Sample records for instrumental adl iadl

  1. Trends in ADL and IADL Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Shanghai, China, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated trends in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability from 1998 to 2008 among elder adults in Shanghai, China. Method. Our data came from 4 waves of the Shanghai Longitudinal Survey of Elderly Life and Opinion (1998, 2003, 2005, and 2008). ADL and IADL disabilities were recorded dichotomously (difficulty vs. no difficulty). The major independent variable was survey year. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomic conditions, family and social support, and other health conditions. Nested random-effect models were applied to estimate trends over time, referenced to 1998. Results. In comparison with the baseline year (1998), older adults in 2008 had lower odds of being ADL disabled, though the effect was no longer statistically significant when other health conditions were taken into account. Elders in 2003, 2005, and 2008 were 20%–26%, 17%–38%, and 53%–64% less likely to be IADL disabled than those in 1998, respectively, depending on the set of covariates included in the model. Discussion. Shanghai elders experienced substantial improvements in both ADL and IADL disability prevalence over the past decade. The trend toward improvement in IADL function is more consistent and substantial than that of ADL function. PMID:23525547

  2. Cognitive Impairment as a Strong Predictor of Incident Disability in Specific Adl-Iadl Tasks among Community-Dwelling Elders: The Azuchi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Yamakawa, Masanobu; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotugu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We examined differential effects of cognitive impairment on each of the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks. Design and Methods: In a 3-year follow-up of community-dwelling elderly persons in Azuchi, Japan, we assessed cognition by using the Hasegawa Dementia Scale. We examined (a) the…

  3. An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Gold

    2012-01-01

    Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

  4. An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Gold

    2011-01-01

    Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

  5. Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data from a cross-national sample of community residing persons was conducted using 762,023 interRAI assessments. The development of the new IADL Hierarchy and a new IADL-ADL combined scale proceeded through a series of interrelated steps first examining individual IADL and ADL item scores among persons receiving home care and those living independently without services. A factor analysis demonstrated the overall continuity across the IADL-ADL continuum. Evidence of the validity of the scales was explored with associative analyses of factors such as a cross-country distributional analysis for persons in home care programs, a count of functional problems across the categories of the hierarchy, an assessment of the hours of informal and formal care received each week by persons in the different categories of the hierarchy, and finally, evaluation of the relationship between cognitive status and the hierarchical IADL-ADL assignments. Results Using items from interRAI’s suite of assessment instruments, two new functional scales were developed, the interRAI IADL Hierarchy Scale and the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale. The IADL Hierarchy Scale consisted of 5 items, meal preparation, housework, shopping, finances and medications. The interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale was created through an amalgamation of the ADL Hierarchy (developed previously) and IADL Hierarchy Scales. These scales cover the spectrum of IADL and ADL challenges faced by persons in the community. Conclusions An integrated IADL and ADL functional assessment tool is valuable. The loss in these areas follows a general hierarchical pattern and with the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale, this progression can be reliably and validly assessed. Used across settings within the health continuum, it allows for monitoring of individuals from relative independence through episodes of care. PMID:24261417

  6. Is Fatigue an Independent Factor Associated with Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. L. van de Port; G. Kwakkel; V. P. M. Schepers; C. T. I. Heinemans; E. Lindeman

    2007-01-01

    Background: To determine the longitudinal association of poststroke fatigue with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL) and perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to establish whether this relationship is confounded by other determinants. Methods: A prospective cohort study of stroke patients consecutively admitted for inpatient rehabilitation was conducted. ADL, IADL and HRQoL were assessed in 223 patients

  7. Association of Vision Loss in Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration with IADL Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Chad; Maul, Eugenio; Chan, Emilie S.; Van Landingham, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if glaucoma and/or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are associated with disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Methods. Glaucoma subjects (n = 84) with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and AMD subjects (n = 47) with bilateral or severe unilateral visual acuity (VA) loss were compared with 60 subjects with normal vision (controls). Subjects completed a standard IADL disability questionnaire, with disability defined as an inability to perform one or more IADLs unassisted. Results. Disability in one or more IADLs was present in 18.3% of controls as compared with 25.0% of glaucoma subjects (P = 0.34) and 44.7% of AMD subjects (P = 0.003). The specific IADL disabilities occurring more frequently in both AMD and glaucoma subjects were preparing meals, grocery shopping, and out-of-home travelling (P < 0.05 for both). In multivariate logistic regression models run adjusting for age, sex, mental status, comorbidity, and years of education, AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P = 0.02) but not glaucoma (OR = 1.4, P = 0.45) was associated with IADL disability. However, among glaucoma and control patients, the odds of IADL disability increased 1.6-fold with every 5 dB of VF loss in the better-seeing eye (P = 0.001). Additionally, severe glaucoma subjects (better-eye MD worse than ?13.5 dB) had higher odds of IADL disability (OR = 4.2, P = 0.02). Among AMD and control subjects, every Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study line of worse acuity was associated with a greater likelihood of IADL disability (OR = 1.3). Conclusions. VA loss in AMD and severe VF loss in glaucoma are associated with self-reported difficulties with IADLs. These limitations become more likely with increasing magnitude of VA or VF loss. PMID:22491415

  8. Cognitive Longitudinal Predictors of Older Adults’ Self-Reported IADL Function

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Anna; Marsiske, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine basic and everyday cognitive predictors of older adults’ self-reported instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Methods Basic and everyday cognitive predictors of self-reported IADL were examined in a sample of healthy, community-dwelling older adults (n = 698) assessed over five years of measurement. Results Multilevel longitudinal analyses revealed linear and quadratic change trends for self-reported IADL function, with steeper declines at higher ages. Within-person, when participants exhibited lower cognitive performance, they also reported more IADL impairment. Everyday cognition remained a significant unique predictor of self-reported IADL after controlling for attrition, re-sampling effects, temporal gradients, and baseline levels and changes in demographic, sensory, functional, and basic cognitive measures. Discussion By itself, everyday cognition appears to be an important predictor of self-reported IADL, and maintains a unique predictive contribution after many covariates are controlled. Future research should consider the inclusion of everyday cognitive measures in functional assessment batteries. PMID:24385635

  9. Alexandria Digital Library (ADL)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The ADL collection provides searching capabilities over geographically-referenced materials. Geographically-referenced means information objects are associated with one or more regions, often called footprints, on the Earth's surface. The ADL collection contains information that supports basic science, including the Earth and social sciences. The ADL collection offers geospatial search as the primary search mechanism. This collection contains photographs, digital elevation models, digital raster graphics, Landsat and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite imagery and world maps.

  10. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  11. An ADL measure for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anne; Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Occupational therapists do not have a comprehensive, objective method for measuring how persons with tetraplegia perform activities of daily living (ADL) in their homes and communities, because SCI ADL performance is usually determined in rehabilitation. The ADL Habits Survey (ADLHS) is designed specifically to address this knowledge gap by surveying performance on relevant and meaningful activities in homes and communities. After a comprehensive task analysis and pilot development, 30 activities were selected that emphasize a broad range of hand and wrist, reaching, and grasping movements in compound activities. A sample of 49 persons with cervical spinal cord injuries responded to items. The sample was predominantly male, median age was 41 years, and ASIA motor classification levels ranged from C2 through C8/T1 with majority concentration in C4, C5, or C6 (68%). Each participant report was rated by an occupational therapist using a seven category rating scale, and the item by participant response matrix (30 X 49) was analyzed with a Rasch model for rating scales. Results showed excellent participant separation (>4) and very high reliability (>.95), and both item and participant fit values were adequate (STANDARDIZED INFIT less than absolute value of 3). With only two exceptions, all participants fit the Rasch rating scale model, and only one item "Light housekeeping" presented significant fit issues. Principal Components Analysis an analysis of item residuals did not reveal serious threats to unidimensionality. A between group fit comparison of participants with more versus less movement found invariant item calibrations, and ANOVA of participant measures found statistically significant differences across ASIA motor classification levels. These ADLHS results offer occupational therapists a new method for measuring ADL that is potentially more sensitive to functional changes in tetraplegia than most instruments in common use. Accommodation of step disorder with a three category rating scale did not diminish measurement properties. PMID:22357128

  12. The prevalence of functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living among elderly Beijing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Wang, H X; Meng, C; Wu, X G; Ericsson, K; Winblad, B; Pei, J J

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of the functional disability defined by activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) and associated factors in elderly Chinese, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in urban, plain rural and mountain rural regions of Beijing. Of the 3440 subjects, 1707 are males and 1733 are females, with mean age of 71.4+/-7.7 years. Demographic, socio-economic and health aspects were obtained by trained interviewers. The results showed functional disability prevalence was 6.5% on ADL and 7.9% on IADL. Among the three representative areas in Beijing, the plain rural had the highest disability rate, increasing with the progression of age. Bathing and doing heavy housework were the two most difficult functional tasks. The functional disabilities were associated with gender and marital status. Our data suggest that plain rural elderly are most likely to generate functional disability, and bathing and doing heavy housework are two promising predictors to monitor the development of functional disability in the elderly. PMID:15374065

  13. Do subclinical vascular abnormalities precede impaired physical ability and ADL disability?

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Marjolein E M; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, YvonneT

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of disability in activities of daily living (ADL) through its effect on physical functioning. However, it is unclear whether subclinical vascular abnormalities and rate of change in subclinical vascular abnormalities is also associated with an impaired physical ability and with ADL disability. In a longitudinal study, 490 middle-aged and older persons were included. Physical ability was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery and ADL disability using a questionnaire on self-reported basic and instrumental ADL. Subclinical vascular abnormalities were measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, in men only). Longitudinal associations between baseline markers of subclinical vascular abnormalities, their rate of change, and change in physical ability or ADL disability were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. After adjustment for confounders, higher baseline PWV, change in PWV, baseline CIMT (in men) and change in CIMT (in men) were associated with a higher rate of change in physical ability (regression coefficients 0.035, 95% CI [0.018; 0.052]; 0.047, 95% CI [0.024; 0.069]; 0.214, 95% CI [0.070; 0.358] and 0.148, 95% CI [0.019; 0.277], respectively). No relations were found for change in ADL disability. In subjects with incident cardiovascular disease, higher change in PWV was associated with a higher rate of change in ADL disability (regression coefficient 0.054, 95% CI [0.001; 0.106]). The present study showed that subclinical vascular abnormalities and rate of change were associated with higher rate of change in physical ability. The association between (change in) subclinical vascular abnormalities and ADL disability tended to be stronger in persons with incident and prevalent cardiovascular disease. These data may suggest that ADL decline is more a direct effect of experienced clinically manifest vascular events rather than the effect of progression of subclinical vascular abnormalities. PMID:24909353

  14. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living Scale (B-ADL): Results from a Validation Study in Three European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hellmut Erzigkeit; Hartmut Lehfeld; Jordi Peńa-Casanova; Florian Bieber; Chirin Yekrangi-Hartmann; Markus Rupp; F. Rappard; Klaus Arnold; Ian Hindmarch

    2001-01-01

    The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living Scale (B-ADL) is a 25-item, informant-rated questionnaire which was developed as a brief and internationally applicable instrument for assessing functional disabilities. The scale’s target group are elderly patients suffering from mild to moderate dementia or cognitive impairment. To investigate the reliability and validity of different language versions, the B-ADL was administered in the UK, Germany,

  15. Type of High-School Credentials and Older Age ADL and IADL Limitations: Is the GED Credential Equivalent to a Diploma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Sze Yan; Chavan, Niraj R.; Glymour, M. Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Educational attainment is a robust predictor of disability in elderly Americans: older adults with high-school (HS) diplomas have substantially lower disability than individuals who did not complete HS. General Educational Development (GED) diplomas now comprise almost 20% of new HS credentials issued annually in the United States but it…

  16. Clinical Characteristics with an Impact on ADL Functions of PD Patients with Cognitive Impairment Indicative of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Fruhmann Berger, Monika; Prakash, Deborah; Csoti, Ilona; Gräber, Susanne; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Background Dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is defined as cognitive decline severe enough to affect activities of daily living function (ADL). The aim of our exploratory study was to compare two groups of PD patients. Both groups had cognitive deficits severe enough to justify diagnosis of dementia, but they differed according to caregivers’ rating on ADL dysfunction. Parameters which differed between the two groups were interpreted to affect the caregivers’ perception of ADL dysfunction in PD patients with cognitive impairment indicative of Parkinson’s disease dementia. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty of 131 Parkinson’s disease patients fulfilled the Movement Disorders Society Task Force – recommended, cognitive Level-I-criteria for dementia. According to standardized caregiver ratings, volunteers were grouped into 18 patients with (ADL-) and 12 without instrumental activities of daily living dysfunction (ADL+). Caregiver activities of daily living function ratings closely correlated with self-estimates of patients and those of physician (p<0.001). ADL- patients performed worse on tests assessing visual-construction (p<0.05) and attention (p=0.03) than ADL+ patients. Moreover, the postural instability and gait disorder subtype was more frequent in ADL- patients (p=0.009). ADL- patients tended to have more communication problems (p=0.05), more anxiety (p=0.05) and showed a tendency to be treated more often with neuroleptics (p=0.049) than ADL+. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that worse attention, visual-construction abilities, the postural instability and gait disorder subtype, communication problems, medication and presence of anxiety are related to activities of daily living dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease patients with cognitive decline indicative of dementia. Our data suggests that not only cognitive factors but also non-cognitive factors seem to be linked to the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease dementia associated with significant impact on instrumental activities of daily living function. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify our results. PMID:24349393

  17. Reflections on Architectural Connection: Seven Issues on Aspects and ADLs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaís Batista; Garcia Alessandro; Cláudio Sant; Awais Rashid; Fernando Castor Filho; Pontifical Catholic

    Abstractions to express architectural connection play a central role in architecture design, especially in Architecture Description Languages (ADLs). With the emergence of aspect-oriented software development (AOSD), there is a need to understand the adequacy of ADLs' conventional connection abstractions to capture the crosscutting nature of architectural concerns. This paper reflects on seven issues pertaining to the interplay of crosscutting concerns

  18. Religiousness and Longitudinal Trajectories in Elders' Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of religiousness on the trajectories of difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) in community-dwelling older adults over a three-year period. Seven waves of data from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging were analyzed using a hierarchical linear modeling method. The study was based on the 784 participants who completed interviews every six months between December 1999 and February 2004. Frequent religious service attendance was associated with fewer ADL difficulties and IADL difficulties at baseline. Furthermore, religious service attendance predicted slower increases for frequent churchgoers and steeper increases for less frequent churchgoers in IADL difficulties, controlling for variables related to demographics and resources. Religious service attendance was independently associated with ADL and IADL difficulties cross-sectionally. However, significant protective effects of religious service attendance were identified longitudinally only for the IADL trajectory. PMID:20485460

  19. Functional recovery and instrumental activities of daily living: follow-up 1-year after treatment in a stroke unit.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; González-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Herrero, José Antonio Egido; Horan, Thomas; De Seijas, Eduardo Varela

    2002-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the utility of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) to measure instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and functional recovery in stroke patients compared to other measures such as Barthel Index (BI) and Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS). A cross-sectional descriptive analysis design was done. Ninety stroke survivors (41 women, 49 men; mean age 68 years) discharged from the Stroke Unit at San Carlos Hospital, Madrid, were assessed by BI at discharge and by BI and FAI 1-year after stroke. At discharge, 40% had total or severe disability (BI < or =60) and at 1-year 11.1%. FAI (mean value 36 +/ 11) correlated with Barthel index, capacity for walking, strength in upper limb and total SSS 1-year after stroke (p < 0.0001). Fifty-two per cent of stroke patients became independent in their ADL during the first year. BI was the strongest predictor of independence in FAI Social activities-category. PMID:11874614

  20. UCPOP: A Sound, Complete, Partial Order Planner for ADL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scott Penberthy; Daniel S. Weld

    1992-01-01

    We describe the ucpop partial order planningalgorithm which handles a subset ofPednault's ADL action representation. Inparticular, ucpop operates with actions thathave conditional effects, universally quantifiedpreconditions and effects, and with universallyquantified goals. We prove ucpop isboth sound and complete for this representationand describe a practical implementationthat succeeds on all of Pednault's andMcDermott's examples, including the infamous"Yale Stacking Problem"...

  1. Reflections on Architectural Connection: Seven Issues on Aspects and ADLs

    E-print Network

    Reflections on Architectural Connection: Seven Issues on Aspects and ADLs ThaĂ­s Batista1 Christina University, United Kingdom 4 Computer Science Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro@ic.unicamp.br ABSTRACT Abstractions to express architectural connection play a central role in architecture design

  2. Good Architecture = Good (ADL + Practices) Vincent Le Gloahec

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Good Architecture = Good (ADL + Practices) Vincent Le Gloahec 1,3 , Regis Fleurquin 2 , and Salah of the software architecture. We treat rst the case of architecture design activity because it's the basis from the context of our indus- trial partner. Key words: Best Practices, Design, Software Architecture

  3. Cognitive functioning and walking speed in older adults as predictors of limitations in self-reported instrumental activity of daily living: prospective findings from the obu study of health promotion for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS), and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women) scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05) and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05) in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults. PMID:25768239

  4. Online learning and adaptation of patient support during ADL training.

    PubMed

    Guidali, Marco; Schlink, Philippe; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Neurological patients with impaired upper limbs often receive arm therapy to restore or relearn lost motor functions. During the last years robotic devices were developed to assist the patient during the training. In daily life the diversity of movements is large because the human arm has many degrees of freedom and is used as a manipulandum to interact with the environment. To support a patient during the training the amount of support should be adapted in an assist-as-needed manner. We propose a method to learn the arm support needed during the training of activities of daily living (ADL) with an arm rehabilitation robot. The model learns the performance of the patient and creates an impairment space with a radial basis function network that can be used to assist the patient together with a patient-cooperative control strategy. Together with the arm robot ARMin the learning algorithm was evaluated. The results showed that the proposed model is able to learn the required arm support for different movements during ADL training. PMID:22275635

  5. Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features and parameters that must be selected in the design. Two appendices show example versions and initial results of the first few technical steps in the design approach. Some conclusions are then drawn, and in the final section, recommendations are provided, the most important of which are repeated here: 1. Continue the effort begun here. As detailed in this report, we have only uncovered much of the work that needs to be done in order to provide the foundation for a flexible, high- performance, robust ADL. 2. Seize the opportunity to begin testing in the MLS band. The wide bandwidths and low level of usage of this band make it an ideal one for proof-of-concept type testing. Other (non- aeronautical) organizations are likely to make claims on the band if it is not being used. The primary conclusion is that there is a real and pressing need for a new aviation data link. vi

  6. [DAD-6: an abbreviated version of the DAD scale (disability assessment for dementia). An instrument for detection of loss of autonomy at an early stage].

    PubMed

    de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Djabelkhir, Leila; Seux, Marie-Laure; Hugonot, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the French version of DAD-6, a validated instrument for the assessment of IADL (instrumental activities of daily living) considered as intentional and complex activities. A loss of autonomy remains a major criterion in the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, IADL assessment is recommended as a primary outcome in dementia drug trials. Since the publication in 1969 by Lawton and Brody of an IADL scale, many instruments have been developed. However, their psychometric properties remain to be improved. The need for improving the early diagnosis yielded to the design of DAD-6, an instrument allowing capturing subtle difficulties in IADL management. The DAD-6 scale emphasizes the role of the cognitive function, mainly the executive function in early IADL impairment. DAD-6 requires the participation of an informant (a patient's proxy). Relative to patients' self-reports or performance-based methods, informant-based questionnaires are the most common and practical methods used in memory clinics. In previous work, DAD-6 score gradually decreased with increasing severity of the cognitive status. The present work shows the inter-rater reliability of DAD-6. The use of the scale with the same informants by one neurologist and two neuropsychologists, separately, indicated a high agreement between raters (alpha of Krippendorff>0.80).This work also highlights the main sources of bias in the context of evaluation based on subjective judgement. The authors stress the necessity of: 1--a clarification of the relationship between cognitive function and IADL; 2--the measurement of IADL performance in a routine neuropsychological assessment by experienced professionals. PMID:25245311

  7. Development and psychometric properties of the instrumental activities of daily living: compensation scale.

    PubMed

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living - Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  8. The dynamin-like protein ADL1C is essential for plasma membrane maintenance during pollen maturation

    E-print Network

    Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    The dynamin-like protein ADL1C is essential for plasma membrane maintenance during pollen- togenesis. Fifty percent of the mature pollen from heterozygous adl1C-1 androecia are shriveled and fail to germinate in vitro. During microspore maturation, adl1C-1 pollen grains display defects in the plasma

  9. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  10. Extension of the Fractal ADL for the Specification of Behaviours of Distributed Components

    E-print Network

    specification and verification must respect this heterogeneity. The Dream [2] framework mixes synchronous formalisms 1 in the ADL keywords we use the American English spelling "behavior" #12;and different underlying

  11. Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults. PMID:23221066

  12. Impact of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living on all-cause mortality in adults ?65 years with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lo, Alexander X; Donnelly, John P; McGwin, Gerald; Bittner, Vera; Ahmed, Ali; Brown, Cynthia J

    2015-03-15

    Mobility and function are important predictors of survival. However, their combined impact on mortality in adults ?65 years with heart failure (HF) is not well understood. This study examined the role of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in all-cause mortality in a cohort of 1,119 community-dwelling Cardiovascular Health Study participants ?65 years with incident HF. Data on HF and mortality were collected through annual examinations or contact during the 10-year follow-up period. Slower gait speed (<0.8 m/s vs ?0.8 m/s) and IADL impairment (?1 vs 0 areas of dependence) were determined from baseline and follow-up assessments. A total of 740 (66%) of the 1,119 participants died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models showed that impairments in either gait speed (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.70; p = 0.004) or IADL (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.89; p <0.001), measured within 1 year before the diagnosis of incident HF, were independently associated with mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The combined presence of slower gait speed and IADL impairment was associated with a greater risk of mortality and suggested an additive relation between gait speed and IADL. In conclusion, gait speed and IADL are important risk factors for mortality in adults ?65 years with HF, but the combined impairments of both gait speed and IADL can have an especially important impact on mortality. PMID:25655868

  13. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks...to transition from a nursing facility, institution for mental diseases, or...

