In the cervical spine and after anterior instrumentations of the thoracic and lumbar spine hardware removal is only indicated as part of the management of postoperative complications. After dorsal instrumentation for fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine, implant-associated discomfort is possible. In addition, in non-fusion procedures there is the risk of implant failure. In these cases the hardware should be removed. If the consolidation of the fracture is in doubt, a preoperative CT scan is useful. PMID:22476343

Baron, H C; Ochs, B G; Stuby, F M; Stöckle, U; Badke, A

2012-04-01

253

TCTE Instrument Performance and Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSI Continuity Transfer Experiment (TCTE) instrument is nearly identical to the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) that has been providing high accuracy total solar irradiance measurements from the NASA/SORCE spacecraft since 2003. To maintain continuity in this essential climate data record, for which stability and inter-instrument overlap are critical, the TCTE on the Air Force STP-Sat3 spacecraft is intended to acquire solar irradiance measurements bridging the current aging SORCE mission and the future NOAA/JPSS/TSIS mission. We describe the TCTE measurement requirements, calibration accuracies, operations plans, and post-launch status.

Kopp, G.; Boyle, B.; Heuerman, K.; Pilewskie, P.; Seidel, D.; Swieter, D.; Ucker, G.

2013-12-01

254

Prominence Science with ATST Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is under construction on Maui, HI. With its unprecedented resolution and photon collecting power ATST will be an ideal tool for studying prominences and filaments and their role in producing Coronal Mass Ejections that drive Space Weather. The ATST facility will provide a set of first light instruments that enable imaging and spectroscopy of the dynamic filament and prominence structure at 8 times the resolution of Hinode. Polarimeters allow high precision chromospheric and coronal magnetometry at visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. This paper summarizes the capabilities of the ATST first-light instrumentation with focus on prominence and filament science.

Rimmele, Thomas; Berger, Thomas; Casini, Roberto; Elmore, David; Kuhn, Jeff; Lin, Haosheng; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Wöger, Friedrich

2014-01-01

255

The SOFIA Science Instrument Program: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the science instrument program for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Funded for an initial suite of facility and PI class instruments, the SOFIA instrument development program includes imagers and spectrometers from both U.S. and German development teams. With an emphasis on lessons learned, we review the development of the facility instrument suite. We

S. C. Casey; M. Savage

2004-01-01

256

Instruments for Assessing Substance Abuse: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the assessment literature on substance abuse has revealed 27 separate instruments for assessing substance abuse. These include 22 alcohol instruments and five instruments for assessing other drug abuse. The instruments are listed in a table that provides the title, source, description, population, and psychometric properties of each…

Lambert, Matthew E.; Plescia, Joanne

257

CLIP: Bridging Pipelines to Instrument Control Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO develops in collaboration with the instrument consortia the instrument control software and data processing pipelines for the VLT and VLTI instruments. As astronomical instruments become more complex, there is a growing need for more comprehensive data processing to be performed directly by the instrument control software. The Common Library for Image Processing (CLIP) has been developed as a flexible and scalable framework to provide an interface to pipeline data processing capabilities for the instrument acquisition process. This paper gives an overview of the design of the CLIP and how it copes with the constraints and requirements of the 2nd Generation Instruments at the ESO Very Large Telescope.

Ballester, P.; Biereichel, P.; Kaufer, A.; Kiekebusch, M.; Lorch, H.

2008-08-01

258

Evaluation of functional and mental state and Quality of Life in chronic haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive increase of old patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) with a high mortality and morbidity rate, receiving\\u000a haemodialysis, increases the impact of psychosocial factors on the outcome. Depression is the most prevalent psychological\\u000a problem in patients in haemodialysis and is associated with a high mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the\\u000a functional (ADL, IADL), mental

Karin Janssen van Doorn; Marleen Heylen; Tony Mets; Dirk Verbeelen

2004-01-01

259

Moiré pointer for measurement instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In measurement instruments where measured values are indicated with a mechanical pointer and a graduated scale, the observation precision is increased often by adding an auxiliary mechanical pointer (needle) with a sub graduated scale. The auxiliary pointer moves in synchronization with the main pointer but at a higher speed. A constant velocity ratio between the auxiliary pointer and the main

Emin Gabrielyan

2007-01-01

260

Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

2008-01-01

261

New Advances in Cytometric Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

The growing field of flow cytometry industry continues to produce exciting and innovative developments. Although the CyTOF mass spectrometry flow cytometer is one of the most revolutionary new developments (to be presented in another session), other advances have built upon the original FACS technology. The trends in cytometric instrumentation include smaller, easier to use analyzers and cell sorters, instrumentation capable of detecting multiple fluorescent colors even if their spectra overlap significantly, microfluidic cell sorter, analyzers that use acoustic focusing of cells in flow for potentially better precision of detection, flow cytometers that provide images and image analysis of cells in flow, and cell sorters integrated into biosafety cabinets for biohazardous work. In addition, software development has made possible the automated analysis of complete multiparametric datasets, and software is now available to aid investigators in multi-color reagent selection tailored to their specific instrument capabilities encompassing the majority of reagent and instrument vendors. These systems and their application will be presented, and the utility of these new systems in the flow cytometry core facility will be discussed.

Lopez, Peter

2013-01-01

262

Teaching Audiation in Instrumental Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions for teachers new to Edwin Gordon's music learning theory, describing an incremental approach to audiation-based instrumental music instruction. Discusses teaching methods to introduce audiation, improving students' audiation skills, using tonal patterns to improve intonation, and Gordon's rhythm syllable system. Includes a…

Dalby, Bruce

1999-01-01

263

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

264

Instrumentation for extreme ultraviolet astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design considerations for instruments intended for EUV astronomy from space are discussed. The ability of an optical system to detect and measure the brightness of an object is examined, options available for mirror design in the EUV are summarized, and two telescope configurations selected for flight are noted. A photon-counting detector for optimum performance in the EUV is described.

F. Paresce; S. Bowyer; W. Cash; M. Lampton; R. Malina

1978-01-01

265

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The mission of the UVPI was to obtain radiometrically calibrated images of rocket plumes at high altitude and background image data of

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

266

Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

LoPresto, Michael C.

2003-01-01

267

Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

Traeger, R.K.

1984-05-01

268

Undergrad Lab Emphasizes Instruments, Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One undergraduate chemistry laboratory at the California Institute of Technology is described, including goals of the laboratory curriculum: (1) emphasis on modern instrumental methods of analysis, separation, and characterization; (2) integration of organic/inorganic experiments; and (3) preparing students in two years to begin work in a research…

Baum, Rudy

1982-01-01

269

Lidar instruments proposed for Eos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lidar, an acronym for light detection and ranging, represents a class of instruments that utilize lasers to send probe beams into the atmosphere or onto the surface of the Earth and detect the backscattered return in order to measure properties of the atmosphere or surface. The associated technology has matured to the point where two lidar facilities, Geodynamics Laser Ranging

William B. Grant; Edward V. Browell

1990-01-01

270

Ozone Monitoring Instrument geolocation verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification of the geolocation assigned to individual ground pixels as measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite was performed by comparing geophysical Earth surface details as observed in OMI false color images with the high-resolution continental outline vector map as provided by the Interactive Data Language (IDL) software tool from ITT Visual Information Solutions. The

M. Kroon; M. R. Dobber; R. Dirksen; J. P. Veefkind; P. F. Levelt

2008-01-01

271

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

272

Instrument Landing System Performance Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic scattering model has been developed for predicting Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer and glide slope performance. The model is used to predict course structure degradation resulting from a change in the airport environment. Such changes include the addition of new hangars, terminal buildings and control towers as well as terrain modifications. In addition, the model is used to

G. Chin; L. Jordan; D. Kahn; S. Morin

1975-01-01

273

Historic Scientific Instruments of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalog of historic scientific instruments (around 10,000) is detailed. The author is the curator of the Physical Sciences & Space, National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa, which has a 15-inch Warner & Swasey refractor (1905) and a 7- or 8- inch mirror with Brashear's name on the side (1889).

Brooks, Randall C.

274

Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to…

Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar

2004-01-01

275

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

276

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

Scales, John W., Ed.

277

Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount

Halina Abramowicz; Angel Abusleme; Konstantin Afanaciev; Jonathan Aguilar; Prasoon Ambalathankandy; Philip Bambade; Matthias Bergholz; Ivanka Bozovic-Jelisavcic; Elena Castro; Georgy Chelkov; Cornelia Coca; Witold Daniluk; Angelo Dragone; Laurentiu Dumitru; Konrad Elsener; Igor Emeliantchik; Tomasz Fiutowski; Mikhail Gostkin; Christian Grah; Grzegorz Grzelak; Gunter Haller; Hans Henschel; Alexandr Ignatenko; Marek Idzik; Kazutoshi Ito; Tatjana Jovin; Eryk Kielar; Jerzy Kotula; Zinovi Krumstein; Szymon Kulis; Wolfgang Lange; Wolfgang Lohmann; Aharon Levy; Arkadiusz Moszczynski; Uriel Nauenberg; Olga Novgorodova; Marin Ohlerich; Marius Orlandea; Gleb Oleinik; Krzysztof Oliwa; Alexander Olshevski; Mila Pandurovic; Bogdan Pawlik; Dominik Przyborowski; Yutaro Sato; Iftach Sadeh; Andre Sailer; Ringo Schmidt; Bruce Schumm; Sergey Schuwalow; Ivan Smiljanic; Krzysztof Swientek; Yosuke Takubo; Eliza Teodorescu; Wojciech Wierba; Hitoshi Yamamoto; Leszek Zawiejski; Jinlong Zhang

2010-01-01

278

Demonstration of an instrumented patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration

M. Martinez; G. Renaud; D. Backman; M. Genest; M. Delannoy

2007-01-01

279

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

280

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-07

281

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-01

282

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-06-01

283

Coaxial curved instrumentation for minimal access surgery.  

PubMed

New coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been designed which permit controlled dissection and directional change of the functional tip, blunt dissection and lift retraction. The instruments are introduced into the peritoneal and thoracic cavities through flexible re-usable metal cannulae. The excellent ergonomic properties of the new instruments have been confirmed by their use in major laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operations. Coaxial instruments enhance the scope of minimal access surgery and have distinct advantages over the traditional straight instruments. PMID:8081901

Cuschieri, A; Shimi, S; Banting, S; Van Velpen, G; Dunkley, P

1993-01-01

284

Wastewater treatment plant instrumentation handbook. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Instruments are required for proper operation of wastewater plants. To be of use the instruments must be operable and maintainable. This requires care in the selection, application and installation of instruments and control equipment. Contents of the handbook address the how-to of designing and applying instrumentation and controls for waste treatment operations. Special focus is given to problems, causes and solutions. The handbook covers instruments, valves and pumps commonly used in wastewater plants.

Manross, R.C.

1985-09-01

285

Risk stratification and rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department – a quasi-randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if risk stratification followed by rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department (ED) reduced functional decline, ED reattendance and hospitalisation. Method This was a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomised by the last digit of their national registration identity card (NRIC). Odd number controls received standard ED care; even number patients received geriatric screening, followed by intervention and/or onward referrals. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Results There were 500 and 280 patients in the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had higher Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) scores (34.3% vs 25.4% TRST ?3, p?=?0.01) and lower baseline Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scores (22.84 vs 24.18, p?IADL, the intervention group had significant preservation in function (Basic ADL -0.99 vs -0.24, p?IADL -2.57 vs +0.45, p?

2014-01-01

286

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI): Instrument Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will perform a wide-area galaxy and quasar spectroscopic redshift survey covering 14,000 square degrees of sky out to redshift 3.5 using the redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), emission line galaxies (ELGs) and quasars. The DESI instrument consists of a new wide-field (8 square degree field of view) corrector plus a multi-object spectrometer with 5000 robotically positioned optical fibers and will be installed at prime focus on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. The fibers feed 10 three-arm spectrographs producing spectra that cover a wavelength range from 360-980 nm and have resolution of 2000-5100 increasing with the wavelength. Specific details regarding the design of the DESI instrument will be presented. A special focus will be placed on the design choices that will allow the survey to reach the requirements of a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment.

Poppett, Claire; DESI Collaboration

2015-01-01

287

Energy Transfer in Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers concepts of energy and energy transfer, with a focus on energy transfer in musical instruments. More specifically, students learn the two different ways in which energy can be transferred between a system and its environment. The law of conservation of energy is also described. Example systems are presented (two cars on a track and a tennis ball falling to the ground) and students make predictions and explain the energy transfer mechanisms. The engineering focus becomes clear in the associated activity when students apply the concepts learned in the lesson to design musical instruments. The systems analyzed in the lesson help in discussing how to apply conservation of energy and energy transfer to make things.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

288

Musical Instruments, Models, and Machines.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional musical instrument is an analog computer that integrates equations of motion based on applied boundary conditions. We are approaching a remarkable time when advances in transducers, real-time computing, and mathematical modeling will enable new technology to emulate and generalize the physics of great musical instruments from first principles, helping virtuosic musicians to do more and non-musicians to engage in creative expression. I will discuss the underlying problems, including non-contact sensing and state reconstruction for nonlinear systems, describe exploratory performance collaborations with artists ranging from Yo-Yo Ma to Penn & Teller, and then consider the broader implications of these devices for the interaction between people and machines. Part B of program listing

Gershenfeld, Neil

1996-11-01

289

The USNA MIDN Microdosimeter Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the MIcroDosimetry iNstrument (MIDN) mission now under development at the United States Naval Academy. The instrument is manifested to fly on the MidSTAR-1 spacecraft, which is the second spacecraft to be developed and launched by the Academy s faculty and midshipmen. Launch is scheduled for 1 September 2006 on an ATLAS-5 launch vehicle. MIDN is a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter designed to measure in real time the energy distributions of energy deposited by radiation in microscopic volumes. The MIDN microdosimeter sensor is a reverse-biased silicon p-n junction array in a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration. Microdosimetric frequency distributions as a function of lineal energies determine the radiation quality factors in support of radiation risk estimation to humans.

Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Dolecek, Q.; Heyne, J.; Veade, T.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

2006-01-01

290

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

291

Holy Trinity of Instrumentation Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being user friendly should be the main guidance, beside the self-understood high performance, in today's instrumentation development. Here we identify three components of the user-friendly policy: the all-in-one concept, customization, and connectivity. All-in-one is the concept of unification of various building blocks and thus various functionalities in one product. The customization is enabled by the product's reconfigurability that allows a product to grow and support new requirements and applications without changing hardware. The consequence of the two is the capacity of the single instrument to perform a variety of tasks that before were split among different devices. The last of the three is connectivity that improves the relationship between controls and beam diagnostics, brings out-of-the-crate freedom, and opens unforeseen possibilities for intra-accelerator cooperation and remote technical support.

Urši?, Rok; Šolar, Borut

2004-11-01

292

Health Physics Instrumentation Museum Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This particular online collection from the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (a university consortium that oversees the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) contains over 1000 objects, many of which are on view at this site. The Health Physics Historical Instrumentation Museum Collection has been deemed the official repository for historical radiological instruments by the Health Physics Society, and at its essence, "chronicles the scientific and commercial history of radioactivity and radiation." This online collection is divided into sections that include atomic movie posters, radiation warning signs, radioluminescent items, ionization chambers, and electrometers. One of the more engaging sections details a number of items designed as radioactive quack cures, such as jars for adding radon to water, emanators for adding radon to water, and radium tablets and bath salts.

293

Epithermal neutron instrumentation at ISIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of pulsed neutron sources makes available high epithermal neutron fluxes (in the energy range between 500 meV and 100 eV). New dedicated instrumentation, such as Resonance Detectors, was developed at ISIS spallation neutron source in the last years to apply the specific properties of this kind of neutron beam to the study of condensed matter. New detection strategies like Filter Difference method and Foil Cycling Technique were also developed in parallel to the detector improvement at the VESUVIO beamline. Recently, epithermal neutron beams were also used at the INES beamline to study elemental and isotopic composition of materials, with special application to cultural heritage studies. In this paper we review a series of epithermal neutron instrumentation developed at ISIS, their evolution over time and main results obtained.

Gorini, G.; Festa, G.; Andreani, C.

2014-12-01

294

NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.

1993-08-12

295

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-08-01

296

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-01-01

297

Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

1989-01-01

298

LANDSAT D instrument module study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft instrument module configurations which support an earth resource data gathering mission using a thematic mapper sensor were examined. The differences in size of these two experiments necessitated the development of two different spacecraft configurations. Following the selection of the best-suited configurations, a validation phase of design, analysis and modelling was conducted to verify feasibility. The chosen designs were then used to formulate definition for a systems weight, a cost range for fabrication and interface requirements for the thematic mapper (TM).

1976-01-01

299

Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

Bly, Vince

2007-01-01

300

Biomagnetic susceptometer with SQUID instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of a new SQUID magnetometer for noninvasive measurements of hepatic (liver) iron stores. Placement of the SQUID, detection coil, and magnetie in the dewar vacuum region significantly reduced system noise. In addition, the system incorporates multiple magnets and detection coils which may allow the discrimination of the surface skin layer from the deeper (weaker signal) true liver iron concentration. Measurements indicate an instrumental noise level {lt} 20 {mu}g/g of equivalent iron concentration.

Paulson, D.N.; Fagaly, R.L.; Toussaint, R.M. (Biomagnetic Technologies, Inc., San Diego, CA (US)); Fisher, R. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany))

1991-03-01

301

Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

302

The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp -1).

Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Randall, R. F.; Odem, D. L.; Remington, S. L.; Averkamp, T. F.; Debower, M. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Huff, R. L.; Kirchner, D. L.

1995-01-01

303

Regional Instrumentation Facilities Established by NSF.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the six regional instrumentation facilities established by the National Science Foundation. These centers make available to scientists state-of-the-art instrumentation such as: gas chromatographs; lasers; NMR spectrometers; X-rays; and others. (CS)

Analytical Chemistry, 1979

1979-01-01

304

Use of Electrical and Electronic Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a trend survey of the present and planned use of electrical and electronic instruments. Microprocessors were found to have the highest predicted growth rate of all instruments included in the survey. (SL)

Mosbacher, C. J.; Thomas, E. J.

1977-01-01

305

14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument line...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that...to the unusable fuel supply determined under § 25...for bypassing the fuel supply if malfunction of...

2014-01-01

306

14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument line...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that...to the unusable fuel supply determined under § 25...for bypassing the fuel supply if malfunction of...

2011-01-01

307

14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument line...powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that...to the unusable fuel supply determined under § 25...for bypassing the fuel supply if malfunction of...

2013-01-01

308

Capabilities and Limitations of Geochemical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to understand the capability and limitations of several instruments (AA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS) used for geochemical analysis. Students compare and contrast the cost, detection limits, etc. of these instruments.

Nezat, Carmen

309

Interacting in Instrumented Environments Lucia Terrenghi  

E-print Network

Interacting in Instrumented Environments Lucia Terrenghi University of Munich, Media Informatics with such environments. 2 Direct Manipulation for Instrumented Environments Direct manipulation is the basis. Although talking about direct manipulation, in the desktop environment we mostly need indirect input

310

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL VOC SCREENING INSTRUMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the evaluation of potential fugitive source emission screening instruments for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An initial review of available portable VOC detection instruments indicated that detectors operating on several principles (i.e., fla...