  14. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks...to transition from a nursing facility, institution for mental diseases, or...

  15. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through...ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks...to transition from a nursing facility, institution for mental diseases, or...

  16. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  17. Firearms in Frail Hands: An ADL or A Public Health Crisis!

    PubMed

    Patel, Dupal; Syed, Quratulain; Messinger-Rapport, Barbara J; Rader, Erin

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of neurocognitive disorders, which may impair the ability of older adults to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), rises with age. Depressive symptoms are also common in older adults and may affect ADLs. Safe storage and utilization of firearms are complex ADLs, which require intact judgment, executive function, and visuospatial ability, and may be affected by cognitive impairment. Depression or cognitive impairment may cause paranoia, delusions, disinhibition, apathy, or aggression and thereby limit the ability to safely utilize firearms. These problems may be superimposed upon impaired mobility, arthritis, visual impairment, or poor balance. Inadequate attention to personal protection may also cause hearing impairment and accidents. In this article, we review the data on prevalence of firearms access among older adults; safety concerns due to age-related conditions; barriers to addressing this problem; indications prompting screening for firearms access; and resources available to patients, caregivers, and health care providers. PMID:25107933

  18. Design of a Grasp Assistive Glove for ADL-focused, Robotic Assisted Therapy after Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic E. Nathan; M. J. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Reaching to grasp is an essential process in our everyday lives. Individual who suffer a stroke experience major deficits in this ability leading to compromised activities of daily living (ADL), employment, and social interaction. Robotic aided therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation, however not many systems support functional goal oriented therapy using real world objects. We are interested

  19. MDS-Based State Medicaid Reimbursement and the ADL-Decline Quality Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellows, Nicole M.; Halpin, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the relationship between the quality indicator for decline in activities of daily living (ADL) and the use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) for determining Medicaid skilled nursing facility reimbursement. Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2004 National MDS Facility Quality Indicator reports as…

  20. Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to the…

  1. Who does well after a stroke? The Sydney Stroke Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrienne Withall; Henry Brodaty; Annette Altendorf; Perminder S. Sachdev

    2009-01-01

    Research addressing positive outcomes one year after stroke has been limited. The sample comprised 125 participants with complete Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale scores at baseline (?4 months after ischaemic stroke) and at follow-up (1 year later), 31 persons were defined as having a favourable outcome (an MMSE

  2. Women Over 50: Caregiving Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalie J. Ackerman; Martha E. Banks

    Caregiving involves direct personal assistance [assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs3) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs4)], as well as primary responsibility for the health and welfare of people receiving informal care in the community or formal\\u000a care in institutions. Many women over the age of 50 provide caregiving.

  3. Validation of an automatic video monitoring system for the detection of instrumental activities of daily living in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    König, Alexandra; Crispim Junior, Carlos Fernando; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Bensadoun, Gregory; Petit, Pierre-David; Bremond, François; David, Renaud; Verhey, Frans; Aalten, Pauline; Robert, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the use of new technologies for the support of elderly people and in particular dementia patients received increasing interest. We investigated the use of a video monitoring system for automatic event recognition for the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in dementia patients. Participants (19 healthy subjects (HC) and 19 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients) had to carry out a standardized scenario consisting of several IADLs such as making a phone call while they were recorded by 2D video cameras. After the recording session, data was processed by a platform of video signal analysis in order to extract kinematic parameters detecting activities undertaken by the participant. We compared our automated activity quality prediction as well as cognitive health prediction with direct observation annotation and neuropsychological assessment scores. With a sensitivity of 85.31% and a precision of 75.90%, the overall activities were correctly automatically detected. Activity frequency differed significantly between MCI and HC participants (p < 0.05). In all activities, differences in the execution time could be identified in the manually and automatically extracted data. We obtained statistically significant correlations between manually as automatically extracted parameters and neuropsychological test scores (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the groups according to the IADL scale. The results suggest that it is possible to assess IADL functioning with the help of an automatic video monitoring system and that even based on the extracted data, significant group differences can be obtained. PMID:25362036

  4. Members of the Arabidopsis Dynamin-Like Gene Family, ADL1, Are Essential for Plant Cytokinesis and Polarized Cell Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Ho Kang; James S. Busse; Sebastian Y. Bednarek

    2003-01-01

    Polarized membrane trafficking during plant cytokinesis and cell expansion are critical for plant morphogenesis, yet very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that guide this process. Dynamin and dynamin-related proteins are large GTP binding proteins that are involved in membrane trafficking. Here, we show that two functionally redundant members of the Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein family, ADL1A and ADL1E, are

  5. The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth. PMID:11351070

  6. A dynamin-like protein, ADL1, is present in membranes as a high-molecular-mass complex in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Park, J M; Kang, S G; Pih, K T; Jang, H J; Piao, H L; Yoon, H W; Cho, M J; Hwang, I

    1997-01-01

    Dynamin, a GTP-binding protein, is involved in endocytosis in animal cells. We found that a dynamin-like protein, ADL1, is present in multiple forms in Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Subcellular fractionation experiments, together with gel-filtration and nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis revealed that most of ADL1 is present as a high-molecular-mass complex of 400 to 600 kD in the membrane or pellet fraction, whereas ADL1 is present in the soluble fraction as a monomer. The subcellular distribution of ADL1 is affected by various agents such as Ca2+, cyclosporin A, GTP, and ATP. Ca2+ increases the amount of ADL1 present in the membrane fraction, whereas cyclosporin A inhibits the membrane association. Furthermore, Ca2+ and GTP change the migration pattern of ADL1 in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, indicating that these chemicals influence either the complex formation and/or the conformation of the ADL1 complex. Our results demonstrate that ADL1 has characteristics that are similar to Dynamin I, which is found in animal cells. Therefore, it is possible that ADL1 is also involved in biological processes that require vesicle formation. PMID:9342876

  7. Characterization of Activities of Daily Living in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Byerly, Laura K.; Vanderhill, Susan; Lambe, Susan; Wong, Sarah; Ozonoff, Al; Karlawish, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) differ from cognitively normal (NC) older adults on traditional and novel informant-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify cognitive correlates of ADLs among participants with MCI. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University medical setting. Participants Seventy-seven participants (NC: N = 39; MCI: N = 38), 60 to 90 years old (73.5 ± 6.6 years; 53% female). Measurements Neuropsychological and ADL measures. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administered to NC and MCI participants. Informants completed the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, including instrumental (IADL) and basic ADL (BADL) scales, as well as the Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living (FC-ADL), an error-based ADL measure. Results No statistically or clinically significant between-group differences emerged for the BADL or IADL subscales. However, a robust difference was noted for the FC-ADL scale (MCI errors > NC errors; F(1,75) = 13.6, p <0.001; d = 0.84). Among MCI participants, correlations revealed that a measure of verbal learning was the only neuropsychological correlate of FC-ADL total score (r =-0.39, df = 36, p = 0.007). No neuropsychological measures were significantly associated with the IADL or BADL subscale score. Conclusion Traditional measures assessing global ADLs may not be sensitive to early functional changes related to MCI; however, error-based measures may capture the subtle evolving functional decline associated with MCI. Among MCI participants, early functional difficulties are associated with verbal learning performance, possibly secondary to the hallmark cognitive impairment associated with this cohort. PMID:18332397

  8. Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exercises were conducted for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Balance was measured with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Stand Test (OLST). Activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A paired t-test was used to measure pre- and post-experiment differences, and an independent t-test was used to measure between-group differences. [Results] The experimental and control groups showed significant differences for all pre- and post-experiment variables. In the between-group comparison, the experimental group was significantly difference from the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that performing aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns in the lower extremity enhances balance and ADL in stroke patients. PMID:25642076

  9. Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exercises were conducted for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Balance was measured with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Stand Test (OLST). Activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A paired t-test was used to measure pre- and post-experiment differences, and an independent t-test was used to measure between-group differences. [Results] The experimental and control groups showed significant differences for all pre- and post-experiment variables. In the between-group comparison, the experimental group was significantly difference from the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that performing aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns in the lower extremity enhances balance and ADL in stroke patients. PMID:25642076

  10. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systematically review potential instruments for standardized and objective assessment of children's capacity in ADL, suited for children with DCD. As a first step, databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched to identify studies that described instruments with potential for assessment of capacity in ADL. Second, instruments were included for review when two independent reviewers agreed that the instruments (1) are standardized and objective; (2) assess at activity level and comprise items that reflect ADL; and (3) are applicable to school-aged children that can move independently. Out of 1507 publications, 66 publications were selected, describing 39 instruments. Seven of these instruments were found to fulfil the criteria and were included for review: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance-2 (BOT2); the Do-Eat (Do-Eat); the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC2); the school-Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (schoolAMPS); the Tuffts Assessment of Motor Performance (TAMP); the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD); and the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). As a third step, for the included instruments, suitability for children with DCD was discussed based on the ADL comprised, ecological validity and other psychometric properties. We concluded that current instruments do not provide comprehensive and ecologically valid assessment of capacity in ADL as required for children with DCD. PMID:24283800

  11. To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

  12. Association of early-onset dementia with activities of daily living (ADL) in middle-aged adults with intellectual disabilities: the caregiver's perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated in detail which factors influence activities of daily living (ADL) in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) comorbid with/without dementia conditions. The objective of the present study was to describe the relation between early onset dementia conditions and progressive loss of ADL capabilities and to examine the influence of dementia conditions and other possible factors toward ADL scores in adults with ID. This study was part of the "Healthy Aging Initiatives for Persons with an Intellectual Disability in Taiwan: A Social Ecological Approach" project. We analyzed data from 459 adults aged 45 years or older with an ID regarding their early onset symptoms of dementia and their ADL profile based on the perspective of the primary caregivers. Results show that a significant negative correlation was found between dementia score and ADL score in a Pearson's correlation test (r=-0.28, p<0.001). The multiple linear regression model reported that factors of male gender (?=4.187, p<0.05), marital status (?=4.79, p<0.05), education level (primary: ?=5.544, p<0.05; junior high or more: ?=8.147, p<0.01), Down's syndrome (?=-9.290, p<0.05), severe or profound disability level (?=-6.725, p<0.05; ?=-15.773, p<0.001), comorbid condition (?=-4.853, p<0.05) and dementia conditions (?=-9.245, p<0.001) were variables that were able to significantly predict the ADL score (R(2)=0.241) after controlling for age. Disability level and comorbidity can explain 10% of the ADL score variation, whereas dementia conditions can only explain 3% of the ADL score variation in the study. The present study highlights that future studies should scrutinize in detail the reasons for the low explanatory power of dementia for ADL, particularly in examining the appropriateness of the measurement scales for dementia and ADL in aging adults with ID. PMID:24467810

  13. Effects of different learning methods for instrumental activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dechamps, Arnaud; Fasotti, Luciano; Jungheim, Jeltine; Leone, Elsa; Dood, Erna; Allioux, Apolline; Robert, Philippe H; Gervais, Xavier; Maubourguet, Nathalie; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether errorless learning (EL) and learning by modeling (LM) were more advantageous than trial and error learning (TEL) in the acquisition of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) patients (n = 14). Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, participants performed 3 learning conditions. EL consisted of straightforward prompts before any action, LM focused on the modeling of each step of the tasks and standard TEL without cues was used as a control condition. The participants had to (re)learn 3 IADL. Repeated-measure analyses during learning and follow-up assessments were performed 1 and 3 weeks after learning. The LM and the EL procedures resulted in significantly better learning compared to TEL, with effect sizes (partial eta squared) of 0.42 and 0.35, respectively. This is the first controlled study to show that (re)learning of IADL is possible in patients with AD using an error-reduction approach. PMID:21502092

  14. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  15. The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Bie?kiewicz, Marta M. N.; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients’ independence. PMID:24795685

  16. ADL 8-2698, a trans-3,4-dimethyl-4- (3-hydroxyphenyl) piperidine, prevents gastrointestinal effects of intravenous morphine without affecting analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spencer S. Liu; Peter S. Hodgson; Randall L. Carpenter; James R. Fricke

    2001-01-01

    ADL-8-2698 is a novel peripherally restricted opioid antagonist that may selectively prevent opioid-induced gastrointestinal effects without reversing analgesia. Gastrointestinal transit time (lactulose hydrogen breath test) was measured in 14 volunteers with oral and intravenous placebo, oral placebo and intravenous morphine (0.05 mg · kg?1), and oral ADL 8-2698 (4 mg) and intravenous morphine (0.05 mg · kg?1) in a double

  17. A New Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL6, Is Involved in Trafficking from the trans-Golgi Network to the Central Vacuole in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Bo Jin; A Kim; Soo Jin Kim; Sung Hoon Lee; Dae Heon Kim; Gang-Won Cheong; Inhwan Hwang

    2001-01-01

    Dynamin, a high-molecular-weight GTPase, plays a critical role in vesicle formation at the plasma membrane during en- docytosis in animal cells. Here we report the identification of a new dynamin homolog in Arabidopsis named Arabidopsis dynamin-like 6 (ADL6). ADL6 is quite similar to dynamin I in its structural organization: a conserved GTPase domain at the N terminus, a pleckstrin homology

  18. Chiropractic Use and Changes in Health among Older Medicare Beneficiaries: A Comparative Effectiveness Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Paula Anne; Hockenberry, Jason; Bentler, Suzanne; Wolinsky, Fredric D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chiropractic on five outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries: increased difficulties performing Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), Instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and Lower Body Functions, as well as lower self-rated health and increased depressive symptoms. Methods Among all beneficiaries, we estimated the effect of chiropractic use on changes in health outcomes among those who used chiropractic compared to those who did not, and among beneficiaries with back conditions we estimated the effect of chiropractic use relative to medical care, both over a 2–15 year period. Two analytic approaches were used—one assumed no selection bias, while the other adjusted for potential selection bias using propensity score methods. Results Among all beneficiaries, propensity score analyses indicated that chiropractic use led to comparable outcomes for ADLs, IADLs, and depressive symptoms, although there were increased risks associated with chiropractic for declines in lower body function and self-rated health. Propensity score analyses among beneficiaries with back conditions indicated that chiropractic use led to comparable outcomes for ADLs, IADLs, lower body function, and depressive symptoms, although there was an increased risk associated with chiropractic use for declines in self-rated health. Conclusion The evidence in this study suggests that chiropractic treatment has comparable effects on functional outcomes when compared to medical treatment for all Medicare beneficiaries, but increased risk for declines in self-rated health among beneficiaries with back conditions. PMID:24144425

  19. Informal Caregiving: Dilemmas of Sandwiched Caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose M. Rubin; Shelley I. White-Means

    2009-01-01

    Increased demand will intensify pressures for informal caregiving, especially for sandwiched caregivers. Using 1999, National\\u000a Long Term Care Survey data, we contrasted socio-demographic statistics, care environments, activities of daily living (ADL)\\u000a and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) assistance, life quality, and employment burden of sandwiched versus non-sandwiched\\u000a parental caregivers. Regression analysis explored variables influencing caregiving hours, employment accommodation, stress,

  20. Age-Related Variation in Health Status after Age 60

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Disability, functionality, and morbidity are often used to describe the health of the elderly. Although particularly important when planning health and social services, knowledge about their distribution and aggregation at different ages is limited. We aim to characterize the variation of health status in a 60+ old population using five indicators of health separately and in combination. Methods 3080 adults 60+ living in Sweden between 2001 and 2004 and participating at the SNAC-K population-based cohort study. Health indicators: number of chronic diseases, gait speed, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), disability in instrumental-activities of daily living (I-ADL), and in personal-ADL (P-ADL). Results Probability of multimorbidity and probability of slow gait speed were already above 60% and 20% among sexagenarians. Median MMSE and median I-ADL showed good performance range until age 84; median P-ADL was close to zero up to age 90. Thirty% of sexagenarians and 11% of septuagenarians had no morbidity and no impairment, 92% and 80% of them had no disability. Twenty-eight% of octogenarians had multimorbidity but only 27% had some I-ADL disability. Among nonagenarians, 13% had severe disability and impaired functioning while 12% had multimorbidity and slow gait speed. Conclusions Age 80-85 is a transitional period when major health changes take place. Until age 80, most people do not have functional impairment or disability, despite the presence of chronic disorders. Disability becomes common only after age 90. This implies an increasing need of medical care after age 70, whereas social care, including institutionalization, becomes a necessity only in nonagenarians. PMID:25734828

  1. Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

  2. From hospital admission to independent living: Is prediction possible?

    PubMed

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Kotler, Moshe; Easterbrook, Adam; Jarus, Tal

    2015-04-30

    An integral component of recovery from mental illness is being able to engage in everyday activities. This ability is often restricted among people with schizophrenia. Although functional deficits are addressed during hospitalization, the ability to predict daily functioning based on information gathered during hospitalization has not been well established. This study examines whether measurements completed during hospitalization can be useful for predicting independent living within the community. Inpatients with schizophrenia (N=104) were enrolled in the study and assessed for cognitive functioning, functional capacity and symptoms. They were approached again 6 months after discharge to evaluate their functioning with respect to everyday life Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Functional capacity during hospitalization predicted 26.8% of ADL functioning and 38.8% of IADL functioning. ADL was best predicted by the severity of negative symptoms, cognitive functioning, and the number of hospitalizations (51.2%), while IADL was best predicted by functional capacity, cognition, and number of hospitalizations (60.1%). This study provides evidence that evaluations during hospitalization can be effective, and demonstrates the advantage of a holistic approach in predicting daily functioning. When a holistic approach is not practical, a functional capacity measurement may serve as an effective predictor. PMID:25747682

  3. ADL ORVIS: An air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castańeda, Jaime N.; Cooper, Marcia A.

    2014-04-01

    An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s-1 fringe-1, differences of 1-2 m s-1 across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS.

  4. Fabrication of Rare-earth Aluminate (ReAlO3) Glass and Crystalline phases by Aerodynamic Levitation (ADL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavalingu, B.; Yoda, Shinichi; Kumar, M. S. Vijaya

    2012-07-01

    Containerless processing by levitation technique has been extensively used for material science and engineering because it suppresses inhomogeneous nucleation from the container wall and helps to produce stable, metastable and glass phases. The containerless levitation technique is widely explored for material processing because of its technological and scientific advantages. Recently, research on bulk glass and glass-ceramics have attracted the attention of material scientists as they are considered as low cost optical materials of the future. In the present study, the formation of bulk spherical glass and crystalline ReAlO _{3}(Re=La-Lu,Y) phases has been investigated due to their unique features in terms of the solidification process from an undercooled melt, glass structure and optical properties. An Aerodynamic levitation (ADL) was used to undercool the melt well below the melting temperature. Sintered bits of ReAlO _{3} sample with a diameter of ~2.5 mm and mass of ~20-25 mg was levitated by an ADL and completely melted by a CO _{2} laser and then the droplet was cooled by turning off the CO _{2} laser and solidified. The surface temperature and solidification process of the levitated droplet was monitored using pyrometer and high speed video camera, respectively. Among the rare earth aluminum perovskites Lanthanum, Neodymium and samarium aluminum perovskites solidified as glass and others YAlO _{3} and Europium to Lutetium aluminum perovskites solidified as crystalline phases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of cross-sectioned samples, TG/DTA, Transmittance and Refractive Index studies were performed for both glass and crystalline phases. The results of the above studies revealed the formation of glass and crystalline phases directly from the undercooled melt. The glass transition temperature (Tg) gradually increased with increasing ionic radius of the rare-earth elements. The NdAlO _{3} glass phase showed a high refractive index of ~1.89, suggesting that containerless levitation is an elegant technique for fabrication of new glass and crystalline ceramics from an undercooled melt.

  5. AeroADL: applying the integration of the Suomi-NPP science algorithms with the Algorithm Development Library to the calibration and validation task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchin, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    A common problem for the off-line validation of the calibration algorithms and algorithm coefficients is being able to run science data through the exact same software used for on-line calibration of that data. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program solved part of this problem by making the Algorithm Development Library (ADL) available, which allows the operational algorithm code to be compiled and run on a desktop Linux workstation using flat file input and output. However, this solved only part of the problem, as the toolkit and methods to initiate the processing of data through the algorithms were geared specifically toward the algorithm developer, not the calibration analyst. In algorithm development mode, a limited number of sets of test data are staged for the algorithm once, and then run through the algorithm over and over as the software is developed and debugged. In calibration analyst mode, we are continually running new data sets through the algorithm, which requires significant effort to stage each of those data sets for the algorithm without additional tools. AeroADL solves this second problem by providing a set of scripts that wrap the ADL tools, providing both efficient means to stage and process an input data set, to override static calibration coefficient look-up-tables (LUT) with experimental versions of those tables, and to manage a library containing multiple versions of each of the static LUT files in such a way that the correct set of LUTs required for each algorithm are automatically provided to the algorithm without analyst effort. Using AeroADL, The Aerospace Corporation's analyst team has demonstrated the ability to quickly and efficiently perform analysis tasks for both the VIIRS and OMPS sensors with minimal training on the software tools.

  6. Falls and Physical Performance Deficits in Older Patients With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bylow, Kathryn; Dale, William; Mustian, Karen; Stadler, Walter M.; Rodin, Miriam; Hall, William; Lachs, Mark; Mohile, Supriya G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Men experience a decrease in lean muscle mass and strength during the first year of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The prevalence of falls and physical and functional impairment in this population have not been well described. METHODS A total of 50 men aged 70 years and older (median 78) receiving ADT for systemic prostate cancer (80% biochemical recurrence) underwent functional and physical assessments. The functional assessments included Katz’s Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Lawton’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Patients completed the Vulnerable Elder’s Survey-13, a short screening tool of self-perceived functional and physical performance ability. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. The history of falls was recorded. Of the 50 patients, 40 underwent follow-up assessment with the same instruments 3 months after the initial assessment. RESULTS Of the 50 men, 24% had impairment in the ADLs, 42% had impairment in the IADLs, 56% had abnormal Short Physical Performance Battery findings, and 22% reported falls within the previous 3 months. Within the Short Physical Performance Battery, deficits occurred within all subcomponents (balance, walking, and chair stands). On univariate analysis, age, deficits in ADLs and IADLs, and abnormal cognitive and functional screen findings were associated with an increased risk of abnormal physical performance. ADL deficits, the use of an assistive device, and abnormal functional screen findings were associated with an increased risk of falling. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study have shown that older men with prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT exhibit significant functional and physical impairment and are at risk of falls that is greater than that for similar-aged cohorts. Careful assessment of the functional and physical deficits in older patients receiving ADT is warranted. PMID:18561991

  7. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  8. Exertion instruments

    E-print Network

    Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

  9. Effects of comorbidities and functional living activities on survival in geriatric breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ulku Y.; Esbah, Onur; Helvaci, Kaan; Turker, Ibrahim; Uyeturk, Ummugul; Budakoglu, Burcin; Bal, Oznur; Oksuzoglu, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study We evaluated the possible effects of comorbid diseases and functional capacity on the survival of elderly female patients with breast cancer. Material and methods The study included 159 breast cancer patients aged 65 years or older. Functional status of the patients was evaluated using Katz's index of activities of daily living (ADL) and Lawton and Brody's Instrumental ADL (IADL) scale. Results ADL-based evaluation revealed 121 patients (76.1%) were independent, 34 (21.4%) semi-dependent and 4 (2.5%) dependent whereas IADL-based evaluation showed 69 patients (43.4%) were independent, 67 patients (42.1%) semi-dependent and 23 patients (14.5%) dependent. Among the patients, 69 (43.4%) had one comorbid disease, 62 (39.0%) had two and 26 (16.4%) had three or more. Of the entire cohort, 60.4% received adjuvant chemotherapy. Based on ADL index, overall survival (OS) was significantly better in semi-dependent and independent patients than in dependent patients (p = 0.001). In the upfront non-metastatic patient subgroup, disease-free survival (DFS) was favourable in the independent patients according to ADL index (p = 0.001). Having more than one comorbid disease had an unfavourable effect on OS. In the multiple regression analysis of non-metastatic patients, stage, triple-negative histology and ADL index remained significant in terms of OS (p = 0.008, HR: 3.17, CI: 1.35–7.44; p = 0.027, HR: 2.78, CI: 1.172–6.91; and p = 0.006, HR: 0.29, CI: 0.12–0.70, respectively). Conclusions In elderly patients with breast cancer, evaluation of daily living activities and comorbid diseases are as important as staging and subclassification of breast cancer in the determination of prognosis and survival. PMID:25520582

  10. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains. PMID:24133362

  11. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Mannu, Piero; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Fontani, Vania; Castagna, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC) in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years) diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years) were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activity of Daily Living (ADL), the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles. Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress), the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL) after the second REAC treatment cycle. Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment. PMID:21822377

  12. Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: Implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks**

    PubMed Central

    Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J

    2007-01-01

    Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the saggital plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more curvature than in the object imagined and absent conditions. Curvature in the XZ plane of movement was greater than curvature in the XY plane for all movements. Conclusion The implemented minimum jerk trajectory model was not adequate for generating functional trajectories for these ADLs. The deviations caused by object affordance and functional task constraints must be accounted for in order to allow subjects to perform functional task training in robotic therapy environments. The major differences that we have highlighted include trajectory dependence on: object presence, object orientation, and the plane of movement. With the ability to practice ADLs on the ADLER environment we hope to provide patients with a therapy paradigm that will produce optimal results and recovery. PMID:17381842

  13. [End-of-life care in emergency settings in the super-aged society: withholding CPR from frail elderly with severe ADL impairment].

    PubMed

    Aita, Kaoruko

    2013-06-01

    Emergency and intensive care unit demographics have changed with the advent of the super-aged society in Japan. Japan has the highest population aging rate in the world. It is now predicted that an increasing number of people will die at higher age. The oldest old individuals show increasing frailty, with an excess vulnerability to stressors. It is believed that frail elderly would receive limited benefit from highly invasive emergency treatment and advanced intensive care which, on the contrary, could bring about harmful effects on frail elderly. So far a number of frail oldest-old nursing home residents with cardiopulmonary arrest have been taken by ambulance to emergency medical centers to receive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in vain in Japan. Now is the time to stop the harmful ritual. Withholding CPR from frail elderly with severe ADL impairment would not constitute an act of ageism but the act of humanity based on medical evidence. PMID:23855219

  14. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  15. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  16. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  17. Self-reported visual impairment and impact on vision-related activities in an elderly Nigerian population: report from the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bekibele, CO; Gureje, Oye

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown an association between visual impairment and poor overall function. Studies from Africa and developing countries show high prevalence of visual impairment. More information is needed on the community prevalence and impact of visual impairment among elderly Africans. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling of households was implemented to select persons aged 65 years and over in the south-western and north-central parts of Nigeria. Impairments of distant and near vision were based on subjective self-reports obtained with the use of items derived from the World Health Organization multi-country World Health Survey questionnaire. Impairment was defined as reporting much difficulty to questions on distant and near vision. Disabilities in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were evaluated by interview, using standardized scales. Results A total of 2054 subjects 957 (46.6%) males and 1097 (53.4) females responded to the questions on vision. 22% (n=453) of the respondents reported distant vision impairment, and 18% (n=377) reported near vision impairment (not mutually exclusive). 15% (n= 312) however reported impairment for both far and near vision. Impairment of distant vision increased progressively with age (P < 0.01). Persons with self reported near vision impairment had elevated risk of functional disability in several IADLs and ADLs than those with out. Distant vision impairment was less associated with role limitations in both ADLs and IADLs. Conclusion The prevalence of self reported distant visual impairment was high but that for near visual impairment was less than expected in this elderly African population. Impairment of near vision was found to carry with it a higher burden of functional disability than that of distant vision. PMID:18780258

  18. Neurologic, Functional and Cognitive Stroke Outcomes in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Baek, Jonggyu; Skolarus, Lesli E; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Our objective was to compare neurologic, functional, and cognitive stroke outcomes in Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) using data from a population-based study. Methods: Ischemic strokes (2008-2012) were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from patient or proxy interviews (conducted at baseline and 90 days post-stroke) and medical records. Ethnic differences in neurologic (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), range 0-44, higher scores worse), functional (activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score, range 1-4, higher scores worse), and cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), range 0-100, lower scores worse) outcomes were assessed with Tobit or linear regression adjusted for demographics and clinical factors. Results: 513, 510, and 415 subjects had complete data for neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes and covariates, respectively. Median age was 66 (IQR: 57-78); 64% were MA. In MAs, median NIHSS, ADL/IADL and 3MSE score were 3 (IQR: 1-6), 2.5 (IQR: 1.6-3.5) and 88 (IQR: 76-94), respectively. MAs scored 48% worse (95% CI: 23%-78%) on NIHSS, 0.36 points worse (95% CI: 0.16-0.57) on ADL/IADL score, and 3.39 points worse (95% CI: 0.35-6.43) on 3MSE than NHWs after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: MAs scored worse than NHWs on all outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors; differences were only partially explained by ethnic differences in survival. These findings in combination with the increased stroke risk in MAs suggest that the public health burden of stroke in this growing population is substantial. PMID:24627112

  19. Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schecker, M.; Pirnay-Dummer, P.; Schmidtke, K.; Hentrich-Hesse, T.; Borchardt, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) improves language processing and (other) cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone). Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered’ global stimulation vs. cognitive training) and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination) as well as for the single functional areas. Results Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory) improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation) and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:24174925

  20. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  1. Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

  2. Gender Differences in Health Expectancies across the Disablement Process among Older Thais

    PubMed Central

    Apinonkul, Benjawan; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Vapattanawong, Patama; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate health expectancies based on measures that more fully cover the stages in the disablement process for the older Thais and examine gender differences in these health expectancies. Methods Health expectancies by genders using Sullivan’s method were computed from the fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey conducted in 2009. A total of 9,210 participants aged 60 years and older were included in the analysis. Health measures included chronic diseases; cognitive impairment; depression; disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL); and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Results The average number of years lived with and without morbidity and disability as measured by multiple dimensions of health varied and gender differences were not consistent across measures. At age 60, males could expect to live the most years on average free of depression (18.6 years) and ADL disability (18.6 years) and the least years free of chronic diseases (9.1 years). Females, on the contrary, could expect to live the most years free of ADL disability (21.7 years) and the least years free of IADL disability (8.1 years), and they consistently spent more years with all forms of morbidity and disability. Finally, and for both genders, years lived with cognitive impairment, depression and ADL disability were almost constant with increasing age. Conclusion This study adds knowledge of gender differences in healthy life expectancy in the older Thai population using a wider spectrum of health which provides useful information to diverse policy audiences. PMID:25799568

  3. Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named “the Disability Health survey” was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%–1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

  4. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  5. Judging Instrument Relevance in Instrumental Variables Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair R Hall; Glenn D Rudebusch; David W Wilcox

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the poor finite-sample performance of the instrumental variables estimator when the instruments are weakly correlated with the regressors. The authors show how the canonical correlations between regressors and instruments can provide a measure of instrument relevance in the general multiple-instrument-multiple-regressor case. However, their simulation results indicate that any such relevance measure probably has little practical merit,

  6. Factors Associated with Caregiver Burden in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyo Shin; Myung, Woojae; Na, Duk L.; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Hong; Han, Seol-Heui; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, SangYun; Kim, Seonwoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from psychological and financial burdens. However, the results of the relationship between burden and cognitive function, performance of activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms have remained inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine which factors are more significant predictors of heightened burden, cognitive impairment or functional decline, besides neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample comprised of 1,164 pairs of patients with AD and caregivers from the Clinical Research of Dementia of South Korea study cohorts. The cognitive function of each sub-domain, functional impairments, depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed using the dementia version of Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), Barthel Index for Daily Living Activities (ADL), Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Box (CDR-SB), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI), and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Results We found that higher severity (higher CDR-SB and GDS scores) and more functional impairment (lower ADL and higher S-IADL scores) were significantly associated with higher caregiver burden. In addition, depressive symptoms of patients (higher Geriatric Depression Scale scores) were associated with higher caregiver burden. Conclusion Therefore, interventions to help maintain activities of daily living in patients with AD may alleviate caregiver burden and improve caregiver well-being. PMID:24843370

  7. Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

  8. Solitary living in Alzheimer’s disease over 3 years: association between cognitive and functional impairment and community-based services

    PubMed Central

    Wattmo, Carina; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) live alone, and this figure is expected to increase. This study aimed to describe the cognitive and functional abilities of solitary-living AD patients, and the potential predictors of their usage of community-based services. Methods This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 1,021 participants with mild-to-moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10–26) treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, patients were assessed using cognitive, instrumental, and basic activities of daily living (ADL) scales, and service utilization was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to predict the usage of community-based services. Results At the start of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy (time of AD diagnosis), 355 individuals (35%) were living alone. They were mainly female, older, had more impaired basic ADL capacity, and had a larger number of concomitant medications when compared with those living with family. Regarding the solitary-living patients, lower instrumental ADL (IADL) ability and more medications were independent predictors of usage of home-help services, whereas more impaired IADL at baseline and faster IADL deterioration were predictors of nursing home admission. For those living with family, older age, lower basic ADL, and a greater number of medications predicted home-help services, whereas a larger amount of home help predicted nursing home placement. In addition, female sex was a risk factor for both the utilization of home-help services and nursing home placement. Cognitive ability was not significantly associated with the usage of community-based services. Conclusion A large number of AD patients, predominantly females, live alone with severe cognitive and functional impairment. The amount of home-help services used did not reflect cognitive severity, suggesting that home help did not meet the needs related to cognitive deterioration. Increased knowledge of how community-based services can better accommodate the care needs of solitary-living individuals with AD is essential. PMID:25484578

  9. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Alpha Lipoic Acid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (?-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (?-3 +LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ?-3, or 3) ?-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ?-3 +LA and ?-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ?-3+LA showed less decline in MMSE (p< 0.01) and IADL (p= 0.01) and the ?-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ?-3+LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted. PMID:24077434

  10. Quality of Life and Health Status among Prostate Cancer Survivors and Non-cancer Population Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lixin; Ji, Yingchun; Nielsen, Mathew E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether quality of life (QOL), health status, and the relationships between them varied by having a prostate cancer history. This study helps to inform the interface between aging-related health decline and the survival state among older men with prostate cancer, which is an important yet understudied public health issue. Methods: Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze the cross-sectional data from the nationally representative population-based Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Using propensity score matching, survivors (respondents with prostate cancer history) and controls (respondents without a history of any cancer) (N=193 pairs) were matched based on seven socio-demographic and health-related factors. QOL was measured using the mental and physical component scores of the SF12. Health status included comorbidities, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and depressed mood. Results: In bivariate analyses, survivors reported worse physical (42,72 vs 45.45 respectively, p=.0040) and mental QOL (51.59 vs 53.73 respectively, p=0.0295) and more comorbidities (3.25 vs 2.78 respectively, p=0.0139) than controls. In multivariate analyses, for both survivors and controls, better physical QOL was associated with fewer comorbidities (p<0.0001), no need help with ADL (p=0.0011) and IADL (p=0.0162), and less depressed mood (p<0.0001); better mental QOL was associated with no need help with IADL (p=.0005) and less depressed mood (p<0.0001). Conclusions: QOL of older men is affected by physical, functional, and psychological factors rather than by prostate cancer history. Clinicians need to attend to aging-related health issues when providing care for prostate cancer survivors to improve QOL. PMID:24581528

  11. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  12. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  13. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  14. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  15. Comparing Screening Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Alan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of comparing two screening instruments designed to identify youth with substance use problems. For one out of five youths, the two instruments gave different diagnoses. The instruments do not predict adolescent problems or substance use over time substantially better than a simpler measure of the frequency of substance use. (LKS)

  16. Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

  17. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  18. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  19. aladdin nulling instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.

    The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.

  20. The TMT instrumentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Conceptual designs for the three first light instruments (IRIS, WFOS and IRMS) are in progress, as well as feasibility studies of MIRES. Considerable effort is underway to understand the end-to-end performance of the complete telescopeadaptive optics-instrument system under realistic conditions on Mauna Kea. Highly efficient operation is being designed into the TMT system, based on a detailed investigation of the observation workflow to ensure very fast target acquisition and set up of all subsystems. Future TMT instruments will almost certainly involve contributions from institutions in many different locations in North America and partner nations. Coordinating and optimizing the design and construction of the instruments to ensure delivery of the best possible scientific capabilities is an interesting challenge. TMT welcomes involvement from all interested instrument teams.

  1. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  2. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  3. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  4. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  5. Ambulatory elderly patients of primary care physicians: functional, psychosocial and environmental predictors of need for social work care management.

    PubMed

    Berkman, B; Shearer, S; Simmons, W J; White, M; Robinson, M; Sampson, S; Holmes, W; Allison, D; Thomson, J A

    1996-01-01

    With increasing numbers of elderly people, and the escalating costs of health care, screening becomes increasingly important for identifying those older people with social health care needs who appear in their primary care physicians' offices. Many people are not aware of available social services. Families with serious social problems are not finding the help they need. The aim of this study was to develop and refine a questionnaire as a screening tool to identify elderly outpatients in primary care settings who are at high risk for psychological, social or environmental needs. This study identified those ten factors at each site which were most indicative that further intervention was needed. There were consistencies among the coordinators across sites in terms of what factors triggered intervention. Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) were more likely to be predictive of the coordinator's intervention than were other factors. PMID:8724842

  6. JBI instrumentation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccio, M.; Lopez, E.; McKeel, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) is an information management infrastructure that provides a basic set of flexible core services: publish, subscribe, and query. Managed Information Objects (MIOs) are published by JBI clients and are subsequently managed and disseminated to other subscribing JBI Clients by the JBI Core Services. MIOs can also be archived into a repository managed by the JBI Core Services upon publication and can later be queried for by JBI Clients. A reference implementation (RI) of the JBI Core Services using Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology is currently being developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) in Rome, NY. JBI Instrumentation Services will allow users to gain insight into what activity is occurring inside the JBI Core Services. The phase 1 Instrumentation Services implementation has been developed as a standalone system that interacts with the JBI Core Services through a set of interfaces that provide a low impact, multi-implementation compatible connection. The Instrumentation Services Architecture makes use of the Instrumentation Entity Model to create entities that describe the real elements of the JBI Core Services: platforms, connections, users, nodes, and sequences. These entities populate the Instrumentation Space and are accessed by clients through the Instrumentation Client API (ICAPI). A web-based client that makes use of this ICAPI has been developed to visualize instrumentation information and demonstrate the capabilities of the Instrumentation Services. This client utilizes numerical rate graphs and dynamic graph trees to visualize JBI activity. This paper describes the phase 1 Instrumentation Services Architecture and development efforts involved in creating the JBI Instrumentation Services and prototype instrumentation client.

  7. Instrumental Analysis Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walters, John P.

    This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

  8. TIRGO and its instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffa, Carlo; Gennari, Sandro; Hunt, Leslie K.; Lisi, Franco; Tofani, Gianni; Vanzi, Leonardo

    1995-09-01

    We describe the general characteristics of the TIRGO infrared telescope, located on Gornergrat (Switzerland), and its most recent instrumentation. This telescope is specifically designed for infrared astronomical observations. Two newly designed instruments are presented: the imaging camera Arnica and the long-slit spectrometer LonGSp, both based on two-dimensional array detectors.

  9. Reframing Instrumental Stakeholder Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niklas Egels

    2004-01-01

    Although stakeholder theory has been extensively discussed in academic research, the in- strumental version of the theory has only received sparse attention. The purpose of this pa- per is to start to fill this research void by contributing to the development of instrumental stakeholder theory in three important ways. First, I show that instrumental stakeholder theo- ry has been inconsistently

  10. Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Chenakal

    1975-01-01

    The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

  11. Functional disability in Alzheimer disease: a validation study of the Turkish version of the disability assessment for dementia scale.

    PubMed

    Tozlu, Mukaddes; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Kutluer, Ibrahim; Erkek, Burcu Manisal?; Halil, Meltem; Ulger, Zekeriya; Cosgun, Erdal; Ariogul, Servet

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale in the Turkish elderly population with Alzheimer disease (AD). The DAD scale was administered to the primary caregivers of 157 patients (age 77.7 ± 6.8 years) with AD. The Turkish version of the DAD scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach ? = .942), excellent test-retest, and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.996 and ICC = 0.994, respectively). The DAD scale was significantly correlated with activities of daily living (ADL; Modified Older Americans Research Survey ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; Lawton and Brody IADL) scales (r = .89, P < .001 and r = .90, P < .001). Disability Assessment for Dementia had a high negative correlation with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS; r = -.880, P < .001). Post hoc comparisons with Tukey test showed significant differences in the mean DAD scores in different GDS stages. Construct validity was estimated using total score correlation analyses between the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the DAD scale. Results revealed high and significant correlation between MMSE score and DAD scale (r = .812, P < .001). The results of multivariate analysis showed that DAD score was not correlated with gender, education, and age. The DAD total score was affected mostly by GDS, MMSE, and duration of the disease. Turkish version of the DAD scale was found to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in Turkish elderly patients with AD. This scale assists caregivers and physicians to decide for proper interventions. PMID:24763071

  12. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  13. Paranal instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Casali, Mark; Russell, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    The development plan for instrumentation at the Paranal Observatory was outlined at SPIE in 2012. Its overall goal is to keep Paranal at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. In addition to the completion of the current second generation instruments, the installation of the Adaptive Optics Facility and execution of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer mid-term implementation plan, it will allow one new instrument, or instrument upgrade, to be initiated per year. The plan is divided into two phases. Over 2013-2017, instruments are selected and developed with the criteria of filling the VLT capabilities and maintaining the balance between dedicated and general purpose facilities. Beyond 2018, the instruments will be deployed in the era of maturity of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The strategy for the second phase derives from analysis of VLT science in the E-ELT era, to be fully shaped in the coming five years. The Call for ideas for a new instrument for the New Technology Telescope at La Silla, fully funded by the community, has just been issued.

  14. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a dominant role in most work using mass spectrometers. This is illustrated with recent results on the chemistry of C+.60 including the formation of covalent adducts with aromatic compounds. Quantitative analysis of methylated nucleosides and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug taxol are also discussed. A compendium of mass spectrometers constructed over the past three years is provided. This includes a variety of hybrid instruments, combinations of sector mass spectrometers with traps, instruments designed to study collision dynamics, and many more.

  15. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  16. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  17. MUSE instrument software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zins, Gérard; Pécontal, Arlette; Larrieu, Marie; Girard, Nathalie; Jarno, Aurélien; Cumani, Claudio; Baksai, Pedro; Comin, Mauro; Kiekebusch, Mario; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Stuik, Remko; Vernet, Joel

    2014-07-01

    MUSE Instrumentation Software is the software devoted to the control of the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph instrument, installed at Paranal in January 2014. It includes an advanced and user-friendly GUI to display the raw data of the 24 detectors, as well as the on-line reconstructed images of the field of view allowing users to assess the quality of the data in quasi-real time. Furthermore, it implements the slow guiding system used to remove effects of possible differential drifts between the telescope guide probe and the instrument, and reach high image stability (<0.03 arcsec RMS stability). In this paper we report about the software design and describe the developed tools that efficiently support astronomers while operating this complex instrument at the telescope.

  18. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  19. Introduction to Instrumentation Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module which provides an introduction to instrumentation, particularly in respect to process technology. The module includes 49 slides and will help introduce learners to this somewhat broad topic.

  20. Advances in Medical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Allen K.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of new medical instruments is large but not always easy to interpret. However, this author attempts to do just that. Included topics are: general trends, computers, economic considerations, and regulatory constraints. (BB)

  1. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  2. Improved PHIP Instrumentation

    E-print Network

    Agraz, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Sample Heater Ctrlr Valves para- Hydrogen Nitrogen (b) (a)Sample Heater HEA Sample In Actual PHIP Instrument Nitrogenheater block where the temperature is rised by conduction to 45 ? for 45 sec. Nitrogen

  3. Short Dietary Assessment Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    Short dietary assessment instruments, often called screeners, may be useful in situations that do not require assessment of the total diet or quantitative accuracy in dietary estimates. Recognizing the need for these tools, the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) has developed several short instruments that assess intake of fruits and vegetables, percentage energy from fat, fiber, added sugars, whole grains, calcium, dairy products, and red and processed meats.

  4. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  5. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

  6. EPOXI instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Besse, Sebastian; Bodewits, Dennis; Carcich, Brian; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Huisjen, Marty; Kelley, Michael S.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Merlin, Frederic; Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments' performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments' performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras' readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.