311

Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

1972-01-01

312

Instrumentation and process control for coal conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work has been performed in several areas of coal conversion: updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments, process control analysis, and organization of the symposium on instrumentation and control for coal conversion. A Solids\\/Gas Flow Test Facility (S\\/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work

LeSage

1978-01-01

313

Chemical Instrumentation for the Visually Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple, relatively inexpensive, and easily implemented approach for introducing visually handicapped students to chemical instrumentation via experiments on operational amplifiers as examples of some of the electronic building blocks of chemical instrumentation. The approach is applicable to other chemical instruments having electrical…

Anderson, James L.

1982-01-01

314

Flight inspection of instrument landing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

?This paper aims to familiarize experts from other fields with issues of flight inspection of instrument landing system (ILS) and its assessment contained in the elaborated documentation. At first in chapter I. the standard volumes of the instrument landing system are described, followed by standard profiles flown during the flight inspection in chapter II. Finally, chapter III. describes the instrument

Andrej Novak; Jan Pitor

2011-01-01

315

Animations in an Instrumental Methods Chemistry Class?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an introduction to animations as a tool for teaching instrumental techniques in the instrumental analysis course - why one might wish to use animations, some information on how to go about developing them, and it provides a number of examples of animations for analytical instrumentation. The site should prove a valuable resource to college educators teaching analytical chemistry.

Chasteen, Thomas G.

316

CHEMISTRY 411/511 ADVANCED INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

: Ell 317 e-mail: agbrolo@uvic.ca TEXTBOOK: PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS, 6th edition, by DouglasCHEMISTRY 411/511 ADVANCED INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS SPRING 2014 INSTRUCTOR: Alexandre G. Brolo Office be found in the UVic's 2013/2014 Calendar) This is an advanced course in instrumental analysis and methods

Brolo, Alexandre G.

317

Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch

R. A. Cameron; J. D. Kurfess; W. N. Johnson; R. L. Kinzer; R. A. Kroeger; M. D. Leising; R. J. Murphy; G. H. Share; M. S. Strickman; J. E. Grove

1992-01-01

318

Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate…

Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

319

Selecting, developing, and evaluating research instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to provide researchers who are not experts in psychometric theory with a concise guide to instrument\\u000a selection, development and evaluation. Issues of context – factors related to the setting or population in which an instrument\\u000a will be used – and psychometrics – the functioning of an instrument within a given context – are reviewed

G. E. Switzer; S. R. Wisniewski; S. H. Belle; M. A. Dew; R. Schultz

1999-01-01

320

Performing Animator instrument for live media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the design of Performing Animator, an expressive instrument for live media, we developed in support of our situated interdisciplinary performance practice. The concept of a cinema of braided processes is introduced as a basic structure for media instrument design. This media performance instrument is described in terms of its conceptual, design and performative aspects. The

A. Dulic; K. Newby

2011-01-01

321

Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

322

Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)  

SciTech Connect

Emerging technologies in the field of "Test & Measurement" have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW®, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past.

Vargo, Timothy D.

1999-06-07

323

The AsteroidFinder Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR Institute of Planetary Exploration has proposed a novel design for a space instrument accommodated on a small satellite bus (SSB) that is dedicated to the detection of inner earth objects (IEOs) from a low earth orbit (LEO). The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5m (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1 arcsec (1). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak?90). The instrument design is based on a novel focal plane consisting of four Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EMCCD). These detectors operate at a high frame rate of nominally 5fps and very low effective readout noise (¡2e rms), in order to compensate the spacecraft's pointing jitter. The telescope optics is based on an off-axis anastigmatic design (TMA). A reflective Schmidt-type corrector plate enables a corrected 22 field of view to be achieved by the fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of center obscurations or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, HB-Cesic R was selected as material for the telescope structure and mirrors. This new composite ceramic material is highly promising for space telescope applications. The electronics design comprises high speed signal and data processing chains for on-board acquisition, filtering, accumulation and compression of the CCD data. One of the most important tasks of the on-board processing software is to implement the image stabilization function. For this purpose the images are oversampled, guide stars are automatically identified and tracked, and the individual short-exposure images are shifted and co-added with sub-pixel accuracy. During this process, spurious events as cosmic ray hits or dark spikes are identified and eliminated. Some more detailed instrument design features, as shown in the poster, are described below.

Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Hoffmann, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Messina, Gabriele; Tschentscher, Matthias; Scheibe, Karsten; Solbrig, Michael; Mosebach, Herbert; Hartl, Michael; Lenfert, Kay

324

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

325

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth`s climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-05-01

326

Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

2009-01-01

327

SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) is a contribution to the ENVISAT-1 satellite, which is to be launched in spring 2000. The SCIAMACHY instrument is designed to measure sunlight transmitted, reflected and scattered by the Earth's atmosphere or surface. The instrument measures simultaneously from the UV to the NIB spectral spectral region (240 - 2380 nm). Observations are made in alternate nadir and limb viewing geometries and also for solar sunrise and lunar moonrise occultation. Inversion of the SCIAMACHY measurements will provide the following: the amount and distributions of some important trace gases O(subscript 3), BrO, OClO, ClO, SO(subscript 2), H(subscript 2)CO, NO(subscript 2), CO, CO(subscript 2), CH(subscript 4), H(subscript 2)O, N(subscript 2)O, p, T, aerosol, and radiation flux profiles, cloud cover and cloud top height. Combination of the near simultaneous limb and nadir observations enables the tropospheric column amounts of O(subscript 3), NO(subscript 2), CO, CH(subscript 4), H(subscript 2)O, N(subscript 2)O, SO(subscript 2), and H(subscript 2)CO to be detected. SCIAMACHY will provide new insight into the global behavior of the troposphere and the stratosphere.

Noel, S.; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.; Frerick, Johannes; Chance, Kelly V.; Goede, Albert P.; Muller, C.

1998-12-01

328

The Museum of Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not to be mistaken for or confused with MoMA, the Museum of Musical Instruments (MoMI) is an amazing online tribute to American music and its enduring primary instrument - the guitar. Founded by Hank Risan and Bianca Soros, MoMI features studies and works by some of AmericaâÂÂs greatest musical artists, including Scott Joplin, Woody Guthrie, and Gene Autry, to name only a few. Investigating the history behind the people and their music, the site offers presentations on key periods and movements in American music, among them jazz, ragtime, hip, country, and Spanish serenades. For guitar enthusiasts alone, this site is a gold mine and an education, featuring a running side-bar on the MoMI front page that highlights specific artistâÂÂs guitars, each with a photo and its own tale to tell. Last but not least, the site also showcases elemental figures in the history of American music and its guitar players. Up for the edification of current readers is Bound for Glory: the Life and Times of Woody Guthrie, a multimedia study of the artistâÂÂs lasting legacy.

2000-01-01

329

Climate Observations - The Instrumental Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is given of the available instrumental data for monitoring and analysis of climatic variations. We focus on temperature measurements, both over land and ocean, at the surface and aloft. Over land, the older observations were subject to exposure changes which may not have been fully compensated. The effects of urbanization have been largely avoided in studies of climatic change over the last 150 years. There are few records for pre-1850 outside Europe and eastern North America, and the global network shows a recent decline. Over the ocean, sea surface temperature (SST) has been measured using buckets, engine intakes, hull sensors, buoys, and satellites. Many of these data have been effectively homogenized, but new challenges arise as observing systems evolve. Available SST and marine air temperature datasets begin in the 1850s. The data are concentrated in shipping lanes especially before 1900, and very sparse during the world wars, but additional historical data are being digitized. The radiosonde record is short (~40 years) and has major gaps over the oceans, tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Instrumental heterogeneities are beginning to be assessed and removed using physical and statistical techniques. The MSU record is complete but only began in 1979, and is not highly resolved in the vertical: major biases, mainly affecting the lower-tropospheric retrieval, have been reduced as a result of recent analyses. Advanced interpolation or data-assimilation techniques are being applied to these data, but the results must be interpreted with care.

Parker, D. E.; Basnett, T. A.; Brown, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Horton, E. B.; Rayner, N. A.

2000-11-01

330

PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech offers support of seismic instrumentation, maintenance of equipment, training, and logistical field support for seismology experiments. The website provides thorough explanations of the sensors, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation. Researchers can find a users guide, schedules of the instrumentation, and forms to request the use PASSCAL equipment with the stipulation that the data will be made available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) two years after the field work is completed. Users can learn about the growing number of technological instruments available at the Center due to the support of the Department of Energy.

331

Infrared Instrument for Detecting Hydrogen Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows an instrument incorporating an infrared camera for detecting small hydrogen fires. The instrument has been developed as an improved replacement for prior infrared and ultraviolet instruments used to detect hydrogen fires. The need for this or any such instrument arises because hydrogen fires (e.g., those associated with leaks from tanks, valves, and ducts) pose a great danger, yet they emit so little visible light that they are mostly undetectable by the unaided human eye. The main performance advantage offered by the present instrument over prior hydrogen-fire-detecting instruments lies in its greater ability to avoid false alarms by discriminating against reflected infrared light, including that originating in (1) the Sun, (2) welding torches, and (3) deliberately ignited hydrogen flames (e.g., ullage-burn-off flames) that are nearby but outside the field of view intended to be monitored by the instrument. Like prior such instruments, this instrument is based mostly on the principle of detecting infrared emission above a threshold level. However, in addition, this instrument utilizes information on the spatial distribution of infrared light from a source that it detects. Because the combination of spatial and threshold information about a flame tends to constitute a unique signature that differs from that of reflected infrared light originating in a source not in the field of view, the incidence of false alarms is reduced substantially below that of related prior threshold- based instruments.