  7. Evaluation of humoral immune response to nosocomial pathogen and functional status in elderly patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun; Han, Sang Hoon; Yong, Dong Eun; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, June Myung

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significance of humoral immune response to nosocomial pathogens and functional status in elderly patients with sepsis is not clear. We evaluated the humoral immune to nosocomial pathogens and the effect of functional dependencies on clinical outcomes among elderly patients with sepsis. This study prospectively enrolled patients aged ?65 years with sepsis from September 2011 to May 2012 at a 2000-bed university hospital. The data including CD4 and CD8 T-cell count, functional status by measuring basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were collected for all patients. In addition, the collected blood samples were analyzed for serum antibody levels against nosocomial pathogens using an ELISA. During the study period, 72 patients (38 males) treated with sepsis were enrolled. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 16.7% (12/72). The mean CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors (1.08 ± 0.72 vs. 1.93 ± 1.42, P=0.003). Serum antibody titers to Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterococcus faecalis were statistically higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. On multivariate analysis, the IADL score was independently predictive of mortality in elderly patients with sepsis (odds ratio 1.410, 95% confidence interval 1.007-1.975, P=0.046). These results suggest that IADL scores could be used as predictors to identify elderly patients with a poor prognosis of nosocomial infections. PMID:23998496

  8. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  9. Remote instrument telemaintenance.

    PubMed

    Laugier, A; Allahwerdi, N; Baudin, J; Gaffney, P; Grimson, W; Groth, T; Schilders, L

    1996-07-01

    In the past decade, great technological progress has been made in telemaintenance of mainframe and mini computers. As hardware technology is now available at an acceptable cost, computer aided trouble-shooting can be adapted to laboratory instrumentation in order to significantly improve repair time, avoid instrument downtime by taking advantage of predictive methods, and provide general diagnostic assistance. Depending on the size of the instrument, the telemaintenance facility can be dedicated to a single instrument or alternatively a telemaintenance server can manage multiple distributed small instruments through a Local Area Network. As complex failures can occur, the local diagnosis capabilities may be exceeded and automatic dialing for connection to computerized Remote Maintenance Centers is needed. The main advantages of such a centre, as compared to local diagnosis systems, are the increased access to more information and experience of failures from instrument installations, and consequently the provision of training data updates for Artificial Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Systems in general. When an abnormal situation is detected or anticipated by a diagnosis module, an automatic alert is given to the user, local diagnosis is activated, and for simple solutions, instructions are given to the operator. In the last resort, a human expert can be alerted who, with remote control tools, can attend to the failures. For both local and remote trouble-shooting, the data provided by the instrument and connected workstation is of paramount importance for the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis. Equally, the importance of standardization of telemaintenance communication protocols is addressed. PMID:8875024

  10. Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit and Subsequent Long-term Disability Among Survivors of Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, Nathan E.; Jackson, James C.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Dittus, Robert S.; Gill, Thomas M.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Ely, E. Wesley; Girard, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Survivors of critical illness are frequently left with long-lasting disability. The association between delirium and disability in critically ill patients has not been described. We hypothesized that the duration of delirium in the ICU would be associated with subsequent disability and worse physical health status following a critical illness. Design Prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning strategy. Setting A single-center tertiary-care hospital Patients One hundred twenty-six survivors of a critical illness Measurements Confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU), Katz activities of daily living (ADL), Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ, measuring instrumental activities of daily living), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form General Health Survey Physical Components Score (SF-36 PCS) and Awareness Questionnaire (AQ). Associations between delirium duration and outcomes were determined via proportional odds models with generalized estimating equations (GEE) (for ADL and FAQ scores) or via nonlinear mixed effects models (for SF-36 PCS and AQ scores). Main Results Excluding patients who died prior to follow-up but including those who withdrew or were lost to follow-up, we assessed 80/99 patients (81%) at 3-months and 63/87 (72%) at 12-months. After adjusting for covariates, delirium duration was associated with worse ADL scores (p=0.002) over the course of the 12-month study period but was not associated with worse IADL scores (p=0.15) or worse SF-36 PCS scores (p=0.58). Duration of delirium was also associated with lower AQ motor-sensory function scores (p=0.02). Conclusion In the setting of critical illness, longer delirium duration is independently associated with disability in ADLs and worse motor-sensory function in the following year. These data point to a need for further study into the determinants of functional outcomes in ICU survivors. PMID:24158172

  11. PHYSICAL FUNCTION AND HISTORY OF FALLS

    PubMed Central

    I, Mangani; M, Cesari; A, Russo; G, Onder; C, Maraldi; V, Zamboni; N, Marchionni; R, Bernabei; M, Pahor; F, Landi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but the consequences of falls on physical function measures are still unclear. The present study explores the association between history of falls and physical function measures in older persons. Methods Data are from baseline evaluation of the ilSIRENTE study. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the 4-m walking test. Muscle strength was measured by hand grip strength. Functional status was assessed using the Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively) scales. Self reported history of falls occurred during the previous 90 days was recorded. Analyses of covariance and linear regression models were performed to evaluate the relationship between history of falls and physical function measures. Results Mean age of participants (n=364) was 85.9 (SD=4.9) years. Fifty participants (15.9%) reported at least one fall event in the previous 90 days. Participants with history of falls had significantly lower adjusted means for the 4-m walking test (0.382 m/s) and the SPPB score (5.602) compared to non fallers (0.498 m/s and 6.780, respectively, all p< 0.05). No statistically significant association of hand grip strength, ADLs and IADLs scales with history of falls was reported after adjustment. Physical activity was the strongest confounder of the association between history of falls and physical function. Physically active participants had a significantly higher physical function compared to sedentary subjects, regardless of history of falls. Conclusions Physical performance measures, walking speed and SPPB in particular, are negatively associated with history of falls. PMID:18594191

  12. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

  13. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  14. Building Musical Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Not many people go around wishing to be the Stradivarius of the hurdy-gurdy, but this website�s instructional materials might just make this dream a reality for some lucky individual. The staff at WannaLearn.com have brought together a set of resources for the aspiring musical instrument craftsperson that will be a source of delight, inspiration, and potentially, future innovation. Within categories that include flutes, guitars, and keyboard instruments, visitors can learn how to make wind chimes, banjos, a tinwhistle, and a dulcimer. Most of the instructional materials are quite easy to follow, and in no time at all, visitors can real the joy of creating their own instruments from such basic materials as plumbing pipe, wine boxes, and nylon string.

  15. Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

    2014-07-01

    Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

  16. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  18. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  19. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  20. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  1. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  2. Geotechnical Instruments in Structural Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Ding; Hui Qin

    Geotechnical instruments are used widely as a complementary tool to geodetic methods in monitoring natural and man-made structures. This paper provides an overview of geotechnical instruments used in structural monitoring. The transducers commonly used in geotechnical instrumentation are first introduced. This is followed by an introduction of the various types of instruments including their working principles and applications. The advantages

  3. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  4. Preparing Remote Sensing Instrument

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS collaborator Scott Saleska (University of Arizona) works with research team members to prepare a remote sensing instrument for installation near the top of a 213-foot (65-meter) tower at the Amazon forest study site near Santarém, Brazil.  Data from the sensor system are being used ...

  5. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  6. Parental Bonding Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

    1994-01-01

    The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

  7. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  8. Oil well instrumentation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murdock

    1979-01-01

    An oil well instrumentation system is described for measuring the pressure and temperature at various depths during drill stem tests. The measurements may be hydrodynamically analyzed to map the geological structure of an oil field in order to select drilling locations. The measurements may also be utilized to calculate properties of an existing oil well such as total production and

  9. Integrating Remote Scientific Instrumentation

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    their specimens. Each classroom has opportunities to participate in Bugscope any number of times remote scientific instrumentation technology to facilitate inquiry in classrooms by participating activities in classrooms (e.g., National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching, 2000). Bugscope1

  10. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  11. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  12. Survey overview Instrument Construction

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    #12;Outline Survey overview Instrument Construction Survey Logistics Response Rates Uses of Survey, to develop new initiatives for faculty on campus. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room 174 Madison, WI 53703-2636 #12;Survey Overview

  13. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  14. Instrument Technique Staff Assisted &

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Cleaner Plasma Cleaner $120 $175 Ion Mill Evaporator Ion Mill & Thermal Evaporator $120 $175 Jandel 4 inch Furnace $65 $120 Vacuum Oven Vacuum Oven $65 $120 Wedge Bonder Wedge Bonder $120 $175 Instrument Embedding & Procedure N/A $61 Bio-LMSect Trim & LM Sectioning N/A $73 Bio-NegScan Negative Development

  15. Instrument Technique Staff Assisted &

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Cleaner $70 $115 Ion Mill Evaporator Ion Mill & Thermal Evaporator $70 $115 Jandel 4 Point Probe Four inch Furnace $30 $75 Vacuum Oven Vacuum Oven $30 $75 Wedge Bonder Wedge Bonder $70 $115 Instrument Embedding & Procedure N/A $51 Bio-LMSect Trim & LM Sectioning N/A $63 Bio-NegScan Negative Development

  16. Instrument Technique Staff Assisted &

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Mill & Thermal Evaporator $20 $50 Jandel 4 Point Probe Four point probe $0 $50 Lead Furnace Furnace $15 Furnace $15 $45 Vacuum Oven Vacuum Oven $15 $45 Wedge Bonder Wedge Bonder $20 $50 Instrument Technique & Deparaffinization N/A $34 Bio-EMScopeVM VDL Scope Tech Time N/A $30 Bio-Immunogold Immunogold Embedding & Procedure

  17. INSTRUMENTATION RESEARCH Stethoscopes

    E-print Network

    Callahan, Dale W.

    INSTRUMENTATION RESEARCH Stethoscopes 318 July/August 2007 Stethoscopes: What Are We Hearing? This paper develops an objective methodology to test the audio quality of stethoscopes, classifies stethoscopes into five functional categories, and compares the audio performance of each of the five categories

  18. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  19. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many decision supports and evaluations. The main focus of the instrument is operational drought management and evaluating adaptive measures for different climate scenario's. It has also been used though as a basis to evaluate water quality of WFD-water bodies and measures, nutrient-leaching and describing WFD groundwater bodies. There is a toolkit to translate the hydrological NHI results to values for different water users. For instance with the NHI results agricultural yields can be calculated, effects on ground water dependant ecosystems, subsidence, shipping, drinking water supply. This makes NHI a valuable decision support system in Dutch water management.

  20. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  1. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  2. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fixsen, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levin, S.; Seiffert, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Limon, M. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 1027 Pupin Hall, Box 47, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lubin, P. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: jsingal@stanford.edu [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Caixa Postal 515, 12245-970-Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  3. The ozone monitoring instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieternel F. Levelt; Marcel R. Dobber; Anssi Mälkki; Huib Visser; Johan de Vries; Piet Stammes; Jens O. V. Lundell; Heikki Saari

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet\\/visible (UV\\/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 km×24 km. Trace gases measured include O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. In addition,

  4. Instrumentation for medical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, W. T.

    1995-05-01

    In recent years, accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams have been clinically used at an increasing number of accelerator facilities worldwide. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation therapy of cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Descriptions are presented of diverse instruments that have been developed in modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, measuring the delivery of treatment beams, and controlling the treatment process to ensure patient safety.

  5. Instrumentation for Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    The main portion of the project was to support the "MAE" experiment on the Mars Pathfinder mission and to design instrumentation for future space missions to measure dust deposition on Mars and to characterize the properties of the dust. A second task was to analyze applications for photovoltaics in new space environments, and a final task was analysis of advanced applications for solar power, including planetary probes, photovoltaic system operation on Mars, and satellite solar power systems.

  6. An ice lithography instrument

    PubMed Central

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  7. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  8. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  9. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  10. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  12. Ball-and-Socket Mount for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelber, E.

    1986-01-01

    Jaws engage instrument precisely but release it readily. Mounting mechanism holds scientific instrument securely, allows instrument to be oriented, and minimizes conduction of heat to and from instrument. Mechanism also allows quick replacement of instrument.

  13. [An instrument for positioning elastic ligatures (ligature instrument)].

    PubMed

    Kaán, M

    1994-02-01

    The ligature instrument is constructed for placing in position elastomeric ligatures. The instrument has two types--one designed for fore-teeth area and one for premolars and molars--traditional or ergonomical aspects were taken into consideration with metal or sterilizable plastic handle. This instrument fills a long felt gap because to complete this process until now no such type of special instrument existed. PMID:8005313

  14. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  15. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdińas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guŕrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castańo, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muńoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 ?m, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

  16. Extending Planning Graphs to an ADL Subset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Koehler; Bernhard Nebel; Jörg Hoffmann; Yannis Dimopoulos

    1997-01-01

    . We describe an extension of graphplan to a subset of ADLthat allows conditional and universally quantified effects in operators insuch a way that almost all interesting properties of the original graphplan algorithm are preserved.1 IntroductionPlanning with planning graphs [1] has received considerable attention recently.The impressive performance and in particular the theoretical properties such assoundness, completeness, generation of shortest plans,

  17. Outsider's look at flight instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lundy, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents ideas and speculations on possible diagnostic instrumentation for use in missile flight testing. A plea is made for increased instrumentation efforts. There is some discussion of telemetry methods.

  18. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  19. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  20. Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury) requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL), typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics) is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Methods Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). Results A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92) with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. Conclusions The device satisfied the desired system requirements in terms of low cost, stable sensor signal over time, full finger-flexion range of motion tracking and capability to monitor all three joints of one finger. The developed rapid calibration system for easy use (high feasibility) and excellent psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) qualify the device for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. PMID:22248160

  1. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  2. Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

    1998-06-11

    A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

  3. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  4. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  5. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  6. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  7. TMT Science and Instruments

    E-print Network

    David Crampton; Luc Simard; David Silva

    2008-01-23

    To meet the scientific goals of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project, full diffraction-limited performance is required from the outset and hence the entire observatory is being designed, as a system, to achieve this. The preliminary design phases of the telescope and the first light adaptive optic facility are now approaching completion so that much better predictions of the system performance are possible. The telescope design and instrumentation are summarized in this presentation, with a brief description of some of the scientific programs that are foreseen.

  8. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich [CIVIDEC Instrumentation GmbH Schottengasse 3A/1/41, A-1010 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  9. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  10. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  11. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  12. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  13. Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  15. TRU VU rig instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, S.G.

    1993-02-15

    TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

  16. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  17. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered samples are obtained need to be developed. Particulate speciation was also assigned a high priority for quantifying the fractions of carbon soot, PAH, refractory materials, metals, sulfates, and nitrates. High priority was also placed on performing a comparison of particle sizing instruments. Concern was expressed by the workshop attendees who routinely make particulate measurements about the variation in number density measured during in-flight tests by different instruments. In some cases, measurements performed by different groups of researchers during the same flight tests showed an order of magnitude variation. Second priority was assigned to measuring concentrations of odd hydrogen and oxidizing species. Since OH, HO2, H2O2, and O are extremely reactive, non-extractive measurements are recommended. A combination of absorption and fluorescence is anticipated to be effective for OH measurements in the combustor and at the engine exit. Extractive measurements of HO2 have been made in the stratosphere, where the ambient level of OH is relatively low. Use of techniques that convert HO2 to OH for combustor and engine exit measurements needs to be evaluated, since the ratio of HO2/OH may be 1% or less at both the combustor and engine exit. CI-MS might be a viable option for H2O2, subject to sampling line conversion issues. However, H2O2 is a low priority oxidizing species in the combustor and at the engine exit. Two candidates for atomic oxygen measurements are Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Particulate measurement by simultaneous extractive and non-extractive techniques was given equal priority to the oxidizer measurements. Concern was expressed over the ability of typical ground test sampling lines to deliver an unaltered sample to a remotely located instrument. It was suggested that the sampling probe and line losses be checked out by attempting measurements using an optical or non-extractive technique immediately upstream of the sampling probe. This is a possible application for Laser Induced Incandesc

  18. Electrical Instrumentation Signals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Instrumentation Signals, is the ninth chapter in Volume I â??Direct Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Analog and Digital signals, Current signal systems, Tachogenerators, and Strain Gauges. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  19. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

  20. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

  2. Instrumentality of Voice 1 Running head: INSTRUMENTALITY OF VOICE

    E-print Network

    not account for the effects of voice on perceived fairness. Results suggest that although voice does indeed have important instrumental meaning, this instrumentality does not actually explain why people value that they regard as procedurally fair (referred to as the fair process effect; Blader & Tyler, 2005; Brockner

  3. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  4. The AGILE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Argan, A.; Auricchio, Natalia; Bernabeo, Alberto R.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, Patricia A.; Celesti, Enrico; Chen, A.; Cocco, Valter; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, Guido; Fedel, Giulio; Feroci, Marco; Fiorini, Mauro; Froysland, T.; Galli, Marcello; Gianotti, Fulvio; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, Claudio; Lapshov, Igor; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, Francesco; Mastropietro, Marcello; Mattaini, E.; Mauri, A.; Mereghetti, Sandro; Morelli, Ennio; Morselli, Aldo; Pacciani, Luigi; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, Francesco; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Pittori, C.; Pontoni, C.; Porrovecchio, G.; Preger, B.; Prest, Michela; Rapisarda, Massimo; Rossi, Elio; Rubini, Alda; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Soffitta, Paolo; Soli, L.; Traci, Alessandro; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vallazza, Erik; Vercellone, Stefano; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.

    2003-03-01

    AGILE is an ASI gamma-ray astrophysics space Mission which will operate in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV range with imaging capabilities also in the 10 - 40 keV range. Primary scientific goals include the study of AGNs, gamma-ray bursts, Galactic sources, unidentified gamma-ray sources, diffuse Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray emission, high-precision timing studies, and Quantum Gravity testing. The AGILE scientific instrument is based on an innovative design of three detecting systems: (1) a Silicon Tracker, (2) a Mini-Calorimeter, and (3) an ultralight coded mask system with Si-detectors (Super-AGILE). AGILE is designed to provide: (1) excellent imaging in the energy bands 30 MeV-50 GeV (5-10 arcmin for intense sources) and 10-40 keV (1-3 arcmin); (2) optimal timing capabilities, with independent readout systems and minimal deadtimes for the Silicon Tracker, Super-AGILE and Mini-Calorimeter; (3) large field of view for the gamma-ray imaging detector (~3 sr) and Super-AGILE (~1 sr). AGILE will be the only Mission entirely dedicated to source detection above 30 MeV during the period 2004-2006.

  5. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  6. Load sensing surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Jacq, C; Maeder, T; Ryser, P

    2009-12-01

    Force and pressure sensing technology applied to smart surgical instruments as well as implants allow to give a direct feedback of loads to the surgeon lead to better reliability and success of surgical operations. A common technology used for sensors is low-cost piezoresistive thick-film technology. However, the standard thick-film firing conditions degrade the properties of medical alloys. In order to avoid this problem, the solution is to decrease the firing temperature of thick films. This work presents the development and characterisation of low-firing thick-film systems (dielectrics, resistors and conductors), formulated to achieve chemical and thermal expansion compatibility with an austenitic stainless steel medical alloy. Adherence tests and results on electrical properties of these systems: resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are presented. It was found that the main issue in these systems lies in mastering the materials interactions during firing, especially at the silver-based resistor terminations. The interaction of silver, resistor and dielectric tends to give rise to highly resistive zones at the terminations, affecting reliability. This can be circumvented by post-firing the resistor terminations at a moderate temperature. PMID:18679770

  7. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  8. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peńa, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  9. The QUIET Instrument

    E-print Network

    Bischoff, C; Buder, I; Chinone, Y; Cleary, K; Dumoulin, R N; Kusaka, A; Monsalve, R; Naess, S K; Newburgh, L B; Nixon, G; Reeves, R; Smith, K M; Vanderlinde, K; Wehus, I K; Bogdan, M; Bustos, R; Church, S E; Davis, R; Dickinson, C; Eriksen, H K; Gaier, T; Gundersen, J O; Hasegawa, M; Hazumi, M; Holler, C; Huffenberger, K M; Imbriale, W A; Ishidoshiro, K; Jones, M E; Kangaslahti, P; Kapner, D J; Lawrence, C R; Leitch, E M; Limon, M; McMahon, J J; Miller, A D; Nagai, M; Nguyen, H; Pearson, T J; Piccirillo, L; Radford, S J E; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Samtleben, D; Seiffert, M; Shepherd, M C; Staggs, S T; Tajima, O; Thompson, K L; Williamson, R; Winstein, B; Wollack, E J; Zwart, J T L

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ($\\sim$ 1$^\\circ$). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 $\\mu\\mathrm{Ks}^{1/2}$) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at $r < 0.1$. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 $\\mu\\mathrm{Ks}^{1/2}$ at a central frequency of 94.5\\,GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at $r...

  10. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ? 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  11. Kodaly Strategies for Instrumental Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Priscella M.

    1996-01-01

    Advocates using the singing voice and the study of folk music in instrumental instruction. Recommends instrumental teachers confer with voice teachers to coordinate ideas and terminology. Includes several excerpts of scores and musical exercises, as well as a list of selected resources. (MJP)

  12. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  13. Policy instruments for environmental innovations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans Oosterhuis; Onno Kuik

    This paper deals with the question how different environmental policy instruments in- duce innovation and to what extent market-driven innovation can lead to lowering envi- ronmental impacts of products and processes. It contains the results of a literature review and four case studies. In the case studies, the innovation impact of different policy ap- proaches and instruments is assessed relating

  14. Luminescence techniques: instrumentation and methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars BŘtter-Jensen

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena – thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the state

  15. MISR Instrument Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  16. Interstellar Dust Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Drake, K.; Collette, A.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Postberg, F.; Krueger, H.; Auer, S.

    2010-10-01

    Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine the origin of dust particles and their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501, 2008) together with a high mass resolution mass analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 micron in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 (Earth, Moon and Planets, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-005-9040-z, 2005; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 014501, 2007). The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential in finding collected sub-micron sized grains on the collector.

  17. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  18. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    E-print Network

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  19. Change in Disability-Free Life Expectancy for Americans 70 Years Old and Older

    PubMed Central

    CRIMMINS, EILEEN M.; HAYWARD, MARK D.; HAGEDORN, AARON; SAITO, YASUHIKO; BROUARD, NICOLAS

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine changes in life expectancy free of disability using longitudinal data collected from 1984 through 2000 from two cohorts who composed the Longitudinal Studies of Aging I and II. Life expectancies with and without ADL and/or IADL disability are calculated using a Markov-based multistate life table approach. At age 70, disability-free life expectancy increased over a 10-year period by 0.6 of a year in the later cohort, which was the same as the increase in total life expectancy, both increases marginally statistically significant. The average length of expected life with IADL and ADL disability did not change. Changes in disability-free life expectancy resulted from decreases in disability incidence and increases in the incidence of recovery from disability across the two survey cohorts. Age-specific mortality among the ADL disabled declined significantly in the later cohort after age 80. Mortality for the IADL disabled and the nondisabled did not change significantly. Those with ADL disability at age 70 experienced substantial increases in both total life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy. These results indicate the importance of efforts both to prevent and delay disability and to promote recovery from disability for increasing life expectancy without disability. Results also indicate that while reductions in incidence and increases in recovery work to decrease population prevalence of disability, declining mortality among the disabled has been a force toward increasing disability prevalence. PMID:19771948

  20. Performance-based everyday functioning after stroke: relationship with IADL questionnaire and neurocognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Joseph R; Stricker, Nikki; Adair, John C; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2011-09-01

    Neuropsychologists frequently are asked to comment on everyday functioning, but the research relies mostly on questionnaire-based assessment of daily functioning. While performance-based assessment of everyday functioning has many advantages over commonly used questionnaires, there are few empirically validated comprehensive performance-based measures. We present data here on a performance-based battery of daily living skills, the Functional Impact Assessment (FIA) in 47 unilateral stroke patients and 37 matched healthy controls. The FIA was validated by comparing it to performance on the self- and informant-report version of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). We also examined the relationship between the FIA and cognitive functioning using the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB). The stroke group's performance on the FIA, FAQ (self and informant), and NAB (total and domain scores) was significantly (d's ? .80) lower than the control group. The NAB total score and all domain scores were highly correlated with the FIA in the stroke group (r's > .7), and only one NAB domain score (visuospatial) was a unique predictor. This may be due to the fact that most of the NAB domains have a statistical problem of multicollinearity, which may explain why only the spatial domain was a unique predictor. While the informant FAQ was significantly correlated with FIA total score (r = .48, p < .01), the NAB total score was a significantly better predictor (r = .83, p < .001) than the informant FAQ. NAB total scaled score of less than 86 predicted impairment on the FIA with 92% sensitivity and 84% specificity. Our findings argue that the FIA is sensitive to deficits associated with stroke and is highly associated with all neuropsychological domains (attention, executive functions, language and spatial skills, and memory). PMID:21880170

  1. Solid motor diagnostic instrumentation. [design of self-contained instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Arens, W. E.; Wuest, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    A review of typical surveillance and monitoring practices followed during the flight phases of representative solid-propellant upper stages and apogee motors was conducted to evaluate the need for improved flight diagnostic instrumentation on future spacecraft. The capabilities of the flight instrumentation package were limited to the detection of whether or not the solid motor was the cause of failure and to the identification of probable primary failure modes. Conceptual designs of self-contained flight instrumentation packages capable of meeting these reqirements were generated and their performance, typical cost, and unit characteristics determined. Comparisons of a continuous real time and a thresholded hybrid design were made on the basis of performance, mass, power, cost, and expected life. The results of this analysis substantiated the feasibility of a self-contained independent flight instrumentation module as well as the existence of performance margins by which to exploit growth option applications.

  2. GEO sounding using microwave instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Lambeck, Robert; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding by themselves and in conjunction with companion IR sounders. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and are undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power requirements from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and Aqua spacecraft, with the IR sounders HIRS3 and AIRS respectively. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS IR sounder. A number of enabling technologies acquired from the ATMS instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to performing similar microwave sounding on a geostationary platform. Because these technologies are already in place, they are readily available for the development of a geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, thereby avoiding costly technology development and minimizing the risk of not achieving the scientific requirements. In fact, the MMIC microwave components that were developed by ATMS for size and volume reduction are directly applicable to a GEO microwave sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known. They penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for accurate soundings obtained with a collocated high spectral resolution IR sounder in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be its ability to provide high temporal resolution and uniform spatial resolution, and it will expand the utility of a collocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint in the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 57 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  3. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  4. Structure Instrumentation in the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moh J. Huang; Anthony F. Shakal

    \\u000a In the last 27 years the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) in the California Department of Conservation,\\u000a Division of Mines and Geology has instrumented over 240 structures, including 160 buildings, 58 bridges, and 20 dams. In addition\\u000a to these structures, CSMIP has installed over 500 ground response stations. Many of these stations have been installed since\\u000a the 1994 Northridge

  5. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  6. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  7. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  8. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  9. Instrumentation on the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Phoenix instruments designed to investigate soil above a ice-cemented sublayer are described and their interactive nature explained. Unexpected chemistry calls into question the Viking GCMS result that no organics exist in the martian soil.

  10. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  11. NCL Instrumentation - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    The mention of trade names and manufacturers is for informational purposes only. The NCL does not endorse any of the suppliers listed below. Equivalent instrumentation from alternate vendors can be substituted.

  12. Instruments and attachments for electronystagmography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mironenko, Y. T.; Vilenskiy, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    A portable set of instruments and devices was developed which makes it possible to record spontaneous nystagmus with open and closed eyes. Rotational, caloric, position, and pressure nystagmus under any conditions may also be recorded.

  13. Tailoring Instrumentation to the Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abplanalp, Glen H.; Menzenhauer, Fred C.

    1978-01-01

    This article provides guidelines in selecting appropriate instrumentation for water treatment facilities. Major areas of concern include: technical operating requirements of the process; equipment design and quality; installations; and mechanical aptitude of personnel. (CS)

  14. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  15. 20 CFR 404.1211 - Interstate instrumentalities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Interstate instrumentalities. 404.1211 Section 404.1211...Covered § 404.1211 Interstate instrumentalities. For Social Security coverage...section 218 of the Act, interstate instrumentalities are treated, to the extent...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 27.1381 Section 27.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 29.1381 Section 29.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

  8. 14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...provision for the installation of instrumentation necessary to ensure operation in...requirement, dependence is placed on instrumentation that is not otherwise mandatory in...then the applicant must specify this instrumentation in the engine installation...

  9. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

  10. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  11. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  12. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale in Patients with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Soltanmohamadi, Yasamin; Akbarfahimi, Malahat; Taghizadeh, Ghorban

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate information about the functional capacity of patients with dementia disease plays an important role in assessment of their health status and functional independence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the Lawton IADL Persian version in patients with dementia. Method: International Quality Of Life Assessment (IQOLA) approach was used for translation process and then content validity was assessed by five experts. To evaluate the reliability of the scale, test-retest, inter-rater reliability and items’ internal consistency methods were used. To analyze the construct validity, the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) was used. The results were reported based on the data collected from the Iranian Alzheimer Associations of 60 patients with dementia. (53.3% female, 46.7% male, Mean age=75.91 (SD=7.72)) Results: No significant statistically differences were observed in the distribution of the experts’ opinions (p>0.05). The correlations between first and second administrations of the test (SEM=0. 238, r=0.993, CI: 0.988-0.996) and first and second raters (r=0. 961, p<0.001) were very high. Internal consistency between items and the total score (0.606 >r>0.427) had almost an average power. There was a significant negative relationship between the participants’ score in IADL and FAST (p<0.001). Conclusion: These results confirm that the Persian version of the Lawton IADL Scale has excellent reliability and validity for dementia patients. And it can be used as clinical and research tool for assessment IADL and determine disease progression by professionals. PMID:25250267

  13. Evaluation of an eHealth Intervention in Chronic Care for Frail Older People: Why Adherence is the First Target

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marieke; Robben, Sarah HM; Schers, Henk J; Heinen, Maud M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM; Melis, René F

    2014-01-01

    Background Older people suffering from frailty often receive fragmented chronic care from multiple professionals. According to the literature, there is an urgent need for coordination of care. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an online health community (OHC) intervention for older people with frailty aimed at facilitating multidisciplinary communication. Methods The design was a controlled before-after study with 12 months follow-up in 11 family practices in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Participants consisted of frail older people living in the community requiring multidisciplinary (long-term) care. The intervention used was the health and welfare portal (ZWIP): an OHC for frail elderly patients, their informal caregivers and professionals. ZWIP contains a secure messaging system supplemented by a shared electronic health record. Primary outcomes were scores on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL), mental health, and social activity limitations. Results There were 290 patients in the intervention group and 392 in the control group. Of these, 76/290 (26.2%) in the intervention group actively used ZWIP. After 12 months follow-up, we observed no significant improvement on primary patient outcomes. ADL improved in the intervention group with a standardized score of 0.21 (P=.27); IADL improved with 0.50 points, P=.64. Conclusions Only a small percentage of frail elderly people in the study intensively used ZWIP, our newly developed and innovative eHealth tool. The use of this OHC did not significantly improve patient outcomes. This was most likely due to the limited use of the OHC, and a relatively short follow-up time. Increasing actual use of eHealth intervention seems a precondition for large-scale evaluation, and earlier adoption before frailty develops may improve later use and effectiveness of ZWIP. PMID:24966146

  14. Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

    1992-10-01

    The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented.

  16. ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

    2011-01-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide improved in-pile instrumentation to users.

  17. Vibration specifications for VLT instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Gerd; Lizon, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-01

    ESO invested enormous effort in developing and commissioning the VLT-Interferometer (VLT-I), a unique facility providing a spatial resolution equivalent to that of a 200m-telescope. Complementary to the regular VLT operations, latterly additional 230 nights per year were scheduled to execute scientific observations with large VLT-I baselines. But to the same degree as the VLT-I performance and stability were improving over the past years, likewise the vibration sensitivity of the optical system was increasing and stricter requirements on mechanical stability were necessary. As a consequence ESO started years ago an extensive program to identify and mitigate potential vibration issues. In the scope of this work, the mechanical vibrations induced by cryo-coolers, widely used in ESO's VLT instrumentation suite, were diagnosed as one of the major disturbance sources. In order to be able to better control their impact, the development of a more significant vibration specification for VLT instruments became essential. In the course of preparing such a specification, we first followed an experimental approach where we installed a dedicated dummy instrument equipped with current ESO standard cryo-coolers in different VLT foci configurations and performed a comprehensive vibration measurement test campaign under real VLT/VLT-I operation conditions. All obtained vibration measurement data were spectral analyzed with respect to the actual VLT-I optical path length difference acceptance levels. This campaign gave valuable information about typical cryo-cooler induced vibration levels and their consequence for VLT-I operations. It also enabled the release if novel conform cryo-cooler instrument design and operation recommendations. This paper describes the applied vibration measurement methodology on the basis of examples, the development and description of the significant VLT instrument vibration specification, and a proposal for a generic verification procedure for standalone instruments or sub-units prior final acceptance.

  18. Hyperacoustic instruments: Computer-controlled instruments that are not electrophones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Mann; Ryan E. Janzen; Raymond Lo

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a musical instrument consisting of a physical process that acoustically generates sound from the material world (i.e. sound derived from matter such as solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) which is modified by a secondary in- put from the informatic world. This informatic input selects attributes such as the frequency range of the musical note be- ing sounded,

  19. Sample acquisition and instrument deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

  20. Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation

    E-print Network

    Winkelried, Diego; Smith, Richard J.

    2011-01-31

    at a slower rate than the number of instruments, ??Z ?Z?= o(Kn). PROPOSITION 2. Let Assumptions A1, A2 and A3 hold and consider that Kn ?n ?? and p Kn ?n ? c ? 0 as n?? . (11) (a) If rn = O(Kn), then b p ?? ? +??1?. (b) If either (i) rn = O( p Kn... ) and c = 0 or (ii) condition (A) holds, b p ?? ? . From Proposition 2(a), the many weak instrument situation is rather unfavourable for bK and any IVE that does not reduce the dimensionality of the IV enough. The probability limit of such estimators...

  1. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  2. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  3. The LSST camera instrument model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, D. Kirk K.; Kahn, Steven; Hascall, Pat; Ku, John; O'Connor, Paul; Rasmussen, Andrew; Riot, Vincent; Singal, Jack

    2012-09-01

    The design of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) requires a camera system of unprecedented size and complexity. Achieving the science goals of the LSST project, through design, fabrication, integration, and operation, requires a thorough understanding of the camera performance. Essential to this effort is the camera modeling which defines the effects of a large number of potential mechanical, optical, electronic or sensor variations which can only be captured with sophisticated instrument modeling that incorporates all of the crucial parameters. This paper presents the ongoing development of LSST camera instrument modeling and details the parametric issues and attendant analysis involved with this modeling.

  4. Dynamic program instrumentation for scalable performance tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Barton P. Miller; Jon Cargille

    1994-01-01

    Presents a new technique called `dynamic instrumentation' that provides efficient, scalable, yet detailed data collection for large-scale parallel applications. Our approach is unique because it defers inserting any instrumentation until the application is in execution. We can insert or change instrumentation at any time during execution by modifying the application's binary image. Only the instrumentation required for the currently selected

  5. Instruments for Assessing Substance Abuse: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew E.; Plescia, Joanne

    A review of the assessment literature on substance abuse has revealed 27 separate instruments for assessing substance abuse. These include 22 alcohol instruments and five instruments for assessing other drug abuse. The instruments are listed in a table that provides the title, source, description, population, and psychometric properties of each…

  6. Evaluation of Dental Hand Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Edwin Evans; Luigi F. Lucaccini; Joseph William Hazell; Robert J. Lucas

    1973-01-01

    A newly-developed, multiple-function dental syringe, designed to improve the efficiency of the dental team in performing restorative operations, was evaluated in mechanical tests, mock clinical trials, and field tests with live patients. Field tests indicated the new device to be superior to the conventional equipment configuration of separate instruments generally used by dental assistants in terms of the number of

  7. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  8. Instrumentation en Milieu Isol -Alimentation -

    E-print Network

    Instrumentation en Milieu Isolé - Alimentation - Energie solaire et pile à combustible,Energie la Terre Grenoble, France #12;Energie solaire et pile à combustible, combinaison des deux énergies de l'énergie solaire, mais insuffisante pour Contexte: · Energie solaire insuffisante. · Energie

  9. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  10. Instrumental Conditioning I: Control learning

    E-print Network

    Niv, Yael

    of instrumental conditioning · Skinner: behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement 4 #12;Edward Thorndike (1874 is the role of the reinforcer? · the reinforcer "stamps in" the association between the situation and some actions · not needed after training: behavior becomes habitual · automatic process once there is a goal

  11. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  12. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  13. Performance Limits for Cherenkov Instruments

    E-print Network

    W. Hofmann

    2006-03-17

    The performance of Cherenkov instruments for the detection of very high energy gamma rays is ultimately limited by the fluctuations in the development of air showers. With particular emphasis on the angular resolution, the ultimate performance limits are investigated on the basis of simulations.

  14. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  15. Moiré pointer for measurement instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emin Gabrielyan

    2007-01-01

    In measurement instruments where measured values are indicated with a mechanical pointer and a graduated scale, the observation precision is increased often by adding an auxiliary mechanical pointer (needle) with a sub graduated scale. The auxiliary pointer moves in synchronization with the main pointer but at a higher speed. A constant velocity ratio between the auxiliary pointer and the main

  16. Undergrad Lab Emphasizes Instruments, Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    One undergraduate chemistry laboratory at the California Institute of Technology is described, including goals of the laboratory curriculum: (1) emphasis on modern instrumental methods of analysis, separation, and characterization; (2) integration of organic/inorganic experiments; and (3) preparing students in two years to begin work in a research…

  17. Historic Scientific Instruments of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Randall C.

    A catalog of historic scientific instruments (around 10,000) is detailed. The author is the curator of the Physical Sciences & Space, National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa, which has a 15-inch Warner & Swasey refractor (1905) and a 7- or 8- inch mirror with Brashear's name on the side (1889).

  18. Embedded Systems and Instrumentation Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Embedded Systems and Instrumentation Laboratory Dr. Roger Walker Computer Science and Engineering The University of Texas at Arlington #12;Embedded Projects · Development of an Embedded System for Measuring 3D Profile using a Scanning Laser · An Embedded Control System for Realtime Data acquisition and processing

  19. ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

    2011-01-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper

  20. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  1. Climate Observations - The Instrumental Record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Parker; T. A. Basnett; S. J. Brown; M. Gordon; E. B. Horton; N. A. Rayner

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the available instrumental data for monitoring and analysis of climatic variations. We focus on temperature measurements, both over land and ocean, at the surface and aloft. Over land, the older observations were subject to exposure changes which may not have been fully compensated. The effects of urbanization have been largely avoided in studies of climatic

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-08-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-09-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. Disparities in Disability Among Non-Hispanic Black Elders: Results From the National Interview Survey 2001–2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Coustasse; Dennis Emmett; Nimisha Patel; Alicia Pekar

    2009-01-01

    A drastically increasing elderly population and disparity among disability poses a concern for the US health care industry. This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed whether ADL and IADL disabilities were different among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) populations age 65 and over. Data was retrieved from the 2001–2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for comparing NHBs and NHWs using

  9. FROM OZONE MONITORING INSTRUMENT (OMI) TO TROPOSPHERIC MONITORING INSTRUMENT (TROPOMI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dobber; Q. Kleipool; P. Veefkind; P. Levelt; N. Rozemeijer; R. Hoogeveen

    The OMI instrument is an ultraviolet-visible imagin g spectrograph that uses two-dimensional CCD detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath perpendicular to the flight direction with a 115 ° wide swath, which enables global daily ground coverage with high spatial resolution. This paper presents a selection of in-flight radiometric and CCD detector calibration and performance monitoring results sinc

  10. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI): Instrument Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppett, Claire; DESI Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will perform a wide-area galaxy and quasar spectroscopic redshift survey covering 14,000 square degrees of sky out to redshift 3.5 using the redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), emission line galaxies (ELGs) and quasars. The DESI instrument consists of a new wide-field (8 square degree field of view) corrector plus a multi-object spectrometer with 5000 robotically positioned optical fibers and will be installed at prime focus on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. The fibers feed 10 three-arm spectrographs producing spectra that cover a wavelength range from 360-980 nm and have resolution of 2000-5100 increasing with the wavelength. Specific details regarding the design of the DESI instrument will be presented. A special focus will be placed on the design choices that will allow the survey to reach the requirements of a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment.

  11. Holy Trinity of Instrumentation Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urši?, Rok; Šolar, Borut

    2004-11-01

    Being user friendly should be the main guidance, beside the self-understood high performance, in today's instrumentation development. Here we identify three components of the user-friendly policy: the all-in-one concept, customization, and connectivity. All-in-one is the concept of unification of various building blocks and thus various functionalities in one product. The customization is enabled by the product's reconfigurability that allows a product to grow and support new requirements and applications without changing hardware. The consequence of the two is the capacity of the single instrument to perform a variety of tasks that before were split among different devices. The last of the three is connectivity that improves the relationship between controls and beam diagnostics, brings out-of-the-crate freedom, and opens unforeseen possibilities for intra-accelerator cooperation and remote technical support.

  12. Energy Transfer in Musical Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    This lesson covers concepts of energy and energy transfer, with a focus on energy transfer in musical instruments. More specifically, students learn the two different ways in which energy can be transferred between a system and its environment. The law of conservation of energy is also described. Example systems are presented (two cars on a track and a tennis ball falling to the ground) and students make predictions and explain the energy transfer mechanisms. The engineering focus becomes clear in the associated activity when students apply the concepts learned in the lesson to design musical instruments. The systems analyzed in the lesson help in discussing how to apply conservation of energy and energy transfer to make things.

  13. New instrumentation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Joseph W.; Canales, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the procedure of choice for removing large, complex, and/or multiple renal calculi. Since its first description in 1976, PCNL techniques and equipment have evolved to maximize procedural efficacy, safety, and reproducibility. We reviewed current literature from January 2004 to November 2009 using Medline search regarding PCNL instrumentation and technology. Additional equipment discovered during the review process without published Medline evidence was summarized from manufacturer brochures and data. Included in this review are summaries of intracorporeal lithotriptors and accessory equipment, stone manipulation devices, PCNL tract sealants, and a digital rigid nephroscope. The evolution of these devices from their predecessors has increased the instrumentation options for the treating urologist and may represent more effective technology for the percutaneous treatment of large renal stones. PMID:21116361

  14. Recent developments in hydrologic instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, Vito J.; Futrell, James C., II

    1986-01-01

    The programs of the U.S. Geological Survey require instrumentation for collecting and monitoring hydrologic data in cold regions. The availability of space-age materials and implementation of modern electronics and mechanics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation, especially in the area of measuring streamflow under ice cover. Material developments include: synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys, and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) current-meter bucket wheels. Electronic and mechanical developments include: a current-meter digitizer; a fiber-optic closure system for current-meters; non-contact water-level sensors; an adaptable hydrologic data acquisition system; a minimum data recorder; an ice rod; an ice foot; a handled sediment sampler; a light weight ice auger with improved cutter head and blades; and an ice chisel.

  15. Epithermal neutron instrumentation at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorini, G.; Festa, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources makes available high epithermal neutron fluxes (in the energy range between 500 meV and 100 eV). New dedicated instrumentation, such as Resonance Detectors, was developed at ISIS spallation neutron source in the last years to apply the specific properties of this kind of neutron beam to the study of condensed matter. New detection strategies like Filter Difference method and Foil Cycling Technique were also developed in parallel to the detector improvement at the VESUVIO beamline. Recently, epithermal neutron beams were also used at the INES beamline to study elemental and isotopic composition of materials, with special application to cultural heritage studies. In this paper we review a series of epithermal neutron instrumentation developed at ISIS, their evolution over time and main results obtained.

  16. The USNA MIDN Microdosimeter Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Dolecek, Q.; Heyne, J.; Veade, T.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the MIcroDosimetry iNstrument (MIDN) mission now under development at the United States Naval Academy. The instrument is manifested to fly on the MidSTAR-1 spacecraft, which is the second spacecraft to be developed and launched by the Academy s faculty and midshipmen. Launch is scheduled for 1 September 2006 on an ATLAS-5 launch vehicle. MIDN is a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter designed to measure in real time the energy distributions of energy deposited by radiation in microscopic volumes. The MIDN microdosimeter sensor is a reverse-biased silicon p-n junction array in a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration. Microdosimetric frequency distributions as a function of lineal energies determine the radiation quality factors in support of radiation risk estimation to humans.