Youngquist, Robert; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Immer, Christopher; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Cox, Robert; Taylor, John

2006-01-01

332

Endoscopes integrated into instruments for spinal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimally invasive approaches the visual path to guide instruments becomes constricted. Often one is unable to visualize adequately interaction of the instrument with tissue. We have incorporated 1.2-mm diameter 10,000 pixel fiberoptic endoscopes into instruments for spinal surgery. With these instruments one has a direct view of the instrument's interaction with the surgical anatomy. We have studied a variety of endoscopic instruments including malleable forceps, retractors and punches in over 40 cases of lateral disc herniations, migrated disc fragments and spinal stenosis. The instruments provided excellent visualization of spinal structures. The size and effect of the pathologic process could be readily evaluated, as could neural decompression. Operative times were not significantly increased and there were no complications attributable to the instruments. This preliminary work documents that 'seeing instruments' can be safely used and add to our appreciation of operative anatomy. It is suggested that these instruments may provide more complete decompression through a more limited, less invasive, access. Further study of these instruments may provide better understanding of their overall utility.

Frank, E.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Winn, Shelley R.

2000-06-01

333

Smart instrumentation development at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

For several years Los Alamos has incorporated microprocessors into instruments to expand the capability of portable survey type equipment. Beginning with portable pulse height analyzers, the developments have expanded to small dedicated instruments which handle the measurement and interpretation of various radiation fields. So far, instruments to measure gamma rays, neutrons, and beta particles have been produced. The computer capability built into these instruments provides significant computational power into the instruments. Capability unheard of a few years ago in small portable instruments is routine today. Large computer-based laboratory measurement systems which required much space and electrical power can now be incorporated in a portable hand-held instrument. The microprocessor developments at Los Alamos are now restricted to radiation monitoring equipment but can be expanded to chemical and biological applications as well. Applications for radiation monitoring equipment and others are discussed.

Erkkila, B.

1984-01-01

334

Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

1980-05-01

335

Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments.  

PubMed

As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

Mitzner, Tracy L; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

2014-04-01

336

Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors  

E-print Network

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/P12002

2010-01-01

337

Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, H.; Abusleme, A.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Ambalathankandy, P.; Bambade, P.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dragone, A.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Emeliantchik, I.; Fiutowski, T.; Gostkin, M.; Grah, C.; Grzelak, G.; Haller, G.; Henschel, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Idzik, M.; Ito, K.; Jovin, T.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Krumstein, Z.; Kulis, S.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Levy, A.; Moszczynski, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Novgorodova, O.; Ohlerich, M.; Orlandea, M.; Oleinik, G.; Oliwa, K.; Olshevski, A.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Sato, Y.; Sadeh, I.; Sailer, A.; Schmidt, R.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Swientek, K.; Takubo, Y.; Teodorescu, E.; Wierba, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zhang, J.

2010-12-01

338

Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

2012-01-01

339

MC and A instrumentation catalog  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-06-01

340

Recent Developments in PET Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr3, and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S.

2013-01-01

341

Recent development in PET instrumentation.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr(3), and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

Peng, By Hao; Levin, Craig S

2010-09-01

342

Cerebrospinal Fluid Apolipoprotein E Concentration and Progression of Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

Background/Objective: Apolipoprotein E plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma level alterations have been reported in AD patients. In search of a potential biomarker, which would be predictive of cognitive, functional, or motor decline, we analyzed CSF apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels of AD patients in this regard. Methods: Subjects with newly diagnosed AD enrolled into an observational study were followed up longitudinally. Neuropsychological testing and physical examination were performed annually. In a sub-cohort of patients, where baseline CSF ApoE concentration values were available, multiple regression analyses were used to determine possible associations of CSF ApoE concentration and speed of decline on different cognitive, functional, and motor scales (MMSE, iADL, bADL, GDS, UPDRSIII) adjusting for possible confounders. Results: No association of CSF ApoE levels and speed of decline on the various scales could be established (p = 0.09 to 0.88). Nevertheless, the use of neuroleptic drugs could be linked to higher velocity of global and extrapyramidal deterioration (p = 0.04 and 0.05 for GDS and UPDRSIII, respectively), but not to other outcomes (MMSE, bADL, and iADL). Conclusion: Herein, CSF ApoE at time of AD diagnosis could not be shown to be a viable biomarker for future cognitive, functional, or motor decline. Expectedly, the use of neuroleptic drugs was associated with detrimental effects. PMID:25125466

Schmidt, Christian; Gerlach, Nicole; Peter, Christoph; Gherib, Kerim; Lange, Katharina; Fride, Tim; Zerr, Inga

2014-08-13

343

A comparison of the Barthel index and Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale in the assessment of disability in chronic airflow limitation in old age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: there is no disease-specific instrument for measuring activities of daily living (ADLs) in elderly patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL). We assessed sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of two ADL scales: the Barthel index and the Nottingham extended ADL scale in elderly people with and without CAL. Methods: the Breathing Problems Questionnaire was used as a

ABEBAW M. YOHANNES; JAMAL ROOMI; KAREN WATERS; MARTIN J. CONNOLLY

1998-01-01

344

Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch and in-flight data. These include observing statistics, continuum and line sensitivity, and detector effective area and gain stability.

Cameron, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Leising, M. D.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.

1992-01-01

345

An Instrumentation System Applied to Formation Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a NASA dryden autonomous formation flight program for improved drag reduction of multiple F\\/A-18 aircraft, a new instrument, the formation flight instrumentation system (FFIS), for the precise estimation of the relative position, velocity, and attitude between two moving aircraft without the aid of ground-based instruments, was developed. The FFIS uses a global position system (GPS) receiver and

Walton R. Williamson; Mamoun F. Abdel-Hafez; Ihnseok Rhee; Eun-Jung Song; Jonathan D. Wolfe; David F. Chichka; Jason L. Speyer

2007-01-01

346

Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch and in-flight data. These include observing statistics, continuum and line sensitivity, and detector effective area and gain stability.

Cameron, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Leising, M. D.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.

1992-02-01

347

Demonstration of an instrumented patch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the composite patch. Thermoelastic stress analysis proved to be the most sensitive technique for experimentally monitoring the disbond process in real time. Failure analysis of the specimens using optical microscope techniques was performed to determine the type of failure between the patch and the substrate. The results of this work will serve to test the different types of sensors available for the design and manufacturing of a "Smart Patch" for aircraft structure applications.

Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

2007-04-01

348

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2013-11-21

349

Instrument Series: Spectroscopy and Diffraction XPS Imaging  

E-print Network

of nanoparticles with organic ligands, polymers, and biological films Solar cells based on semiconductors Integration EMSL, a national scientific user facility, provides free instrument access for open- source

350

The Sensors & Instrumentation Knowledge Transfer Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sensors & Instrumentation KTN has established itself as the UK's national network in sensors and instrumentation, developing a community of over 2,250 member organisations. This paper describes the background to Knowledge Transfer Networks (KTNs) and the changes that are happening to KTNs at a national level, before describing the market size, activities and successes of the Sensors & Instrumentation KTN. The paper concludes by describing the merger between the Sensors & Instrumentation KTN and four other KTNs to create a new KTN, with a working title of the Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN.

Cooper, P.

2009-07-01

351

Computational and experimental study of instrumented indentation  

E-print Network

The effect of characteristic length scales, through dimensional and microstructural miniaturizations, on mechanical properties is systematically investigated by recourse to instrumented micro- and/or nanoindentation. This ...

Chollacoop, Nuwong, 1977-

2004-01-01

352

HOST instrumentation R and D program overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HOST Instrumentation R and D program is focused on two categories of instrumentation. One category is that required to characterize the environment imposed on the hot section components of turbine engines. This category includes instruments for measuring gas flow, gas temperature, and heat flux. The second category is that for measuring the effect of the environment on the hot section components. This category includes strain measuring instruments and an optical system for viewing the interior of an operating combustor to detect cracks, buckling, carbon buildup, etc.

Englund, D. R.

1986-01-01

353

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

ScienceCinema

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2014-02-10

354

Instrumentation for negative ion detection.  

PubMed Central

The instrumentation and practical circuitry required for the detection of negative ions exiting the mass analysis section of a mass spectrometer is examined. The potentials needed to bias the electron multiplier when detecting negative ions from a low ion-energy mass spectrometer, e.g., a quadrupole, are contrasted with the biasing requirements of a mass spectrometer having high ion-energies, e.g., a magnetic sector. Methods of decoupling the biasing high voltage on the signal lead of the multiplier in pulse counting measurements are discussed in detail so that normal, ground referenced input, pulse preamplifiers may be used. Easily understood, practical rules for determining the values of circuit components are given together with a simplified theory of transferring pulse signals from multiplier collector to pulse preamplifier. The changes in circuitry needed when attempting to detect ions by current measurement methods from an electron multiplier area detailed. The effects of leakage currents into athe input of the current preamplifier and their avoidance bay using triaxial shielding on vacuum feed-throughs are explained. The article suggests possible methods of decoupling the high voltage referenced input and the ground referenced output of a current measuring preamplifier. PMID:7428750

McKeown, M

1980-01-01

355

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

356

Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

Not Available

2005-09-01

357

Lidar instruments proposed for Eos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar, an acronym for light detection and ranging, represents a class of instruments that utilize lasers to send probe beams into the atmosphere or onto the surface of the Earth and detect the backscattered return in order to measure properties of the atmosphere or surface. The associated technology has matured to the point where two lidar facilities, Geodynamics Laser Ranging System (GLRS), and Laser Atmospheric Wind Sensor (LAWS) were accepted for Phase 2 studies for Eos. A third lidar facility Laser Atmospheric Sounder and Altimeter (LASA), with the lidar experiment EAGLE (Eos Atmospheric Global Lidar Experiment) was proposed for Eos. The generic lidar system has a number of components. They include controlling electronics, laser transmitters, collimating optics, a receiving telescope, spectral filters, detectors, signal chain electronics, and a data system. Lidar systems that measure atmospheric constituents or meteorological parameters record the signal versus time as the beam propagates through the atmosphere. The backscatter arises from molecular (Rayleigh) and aerosol (Mie) scattering, while attenuation arises from molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption. Lidar systems that measure distance to the Earth's surface or retroreflectors in a ranging mode record signals with high temporal resolution over a short time period. The overall characteristics and measurements objectives of the three lidar systems proposed for Eos are given.

Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.

1990-07-01

358

Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

2000-01-01

359

Instrumentation for CTA site characterization  

E-print Network

Many atmospheric and climatic criteria have to be taken into account for the selection of a suitable site for the next generation of imaging air-shower Cherenkov telescopes, the "Cherenkov Telescope Array" CTA. Such data are not available with sufficient precision or the comparability to allow for a comprehensive characterization of the proposed sites to be made. Identical cross-calibrated instruments have been developed which allow for precise comparison between sites, the cross-validation of existing data, and the ground-validation of satellite data. The site characterization work package of the CTA consortium opted to construct and deploy 9 copies of an autonomous multi-purpose weather sensor, incorporating an infrared cloud sensor a newly developed sensor for measuring the light of the night sky, and an All-Sky-Camera, the whole referred to as Autonomous Tool for Measuring Observatory Site COnditions PrEcisely (ATMOSCOPE). We present here the hardware that was combined into the ATMOSCOPE and characterize ...

Fruck, Christian; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Mandát, Dušan; Schweizer, Thomas; Häfner, Dennis; Bulik, Tomasz; Cieslar, Marek; Costantini, Heide; Dominik, Michal; Ebr, Jan; Garczarczyk, Markus; Lorentz, Eckart; Pareschi, Giovanni; Pech, Miroslav; Puerto-Giménez, Irene; Teshima, Masahiro

2015-01-01

360

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

361

LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

Guzman, Felipe

2010-01-01

362

Overview of the instrumentation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

Nieberding, William C.

1989-04-01

363

[Instruments for spinal cord stimulation].  

PubMed

Development of instruments for spinal cord stimulation is remarkable. We can implant two cylinder-type stimulation electrodes in parallel into the spinal epidural space. We call this method for dual-lead SCS. Dual lead-SCS is useful to induce paresthesia over the painful area, and the success rate of pain reduction induced by dual-lead SCS is increasing. For dual-lead stimulation, the RestoreSensor, the EonMini, and the Precision Plus are suitable and useful for the treatment of intractable pain. Based on the results of a drug-challenge test with ketamine, we applied dual-SCS for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Comparing with the results of single-lead SCS, dual-lead SCS has obvious advantages to evoke paresthesia over the painful area, and showed a remarkable effects for pain reduction. Dual-lead SCS combined with low-dose ketamine drip infusion method is useful for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Even if the direct effect of ketamine is transient, effects that provide release from central sensitization and the wind-up phenomenon may be important to increase the effects of dual-lead SCS. Based on the development of dual-lead SCS, SCS therapy has become an important and powerful method for the treatment of intractable pain. PMID:25098136

Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Chikashi; Yoshino, Atsuo

2014-07-01

364

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

365

The JEM-EUSO instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the JEM-EUSO instrument. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) will observe Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. It will detect UV-light of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by UHECRs traversing the Earth's atmosphere. For each event, the detector will determine the energy, arrival direction and the type of the primary particle. The advantage of a space-borne detector resides in the large field of view, using a target volume of about 1012 tons of atmosphere, far greater than what is achievable from ground. Another advantage is a nearly uniform sampling of the whole celestial sphere. The corresponding increase in statistics will help to clarify the origin and sources of UHECRs and characterize the environment traversed during their production and propagation. JEM-EUSO is a 1.1 ton refractor telescope using an optics of 2.5 m diameter Fresnel lenses to focus the UV-light from EAS on a focal surface composed of about 5,000 multi-anode photomultipliers, for a total of ?3?105 channels. A multi-layer parallel architecture handles front-end acquisition, selecting and storing valid triggers. Each processing level filters the events with increasingly complex algorithms using FPGAs and DSPs to reject spurious events and reduce the data rate to a value compatible with downlink constraints.

Casolino, Marco; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor

2014-10-01

366

77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a...With Their Qualified Health Plan and Exchange AGENCY...instruments, and measures for measuring the level...satisfaction with qualified health plans plus the...

2012-06-21

367

Unmanned Instrument Platform for Undersea Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instruments accommodated on moving underwater platform. Towable underwater platform 3.2 meters long, 1.2 meters wide, 1.4 meters high and has mass of about 1,250 kilogram. Platform remotely operated and unmanned. Serves as test bed for development of ocean-measuring instruments and sonars at depths to 20,000 feet.

Paine, G.; Hansen, G. R.; Gulizia, R. W.; Paluzzi, P.

1984-01-01

368

NetQuakes Instrument in Place  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

NetQuakes strong-motion instruments enable seismologists to collect extensive data in urban areas where installing traditional seismographs is not practical.  This instrument (in blue, to the right of the upended chairs) takes up very little space in a San Francisco Bay Area resident's garage...

369

General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report includes specifications for the use and production of instruments used in the navigation and operation of aircraft. Specifications are included for the following instruments: barometer or altimeter, compass, air speed meter, inclinometer, drift meter, tachometer, oil gauge, oil pressure gauge, gasoline gauge, gasoline flow indicator, distance indicator, barograph, angle of attack indicator, radiator temperature indicator, gasoline feed system pressure indicator, sextant, airplane director.

1917-01-01

370

A laser tracking dynamic robot metrology instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research work over several years has resulted in the development of a laser tracking instrument capable of dynamic 3-D measurements of robot end-effector trajectories. The instrument characteristics and experiments to measure the static and dynamic performance of a robot in an industrial manufacturing environment are described. The use of this technology for space applications is examined.

Parker, G. A.; Mayer, J. R. R.

1989-01-01

371

Instrument Achievement Goal for Chinese Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

What kind of achievement goals do Chinese students choose and pursue? The current study demonstrated a culture-specific achievement goal, i.e., instrument goal, and investigated its relationship with learning strategy and academic achievement. 536 students from a middle school in northeast China participated in the current investigation. The findings provided a further support that instrument goal could be seen as a

Chang-Jiang Liu; Xiao-Ping Sun; Li-Yan Guo; Bao-Cai Han

2008-01-01

372

An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

Cohen-Zada, D.

2009-01-01

373

Achievement goals, learning strategies and instrumental performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers to support students in order

Siw Graabraek Nielsen

2008-01-01

374

An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

Hawkins, Jerald D.

1983-01-01

375

VELA: A Microprocessor-Based Laboratory Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a general description of a preprogramed, microprocessor-based laboratory instrument, discussing its use in monitoring: (1) environmental changes; (2) distribution of count rates from a radioactive source, and (3) motion on an air tract. Includes list of the instrument's various capabilities: frequency meter, voltmeter, interval timer, and…

Lambert, Andrew

1983-01-01

376

Instrument myopia conceptions, misconceptions, and influencing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on instrument myopia is reviewed, with the review organized around three principal objectives. One is to describe and discuss various factors that may influence the degree to which instrument myopia is manifested, including monocular vs. binocular viewing, age, direction of focus, illumination level, fatigue, magnification, astigmatic variations, optical decentration, perceived proximity of the target and peripheral surround, and

M. F. Wesner; R. J. Miller

1986-01-01

377

Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

Peletier, D. P.

1973-01-01

378

Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments  

Cancer.gov

Welcome to the Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments. Unlike food records and 24-hour dietary recalls that aim to capture the total diet, short instruments assess limited aspects of the diet and are thus less burdensome for respondents and researchers.

379

Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

1994-09-01

380

An Instructional Instrument for Increasing Alcohol Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a general introduction to the alcohol drug problem. A field-tested instrument of 20 true-false items is provided which reflects on the nature, effects, variables, and consequences of alcohol and its use. The instrument was tested on 200 students and utilized on a statewide PBS television special. (Author)

Buckalew, L. W.

1980-01-01

381

Alcohol-Screening Instruments for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to new studies, even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can negatively affect the developing fetus, thereby increasing the importance of identifying women who drink during pregnancy. In response, researchers have developed several simple alcohol-screening instruments for use with pregnant women. These instruments, which can be administered quickly and easily, have been evaluated and found to be effective. Because

Grace Chang

382

Instrumentation remote control through internet with PHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a set of PHP based tools created to develop applications for instrumentation remote control through Web browsers. These tools include a PHP module for GPIB (general purpose interface bus) control in a Win32 platform and a set of PHP classes that make easier the creation of GUIs in Web browsers for instrument control and data visualization. The

João Santos; José Mendonça; João C. Martins

2008-01-01

383

Accenture Life Sciences Advanced Instruments, Inc.  

E-print Network

3M Accenture Life Sciences Advanced Instruments, Inc. AltraBio Altran Applied Medical Resources Ar. Decision Resources DEKA Research and Development Corporation DePuy Spine, Inc. DocBox, Inc. Draeger Medical University, Mankato National Instruments Navinet Neuroptix Corporation NuOrtho Surgical, Inc. Optasia Medical

Vajda, Sandor

384

Advanced Instruments, Inc. Applied Medical Resources  

E-print Network

3M Advanced Instruments, Inc. AltraBio Altran Applied Medical Resources ArQule, Inc. Atrium Medical Cynosure Davol - C.R. Bard, Inc. Decision Resources DEKA Research and Development Corporation DePuy Spine Medtronic, Inc. METI Minnesota State University, Mankato National Instruments Neuroptix Corporation Nu

Vajda, Sandor

385

Accenture Life Sciences Advanced Instruments, Inc.  