  17. Health Physics Instrumentation Museum Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This particular online collection from the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (a university consortium that oversees the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) contains over 1000 objects, many of which are on view at this site. The Health Physics Historical Instrumentation Museum Collection has been deemed the official repository for historical radiological instruments by the Health Physics Society, and at its essence, "chronicles the scientific and commercial history of radioactivity and radiation." This online collection is divided into sections that include atomic movie posters, radiation warning signs, radioluminescent items, ionization chambers, and electrometers. One of the more engaging sections details a number of items designed as radioactive quack cures, such as jars for adding radon to water, emanators for adding radon to water, and radium tablets and bath salts.

  18. Cyclic Fatigue of Protaper Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélio Pereira Lopes; Edson Jorge Lima Moreira; Carlos Nelson Elias; Renata Andriola de Almeida; Mônica Schultz Neves

    2007-01-01

    The present work evaluated the influence of the curved segment length of artificial root canals (the arc) and the number of cycles necessary to fracture engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. ProTaper F3 25-mm files at 250 rpm were used in two artificial canals. The artificial canals were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.04 mm, a total length

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

  1. MUSE instrument global performance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupias, M.; Kosmalski, J.; Adjali, L.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Brotons, L.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Jarno, A.; Hansali, G.; Kelz, A.; Laurent, F.; Migniau, J. E.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and will be assembled to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in 2013. The MUSE instrument can simultaneously record 90.000 spectra in the visible wavelength range (465-930nm), across a 1*1arcmin˛ field of view, thanks to 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU). A collaboration of 7 institutes has partly validated and sent their subsystems to CRAL (Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon) in 2011, where they have been assembled together. The global test and validation process is currently going on to reach the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe in 2012. The sharing of performances has been based on 5 main functional sub-systems. The Fore Optics sub-system derotates and anamorphoses the VLT Nasmyth focal plane image, the Splitting and Relay Optics associated with the Main Structure are feeding each IFU with 1/24th of the field of view. Each IFU is composed of a 3D function insured by an image slicer system and a spectrograph, and a detection function by a 4k*4k CCD cooled down to 163°K. The 5th function is the calibration and data reduction of the instrument. This article depicts the sequence of tests that has been completely reshafled mainly due to planning constraints. It highlights the priority given to the most critical performances tests of the sub-systems and their results. It enhances then the importance given to global tests. Finally, it makes a status on the verification matrix and the validation of the instrument and gives a critical view on the risks taken.

  2. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  3. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  4. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  5. MRI Instrumentation and Pulse Sequences

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    Niobium/Titanium alloy (Type II, 1950) to carry current, supports high magnetic field strengths to generate Magnetic field? · From a current loop · From a straight wire with current Yao Wang, NYU-Poly EL://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html #12;5 Yao Wang, NYU-Poly EL5823/BE6203: MRI Instrumentation 9 Magnetic Field of a Current Wire wire

  6. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  7. LANDSAT D instrument module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft instrument module configurations which support an earth resource data gathering mission using a thematic mapper sensor were examined. The differences in size of these two experiments necessitated the development of two different spacecraft configurations. Following the selection of the best-suited configurations, a validation phase of design, analysis and modelling was conducted to verify feasibility. The chosen designs were then used to formulate definition for a systems weight, a cost range for fabrication and interface requirements for the thematic mapper (TM).

  8. Building and Using Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Objectives, an overview, materials needed, time, teacher preparation, directions, and procedures for the lesson can all be found here.

  9. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  10. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  11. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L. [AWD Technologies, Inc., Boise, ID (US); Byrne, J. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (US)

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  12. The space instrument SODISM and the ground instrument SODISM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Meissonnier, M.; Irbah, A.; Abbaki, S.; Assus, P.; Bertran, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Ducourt, E.; Dufour, C.; Marcovici, J. P.; Poiet, G.; Vieau, A. J.; Thuillier, G.

    2010-07-01

    PICARD is a French space scientific mission. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. The launch is scheduled for 2010 on a Sun Synchronous Orbit at 725 km altitude. The mission lifetime is two years, however that can be extended to three years. The payload consists of two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability PICARD) is an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI. It also carries a bolometer used for increasing the TSI sampling and ageing control. PREMOS (PREcision MOnitoring Sensor) radiometer is provided by the PMOD/WRC (Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium of Davos / World Radiation Center) to measure the TSI and the Spectral Solar Irradiance. SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper), is an 11-cm Ritchey-Chr´etien imaging telescope developed at CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) by LATMOS (Laboratoire, ATmosphere, Milieux, Observations Spatiales) ex Service d'A´eronomie, associated with a 2Kx2K CCD (Charge-Coupled Device), taking solar images at five wavelengths. It carries a four-prism system to ensure a metrological control of the optics magnification. SODISM allows us to measure the solar diameter and shape with an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds, and to perform helioseismologic observations to probe the solar interior. In this article, we describe the space instrument SODISM and its thermo-elastic properties. We also present the PICARD payload data center and the ground instrument SODISM II which will observe together with the space instrument.

  13. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PreCaP) for the hospitalized elderly: a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Asmus-Szepesi, Kirsten J; Flinterman, Linda E; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Nieboer, Anna P; Bakker, Ton J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    Background The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly. Methods The prospective nonrandomized controlled trial reported here was performed in three hospitals in the Netherlands. One hospital implemented the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP), while two other hospitals providing usual care served as control settings. Within the PReCaP hospital we compared patients pre-implementation with patients post-implementation of the PReCaP (“within-hospital analysis”), while our nonrandomized controlled trial compared patients of the PReCaP hospital post-implementation with patients from the two control hospitals providing usual care (“between-hospital analysis”). Hospitalized patients 65 years or older and at risk of functional decline were interviewed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months using validated questionnaires to score functioning, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We estimated costs per unit of care from hospital information systems and national data sources. We used adjusted general linear mixed models to analyze functioning and HRQoL. Results Between-hospital analysis showed no difference in activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) between PReCaP patients and control groups. PReCaP patients did have slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2–0.6]), lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; ?0.9 [95% ?1.1 to ?0.6]) and higher perceived health (Short-Form 20; 5.6 [95% CI 2.8–8.4]) than control patients. Analyses within the PReCaP hospital comparing patients pre-and post-implementation of the PReCaP showed no improvement over time in functioning, depression, and HRQoL. One-year health care costs were higher for PReCaP patients, both for the within-hospital analysis (+€7,000) and the between-hospital analysis (+€2,500). Conclusion We did not find any effect of the PReCaP on ADL and IADL. The PReCaP may possibly provide some benefits to hospitalized patients at risk of functional decline with respect to cognitive functioning, depression, and perceived health. Further evaluations of integrated intervention programs to limit functional decline are therefore required.

  14. Functional impairment trajectories among persons with HIV disease: a hierarchical linear models approach.

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, S; Sambamoorthi, U

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the level, time course, and stability of functional impairment in a population of persons with symptomatic HIV disease, and illustrates the application of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to trajectories of functional status in unbalanced longitudinal data. STUDY POPULATION: We utilized longitudinal interview data on a demographically diverse cohort of 246 individuals participating in New Jersey's Medicaid waiver program for persons with AIDS or symptomatic HIV disease, with a mean of nine repeated observations per individual. MEASURES AND STATISTICAL METHODS: Impairment in ability to perform 16 activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed at monthly intervals. To achieve unbiased, efficient estimation of the level and within-individual rate of change of functional status utilizing all observations for each individual, hierarchical linear models were used. Time slopes were compared to those from a single-level model estimated on the pooled observations. Stability of functional status within individuals was also evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single-level pooled model showed no significant time trend in functional impairment, while the multilevel models did indicate such a trend. In the final HLM model, functional impairment was estimated to increase at a rate of .32 tasks per month. Female gender was associated with impairment in an additional 1.88 tasks and AIDS diagnosis with an additional 1.35 tasks. There was substantial variability within individuals over time, most of which was not explained by time trend. CONCLUSIONS: The multilevel models indicated a significant month-to-month worsening of functional status that was masked in the single-level model by between-person variation. Impairment was found to increase over time, but followed a variable and episodic course rather than a steady or consistent decline. Women appeared to experience special problems in performing ADL and IADL tasks. RELEVANCE/IMPACT: Results demonstrate the need for flexible and responsive systems for authorizing and managing in-home services for persons with HIV disease, systems that can respond to frequent changes in the functional status and level of care needs of these individuals. They suggest further attention to special care needs that may be experienced by women with HIV disease. They illustrate that hierarchical linear modeling can be an important tool in understanding change in functional status over time, providing a multilevel model that disaggregates within-individual and between-individual variation in functional status. This approach can be generalized to a wide variety of problems in health services research in which outcomes are observed over time with unbalanced longitudinal data. PMID:8885859

  15. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  16. RSSC RADIATION DETECTORS & SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 8/99 4-1 RADIATION DETECTORS AND SURVEY INSTRUMENTS

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    RSSC RADIATION DETECTORS & SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 8/99 4-1 CHAPTER 4 RADIATION DETECTORS AND SURVEY........................................................................................................... 4-3 II. Use of Radiation Survey Instruments

  17. Use of Electrical and Electronic Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosbacher, C. J.; Thomas, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a trend survey of the present and planned use of electrical and electronic instruments. Microprocessors were found to have the highest predicted growth rate of all instruments included in the survey. (SL)

  18. Capabilities and Limitations of Geochemical Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carmen Nezat

    The purpose of this exercise is to understand the capability and limitations of several instruments (AA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS) used for geochemical analysis. Students compare and contrast the cost, detection limits, etc. of these instruments.

  19. [Development of embedded ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Sheng; Su, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Mengyuan

    2013-03-01

    We developed an ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument by optimizing the embedded platform and system units construction to realize miniaturization and portability. The instrument can accurately and safely control the target temperature by using PID feedback algorithm. PMID:23777059

  20. LST and instrument considerations. [modular design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    In order that the LST meet its scientific objectives and also be a National Astronomical Space Facility during the 1980's and 1990's, broad requirements have been levied by the scientific community. These scientific requirements can be directly translated into design requirements and specifications for the scientific instruments. The instrument ensemble design must be consistent with a 15-year operational lifetime. Downtime for major repair/refurbishment or instrument updating must be minimized. The overall efficiency and performance of the instruments should be maximized. Modularization of instruments and instrument subsystems, some degree of on-orbit servicing (both repair and replacement), on-axis location, minimizing the number of reflections within instruments, minimizing polarization effects, and simultaneous operation of the F/24 camera with other instruments, are just a few of the design guidelines and specifications which can and will be met in order that these broader scientific requirements be satisfied.-

  1. Which modes do CERES Instruments operate in?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... FM5 instrument, which operates in the fixed azimuth scanning mode though it can operate in a rotating azimuth scanning mode. The Terra and Aqua satellites carry two CERES instruments onboard, one in ...

  2. An Instrument to Aid in Assessing Editorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Presents a primary-trait scoring instrument intended for journalism teachers to use in assessing students' editorials by breaking down the analysis into three essential components: claims, data, and warrants. Applies the instrument to two student essays. (SR)

  3. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  4. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

  5. Endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instrument systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieutenant Brent; J. Crumpton; Captain Scott McClanahan

    Since the end of the nineteenth century, automated root canal instrumentation has been available, but systems had many problems. The challenges of increased canal blockage, instrument breakage, and insufficient canal debridement were related to the use of stainless steel instruments and have been dramatically improved with the introduction of nickel -titanium (NiTi) files. The first useable NiTi alloy was developed

  6. ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 13, Fall 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

  7. Musical instruments recognition using hidden Markov model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonghyun Lee; Joohwan Chun

    2002-01-01

    A new musical instrument recognition technique based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) is proposed. The spectral envelope is the key information of instrument characteristic and timbre. We decompose an instrument sound into sinusoidal components (harmonics) and noise components and estimate the amplitudes of the harmonics component. We want to express the spectral envelope effectively using estimated amplitude, therefore, we

  8. Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cameron; J. D. Kurfess; W. N. Johnson; R. L. Kinzer; R. A. Kroeger; M. D. Leising; R. J. Murphy; G. H. Share; M. S. Strickman; J. E. Grove

    1992-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch

  9. Animations in an Instrumental Methods Chemistry Class?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chasteen, Thomas G.

    This website provides an introduction to animations as a tool for teaching instrumental techniques in the instrumental analysis course - why one might wish to use animations, some information on how to go about developing them, and it provides a number of examples of animations for analytical instrumentation. The site should prove a valuable resource to college educators teaching analytical chemistry.

  10. Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate…

  11. An Instrumental Perspective on CSCL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonchamp, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The theory of instrumental genesis of Rabardel relates the social and the technical through the concept of instrument. An instrument is defined as a mixed entity made up by an artifact, the technical/material part, and a set of utilization schemes, the social/behavioural part, which both result from users' constructive activities. This theory is…

  12. Evaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments

    E-print Network

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    instruments [1, 2]. This tool is a new evaluation method, named AMS from the initials of the three standardEvaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments Popi A. Konidari* National@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. AMS is a specially developed evaluation method for climate policy instruments. The same method

  13. Quantum physics of simple optical instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Leonhardt

    2003-01-01

    Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

  14. Development of airblast and thermal radiation instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Kratz

    1978-01-01

    This is part of a continuing effort to develop instrumentation for use in underground nuclear tests. In particular, the development of instrumentation to measure airblast and thermal radiation is described. The initial development of an instrumented sphere to measure dynamic pressure in the supersonic flow behind a blast front was completed. Experiments are described that show that it is feasible

  15. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  16. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  17. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  18. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  19. Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Bualat, Maria; Kunz, C.; Lee, Susan; Sargent, Randy; Washington, Rich; Wright, Anne; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish this. This paper describes the technologies being developed and integrated onto the NASA Ames K9 prototype Mars rover to both accomplish this in one cycle, and to extend the complexity and duration of operations that a Mars rover can accomplish without intervention from mission control.

  20. Starting a Small Instrument Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, W. K.

    1997-03-01

    The author is now the owner of an 8 person company that develops specialized electronics to support the detectors used at synchrotron radiation facilities and is spinning this expertise off into developing spectrometry instruments for specialized medical markets. This talk will begin with a short history illustrating the random walk processes leading to the present situation and then consider some of the issues which a small company must deal with in order to survive. From this perspective, the author will then extract a list of steps the prospective physicist/entreprenuer can take, while still a student or post-doc, to prepare for success in growing a small business.

  1. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  2. The SPIRE Instrument for Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vigroux, L.

    2001-07-01

    SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be a bolometer instrument for ESA's Herschel satellite. Its main scientific goals are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. The SPIRE detectors are feedhorn-coupled NTD ``spider-web'' bolometers. The instrument comprises a three-band imaging photometer covering the 250-500 micron range, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200-670 microns. The photometer has a field of view of 4 x 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously at 250, 350 and 500 microns, with dichroic beam dividers separating the three spectral bands. Its angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and observations can also be made by scanning the telescope without chopping, providing better sensitivity for source confusion-limited deep surveys. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and an adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04 - 2 cm-1 (?/?? = 20 - 1000 at 250 microns). It employs a dual-beam configuration with novel broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports.

  3. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  4. Climate Observations - The Instrumental Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. E.; Basnett, T. A.; Brown, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Horton, E. B.; Rayner, N. A.

    2000-11-01

    A survey is given of the available instrumental data for monitoring and analysis of climatic variations. We focus on temperature measurements, both over land and ocean, at the surface and aloft. Over land, the older observations were subject to exposure changes which may not have been fully compensated. The effects of urbanization have been largely avoided in studies of climatic change over the last 150 years. There are few records for pre-1850 outside Europe and eastern North America, and the global network shows a recent decline. Over the ocean, sea surface temperature (SST) has been measured using buckets, engine intakes, hull sensors, buoys, and satellites. Many of these data have been effectively homogenized, but new challenges arise as observing systems evolve. Available SST and marine air temperature datasets begin in the 1850s. The data are concentrated in shipping lanes especially before 1900, and very sparse during the world wars, but additional historical data are being digitized. The radiosonde record is short (~40 years) and has major gaps over the oceans, tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Instrumental heterogeneities are beginning to be assessed and removed using physical and statistical techniques. The MSU record is complete but only began in 1979, and is not highly resolved in the vertical: major biases, mainly affecting the lower-tropospheric retrieval, have been reduced as a result of recent analyses. Advanced interpolation or data-assimilation techniques are being applied to these data, but the results must be interpreted with care.

  5. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  6. PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech offers support of seismic instrumentation, maintenance of equipment, training, and logistical field support for seismology experiments. The website provides thorough explanations of the sensors, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation. Researchers can find a users guide, schedules of the instrumentation, and forms to request the use PASSCAL equipment with the stipulation that the data will be made available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) two years after the field work is completed. Users can learn about the growing number of technological instruments available at the Center due to the support of the Department of Energy.

  7. Preliminary analysis of a flexible instrument mount for large instruments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible instrument mount for large instruments on the space shuttle is analyzed. Concepts for pointing instruments while in orbit, with weights up to 2000 Kg and dimensions of 2 to 3 m were identified and analyzed. A mechanical concept was selected that can accommodate a set class of scientific instruments such as the LAMAR X-ray experiment with 24 LAMAR telescopes.

  8. The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and weight.

  9. Instrumentation at the Anglo-Australian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) has an instrumentation group for engineering, design, and fabrication that integrates tightly with an energetic group of instrument scientists1 to develop complex astronomical instruments. This instrumentation group puts ideas for innovative technical solutions generated by the instrument scientist group into reality. One demonstration of past achievement is the highly ambitious and successful 2dF instrument that yielded invaluable scientific insight into the cosmological structure of the universe. The more recent successes of the instrumentation group include the OzPoz fiber positioner for the FLAMES facility on the VLT and the award-winning, imaging and multi-object IRIS-2 infrared spectrograph for the AAT. VPH gratings were first put into action in LDSS++ on the AAT and numerous VPH gratings are now in routine use on the 6dF spectrograph for the UKST. Under development are a completely new and unique fiber positioning scheme (Echidna) for use in the FMOS instrument for Subaru; a double-beamed, VPH-based, bench-mounted spectrograph for 2dF; new IR and optical detector controllers; a renovation of the telescope and instrument control systems for the AAT; and a feasibility study for an Echidna-style positioner for the Gemini telescopes. Several other design studies are underway for new instrument technologies using leading edge and innovative concepts in robotics and fibers. The synergy between our scientists and engineers establishes a sound basis for solving the instrumentation challenges facing us.

  10. Infrared Instrument for Detecting Hydrogen Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Immer, Christopher; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Cox, Robert; Taylor, John

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows an instrument incorporating an infrared camera for detecting small hydrogen fires. The instrument has been developed as an improved replacement for prior infrared and ultraviolet instruments used to detect hydrogen fires. The need for this or any such instrument arises because hydrogen fires (e.g., those associated with leaks from tanks, valves, and ducts) pose a great danger, yet they emit so little visible light that they are mostly undetectable by the unaided human eye. The main performance advantage offered by the present instrument over prior hydrogen-fire-detecting instruments lies in its greater ability to avoid false alarms by discriminating against reflected infrared light, including that originating in (1) the Sun, (2) welding torches, and (3) deliberately ignited hydrogen flames (e.g., ullage-burn-off flames) that are nearby but outside the field of view intended to be monitored by the instrument. Like prior such instruments, this instrument is based mostly on the principle of detecting infrared emission above a threshold level. However, in addition, this instrument utilizes information on the spatial distribution of infrared light from a source that it detects. Because the combination of spatial and threshold information about a flame tends to constitute a unique signature that differs from that of reflected infrared light originating in a source not in the field of view, the incidence of false alarms is reduced substantially below that of related prior threshold- based instruments.

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HYDROLOGIC INSTRUMENTATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, Vito J.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of space-age materials and implementation of state-of-the-art electronics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation. Material developments include: Synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; fiberglass wading rod; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) bucket wheels for current meters. These materials are very cost effective and efficient. Electromechanical and electronic developments and applications include: adaptable data acquisition system; downhole sampler for hazardous substances; current-meter digitizer; hydraulic power/drive system for discharge measurements and water-quality sampling; non-contact water-level sensors; minimum data recorder; acoustic velocity meters, and automated current meter discharge-measurement system.

  12. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  13. Recent Developments in PET Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr3, and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

  14. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  15. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, A. N.; Thapar, P. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Rege, S. A.; Prabhu, R. Y.; Supe, A. N.; Kamble, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4), 197–200 (2004)], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3), 324 (2001); Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4), 283–286 (2002)], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45), 847–852 (2002)]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. Results: A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85%) of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g). Mean operative time was 214 min (45–390 min). The conversion rate was 11.5% (n = 3). Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3–30 days). Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS. PMID:21206648

  16. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-04-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  17. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  18. The temporal structure of intergenerational exchange: a within-family analysis of parent-child reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies of parent-child reciprocity have focused either on the long term (generalized exchange over the life course) or on the short term (concurrent exchange in later life). The purpose of this research was to investigate the linkage between both temporal patterns of reciprocity within an integrative conceptual framework. We assessed whether long-term and short-term reciprocity operated as interdependent mechanisms that initially selected and subsequently relieved intergenerational caregiving relationships. We used data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study (AHEAD) provided by frail, single-living parents of at least two children (N=1010 respondents comprising 3768 parent-child dyads). Fixed-effects conditional logit models estimated between-sibling differences in assistance provided to parents, measured by instrumental help (i.e., assistance with IADLs) and hands-on care (i.e., assistance with ADLs). Key predictors were two measures of financial transfers given to children referring to longer and shorter recall periods. Receiving earlier and current financial transfers increased adult children's propensity to support their parents in later life. The effect of earlier transfers pertained to help rather than care whereas the reverse was true for the effect of current transfers. We found no evidence for a linkage between long-term and short-term reciprocity. Overall, the results indicate that adult children might balance long-term support accounts relative to their siblings, suggesting an intra-generational orientation on equity. PMID:23849423

  19. Instrument Recognition Beyond Separate Notes - Indexing Continues Recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie A. Livshin; Xavier Rodet; Ircam Centre Pompidou

    2004-01-01

    Some initial works have appeared that began to deal with the complicated task of musical instrument recognition in multi-instrumental music. Although quite a few papers have already appeared on instrument recognition of single- instrument musical phrases (\\

  20. Toward an Intelligent Distributed Safety Instrumented Systems: Dependability Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are studied for structures which have intelligence in the instruments constituting the Safety InstrumentedToward an Intelligent Distributed Safety Instrumented Systems: Dependability Evaluation Abdelhak Systems (SIS) in order to determine the contribution of the intelligent instruments in the safety

  1. Digital Instrumentation for the Radio Astronomy Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Parsons; Dan Werthimer; Donald Backer; Tim Bastian; Geoffrey Bower; Walter Brisken; Henry Chen; Adam Deller; Terry Filiba; Dale Gary; Lincoln Greenhill; David Hawkins; Glenn Jones; Glen Langston; Joseph Lasio; Joeri Van Leeuwen; Daniel Mitchell; Jason Manley; Andrew Siemion; Hayden Kwok-Hay So; Alan Whitney; Dave Woody; Melvyn Wright; Kristian Zarb-Adami

    2009-01-01

    Time-to-science is an important figure of merit for digital instrumentation serving the astronomical community. A digital signal processing (DSP) community is forming that uses shared hardware development, signal processing libraries, and instrument architectures to reduce development time of digital instrumentation and to improve time-to-science for a wide variety of projects. We suggest prioritizing technological development supporting the needs of this

  2. Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Leising, M. D.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch and in-flight data. These include observing statistics, continuum and line sensitivity, and detector effective area and gain stability.

  3. Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Leising, M. D.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.

    1992-02-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch and in-flight data. These include observing statistics, continuum and line sensitivity, and detector effective area and gain stability.

  4. An Instrumentation System Applied to Formation Flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walton R. Williamson; Mamoun F. Abdel-Hafez; Ihnseok Rhee; Eun-Jung Song; Jonathan D. Wolfe; David F. Chichka; Jason L. Speyer

    2007-01-01

    As part of a NASA dryden autonomous formation flight program for improved drag reduction of multiple F\\/A-18 aircraft, a new instrument, the formation flight instrumentation system (FFIS), for the precise estimation of the relative position, velocity, and attitude between two moving aircraft without the aid of ground-based instruments, was developed. The FFIS uses a global position system (GPS) receiver and

  5. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

  6. Scientific Set of Instruments "Solar Cosmic Rays"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Denisov, Yu. I.; Podorolsky, A. N.; Ryumin, S. P.; Kudela, K.; Rojko, J.

    A set of scientific instruments SCR (Solar Cosmic Rays) was developed by the scientists of SINP MSU and IEP SAS in order to study relations between the radiation conditions in the near-Earth space and solar activity. This set of instruments was installed on board the satellites CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F launched to the orbit on March 2, 1994, and July 30, 2001, respectively. Detailed description of the instruments is presented.

  7. Frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Danner, Aaron

    2012-08-01

    We analyse frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments and show that they have very specific properties: the eigenfrequencies form tight groups that are almost equidistantly spaced. We prove this by theoretical analysis and demonstrate by numerically calculated spectra of various examples of absolute instruments. We also show that in rotationally and spherically symmetric absolute instruments a source, its image and the centre of the device must lie on a straight line.

  8. Instrumentation system for breast engorgement evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C D

    1990-01-01

    An instrumentation system is described for obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of breast engorgement in postpartum nursing mothers. The system uses an LVDT and associated electronics. PMID:2334771

  9. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  10. Pinhole Calibrator For Particle-Sizing Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovenac, Edward

    1993-01-01

    Rotating-pinhole calibrator designed for use in calibrating and testing optical instrument measuring sizes of cloud droplets, dust particles, and other small particles suspended in flowing air. Easily attachable to particle-size-measuring instrument and suitable for both quick verification of calibration in field and detailed calibration studies in laboratory. Calibrator used to determine such operating parameters of instrument as optical collection angles, depth of field, profile of laser beam used to measure particles, and response to trajectory of particle. Also used to align instrument. Pinhole reused any number of times without risk of variation in diffraction pattern. Furthermore, size of pinhole chosen precisely and at will.

  11. Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

    2013-11-21

    The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

  12. Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument

    ScienceCinema

    Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

    2014-02-10

    The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

  13. Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.

    PubMed

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simőes, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

    2013-10-18

    Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

  14. The Relationship between Postsecondary Instrumental Student's Musical Independence and Grade-Level, Instrument Family, Gender, and Instrumental Ensemble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others

    This study analyzed the relationship between MI (musical independence) and placement in college instrumental ensembles, the influence of instrument family and gender on the development of MI in postsecondary students, and identification of those outstanding MI students most at risk of dropping music as their college major. Instrumentalists (N=354)…

  15. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  16. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  17. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  18. Instrumentation for CTA site characterization

    E-print Network

    Fruck, Christian; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Mandát, Dušan; Schweizer, Thomas; Häfner, Dennis; Bulik, Tomasz; Cieslar, Marek; Costantini, Heide; Dominik, Michal; Ebr, Jan; Garczarczyk, Markus; Lorentz, Eckart; Pareschi, Giovanni; Pech, Miroslav; Puerto-Giménez, Irene; Teshima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Many atmospheric and climatic criteria have to be taken into account for the selection of a suitable site for the next generation of imaging air-shower Cherenkov telescopes, the "Cherenkov Telescope Array" CTA. Such data are not available with sufficient precision or the comparability to allow for a comprehensive characterization of the proposed sites to be made. Identical cross-calibrated instruments have been developed which allow for precise comparison between sites, the cross-validation of existing data, and the ground-validation of satellite data. The site characterization work package of the CTA consortium opted to construct and deploy 9 copies of an autonomous multi-purpose weather sensor, incorporating an infrared cloud sensor a newly developed sensor for measuring the light of the night sky, and an All-Sky-Camera, the whole referred to as Autonomous Tool for Measuring Observatory Site COnditions PrEcisely (ATMOSCOPE). We present here the hardware that was combined into the ATMOSCOPE and characterize ...

  19. Precision connector for well instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.L.; Fraser, E.C.; Rorden, L.H.; Bauer, W.H.

    1987-03-03

    A borehole instrumentation assembly is described comprising a plurality of segments adapted to travel through a borehole together; a male portion fixed to one of the segments having first and second surfaces inclined with respect to one another at a predetermined angle; a female portion fixed to the other of the segments defining a cavity adapted to receive at least part of the male portion and having third and fourth surfaces disposed in the cavity corresponding in shape respectively to the first and second surfaces and inclined relative to one another at the predetermined angle so as to mate with the first and second surfaces of the male portion when the cavity receives the male portion. The cavity has a bottom surface and the male portion has a fifth surface which is spaced from the bottom of the cavity when the first and second surfaces mate respectively with the third and fourth surfaces so that interference between the fifth surface and the cavity bottom does not prevent the first and second surfaces of the male portion from mating with the third and fourth surfaces of the female portion if there is a change in the depth within the cavity that the male portion must achieve to provide the mating; and means for fastening the male and female portions together while the first and second surfaces are mated with the third and fourth surfaces.

  20. The JEM-EUSO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Marco; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the JEM-EUSO instrument. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) will observe Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. It will detect UV-light of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by UHECRs traversing the Earth's atmosphere. For each event, the detector will determine the energy, arrival direction and the type of the primary particle. The advantage of a space-borne detector resides in the large field of view, using a target volume of about 1012 tons of atmosphere, far greater than what is achievable from ground. Another advantage is a nearly uniform sampling of the whole celestial sphere. The corresponding increase in statistics will help to clarify the origin and sources of UHECRs and characterize the environment traversed during their production and propagation. JEM-EUSO is a 1.1 ton refractor telescope using an optics of 2.5 m diameter Fresnel lenses to focus the UV-light from EAS on a focal surface composed of about 5,000 multi-anode photomultipliers, for a total of ?3?105 channels. A multi-layer parallel architecture handles front-end acquisition, selecting and storing valid triggers. Each processing level filters the events with increasingly complex algorithms using FPGAs and DSPs to reject spurious events and reduce the data rate to a value compatible with downlink constraints.

  1. Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

  2. Overview of the instrumentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieberding, William C.

    1989-04-01

    This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

  3. Overview of the instrumentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieberding, William C.

    1989-01-01

    This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

  4. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  5. Optical infrared sky survey instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    An unusual, highly modified, Baker reflector-corrector class telescope has been adapted for wide field survey photography in the near infrared. This optical system uses a full field corrector plate and a field flattening lens to provide a flat field subtending about 4.5 deg on the sky. The small aperture telescope (20 inch primary) has been modified for use in the Newtonian focus configuration while preserving the optical elements of the Prime focus configuration. The telescope has been further modified to accept a very large format (146mm diameter photocathode) image intensifier camera to serve as a detector. The camera output is recorded photographically on film rather than glass plates. This unique instrument system is used in a program of sky survey photography in the optical infrared (8000-9000A bandpass) supplemented by visual bandpass photography. The photographs obtained with this system are of value not only for the extreme redness of the band but also because of their high resolution and their freedom from hydrogen emission.

  6. Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

    2000-01-01

    Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

  7. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  8. Instrumentation for trace emission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1994-10-01

    Rising concerns about the potential release of harmful elements into the environment from coal utilization have driven the development of new analytical capabilities. And recent environmental regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Amendments, demand superior performance from new coal-based technologies as regards their pollution emission potential. Currently available instrumentation for fossil fuel process and combustion monitoring requires sample extraction and remote analysis in a laboratory. This type of monitoring is not adequate for commercialization of many of the advanced technologies under development at METC. Especially challenging is the task of sampling and characterizing systems at high temperature and pressure. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer has the potential to perform elemental composition analysis for the purpose of continuous emissions monitoring. The shortcomings of conventional ICP systems plumbed directly to high-temperature and high-pressure process systems have been previously discussed. In brief, these systems cannot sustain a plasma in a gas stream containing a large proportion of molecular gases, they cannot be connected to hot, pressurized sample lines, and the plasma emission spectrum contains strong interfering molecular bands. The ICP system the authors are developing addresses all these difficulties.

  9. LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  10. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  11. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  12. Agilent 6520 LC/MS Instrument Operation Guidelines General Instrument Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    Agilent 6520 LC/MS Instrument Operation Guidelines General Instrument Guidelines 1 using the following language: LC/MS data was acquired on an Agilent 6520 Q the supernatant fluids. 3. Ensure that selected solvents are compatible with your HPLC

  13. Unmanned Instrument Platform for Undersea Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, G.; Hansen, G. R.; Gulizia, R. W.; Paluzzi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Instruments accommodated on moving underwater platform. Towable underwater platform 3.2 meters long, 1.2 meters wide, 1.4 meters high and has mass of about 1,250 kilogram. Platform remotely operated and unmanned. Serves as test bed for development of ocean-measuring instruments and sonars at depths to 20,000 feet.

  14. VELA: A Microprocessor-Based Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Provides a general description of a preprogramed, microprocessor-based laboratory instrument, discussing its use in monitoring: (1) environmental changes; (2) distribution of count rates from a radioactive source, and (3) motion on an air tract. Includes list of the instrument's various capabilities: frequency meter, voltmeter, interval timer, and…

  15. Achievement goals, learning strategies and instrumental performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siw Graabraek Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers to support students in order

  16. HTGR PRESSURE AND DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    The possibility of separating pressure and differential pressure ; indicating instruments from the helium systems of the HTGR by means of a ; diaphragm-sealed filled system is discussed. lt is recommended that conventional ; instrumentation be used in the reactor, main coolant system, helium handling and ; storage system, and control rod drive system and that diaphragm-sealed filled ; systems

  17. The CAPMAP Instrument and its First Season

    E-print Network

    Denis Barkats

    2003-05-30

    I describe here the new CAPMAP (Cosmic Anisotropy Polarization MAPer) instrument, which performed its first season of observing between February and April 2003 from the Crawford Hill 7-meter antenna in NJ. CAPMAP is based on the design for the PIQUE instrument, but has better sensitivity and superior angular resolution.

  18. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  19. Instrumentation of the DNER Circular Track

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Almeida da Silva; Laura Maria Goretti da Motta

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the instrumentation used on the Experimental Circular Track of Brazil's National Highway Department (DNER—Departamento Nacional de Estradas de Rodagem), with the purpose of studying the use of concrete (whitetopping) to resurface flexible pavements. This instrumentation was made up of six strain gauges which were imbedded in the pavement layers. The results obtained from the sensor measurements were

  20. PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

  1. Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

  2. The Treatment Validity of Autism Screening Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…

  3. Optical technologies for UV remote sensing instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. Keski-Kuha; J. F. Osantowski; D. B. Leviton; T. T. Saha; R. A. Boucarut; J. S. Gum; G. A. Wright; C. M. Fleetwood; T. J. Madison

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade significant advances in technology have made possible development of instruments with substantially improved efficiency in the UV spectral region. In the area of optical coatings and materials, the importance of recent developments in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, SiC films, and multilayer coatings in the context of ultraviolet instrumentation design are discussed. For

  4. Project Developmental Continuity Evaluation: Implementation Rating Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

    This instrument is part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. The Implementation Rating Instrument (IRI) was developed to provide a quantitative…

  5. Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. G.

    1967-01-01

    Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

  6. BIT: A Tool for Instrumenting Java Bytecodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Bok Lee; Benjamin G. Zorn

    1997-01-01

    BIT (Bytecode Instrumenting Tool) is a collection of Java classes that allow one to build customized tools to instrument Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecodes. Because understanding program behavior is an essential part of developing effective optimization algorithms, researchers and software developers have built numerous tools that carry out program analysis. Although there are existing tools that analyze and modify executables

  7. COACHE Faculty Job Satisfaction Survey SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    COACHE Faculty Job Satisfaction Survey SURVEY INSTRUMENT 2011-12 © 2011 President & Fellows of Education #12;#12;The Collaborative on Academic Careers in Higher Education Faculty Job Satisfaction Survey in Higher Education Faculty Job Satisfaction Survey 2011-2012 Survey Instrument Theme Benchmark Question

  8. Lasso Methods for Gaussian Instrumental Variables Models

    E-print Network

    Belloni, Alexandre

    2011-02-25

    In this note, we propose the use of sparse methods (e.g., LASSO, Post-LASSO, p LASSO, and Post-p LASSO) to form first-stage predictions and estimate optimal instruments in linear instrumental variables (IV) models with ...

  9. Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Y H Pui; Benjamin Y H Liu

    1988-01-01

    Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews

  10. Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic instrument has been developed for use in quantitative nondestructive evaluation of material defects such as cracks, voids, inclusions, and unbonds. Instrument is provided with standard pulse source and transducer for each frequency range selected and includes integral aids that allow calibration to prescribed standards.

  11. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

  12. The Trumpet, Cornet, and Related Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    th century a long, metal straight trumpet, called the buisine was in common use. For the next several centuries brass trumpets retained the basic playing properties of this early instrument, although they were made in several different shapes. Since keys and valves were not yet invented for brass instruments, these trumpets could only play in a single key, on a

  13. Life Events and Academic Performance: Instrument Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Janet; Cartwright, Noel

    In April 1987, a pilot study was undertaken to develop an instrument designed to assess the effects of life events on undergraduate students' academic performance. Focus was on the design and construction of the instrument--the Life Events and Academic Performance Questionnaire (LEAPQ). Subjects were 75 male and 75 female undergraduates at a large…

  14. A laser tracking dynamic robot metrology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. A.; Mayer, J. R. R.

    1989-01-01

    Research work over several years has resulted in the development of a laser tracking instrument capable of dynamic 3-D measurements of robot end-effector trajectories. The instrument characteristics and experiments to measure the static and dynamic performance of a robot in an industrial manufacturing environment are described. The use of this technology for space applications is examined.

  15. Frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Danner, Aaron

    2012-09-01

    We analyze frequency spectra of optical devices called absolute optical instruments. We show that they have very specific properties: the eigenfrequencies form tight, almost equidistantly spaced groups. We prove this by theoretical analysis and demonstrate by numerically calculated spectra of various examples of absolute instruments.

  16. General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1917-01-01

    Report includes specifications for the use and production of instruments used in the navigation and operation of aircraft. Specifications are included for the following instruments: barometer or altimeter, compass, air speed meter, inclinometer, drift meter, tachometer, oil gauge, oil pressure gauge, gasoline gauge, gasoline flow indicator, distance indicator, barograph, angle of attack indicator, radiator temperature indicator, gasoline feed system pressure indicator, sextant, airplane director.

  17. A Leadership Development Instrument for Students: Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper updates the research literature on the Student Leadership Practices Inventory, which is one of the few leadership development instruments targeted for college students. The psychometric properties of a revised version of the instrument are also provided, along with a discussion of developmental issues pertinent to developing and…

  18. [What's new in instrumental dermatology?].

    PubMed

    Amici, J-M

    2014-12-01

    This "What's new in instrumental dermatology" focuses on cutaneous oncologic surgery, base on a review of the 2012-2014 literature. First, the ability of dermatologists to make a good "oncologic reading of tumors" is the key of radical surgical treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the biopsy are discussed. Then, the second message is the management of anticoagulants, that should not be interrupted for skin surgery. Despite recommendations, this practice is not followed in 40% of cases; this point is critical because bleeding complications are minor compared to potential morbidity of thrombotic events when stopping these medications. Regarding infection, nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is identified as a risk factor for wound infection. A preoperative shower with chlorhexidine and mupirocin topical decolonization of nostril reduces this risk. Surgical techniques are trying to reach minimalism, by reducing undermining and scarring. On the trunk, using deep slow resorbable sutures improve scarring. In addition using adhesive sutures (strip) reduce the wideness of scar. On the face, the lower third of the nose is the most challenging because of the free edges, which are deformable. In this location bilobed or trilobed transposition flap offer the advantage of remaining in the nasal aesthetic unit and not disturbing the free edges of the nasal orifices. Regarding scarring, early hypertrophic scar is now well defined and linked with transposition flaps of the nasal region. An early treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection appears to be effective. Finally, the biological mechanism of the effectiveness of compression in the prevention and treatment of dystrophic scar is now clear. The mechanotransduction explain how a mechanical stress of the skin activates biological cell pathways, which regulate the quality of collagen synthesis and the arrangement of skin fibrosis. PMID:25539752

  19. Instrumental Variables Estimation of Heteroskedastic Linear Models Using All Lags of Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. West; Ka-fu Wong; Stanislav Anatolyev

    2009-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a technique for instrumental variables estimation of linear models with conditional heteroskedasticity. The technique uses approximating parametric models for the projection of right-hand side variables onto the instrument space, and for conditional heteroskedasticity and serial correlation of the disturbance. Use of parametric models allows one to exploit information in all lags of instruments, unconstrained by degrees

  20. Additional Instruments Useful in Studying Creative Behavior and Creative Talent. Part IV, Noncommercially Available Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltsounis, Bill; Honeywell, Larry

    1980-01-01

    The article lists and briefly describes 78 noncommercially available instruments useful in studying and measuring creative behavior and creative talent. In addition to a brief description of the instrument, each entry lists the author(s) and the journal or publication reporting on the instrument. (DLS)

  1. Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica (thermal) IR instruments from Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from Antarctica (thermal) IR instruments from Antarctica: what can be gained Ralf Siebenmorgen Why? pwv, T, aerosols IR projects: DomeC and elsewhere Science cases Conclusion: my favoured modes (thermal) IR := 2-24µm = K,L,M,N,Q #12;Ralf Siebenmorgen IR instrument from

  2. Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T; Kosson, David S

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed using the PCL-R based on interview and file review. We controlled for potentially important covariates, namely IQ and prior violence. Results were in part consistent with findings from studies with adolescents, in that we identified a positive relationship between instrumentality of violence and manipulative interpersonal style. Results differed from youth studies with regard to relationships between instrumentality and other facets of psychopathy. The implications of our study are discussed with regard to treatment and the developmental stability of the relationship between psychopathic traits and instrumental violence. PMID:19663661

  3. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  4. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite: instrument hardware.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, V.; Melnick, G. J.; Erickson, N.; Goldsmith, P.; Harwit, M.; Schieder, R.; Snell, R. L.; Stauffer, J. R.

    The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) will study Galactic star formation and interstellar chemistry through a survey of dense molecular clouds in five astrophysically important transitions of H2O, H218O, O2, C I, and 13CO. To carry out this mission the SWAS instrument and spacecraft are designed to embody all the elements of a ground-based radio telescope. The "instrument" portion of the satellite is comprised of: (1) the antenna, (2) two heterodyne receivers, (3) an acousto-optical spectrometer, (4) the thermal control system, (5) the instrument control electronics, (6) the star tracker, and (7) the instrument structure. The "spacecraft" portion of the satellite is comprised of: (1) the attitude control system (ACS), (2) the solar arrays and power regulating hardware, (3) the onboard command, data, and ACS computer, (4) the solid-state memory for data recording, and (5) all data uplink and downlink receivers and transmitters. This contribution discusses the instrument hardware.

  5. Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagzdina, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.

  6. The cleaning of instruments and syringes

    PubMed Central

    Darmady, E. M.; Hughes, K. E. A.; Drewett, S. E.; Prince, D.; Tuke, Winifred; Verdon, Patricia

    1965-01-01

    The dangers to the handler of syringes used for routine injections were found to be negligible, but known infected syringes and those contaminated with antibiotics should be autoclaved before handling as a high proportion of these carry pathogenic organisms. Mechanical methods of cleaning syringes and instruments are assessed. The use of an artificial soil for testing purposes is described. Using this soil, ultrasonics by themselves are inadequate for cleaning syringes and instruments. Agitation with ultrasonics is essential for syringes, but is insufficient for instruments. Detergents are therefore an essential adjunct to the cleaning process. For syringes Pyroneg proved to be the most satisfactory, particularly if they had been previously siliconized. The best detergent for instruments contaminated with these types of soil was Penesolve 814 at a temperature of 95°C. but the instruments must be adequately rinsed after this treatment. A number of other detergents and cleaning agents are discussed. PMID:14247708

  7. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Systčme International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms of change. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of post-launch radiometric calibration of remote sensing satellite instruments, through inter-calibration.