E-print Network

3M Accenture Life Sciences Advanced Instruments, Inc. AltraBio Altran Applied Medical Resources Ar Resources DEKA Research and Development Corporation DePuy Spine, Inc. DocBox, Inc. Draeger Medical Systems Institute of Technology Medtronic, Inc. METI Minnesota State University, Mankato National Instruments

Vajda, Sandor

386

PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

387

Instrument For Simulation Of Piezoelectric Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic instrument designed to simulate dynamic output of integrated-circuit piezoelectric acceleration or pressure transducer. Operates in conjunction with external signal-conditioning circuit, generating square-wave signal of known amplitude for use in calibrating signal-conditioning circuit. Instrument also useful as special-purpose square-wave generator in other applications.

Mcnichol, Randal S.

1996-01-01

388

Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2011-03-29

389

BIT: A Tool for Instrumenting Java Bytecodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIT (Bytecode Instrumenting Tool) is a collection of Java classes that allow one to build customized tools to instrument Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecodes. Because understanding program behavior is an essential part of developing effective optimization algorithms, researchers and software developers have built numerous tools that carry out program analysis. Although there are existing tools that analyze and modify executables

Han Bok Lee; Benjamin G. Zorn

1997-01-01

390

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300 - 2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300 - 500 nm, 500 - 1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (160 spectral channels, 70 - 150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a

Patricia M. Beauchamp; Robert H. Brown; Carl F. Bruce; Gun-Shing Chen; Michael P. Chrisp; George A. Fraschetti; Timothy N. Krabach; Stanley W. Petrick; David H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; Stanley L. Soll; Arthur H. Vaughan; Laurance A. Soderblom; Bill R. Sandel; Roger V. Yelle

1994-01-01

391

Adaptive Instruments for Students with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main adaptations that will be made for music students with physical disabilities are those that make the classroom accessible and those that make classroom instruments accessible. There are a number of principles to guide one when selecting instruments for students with physical disabilities. These principles can assist one in determining the…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2012-01-01

392

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

393

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

394

Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

Boyd, W. G.

1967-01-01

395

[What's new in instrumental dermatology?].  

PubMed

This "What's new in instrumental dermatology" focuses on cutaneous oncologic surgery, base on a review of the 2012-2014 literature. First, the ability of dermatologists to make a good "oncologic reading of tumors" is the key of radical surgical treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the biopsy are discussed. Then, the second message is the management of anticoagulants, that should not be interrupted for skin surgery. Despite recommendations, this practice is not followed in 40% of cases; this point is critical because bleeding complications are minor compared to potential morbidity of thrombotic events when stopping these medications. Regarding infection, nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is identified as a risk factor for wound infection. A preoperative shower with chlorhexidine and mupirocin topical decolonization of nostril reduces this risk. Surgical techniques are trying to reach minimalism, by reducing undermining and scarring. On the trunk, using deep slow resorbable sutures improve scarring. In addition using adhesive sutures (strip) reduce the wideness of scar. On the face, the lower third of the nose is the most challenging because of the free edges, which are deformable. In this location bilobed or trilobed transposition flap offer the advantage of remaining in the nasal aesthetic unit and not disturbing the free edges of the nasal orifices. Regarding scarring, early hypertrophic scar is now well defined and linked with transposition flaps of the nasal region. An early treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection appears to be effective. Finally, the biological mechanism of the effectiveness of compression in the prevention and treatment of dystrophic scar is now clear. The mechanotransduction explain how a mechanical stress of the skin activates biological cell pathways, which regulate the quality of collagen synthesis and the arrangement of skin fibrosis. PMID:25539752

Amici, J-M

2014-12-01

396

ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SAFETY Many labs use intricate analytical instrumentation to perform parts of their  

E-print Network

ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SAFETY Many labs use intricate analytical instrumentation to perform parts system when working in the lab to ensure your safety should an accident occur. #12; of their experiments. Although each type of instrument will have its own specific safety information, there are some

Slatton, Clint

397

Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

2001-01-01

398

Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

2012-01-01

399

Intonation and Compensation of Fretted String Instruments  

E-print Network

In this paper we present mathematical models and we analyze the physics related to the problem of intonation of musical instruments such as guitars, mandolins and similar, i.e., we study how to produce perfectly in tune notes on these instruments. This analysis begins with the correct fret placement on the instrument fingerboard, following precise mathematical laws, but then it becomes increasingly complicated due to the geometrical deformation of the strings when these instruments are played, and also due to the inharmonic characteristics of the same strings. As a consequence of these factors, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument can never be achieved, but complex compensation procedures are introduced and studied to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these compensation procedures, we have performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other basic acoustical devices, which confirm the correctness of our theoretical models. In particular, these experimenta...

Varieschi, Gabriele U

2009-01-01

400

The nonlinear physics of musical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Musical instruments are often thought of as linear harmonic systems, and a first-order description of their operation can indeed be given on this basis, once we recognise a few inharmonic exceptions such as drums and bells. A closer examination, however, shows that the reality is very different from this. Sustained-tone instruments, such as violins, flutes and trumpets, have resonators that are only approximately harmonic, and their operation and harmonic sound spectrum both rely upon the extreme nonlinearity of their driving mechanisms. Such instruments might be described as `essentially nonlinear'. In impulsively excited instruments, such as pianos, guitars, gongs and cymbals, however, the nonlinearity is `incidental', although it may produce striking aural results, including transitions to chaotic behaviour. This paper reviews the basic physics of a wide variety of musical instruments and investigates the role of nonlinearity in their operation.

Fletcher, N. H.

1999-05-01

401

Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes, and thus validates, complex command scripts prior to their up-linking to the SAM instrument. As an output, this module generates synthetic data and message logs at a rate that is similar to the actual instrument.

Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

2013-01-01

402

Endodontic instruments after torsional failure: nanoindentation test.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate effects of torsional loading on the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments using the nanoindentation technique. ProFile (PF; size 30, taper 04; Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) and stainless steel (SS; size 30, taper 02; Mani, Japan) instruments were subjected to torsional test. Nanoindentation was then performed adjacent to the edge of fracture (edge) and at the cutting part beside the shank (shank). Hardness and elastic modulus were measured under 100-mN force on 100 locations at each region, and compared to those obtained from the same regions on new instruments. It showed that PF and SS instruments failed at 559?±?67 and 596?±?73 rotation degrees and mean maximum torque of 0.90?±?0.07 and 0.99?±?0.05?N-cm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus ranged 4.8-6.7 and 118-339?GPa in SS, and 2.7-3.2 and 52-81?GPa in PF. Significant differences between torsion-fractured and new instruments in hardness and elastic modulus were detected in the SS system used. While in PF system, the edge region after torsional fracture had significantly lower hardness and elastic modulus compared to new instruments. The local hardness and modulus of elasticity of endodontic instruments adjacent to the fracture edge are significantly reduced by torsional loading. PMID:24610598

Jamleh, Ahmed; Sadr, Alireza; Nomura, Naoyuki; Ebihara, Arata; Yahata, Yoshio; Hanawa, Takao; Tagami, Junji; Suda, Hideaki

2014-01-01

403

Design and performance of the SPIDER instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the design and performance of the SPIDER instrument. SPIDER is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background polarization imager that will map part of the sky at 90, 145, and 280 GHz with subdegree resolution and high sensitivity. This paper discusses the general design principles of the instrument inserts, mechanical structures, optics, focal plane architecture, thermal architecture, and magnetic shielding of the TES sensors and SQUID multiplexer. We also describe the optical, noise, and magnetic shielding performance of the 145 GHz prototype instrument insert.

Runyan, M. C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Dore, O.; O'Dea, D.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L.; Gandilo, N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hasselfield, M.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Morford, T. A.; Montroy, T. E.; Netterfield, C. B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schenker, M. A.; Shariff, J.; Soler, J. D.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, R. S.; Tucker, C. E.; Turner, A.

2010-07-01

404

FPGA based control system for space instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prototype for a general purpose FPGA based control system for space instrumentation is presented, with particular attention to the instrument control application software. The system HW is based on the LEON3FT processor, which gives the flexibility to configure the chip with only the necessary HW functionalities, from simple logic up to small dedicated processors. The instrument control SW is developed in ANSI C and for time critical (<10?s) commanding sequences implements an internal instructions sequencer, triggered via an interrupt service routine based on a HW high priority interrupt.

Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Cerulli Irelli, Pasquale; Nuzzolo, Francesco; Orfei, Renato; Spinoglio, Luigi; Liu, Giovanni S.; Saraceno, Paolo

2008-07-01

405

The Mars Exploration Rover Instrument Positioning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface operations, the scientific data gathered by the in situ instrument suite has been invaluable with respect to the discovery of a significant water history at Meridiani Planum and the hint of water processes at work in Gusev Crater. Specifically, the ability to perform precision manipulation from a mobile platform (i.e., mobile manipulation) has been a critical part of the successful operation of Spirit and Opportunity rovers. As such, this paper describes the MER Instrument Positioning System that allows the in situ instruments to operate and collect their important science data using a robust, dexterous robotic arm combined with visual target selection and autonomous software functions.