  8. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes, and thus validates, complex command scripts prior to their up-linking to the SAM instrument. As an output, this module generates synthetic data and message logs at a rate that is similar to the actual instrument.

  9. Detecting Human Motion: Introducing Step, Fall and ADL Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Dries; Weyn, Maarten; de Ron, Geert

    Telecare is the term given to offering remote care to elderly and vulnerable people, providing them with the care and reassurance needed to allow them to keep living at home. As telecare is gaining research interests, we'll introduce a system which can be used to monitor the steps, falls and daily activities of high risk populations in this paper. Using this system it is possible for a patient to rehabilitate at home or for elderly to keep living independently in their own house while they are still monitored. This leads to a huge cost reduction in health services and moreover it will make patients satisfied for being able to live at home as long as possible and in all comfort.

  10. Adl et al. 2012 FIG. 1.--Maximum likelihood

    E-print Network

    sickness Bodo #12;Discicristata Heterolobosea · mostly amoebae, often afagellate stage within a life cycle for posterior probabilities = 1.0. Hackett et al. 2007 SAR #12;(Archibald2009) Hacrobia What are algae?? #12 branches for posterior probabilities = 1.0. Hackett et al. 2007 putative single enslavement of a green alga

  11. Adl et al. 2012 FIG. 1.--Maximum likelihood

    E-print Network

    amoebae, often afagellate stage within a life cycle · freshwater or terrestrial organisms, feeding for posterior probabilities = 1.0. Hackett et al. 2007 SAR #12;(Archibald2009) Hacrobia What are algae?? #12 enslavement of a green alga Cabozoan theory (Cavalier-Smith 1999 Rhizaria and Excavata (Cabozoa) = sister

  12. Uncertain Information Management for ADL Monitoring in Smart Homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Hong; Chris Nugent; Weiru Liu; Jianbing Ma; Sally McClean; Bryan Scotney; Maurice Mulvenna

    Smart Homes offer improved living conditions and levels of independence for the elderly population who require support with\\u000a both physical and cognitive functions. Sensor technology development and communication networking have been well explored\\u000a within the area of smart living environments to meet the demands for ageing in place. In contrast, information management\\u000a still faces a challenge to be practically sound.

  13. Instrument support modules for the SOAR telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Fernando G.; Ingerson, Thomas E.; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Tighe, Roberto; Martinez, Manuel; Gallardo, Juan; Ochoa, Hugo

    2004-10-01

    The SOAR Telescope, near completion on Cerro Pachon - Chile, will carry Instrument Support Modules (ISMs) mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. Each ISM has three focal stations and is capable of making rapid instrument changes between them. Both ISMs also carry a Comparison Lamp System (CLS), guider and an acquisition camera, which are shared between the three instruments. One ISM supports IR instruments. The other is used for "Optical" instruments operating at wavelengths below 900nm. Beam steering mechanisms direct light from the SOAR science field or the CLS to the instrument in use. In the IR-ISM, light is sent to the lateral ports by dichroic mirrors which reflect IR and transmit wavelengths from 400-900nm to the guider. In the Optical-ISM, light is directed to the lateral ports by the use of first surface pick-off mirrors. Guiding is done off-axis. During operation, both ISMs can be rotated by 360° and must carefully control differential flexure between the guider and focal planes. A method of accurate relative flexure measurement has been developed where the ISM is rotated on its handling cart while carrying instrument mass simulators which reproduce its nominal payloads. In this paper, the ISM and its support sub-modules are described. Results of flexure measurements and tests of the CLS are provided.

  14. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  15. Applications of transputers to astronomical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.M.; Beard, S,M.; Kelly, B.D.; Paterson, M.J. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1990-04-01

    Parallel processing techniques based on transputers are being applied to astronomical instruments under development. On the COSMOS photographic plate measuring machine, a data farm of transputers allows backgrounds to be determined in realtime instead of requiring 1.5 hours of offline VAX processing per plate. Transputers have been adopted as the embedded processors in a submillimetre bolometer array instrument and their use is planned in demanding future applications such as thermal infrared array instruments and data compression applied to remote observing. The techniques of interfacing transputers to external hardware and to VAX/VMS computers are discussed.

  16. The Mars Exploration Rover Instrument Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric T.; Bonitz, Robert G.; Shiraishi, Lori R.; Melko, Joseph P.; Leger, P. Chris

    2005-01-01

    During Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface operations, the scientific data gathered by the in situ instrument suite has been invaluable with respect to the discovery of a significant water history at Meridiani Planum and the hint of water processes at work in Gusev Crater. Specifically, the ability to perform precision manipulation from a mobile platform (i.e., mobile manipulation) has been a critical part of the successful operation of Spirit and Opportunity rovers. As such, this paper describes the MER Instrument Positioning System that allows the in situ instruments to operate and collect their important science data using a robust, dexterous robotic arm combined with visual target selection and autonomous software functions.

  17. Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggiola, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Using support from NASA Grant No. NAG 2-963, SRI International successfully completed the project, entitled, 'Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation.' This effort (SRI Project 7383) covered the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a real-time aerosol speciation instrument in NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Spring 1996 SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission. This final technical report describes the pertinent details of the instrument design, its abilities, its deployment during SUCCESS and the data acquired from the mission, and the post-mission calibration, data reduction, and analysis.

  18. Condensation Of Volatile Contaminant In An Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Jenkins, Teresa K.; Maag, Carl R.; Taylor, Daniel M.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of deposition of contaminant of cooled optical detectors in Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC), an instrument in Hubble Space Telescope. To understand phenomenon, initially thought to be deposition of water from graphite/epoxy optical-bench material in instrument, researchers mounted several diagnostic instruments on access plate to monitor interior of WF/PC housing and optical bench. Temperature-controlled quartz-crystal microbalance (TQCM) measures adsorbed and desorbed volatile condensible material on surfaces in WF/PC.

  19. X-1 cockpit instrument panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft cockpit instruments display. The gages reflecting the airplane's parameters such as indicated pressure altitude, indicated airspeed, rocket chamber pressure, fuel and liquid oxygen supply, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and Mach number are shown. Other information pertinent for the pilot to complete a successful flight is also displayed. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system of increased capacity, and a thinner high-speed wing. The X-1E was used to obtain in-flight data at twice the speed of sound, with particular emphasis placed on investigating the improvements achieved with the high-speed wing. These wings, made by Stanley Aircraft, were only 3 3/8-inches thick at the root and had 343 gauges installed in them to measure structural loads and aerodynamic heating. The X-1E used its rocket engine to power it up to a speed of 1,471 miles per hour (Mach 2.24) and to an altitude of 73,000 feet. Like the X-1 it was air-launched. The X-1 aircraft were almost 31 feet long and had a wingspan of 28 feet. The X-1 was built of conventional aluminum stressed-skin construction to extremely high structural standards. The X-1E was also 31 feet long but had a wingspan of only 22 feet, 10 inches. It was powered by a Reaction Motors, Inc., XLR-8-RM-5, four-chamber rocket engine. As did all X-1 rocket engines, the LR-8-RM-5 engine did not have throttle capability, but instead, depended on ignition of any one chamber or group of chambers to vary speed. There were also X-1A, X-1B, and and (a short-lived) X-1D models of the X-1.

  20. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

  1. MDL: A Language And Compiler For Dynamic Program Instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; O. Niam; B. P. Miller; Zhichen Xu; M. J. R. Goncalves; Ling Zheng

    1997-01-01

    We use a form of dynamic code generation, called dynamic instrumentation, to collect data about the execution of an application program. Dynamic instrumentation allows us to instrument running programs to collect performance and other types of information. The instrumentation code is generated incrementally and can be inserted and removed at any time. Our instrumentation currently runs on the SPARC, PA-RISC,

  2. Compact Sensing Design of a Handheld Active Tremor Compensation Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Win Tun Latt; U-Xuan Tan; Cheng Yap Shee; Cameron N. Riviere

    2009-01-01

    Active physiological tremor compensation instruments have been under research and development recently. The sensing unit of the instruments provides information on three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) motion of the instrument tip using accelerations provided by accelerometers placed inside the instruments. A complete vector of angular acceleration of the instrument needs to be known to obtain information on three DOF motions of the

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  16. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5400 Coagulation instrument. (a)...

  18. NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

  19. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  20. The measurement accuracy of passive radon instruments.

    PubMed

    Beck, T R; Foerster, E; Buchröder, H; Schmidt, V; Döring, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the data having been gathered from interlaboratory comparisons of passive radon instruments over 10 y with respect to the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy is discussed in terms of the systematic and the random measurement error. The analysis shows that the systematic measurement error of the most instruments issued by professional laboratory services can be within a range of ±10 % from the true value. A single radon measurement has an additional random measurement error, which is in the range of up to ±15 % for high exposures to radon (>2000 kBq h m(-3)). The random measurement error increases for lower exposures. The analysis especially applies to instruments with solid-state nuclear track detectors and results in proposing criteria for testing the measurement accuracy. Instruments with electrets and charcoal have also been considered, but the low stock of data enables only a qualitative discussion. PMID:23878346

  1. Field instrumentation for vocalizing avian survey

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Grant (Grant Andrew)

    2007-01-01

    We present automated instruments to facilitate the monitoring of vocalizing species in their environment with minimal disruption. These devices offer recording and acoustic localization of bird calls and relay data via the ...

  2. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  3. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOEpatents

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  4. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  5. Viewing the ACRIM Instrument on UARS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    To understand the solar effects on the ozone layer, UARS was equiped with three instruments to measure the sun. One of them, the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor, ACRIM, measures the total energy output from the sun.

  6. ChemLab - Instruments and Techniques

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-06-22

    This website contains information on using and caring for common chemistry lab instruments as well as information on performing common laboratory techniques. Included is information on an analytical balance, pH meter, spectrometer, calorimetry, centrifugation, titration, and vacuum filtration.

  7. Advances in miniaturized instruments for genomics.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lei, Kin Fong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the "-omics" era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  8. MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY -PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    indicated that by using coiled tubing and miniaturized conventional-drilling hardware, drilling microholesMICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY - PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT Jim Albright j Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors

  9. An Innovative Universal Screw Removal Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Elmada?, Mehmet; Uzer, Gökçer; Acar, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present the clinical benefits of an instrument designed to facilitate removal of polyaxial screws during revision surgery. Methods All polyaxial screws can be removed without additional materials or a large amount of debridement using our newly designed instrument. Forty-two screws were removed from five patients without any complications using this instrument. Results We removed the cap screws and rods from the 42 polyaxial screws in five patients and made them monoaxial using the new screw removal apparatus. The screws and rods were removed quickly in a minimally invasive way with no complications. No damage to the pedicle or surrounding soft tissue occurred during screw removal. No neurogenic changes developed during revision surgery after changing the screws. Conclusion This newly designed screw removal instrument was used safely and effectively to remove all polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws.

  10. The Journey to Fielded BioInstrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jr., R M

    2005-02-24

    Over the last ten years, a team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory created fieldable instruments that performed identification/quantification via bioassays. These instruments have been based on molecular surface-recognition assays, such as immunoassays, and on nucleic-acid-based assays, such as the polymerase chain reaction. In 1996, we participated in the Joint Field Trials 3, employing both immunoassays as well as the polymerase chair reaction. In 1998, we participated in the Joint Field Trials 4, using only the real-time polymerase chain reaction, as implemented on a 10-chamber instrument. Our hand-held, real-time PCR instrument, known as HANAA has been commercialized as the Bioseeq{reg_sign}, by Smiths Detection. More recently, teams from LLNL have built and fielded an autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS).

  11. Instrumentation at Paranal Observatory: maintaining the instrument suite of five large telescopes and its interferometer alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Gordon; Alvarez, José Luis; Beltrán, Juan; Bourget, Pierre; Castillo, Roberto; Diaz, Álvaro; Haddad, Nicolás; Leiva, Alfredo; Mardones, Pedro; O'Neal, Jared; Ribes, Mauricio; Riquelme, Miguel; Robert, Pascal; Rojas, Chester; Valenzuela, Javier

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provides interesting miscellaneous information regarding the instrumentation activities at Paranal Observatory. It introduces the suite of 23 instruments and auxiliary systems that are under the responsibility of the Paranal Instrumentation group, information on the type of instruments, their usage and downtime statistics. The data is based on comprehensive data recorded in the Paranal Night Log System and the Paranal Problem Reporting System whose principles are explained as well. The work organization of the 15 team members around the high number of instruments is laid out, which includes: - Maintaining older instruments with obsolete components - Receiving new instruments and supporting their integration and commissioning - Contributing to future instruments in their developing phase. The assignments of the Instrumentation staff to the actual instruments as well as auxiliary equipment (Laser Guide Star Facility, Mask Manufacturing Unit, Cloud Observation Tool) are explained with respect to responsibility and scheduling issues. The essential activities regarding hardware & software are presented, as well as the technical and organizational developments within the group towards its present and future challenges.

  12. [Economic criteria of comparing radionuclide diagnostic instruments].

    PubMed

    Trushin, V I

    1990-01-01

    Based on a number of general postulates a mathematical equation was derived for computing the economically justified unbalance of the prices of two different instruments for the same uses depending on concrete values of their main technical parameters. The approach thus elaborated can be used for an analysis of instruments for any uses including medical ones. The criterion suggested makes it possible as well to assess, from the economic standpoint, the efficacy of the technical servicing of the equipment. PMID:2115963

  13. The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Turneaure

    2007-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and

  14. Recent progress in optical oxygen sensor instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Trettnak; Wolfgang Gruber; Franz Reininger; Ingo Klimant

    1995-01-01

    Optical methods for the determination of dissolved or gaseous oxygen are mainly based on the principle of fluorescence quenching. Measurement schemes have been reported which employ various oxygen-sensitive dyes and bulky instrumentation. Typically, expensive fluorescence spectrometers or fibre-optic photometers have been used, and the applicability of such instruments is rather limited. A system based on low-cost semiconductor devices (light-emitting diodes

  15. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-06-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate.

  16. Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and a set of broadband transducers for typical use at 1, 2, 5 and 10 MHz. The system provides for its own calibration, and on the oscilloscope, presents a quantitative (digital) indication of time base and sensitivity scale factors and some measurement data.

  17. Survey of beam instrumentation used in SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Ecklund, S.D.

    1991-03-01

    A survey of beam instruments used at SLAC in the SLC machine is presented. The basic utility and operation of each device is briefly described. The various beam instruments used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), can be classified by the function they perform. Beam intensity, position and size are typical of the parameters of beam which are measured. Each type of parameter is important for adjusting or tuning the machine in order to achieve optimum performance. 39 refs.

  18. Alienation as Measured by Three Different Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Tolor

    1974-01-01

    Three instruments—namely, the Gould Manifest Alienation Measure, Rotter's Internal-External scale, and Dean's Alienation Measure—were administered to 41 male and 69 female students because they reflected different traditions and conceptualizations of the alienation syndrome. It was found that the three instruments intercorrelated significantly for both sexes and therefore seemed to measure much in common. However, the three subscales on the Dean

  19. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Wolfschmidt

    2002-01-01

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than

  20. Instrumentation related complications in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Ballas, Efstathios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Karamanis, Eirineos; Mimidis, George; Tolis, Konstantinos; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2012-01-01

    Spinal instrumentation constructs are frequently necessary for the surgical management of patients with variable spinal pathology. However, surgical complications may appear. These should be detected early and managed to achieve recovery and good functional outcome for the patient. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the most common instrumentation-related complications of spine surgery as well as a diagnostic plan and treatment options for the management of these challenging entities once they occur. PMID:23662657

  1. The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turneaure, John

    2007-04-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and a telescope that tracks the guide star, IM Pegasi. Each gyroscope is read out with a dc SQUID system utilizing the London magnetic moment of the spinning gyroscope. The two axes of the telescope are read out with an image divider assembly, solid-state photo detectors and JFET preamplifiers. The telescope and gyroscopes are mechanically and thermally linked by a fused quartz block, which forms the metrology bench for the experiment. The instrument is located in a probe/helium dewar system, which provides a low-temperature environment of about 2.7 K for the instrument, as well as the ultra-low magnetic field, the ultrahigh magnetic shielding of the on-orbit ambient magnetic field, and the ultrahigh vacuum environments. The instrument was designed to allow a measurement of the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions to an accuracy of better than 0.5 mill-arc second/year for one year of science data collection. The instrument also provides the signals needed for drag-free and attitude control of the space vehicle. This presentation will include a description of the instrument and its principal on-orbit performance characteristics. Many persons at various institutions contributed to the development of the instrument. Numerous contributed presentations in a poster session will provide more detail.

  2. Eye rotation and vignetting in visual instruments.

    PubMed

    Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Rayces, Juan L

    2002-11-01

    The eye can rotate to accommodate the angular position of an object and the distance of the object from it. The rotation of the eye inside its socket to align its visual axis in the direction of an off-axis image may introduce full or partial vignetting when one is looking through a visual instrument with a real exit pupil. We analyze the effects of vignetting owing to rotation of the eye in visual instruments with real exit pupils. PMID:12412650

  3. Automated instrument for ultrasonic structural analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Peregudov; S. G. Yakovlev

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for measuring the velocity of bulk acoustic waves in solids is described. A small measurement error (?0.05%)\\u000a is achieved by implementing a phase technique. Microprocessor-based automation shortens the time for one measurement to 3–5\\u000a sec. The instrument can be used for the quality control of solid materials (glass, ceramics, crystals, etc.) in a mass-production\\u000a environment.

  4. Construction and testing of a nanomachining instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Gao; Robert J. Hocken; John A. Patten; John Lovingood; Don A. Lucca

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a nanomachining instrument that was developed for conducting nanocutting, nanoscratching, and nanoindentation experiments. A piezoelectric tube scanner (PZT) is employed to generate three-dimensional machining motions. The sample is moved by the PZT, and the tool is kept stationary during machining. The machining forces are measured by force sensors with a resolution of sub-milliNewtons. The instrument is compact

  5. Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Boyd; H. N. Le; R. Somberg

    2005-01-01

    Summary This paper presents a review and discussion of eight self-report measures used to assess for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Because postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem, there is a need for reliable and valid screening instruments. Published psychometric data (e.g., reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, concurrent validity) of each self-report instrument are presented and

  6. LHC Beam Instrumentation Status and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Rhodri [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2006-11-20

    This presentation will aim to give an overview of the beam instrumentation foreseen for the LHC. A brief summary of the main systems will be followed by a discussion of areas where there have been recent advances, such as in the measurement of tune, chromaticity and coupling, or where there are still outstanding issues. The instrumentation to be delivered as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (US-LARP) will also be highlighted.

  7. LHC Beam Instrumentation Status and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rhodri

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will aim to give an overview of the beam instrumentation foreseen for the LHC. A brief summary of the main systems will be followed by a discussion of areas where there have been recent advances, such as in the measurement of tune, chromaticity and coupling, or where there are still outstanding issues. The instrumentation to be delivered as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (US-LARP) will also be highlighted.

  8. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  9. Status of the JWST/NIRSpec instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Ferruit, Pierre; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Böker, Torsten; De Marchi, Guido; Giardino, Giovanna; Sirianni, Marco; Stuhlinger, Martin; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Falcolini, Massimo; te Plate, Maurice B. J.; Cresci, Giovanni; Dorner, Bernhard; Ehrenwinkler, Ralf; Gnata, Xavier; Wettemann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is one of the four instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018. NIRSpec has been designed and built by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defense and Space Germany as prime contractor. The instrument covers the wavelength range from 0.6 to 5.3 micron and will be able to obtain spectra of more than 100 astronomical objects simultaneously by means of a configurable array of micro-shutters. It also features an integral field unit and a suite of slits for high contrast spectroscopy of individual objects. The extensive ground calibration campaign of NIRSpec was completed in Summer 2013, after which it was delivered to NASA for integration into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). We highlight the major results from the instrument level calibration campaign which demonstrated full compliance with all opto-mechanical performance requirements. In addition, we present the current status of the instrument, describe the ongoing preparations for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) test campaign to begin in June 2014, and briefly discuss plans for the pending exchange of the detector and micro-shutter assemblies following the first ISIM test cycle.

  10. Instrumentation suite at the MMT Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, M.; Williams, G. G.

    2010-07-01

    In the ten years since the converted 6.5m MMT was dedicated the observatory has built up an impressive suite of instrumentation to compliment the three interchangeable secondary mirrors. This review paper presents an up-to-date perspective on all the capabilities of our full range of instrumentation, highlighting newly commissioned instruments (the MMT and Magellan InfraRed Spectrograph (MMIRS), an infrared spectrograph) and new modes or upgrades for established instruments (such as; Red Channel, the MMT's workhorse spectrograph, Hectochelle, an optical fiber-fed, multi-object spectrograph and the AO instruments CLIO, a 5 micron camera and BLINC, a mid-infrared camera). The MMT's pioneering adaptive secondary mirror can be used with both natural guide stars (NGS) or with a Rayleigh laser guide star (LGS) system. The LGS has recently demonstrated wide-field partial compensation with ground layer adaptive optics and here we present progress to date. Finally, we report on the start of a project to investigate how the instrument suite has contributed to the science productivity the MMT over the last 10 years.

  11. 12 CFR 1805.103 - Awardee not instrumentality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Awardee not instrumentality. 1805.103 Section 1805.103...Provisions § 1805.103 Awardee not instrumentality. No Awardee (or its Community...deemed to be an agency, department, or instrumentality of the United...

  12. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments...1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing; (2) For linear scale instruments, at two points...

  13. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments...1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing; (2) For linear scale instruments, at two points...

  14. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments...1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing; (2) For linear scale instruments, at two points...

  15. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments...1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing; (2) For linear scale instruments, at two points...

  16. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments...1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing; (2) For linear scale instruments, at two points...

  17. 76 FR 38608 - Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...Industry and Security Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory Committee; Notice...Partially Closed Meeting The Sensors and Instrumentation Technical Advisory Committee (SITAC...controls applicable to sensors and instrumentation equipment and technology....

  18. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.167 Section 572.167 ...§ 572.167 Test conditions and instrumentation. The test conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR...

  19. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.103 Section 572.103... § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers...Recommended Practice J211, OCT 1988, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Class...

  20. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...