Baumgartner, Eric T.; Bonitz, Robert G.; Shiraishi, Lori R.; Melko, Joseph P.; Leger, P. Chris

2005-01-01

406

The RHESSI Spacecraft Instrument Data Processing Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ramaty High-Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft is a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) class mission. RHESSI is designed to image solar X-rays and gamma rays with high-energy resolution. The Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU) serves as the central RHESSI instrument on-board data-processing element. It controls and monitors the instrument operations, and provides a flexible telemetry collection and formatting system. The system responds autonomously to optimize science data collection over a wide dynamic range of conditions, handling up to 40 Mbps of telemetry during solar flares. This paper presents an overview of the IDPU hardware and software design.

Curtis, D. W.; Berg, P.; Gordon, D.; Harvey, P. R.; Smith, D. M.; Zehnder, A.

2002-11-01

407

Polarization Modeling of the MODIS Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunlight reflected from the earth is, to a certain extent, polarized. Radiometers, such as the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA spacecraft, are to a certain extent polarizers. Accurate radiometric measurements must take into account both the polarization state of the scene and the polarization sensitivity of the measuring instrument. The measured polarization characteristics of the MODIS instruments are contained in various radiometric models. Continued use of these radiometric math models, over a number of years, have shown where these models can be improved. The current MODIS polarization modeling effort is discussed in the context and limitations of past modeling efforts.

Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esaias, Wayne E.; Voss, Kenneth; Souaidia, Nordine; Pellicori, Samuel; Moyer, David; Guenther, Bruce; Barnes, William

2004-01-01

408

Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using support from NASA Grant No. NAG 2-963, SRI International successfully completed the project, entitled, 'Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation.' This effort (SRI Project 7383) covered the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a real-time aerosol speciation instrument in NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Spring 1996 SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission. This final technical report describes the pertinent details of the instrument design, its abilities, its deployment during SUCCESS and the data acquired from the mission, and the post-mission calibration, data reduction, and analysis.

Coggiola, Michael J.

1998-01-01

409

Gotha - the instruments of the observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. Looking to the newer equipment we recognize a general trend: The English instrument makers did no longer play an important role after the beginning of the 19th century and in contrast the German instrument makers becoming prominent. In the 19th century the Gotha observatory acquired new instruments: A theodolit made by Reichenbach, Utzschneider & Liebherr, München [DM 67757 a, b]; a heliometer made by Fraunhofer, München, 1817 / in the 1850s: new mounting made by Ausfeld; a 3-ft meridian circle made by Ertel, ``Utzschneider & Fraunhofer'', München, 1826/30 [DM 67744 a, b]. For the new observatory in the town (after 1857)3: a 162-cm equatorial refractor made by Repsold, Hamburg, 1860 [Gotha]; a 90-cm transit instrument made by C. Bamberg, Berlin, 1912 [Jena]. The only astrophysical equipment of the Gotha observatory was a Zöllner photometer made by Ausfeld, Gotha. Nothing for spectroscopy and photography could be found; this can not be only a problem of too less money. The astronomers were very much interested in astrometric topics, and for this purpose they got also new expensive clocks like Tiede and Riefler. In 1934 German astronomers had no success in preventing the closing of Gotha observatory. Most of the instruments went to the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

410

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

411

Instruments and Players: Some Thoughts on Digital Lutherie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musical instruments are used to play and to produce music, transforming the actions of one or more performers into sound. This article explores some instrument design issues, structured into three distinct parts. The first section attempts to define what musical instruments are, how traditional instruments function and what they can do, and what future instruments could be, trying to figure

Sergi Jordà

2004-01-01

412

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

JC Liljegren

2007-02-01

413

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-01-01

414

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-07-01

415

Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

Ellse, Mark

1986-01-01

416

14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the assumed aircraft installation, then the applicant...instrumentation in the engine installation instructions and declare it mandatory in the engine approval documentation...possibility and subsequent effect of incorrect fit...

2010-01-01

417

NASA-Langley helicopter tower instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information is presented for the helicopter rotor test facility, in preface to a more detailed discussion of major subsystems equipment, including error considerations, frequency response, and display instrumentation.

Stoffel, S. W.

1974-01-01

418

Management approach for Earth Venture instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

2013-09-01

419

Patient Matched Instruments and Total Knee System  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Smith & Nephew Technologies: VISIONAIRE™ Patient Matched Instruments and LEGION™ Total Knee System You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal ...

420

18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...satisfactory to the Regional Engineer and may include, for example, instruments to monitor movement of joints, foundation or embankment deformation, seismic effects, hydrostatic pore pressures, structural cracking, or internal stresses on the...

2010-04-01

421

14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...instruments required by aircraft airworthiness regulations...in presenting the safety analysis, or complying...mandatory in the assumed aircraft installation, then...As part of the System Safety Assessment of §...

2011-01-01

422

14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instruments required by aircraft airworthiness regulations...in presenting the safety analysis, or complying...mandatory in the assumed aircraft installation, then...As part of the System Safety Assessment of §...

2013-01-01

423

14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...instruments required by aircraft airworthiness regulations...in presenting the safety analysis, or complying...mandatory in the assumed aircraft installation, then...As part of the System Safety Assessment of §...

2014-01-01

424

14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instruments required by aircraft airworthiness regulations...in presenting the safety analysis, or complying...mandatory in the assumed aircraft installation, then...As part of the System Safety Assessment of §...

2012-01-01

425

Canadian Science Instruments for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes a series of science instruments built by MDA together with other Canadian companies, ranging from sensors for navigation and workspace characterization, to chemical analysis, to subsurface and atmospheric investigations.

Dietrich, P.; Angelopoulos, M.; Annan, P.; Cottin, P.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Doucet, M.; Gellert, R.; Hiemstra, D.; Nimelman, M.; Osinski, G. R.; Pollard, W. H.; Redman, D.; Tripp, J. W.; Whiteway, J. A.

2012-10-01

426

21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

2011-04-01

428

Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

2013-01-01

429

21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

2014-04-01

430

21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

2013-04-01

431

21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

2012-04-01

432

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indicator to indicate the proper functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components. (d) For turbojet engine powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this...

2010-01-01

433

14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indicating means to indicate the functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components. (d) For turbojet/turbofan engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and...

2010-01-01

434

Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions  

SciTech Connect

We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-09-15

435

NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

436

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOEpatents

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14

437

Instrument and Source Division Ron Crone, Director  

E-print Network

. Wendel, Lead M. Dayton K. Gawne J. Janney D. McClintock S. Parson M. Phillips M. Rennich (Vacant Abercrombie Project Management/ Operations Analysis Barbara Thibadeau HFIR Instrument Operations Gary Lynn G

Pennycook, Steve

438

Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

2014-01-01

439

Training manual on optical alignment instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training Manual RQA/M5 provides a basic course of instruction in the use of optical instruments for precise dimensional control and alignment of structural elements and assemblies, such as associated with space vehicles, aircraft, ships, and buildings.

1968-01-01

440

An instrument thermal data base system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rationale for the implementation of an Instrument Thermal Data Base System (ITDBS) is discussed and the potential application of a data base management system in support of future space missions, the design of scientific instruments needed, and the potential payload groupings is described. Two basic data files are suggested, the first containing a detailed narrative information list pertaining to design configurations and optimum performance of each instrument, and the second consisting of a description of the parameters pertinent to the instruments' thermal control and design in the form of a summary record of coded information, and serving as a recall record. The applicability of a data request sheet for preliminary planning is described and is concluded that the proposed system may additionally prove to be a method of inventory control.

Bartoszek, J. T.; Csigi, K. I.; Ollendorf, S.; Oberright, J. E.

1981-06-01

441

Rational Analyses, Instrumentalism, and Implementations David Danks  

E-print Network

Rational Analyses, Instrumentalism, and Implementations David Danks Department of Philosophy. Oaksford, (Eds.), The probabilistic mind: Prospects for rational models of cognition. Oxford: Oxford for Rational Models of Cognition" workshop held at the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit (University

Andrews, Peter B.

442

Assessment of bilateral asymmetry in cycling using a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals.  

PubMed

The accuracy of commercial instrumented crank systems for symmetry assessment in cycling has not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors' aims were to compare peak crank torque between a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals and to assess the effect of power output on bilateral asymmetries during cycling. Ten competitive cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Forces and pedal angles were recorded using right and left instrumented pedals synchronized with crank-torque measurements using an instrumented crank system. Differences in right (dominant) and left (nondominant) peak torque and asymmetry index were assessed using effect sizes. In the 100- to 250-W power-output range, the instrumented pedal system recorded larger peak torque (dominant 55-122%, nondominant 23-99%) than the instrumented crank system. There was an increase in differences between dominant and nondominant crank torque as power output increased using the instrumented crank system (7% to 33%) and the instrumented pedals (9% to 66%). Lower-limb asymmetries in peak torque increased at higher power-output levels in favor of the dominant leg. Limitations in design of the instrumented crank system may preclude the use of this system to assess peak crank-torque symmetry. PMID:24509507

Bini, Rodrigo R; Hume, Patria A

2014-09-01

443

Reducing Robotic Prostatectomy Costs by Minimizing Instrumentation.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction and Objective: Since the introduction of robotic surgery for radical prostatectomy, the cost-benefit of this technology has been under scrutiny. While robotic surgery professes to offer multiple advantages, including reduced blood loss, reduced length of stay, and expedient recovery, the associated costs tend to be significantly higher, secondary to the fixed cost of the robot as well as the variable costs associated with instrumentation. This study provides a simple framework for the careful consideration of costs during the selection of equipment and materials. Materials and Methods: Two experienced robotic surgeons at our institution as well as several at other institutions were queried about their preferred instrument usage for robot-assisted prostatectomy. Costs of instruments and materials were obtained and clustered by type and price. A minimal set of instruments was identified and compared against alternative instrumentation. A retrospective review of 125 patients who underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for prostate cancer at our institution was performed to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), operative times, and intraoperative complications for both surgeons. Our surgeons now conceptualize instrument costs as proportional changes to the cost of the baseline minimal combination. Results: Robotic costs at our institution were reduced by eliminating an energy source like the Ligasure or vessel sealer, exploiting instrument versatility, and utilizing inexpensive tools such as Hem-o-lok clips. Such modifications reduced surgeon 1's cost of instrumentation to ?40% less compared with surgeon 2 and up to 32% less than instrumentation used by surgeons at other institutions. Surgeon 1's combination may not be optimal for all robotic surgeons; however, it establishes a minimally viable toolbox for our institution through a rudimentary cost analysis. A similar analysis may aid others in better conceptualizing long-term costs not as nominal, often unwieldy prices, but as percent changes in spending. With regard to intraoperative outcomes, the use of a minimally viable toolbox did not result in increased EBL, operative time, or intraoperative complications. Conclusion: Simple changes to surgeon preference and creative utilization of instruments can eliminate 40% of costs incurred on robotic instruments alone. Moreover, EBL, operative times, and intraoperative complications are not compromised as a result of cost reduction. Our process of identifying such improvements is straightforward and may be replicated by other robotic surgeons. Further prospective multicenter trials should be initiated to assess other methods of cost reduction. PMID:25333511

Delto, Joan C; Wayne, George; Yanes, Rafael; Nieder, Alan M; Bhandari, Akshay

2014-10-21

444

Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a review and discussion of eight self-report measures used to assess for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Because postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem, there is a need for reliable and valid screening instruments. Published psychometric data (e.g., reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, concurrent validity) of each self-report instrument are presented and

R. C. Boyd; H. N. Le; R. Somberg

2005-01-01

445

Smart Focal Plane Technologies for VLT Instruments  

E-print Network

As we move towards the era of ELTs, it is timely to think about the future role of the 8-m class telescopes. Under the OPTICON programme, novel technologies have been developed that are intended for use in multi-object and integral-field spectrographs. To date, these have been targeted at instrument concepts for the European ELT, but there are also significant possibilities for their inclusion in new VLT instruments, ensuring the continued success and productivity of these unique telescopes.

Colin Cunningham; Chris Evans

2008-01-19

446

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

1995-01-01

447

Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and a set of broadband transducers for typical use at 1, 2, 5 and 10 MHz. The system provides for its own calibration, and on the oscilloscope, presents a quantitative (digital) indication of time base and sensitivity scale factors and some measurement data.

Lynnworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

1972-01-01

448

Solar oscillations instrumentation and measurement theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-oscillation instruments are reviewed. Common characteristics include detecting solar radial velocities on Fraunhofer lines with a 2-point measuring technique, high spectral resolution and stability, etc. The choice of the spectral line for getting a high signal to solar noise ratio is addressed. Velocity imaging of solar oscillations modes is detailed, including spatial sampling and span, highest observable degree. Applications of these different analyses is applied to existing or future helioseismology instruments.

Appourchaux, T.

1988-01-01

449

Temporal integration and instrumental conditioned reinforcement.  

PubMed

Stimuli associated with primary reinforcement for instrumental behavior are widely believed to acquire the capacity to function as conditioned reinforcers via Pavlovian conditioning. Some Pavlovian conditioning studies suggest that animals learn the important temporal relations between stimuli and integrate such temporal information over separate experiences to form a temporal map. The present experiment examined whether Pavlovian conditioning can establish a positive instrumental conditioned reinforcer through such temporal integration. Two groups of rats received either delay or trace appetitive conditioning in which a neutral stimulus predicted response-independent food deliveries (CS1?US). Both groups then experienced one session of backward second-order conditioning of the training CS1 and a novel CS2 (CS1-CS2 pairing). Finally, the ability of CS2 to function as a conditioned reinforcer for a new instrumental response (leverpressing) was assessed. Consistent with the previous demonstrations of temporal integration in fear conditioning, a CS2 previously trained in a trace-conditioning protocol served as a better instrumental conditioned reinforcer after backward second-order conditioning than did a CS2 previously trained in a delay protocol. These results suggest that an instrumental conditioned reinforcer can be established via temporal integration and raise challenges for existing quantitative accounts of instrumental conditioned reinforcement. PMID:24879632

Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

2014-09-01

450

Cooled scientific instrument assembly onboard SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a 3.2m cooled (below 6K) telescope mission which covers mid- and far-IR waveband with unprecedented sensitivity. An overview of recent design updates of the Scientific Instrument Assembly (SIA), composed of the telescope assembly and the instrument optical bench equipped with Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs) are presented. The FPI international science and engineering review is on-going to determine the FPI suite onboard SPICA: at present the mandatory instruments and functions to perform the unique science objectives of the SPICA mission are now consolidated. The final decision on the composition of the FPI suite is expected in early 2013. Through the activities in the current pre-project phase, several key technical issues which impact directly on the instruments’ performances and the science requirements and the observing efficiency have been identified, and extensive works are underway both at instrument and spacecraft level to resolve these issues and to enable the confirmation of the SPICA FPI suite.

Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kawada, M.; Sugita, H.; Yamawaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, Y.; Crone, G.; Isaak, K.; Heske, A.

2012-09-01

451

21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section 886...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device...

2010-04-01

452

76 FR 38608 - Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory Committee;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory...Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory...level of export controls applicable to sensors and instrumentation equipment and...

2011-07-01

453

45 CFR 63.32 - Data collection instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this part may involve the use of data collection instruments which...grantee which proposes to use a data collection instrument shall set forth in the grant application...will not be required to submit data-collection instruments...

2013-10-01

454

45 CFR 63.32 - Data collection instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this part may involve the use of data collection instruments which...grantee which proposes to use a data collection instrument shall set forth in the grant application...will not be required to submit data-collection instruments...

2011-10-01

455

45 CFR 63.32 - Data collection instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...this part may involve the use of data collection instruments which...grantee which proposes to use a data collection instrument shall set forth in the grant application...will not be required to submit data-collection instruments...

2014-10-01

456

45 CFR 63.32 - Data collection instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this part may involve the use of data collection instruments which...grantee which proposes to use a data collection instrument shall set forth in the grant application...will not be required to submit data-collection instruments...

2012-10-01

457

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2010-04-01

458

18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

2010-04-01

459

18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...

2010-04-01

460

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2011-07-01

461

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2013-07-01

462

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2014-07-01

463

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2012-07-01

464

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2010-07-01

465

14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Instruments using a power source. 23.1331...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power source. For each instrument...The installation and power supply systems must be...

2014-01-01

466

14 CFR 25.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 25.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. (a) For each instrument...1303(b) that uses a power supply, the following...

2014-01-01

467

14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft...flight instrument using a power supply must have—...

2011-01-01

468

14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft...flight instrument using a power supply must have—...

2014-01-01

469

14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft...flight instrument using a power supply must have—...

2013-01-01

470

14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Instruments using a power source. 23.1331...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power source. For each instrument...The installation and power supply systems must be...

2011-01-01

471

14 CFR 25.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 25.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. (a) For each instrument...1303(b) that uses a power supply, the following...

2013-01-01

472

14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft...flight instrument using a power supply must have—...

2012-01-01

473

14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Instruments using a power source. 23.1331...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power source. For each instrument...The installation and power supply systems must be...

2013-01-01

474

14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft...flight instrument using a power supply must have—...

2010-01-01

475

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2012-04-01

476

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2013-04-01

477

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2014-04-01

478

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2010-04-01

479

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2011-04-01

480

BE511 Class Syllabus and Schedule -Fall, 2013 Biomedical Instrumentation  

E-print Network

platforms. Hands-on implementation of key principles of instrumentation design will be covered, processing, and analysis methods needed to design and fabricate biomedical instrumentation. StudentsBE511 Class Syllabus and Schedule - Fall, 2013 Biomedical Instrumentation Instructor: Prof. Darren

Vajda, Sandor

481

17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hybrid instrument exemption. 34.3 Section 34...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF HYBRID INSTRUMENTS § 34.3 Hybrid instrument exemption. (a) A hybrid...

2010-04-01

482

21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device...

2013-04-01

483

21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device...

2014-04-01

484

21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device...

2012-04-01

485

The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

486

Astrometric instrument model software tool for Gaia real-time instrument health monitoring and diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of micro-arcsecond space mission rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observing conditions. In particular, variation of the instrumental response over the field, with wavelength and in time, are potentially critical. We discuss the impact on the data quality and how the science data can be used to trace directly and in real time the astrometric instrument response of Gaia. This is one of the driver philosophies behind the Astrometric Instrument Model (AIM) concept. We show results from the test campaigns carried on throughout the 2013.

Busonero, D.; Licata, E.; Gai, M.

2014-12-01

487

The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

2015-01-01

488

An intercomparison of airborne nitrogen dioxide instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on NO2 instruments are reported from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) program in summer 1986. The instruments tested were (1) a two-photon LIF system using a laser for NO2-NO photolysis, (2) a chemiluminescence (CL) detector using FeSO4 for NO2-NO conversion, (3) a CL detector using an arc lamp for NO2-NO photolysis, and (4) a tunable-laser-diode multipath-absorption system. The procedures for the CITE 2 ground-based and flight tests are described in detail, and the results are presented in extensive graphs. Instrument (2) was eliminated because the FeSO4 converted atmospheric PAN to NO, resulting in spuriously high NO2 values. The remaining instruments gave readings in 30-40-percent agreement at NO2 mixing ratios of 100-200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). At ratios below 50 pptv, the correlation among the measurements was very poor, with a tendency for system (4) to give higher values than (1) or (3).

Gregory, G. L.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Carroll, M. A.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Sandholm, S. T.; Schiff, H. I.; Torres, A. L.

1990-01-01

489

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing im