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1

The Classic Measure of Disability in Activities of Daily Living Is Biased by Age but an Expanded IADL/ADL Measure Is Not  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate, by age, the performance of 2 disability measures based on needing help: one using 5 classic activities of daily living (ADL) and another using an expanded set of 14 activities including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), walking, getting outside, and ADL (IADL/ADL). Methods. Guttman and item response theory (IRT) scaling methods are used with a large (N = 25,470) nationally representative household survey of individuals aged 18 years and older. Results. Guttman scalability of the ADL items increases steadily with age, reaching a high level at ages 75 years and older. That is reflected in an IRT model by age-related differential item functioning (DIF) resulting in age-biased measurement of ADL. Guttman scalability of the IADL/ADL items also increases with age but is lower than the ADL. Although age-related DIF also occurs with IADL/ADL items, DIF is lower in magnitude and balances out without causing age bias. Discussion. An IADL/ADL scale measuring need for help is hierarchical, unidimensional, and unbiased by age. It has greater content validity for measuring need for help in the community and shows greater sensitivity by age than the classic ADL measure. As demand for community services is increasing among adults of all ages, an expanded IADL/ADL measure is more useful than ADL.

2010-01-01

2

Trends in ADL and IADL Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Shanghai, China, 1998-2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated trends in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability from 1998 to 2008 among elder adults in Shanghai, China. Method. Our data came from 4 waves of the Shanghai Longitudinal Survey of Elderly Life and Opinion (1998, 2003, 2005, and 2008). ADL and IADL disabilities were recorded dichotomously (difficulty vs. no difficulty). The major independent variable was survey year. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomic conditions, family and social support, and other health conditions. Nested random-effect models were applied to estimate trends over time, referenced to 1998. Results. In comparison with the baseline year (1998), older adults in 2008 had lower odds of being ADL disabled, though the effect was no longer statistically significant when other health conditions were taken into account. Elders in 2003, 2005, and 2008 were 20%–26%, 17%–38%, and 53%–64% less likely to be IADL disabled than those in 1998, respectively, depending on the set of covariates included in the model. Discussion. Shanghai elders experienced substantial improvements in both ADL and IADL disability prevalence over the past decade. The trend toward improvement in IADL function is more consistent and substantial than that of ADL function.

2013-01-01

3

Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations.

Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

2012-01-01

4

The Prediction of ADL and IADL Disability Using Six Physical Indicators of Frailty: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Frailty is a predictor of disability. A proper understanding of the contribution of individual indicators of frailty in the prediction of disability is a requisite for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of the individual physical frailty indicators: gait speed, physical activity, hand grip strength, Body Mass Index (BMI), fatigue, and balance, for ADL and IADL disability. The sample consisted of 505 community-dwelling persons (?75 years, response rate 35.1%). Respondents first participated between November 2007 and June 2008, and a subset of all respondents participated again one year later (N = 264, 52.3% response rate). ADL and IADL disability were assessed by the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. BMI was assessed by self-report, and the other physical frailty indicators were assessed with the TUG test (gait speed), the LAPAQ (physical activity), a hand grip strength test, the SFQ (fatigue), and the Four-test balance scale. All six physical frailty indicators were associated with ADL and IADL disability. After controlling for previous disability, sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived lifestyle, and chronic diseases, only gait speed was predictive of both ADL and IADL disability, whereas there was a small effect of fatigue on IADL disability. Hence, these physical frailty indicators should be included in frailty assessment when predicting future disability.

Gobbens, Robbert J. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

2014-01-01

5

Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

2001-01-01

6

Evaluating elements of executive functioning as predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Executive functioning has been repeatedly linked to the integrity of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The present study examined the association of multiple executive functioning elements (i.e., working memory, generation, inhibition, planning, and sequencing) to IADLs among an older adult cohort at risk for future cognitive and functional decline. METHODS Seventy-two participants with prevalent but stable cardiovascular disease completed a neuropsychological protocol assessing multiple elements of executive functioning, including COWA, PASAT, DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test, DKEFS Trail-Making Test, DKEFS Tower Test, and Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Reliable informants completed a measure of IADLs. RESULTS Stepwise logistic regression selected a model involving a single significant predictor, a measure of inhibition (i.e., DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test), which had a significant regression coefficient. Subsequent correlation analyses confirmed an association between the inhibition measure and multiple IADL items. Inter-item comparisons among the IADLs revealed significant differences, such that telephone use and laundry were significantly more intact than most other IADLs while shopping and housekeeping were most compromised. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that inhibition, also known as susceptibility to interference, is most strongly related to IADL impairment among patients at risk for future cognitive and functional decline.

Jefferson, Angela L.; Paul, Robert H.; Ozonoff, Al; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

7

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2012-01-01

8

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2011-01-01

9

The long-term consequences of subarachnoid haemorrhage. 2: Prevalence of instrumental ADL disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 244 long-term survivors of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were examined at a follow-up concerning change in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A decrease from previous independence prevailed for 51 % of the sample. As expected, home-maintenance activities were more common pre-SAH for women than for men, and for these activities post-SAH disabilities were most frequently recorded for

Margareta Lindberg; Axel R Fugl-Meyer

1996-01-01

10

Is Fatigue an Independent Factor Associated with Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine the longitudinal association of poststroke fatigue with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL) and perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to establish whether this relationship is confounded by other determinants. Methods: A prospective cohort study of stroke patients consecutively admitted for inpatient rehabilitation was conducted. ADL, IADL and HRQoL were assessed in 223 patients

I. G. L. van de Port; G. Kwakkel; V. P. M. Schepers; C. T. I. Heinemans; E. Lindeman

2007-01-01

11

(Instrumental) activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of Daily Living, ADL) and the Lawton IADL scale (for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL) in 989 adults with ID aged 50 years and over living in community-based and institutional settings. Descriptives were presented by categories of gender, age, level of ID and mobility. Regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of these variables on total and item scores of ADL and IADL questionnaires. ADL and IADL scores in older adults with ID are comparable to those of vulnerable patient groups. Total ADL score was mainly determined by mobility, while total IADL score was mainly determined by level of ID. Of all 18 separate items of these questionnaires, 11 were determined more by mobility than level of ID. The Barthel Index and Lawton IADL scale are recommended for future use in research and clinical practice in this group. This study stresses the need to support mobility older adults with ID as much as possible, in order to optimize independency in this group. PMID:21550771

Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2011-01-01

12

Higher-Level Hand Motor Function in Aging and (Preclinical) Dementia: Its Relationship with (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Life – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A causal relationship between physical activity such as walking and cognitive functions – particularly executive functions and memory – has been observed in elderly people with and without dementia. Executive functions play an important role in the (instrumental) activities of daily life [(I)ADL]. However, a close relationship has also been found between motor activity of the upper limb, particularly the

Erik Scherder; Welmoed Dekker; Laura Eggermont

2008-01-01

13

Influence of cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia on IADL performance.  

PubMed

People with schizophrenia experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are required for independent living. Yet, factors that influence IADL performance are still poorly understood. Identification of such factors will contribute to the rehabilitation process and recovery. The present study aimed to examine the influence of cognitive abilities, schizophrenia symptoms, and demographic variables on IADL functioning during acute hospital admission. The participants were 81 adults with DSM-IV chronic schizophrenia. They were assessed on the Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL-R), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat), and the Kitchen Task Assessment (KTA) at acute hospitalization. The prediction model of IADL performance at this time consists of executive functioning (explained 21% of variance), memory and abstract thinking (explained 13.5%), negative symptoms (explained 13%), age of illness onset and years of education (explained 8%). The total explained variance is 53.5%. These results provide evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation process in inpatient settings. Such guidelines are important since planning of intervention processes and appropriate community integration programs often occurs during acute hospitalization, while the structured nature of inpatient settings limits natural variability in occupational performance. PMID:20560806

Lipskaya, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Kotler, Moshe

2011-09-01

14

Understanding the Complexities of Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: More Than Just Basic and Instrumental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (AD) is defined by both cognitive and functional decline; new criteria allow for identification of milder, non-functionally impaired patients. Understanding loss of autonomy in AD is essential, as later stages represent a significant burden and cost to patients, their families, and society. The purpose of the present analyses was to determine the factor structure of the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL) in a cohort of AD patients. Methods: Baseline ADCS-ADL assessments of 734 AD patients from the PLASA study were included in an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Because the ADCS-ADL was designed to assess change over time, change from baseline scores over 2 years were also analyzed using an EFA. Factorial solutions were evaluated based on cross-loading, non-loadings, and number of items per factor. Results: Mean age at baseline was 79.3, mean MMSE was 19.8 and 73.3‰ of participants were female. Baseline data suggested a 4-factor solution that included factors for basic ADLs (BADLs), domestic/household activities, communication/engagement with the environment, and outside activities. The change scores EFA suggested a 2-factor solution of BADLs and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Conclusions: Distinct factors of IADLs should be considered for further validation as areas of attention to catch early functional decline.

Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Coley, Nicola; Lepage, Benoit; Cantet, Christelle; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

2014-01-01

15

Can a Direct IADL Measure Detect Deficits in Persons with MCI?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a direct measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale designed for use with dementia patients can detect differences between persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly control subjects (NC). Methods This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal IADL scale data from MCI and NC subjects followed at an Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Results On a 52-point scale, MCI subjects (n = 30) scored significantly lower than NC subjects (n = 30) on the IADL scale (total score 47.17 vs. 48.77 points; t (58) = 2.34, p = .011) and its Memory subscale (5.27 vs. 6.6 points; t (58) = 3.29, p = .002).Examination of annualized IADL scale change scores revealed that 50% of MCI subjects had declined by one point, compared with 29% of NC. Conclusion A direct IADL measure for dementia patients is able to detect small differences between MCI and NC and cross-sectionally and longitudinally, but does not distinguish between groups.

Binegar, Dani L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Lacritz, Laura H.; Weiner, Myron F.; Cullum, C. Munro

2009-01-01

16

Expansion of Elderly Couples' IADL Caregiver Networks beyond the Marital Dyad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors influencing expansion of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) caregiver networks beyond the spouse/partner were studied, using data from the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) nationally representative sample of American elders (ages 70 and older). Analyses were based on 427 Black and White couples in which…

Feld, Sheila; Dunkle, Ruth E.; Schroepfer, Tracy; Shen, Huei-Wern

2006-01-01

17

Shallow Encoding and Forgetting Are Associated with Dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults Living with HIV Infection.  

PubMed

Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (?50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence. PMID:24695591

Fazeli, Pariya L; Doyle, Katie L; Scott, J Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

2014-05-01

18

New ADL Registry. ADL Registry Web Portal Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ADL Registry Web Portal Changes: ADL Registry Information Site - News and Announcements - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - Documentation - Events and Event registration. Search - Contribute - Register Repositories and Contributors - Practice Registry - ...

E. Sakmar J. Haag L. Lannom

2009-01-01

19

ADLs and dynamic architecture changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing ADLs typically support only static architecture specifica- tion and do not provide facilities for the support of dynamically changing architectures. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem: in order to adequately support dynamic architecture changes, ADLs can leverage techniques used in dynamic program- ming languages. In particular, changes to ADL specifications should be interpreted. To enable interpretation,

Nenad Medvidovic

1996-01-01

20

The Contribution of Trail Making to the Prediction of Performance-Based IADLs in Parkinson's Disease Without Dementia  

PubMed Central

Performance on part B of the Trail Making Test (TMT) contributes to the prediction of ability to complete instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although this suggests that cognitive flexibility is important in the everyday functioning of individuals with PD, this may not be that case as the TMT is multifactorial, involving motor speed, visual scanning, sequencing, and cognitive flexibility. The purpose of the current study was to determine which elements of the task contribute to the prediction of IADLs in a sample of 30 non-demented individuals with PD. Correlational analyses indicated strong relationships between a performance-based measure of IADLs and measures involving scanning, sequencing, and cognitive flexibility from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) TMT. Results from standard regressions indicated that measures of sequencing and level of depression but not scanning, cognitive flexibility, or demographic variables made a significant, independent contribution to the prediction of IADLs. These results suggest that the sequencing element of the TMT is paramount in the prediction of IADLs in PD.

Higginson, Christopher I.; Lanni, Kimberly; Sigvardt, Karen A.; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

21

Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics correlate with the self-reported ADL ability. Methods: Eighty patients admitted to hospital with COPD exacerbations participated. In a cross-sectional study, the patients' self-reported ADL ability was assessed using the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) instrument. Data concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. Results: The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender, or routine COPD characteristics. Conclusions: Decreased quality of ADL task performance seemed to be extremely common among COPD patients. Therefore, addressing the problems in individually tailored pulmonary rehabilitation programmes may be advantageous. PMID:24649946

Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Ejlersen Wæhrens, Eva; Wilcke, Jon Torgny; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

2014-07-01

22

Association of the Spatial Layout of the Home and ADL Abilities Among Older Adults With Dementia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between architectural space syntax measures describing the spatial layout of a home and activities of daily living (ADL) among people with dementia. We visited the homes of 82 participants in a dementia care comparative effectiveness clinical trial and measured the space syntax variables intelligibility and convexity along with several clinical variables, including ADLs. In regression models, we estimated the cross-sectional association between space syntax measures and ADLs. Higher convexity was associated with worse performance of basic but not instrumental ADLs (adjusted ? = 19.2, P = .02). Intelligibility was not associated with ADLs. These results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home resulting in better basic ADL performance. These results warrant further research on space syntax measures in the home environment of people with dementia, including longitudinal study, which we are pursuing.

Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S.; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Samus, Quincy M.

2011-01-01

23

Association of the spatial layout of the home and ADL abilities among older adults with dementia.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between architectural space syntax measures describing the spatial layout of a home and activities of daily living (ADL) among people with dementia. We visited the homes of 82 participants in a dementia care comparative effectiveness clinical trial and measured the space syntax variables intelligibility and convexity along with several clinical variables, including ADLs. In regression models, we estimated the cross-sectional association between space syntax measures and ADLs. Higher convexity was associated with worse performance of basic but not instrumental ADLs (adjusted ? =19.2, P = .02). Intelligibility was not associated with ADLs. These results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home resulting in better basic ADL performance. These results warrant further research on space syntax measures in the home environment of people with dementia, including longitudinal study, which we are pursuing. PMID:21282278

Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Samus, Quincy M

2011-02-01

24

The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHY: The assessment of functional status is critical when caring for older adults. Normal aging changes, acute illness, worsening chronic illness, and hospitalization can contribute to a decline in the ability to perform tasks necessary to live independently in the community. The information from a functional assessment can provide objective data to assist with targeting individualized rehabilitation needs or to

Carla Graf; Sherry A. Greenberg

25

Factors Associated with ADL and IADL Dependency among Korean Centenarians: Reaching the 100-Year-Old Life Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the functional status of Korean centenarians, who have crossed the relatively rare but increasingly common life transition of living for a century. As functional health is one of the essential components of healthy aging, our primary objective is to identify the correlates of two aspects of functioning, activities of…

Kim, Hyunjee; Lee, Taeyong; Lee, Sokgoo; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Sungkook; Kam, Sin; Ahn, Sangnam; Cho, Jinmyoung; Ory, Marcia G.

2012-01-01

26

Factors favoring a degradation or an improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) performance among nursing home (NH) residents: a survival analysis.  

PubMed

Different factors influence ADL performance among nursing home (NH) residents in long term care. The aim was to investigate which factors were associated with a significant change of ADL performance in NH residents, and whether or not these factors were gender-specific. The design was a survival analysis. The 10,199 participants resided in ninety Swiss NHs. Their ADL performance had been assessed by the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) in the period from 1997 to 2007. Relevant change in ADL performance was defined as 2 levels of change on the ADL scale between two successive assessments. The occurrence of either an improvement or a degradation of the ADL status) was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The analysis included a total of 10,199 NH residents. Each resident received between 2 and 23 assessments. Poor balance, incontinence, impaired cognition, a low BMI, impaired vision, no daily contact with proxies, impaired hearing and the presence of depression were, by hierarchical order, significant risk factors for NH residents to experience a degradation of ADL performance. Residents, who were incontinent, cognitively impaired or had a high BMI were significantly less likely to improve their ADL abilities. Male residents with cancer were prone to see their ADL improve. The year of NH entry was significantly associated with either degradation or improvement of ADL performance. Measures aiming at improving balance and continence, promoting physical activity, providing appropriate nourishment and cognitive enhancement are important for ADL performance in NH residents. PMID:23022056

Bürge, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Armin; Berchtold, André

2013-01-01

27

Major depression and disability in older primary care patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) and major depression among 415 community-dwelling primary care patients age 65+ with heart failure and significant ADL or IADL dependence. Main findings include (1) a progressive increase in depression prevalence from 0% for no IADL dependence to about 40% for 6 IADL dependencies (P < .001), (2) a steady rise in depression prevalence to 40% for 6 ADL dependencies following a "floor effect" at about 10% for 0 to 2 ADL dependencies (P < .001), and (3) the association in a logistic regression model of major depression with number of IADL dependencies (P = .016) but not with number of ADL dependencies (P = .602). Our principal conclusion is that the progressively greater likelihood of major depression as the number of IADL dependencies increases has important clinical, personal, social, and public health relevance. PMID:18474720

Friedman, Bruce; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Delavan, Rachel L; Chunyu Li; Barker, William H

2008-06-01

28

Validation of the Dementia Care Assessment Packet-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IADL measure included in the Dementia Care Assessment Packet (DCAP-IADL) in dementia patients. Methods The study involved 112 dementia patients and 546 controls. The DCAP-IADL was scored in two ways: observed score (OS) and predicted score (PS). The reliability of the DCAP-IADL was evaluated by testing its internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the mean OS and PS between dementia patients and controls by ANCOVA. Pearson or Spearman correlation analysis was performed with other instruments to assess concurrent validity. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to examine diagnostic accuracy. Results Chronbach's ? coefficients of the DCAP-IADL were above 0.7. The values in dementia patients were much higher (OS=0.917, PS=0.927), indicating excellent degrees of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities were statistically significant (p<0.05). PS exhibited higher reliabilities than OS. The mean OS and PS of dementia patients were significantly higher than those of the non-demented group after controlling for age, sex and education level. The DCAP-IADL was significantly correlated with other IADL instruments and MMSE-KC (p<0.001). Areas under the curves of the DCAP-IADL were above 0.9. Conclusion The DCAP-IADL is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating instrumental ability of daily living for the elderly, and may also be useful for screening dementia. Moreover, administering PS may enable the DCAP-IADL to overcome the differences in gender, culture and life style that hinders accurate evaluation of the elderly in previous IADL instruments.

Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Jeong Ran; Yoo, Jeong-Hwa; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Yoon, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Dong Young; Woo, Jong Inn; Han, Ji Won; Huh, Yoonseok; Kim, Tae Hui

2013-01-01

29

Variation in Sources of Clinician-Rated and Self-Rated Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. It is unclear how well self-reports and clinician ratings of performance in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs; household maintenance tasks) correspond and why they may differ. Methods. We assessed clinician-rated IADL performance using an occupational therapy protocol, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). AMPS and self-rated IADL disability were compared in two groups of nondemented

Steven M. Albert; Jane Bear-Lehman; Ann Burkhardt; Belkis Merete-Roa; Rafael Noboa-Lemonier; Jeanne Teresi

2006-01-01

30

Algorithm integration using ADL (Algorithm Development Library) for improving CrIMSS EDR science product quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithm Development Library (ADL) is a framework that mimics the operational system IDPS (Interface Data Processing Segment) that is currently being used to process data from instruments aboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. The satellite was launched successfully in October 2011. The Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments that are on-board of S-NPP. These instruments will also be on-board of JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) that will be launched in early 2017. The primary products of the CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) include global atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP) and Ozone IP (Intermediate Product from CrIS radiances). Several algorithm updates have recently been proposed by CrIMSS scientists that include fixes to the handling of forward modeling errors, a more conservative identification of clear scenes, indexing corrections for daytime products, and relaxed constraints between surface temperature and air temperature for daytime land scenes. We have integrated these improvements into the ADL framework. This work compares the results from ADL emulation of future IDPS system incorporating all the suggested algorithm updates with the current official processing results by qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The results prove these algorithm updates improve science product quality.

Das, B.; Wilson, M.; Divakarla, M. G.; Chen, W.; Barnet, C.; Wolf, W.

2013-05-01

31

The factorial validity and internal consistency of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile in individuals with a traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Profile. A group of 96 patients aged 16 to 65 years, with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries, was recruited from 12 rehabilitation hospitals in Quebec. The IADL Profile was administered by an occupational therapist in each subject's

Carolina Bottari; Clément Dassa; Constant Rainville; Élisabeth Dutil

2009-01-01

32

An evaluation of the factor structure of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Involvement and Capacity scales of the Minimum Data Set for Home Care for elderly Chinese Community dwellers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Involvement and Capacity scales of the Chinese version of the Minimum Data Set-Home Care (MDS-HC) in a sample of Chinese older adults living in Hong Kong (n=3,523). The results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the one-factor model for both IADL Involvement and IADL Capacity scales. Evidence indicated that both scales had good internal consistency (.88) and were reliable and valid in assessing IADL among elderly Chinese community dwellers. PMID:21846228

Leung, Doris Y P; Leung, Angela Y M; Chi, Iris

2011-07-01

33

Alternative data treatment principles for categorical ADL data.  

PubMed

Scaling methodology represents a problem in assessments of activities of daily living (ADL) and little is known about how the results of these assessments are affected by data treatment principles and statistical methods. The aims of this paper are to: (i) describe alternative ways of transforming a response pattern on ADL into a single number; and (ii) to present and compare different ways of analysing both changes in ADL capacity from one occasion to another and also differences in ADL between one group and another. Three datasets based on assessments with the ADL Staircase were used. Four different data treatment principles were described and the development of a novel principle to transform response patterns into ranks was put forward. Thereafter, different paired-data cases and two-sample cases were analysed, using different statistical standard methods to explore possible variations in results. The results demonstrated a few marked differences among P values, no matter which data treatment principle or statistical method was used. That is, different principles and methods yield similar results in terms of P values, although there are important differences as regards selection bias. Principles and methods respecting the ordinal character of ADL data encourage the use of non-parametric methods and the novel rank principle presented here is a useful alternative. PMID:15319689

Iwarsson, Susanne; Lanke, Jan

2004-09-01

34

Using a Body-Fixed Sensor to Identify Subclinical Gait Difficulties in Older Adults with IADL Disability: Maximizing the Output of the Timed Up and Go  

PubMed Central

Objective The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG) testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. Methods We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30±7.04 yrs, 76.62% female) participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit), walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability), all of whom did not have mobility disability. Results As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03), compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004) during turns, were slower (p<0.001), and had less consistent gait (p<0.02). Conclusions A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults.

Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

35

Subtle Deficits in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Greater cognitive and functional deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with higher rates of dementia. We explored the relationship between these factors by comparing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among cognitive subtypes of MCI and examining associations between IADL and neuropsychological indices. Methods: We analyzed data from 1,108 MCI and 3,036 normal control subjects included in

Edmond Teng; Brian W. Becker; Ellen Woo; Jeffrey L. Cummings; Po H. Lu

2010-01-01

36

UCPOP: A Sound, Complete, Partial Order Planner for ADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the ucpop partial order planningalgorithm which handles a subset ofPednault's ADL action representation. Inparticular, ucpop operates with actions thathave conditional effects, universally quantifiedpreconditions and effects, and with universallyquantified goals. We prove ucpop isboth sound and complete for this representationand describe a practical implementationthat succeeds on all of Pednault's andMcDermott's examples, including the infamous"Yale Stacking Problem"...

J. Scott Penberthy; Daniel S. Weld

1992-01-01

37

Executive Function in Daily Life: Age-Related Influences of Executive Processes on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study of older adults used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between 3 executive processes underlying executive function (EF) (inhibition, task switching, updating in working memory), and 2 types of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (self-report, performance based). Experimental tasks of executive attention and self-report or performance-based IADL tests were administered to create latent constructs

Leslie Vaughan; Kelly Giovanello

2010-01-01

38

Staging Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in Elderly Community-Dwelling Persons According to Difficulties in Self-Care and Domestic Life Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to describe the conceptual foundation and development of an activity limitation and participation restriction staging system for community-dwelling people 70 yrs or older according to the severity and types of self-care (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and domestic life (instrumental ADLs (IADLs)) limitations experienced. Design Data from the second Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 9447) were used to develop IADL stages through the analyses of self- and proxy-reported difficulties in performing IADLs. An analysis of activity limitation profiles identified hierarchical thresholds of difficulty that defined each stage. IADL stages are combined with ADL stages to profile status for independent living. Results IADL stages define five ordered thresholds of increasing activity limitations and a “not relevant” stage for those who normally have someone else do those activities. Approximately 42% of the population experience IADL limitations. To achieve a stage, a person must meet or exceed stage-specific thresholds of retained functioning defined for each activity. Combined ADL and IADL stages de-fine 29 patterns of activity limitations expressing the individual’s potential for participating in life situations pertinent to self-care and independent community life. Conclusions ADL and IADL stages can serve to distinguish between groups of people according to both severity and the types of limitations experienced during home or outpatient assessments, in population surveillance, and in research.

Stineman, Margaret G.; Henry-Sanchez, John T.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Pan, Qiang; Xie, Dawei; Saliba, Debra; Zhang, Zi; Streim, Joel E.

2012-01-01

39

Audio Development Laboratory (ADL) User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ADL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Romero, Andy

2012-01-01

40

Functional evaluation distinguishes MCI patients from healthy elderly people — The ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with MCI may present minor impairments in activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this work was to\\u000a evaluate the ability of two versions of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study \\/ Activities of Daily Living scale adapted\\u000a for MCI patients (ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL18 and ADCS\\/MCI\\/ADL24) to distinguish patients with MCI from healthy control subjects. Participants\\u000a were 60 years or

H. Pedrosa; A. De Sa; M. Guerreiro; J. Maroco; M. R. Simoes; D. Galasko; Alexandre de Mendonça

2010-01-01

41

Evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living in Greek patients with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess reliability, it was administered to 45 patients 3 days later. To assess the effect of treatment, 75 patients were studied. The patients also completed the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and the linear analogue scale assessment (LASA) quality of life (QoL) scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of the IADL was carried out. Reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's ?) and test-retest correlation (Pearson and ICC) of the IADL scale. Construct validity was assessed through correlation of IADL with ECOG and LASA QoL scores. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single-factor model. The homogeneity of the instrument proved to be satisfactory (? was 0.88 for men and 0.83 for women). Test-retest reliability was also satisfactory (P<0.0005). High correlation with ECOG (men, r=-0.87; women, r=-0.85) and LASA QoL (men, r=0.55; women, r=0.53) was observed. The Greek version of the IADL in cancer patients treated in a palliative care unit is a reliable and valid clinical instrument. PMID:23060083

Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotou, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

2013-03-01

42

Simple Counts of ADL Dependencies Do Not Adequately Reflect Older Adults' Preferences toward States of Functional Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective To use unweighted counts of dependencies in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) to assess the impact of functional impairment requires an assumption of equal preferences for each ADL dependency. To test this assumption, we analyzed standard gamble utilities of single and combination ADL dependencies among older adults. Study Design and Setting: Four hundred older adults used multimedia software (FLAIR1) to report standard gamble utilities for their current health and hypothetical health states of dependency in each of 7 ADLs and 8 of 30 combinations of ADL dependencies. Results Utilities for health states of multiple ADL dependencies were often greater than for states of single ADL dependencies. Dependence in eating, the ADL dependency with the lowest utility rating of the single ADL dependencies, ranked lower than 7 combination states. Similarly, some combination states with fewer ADL dependencies had lower utilities than those with more ADL dependencies. These findings were consistent across groups by gender, age, and education. Conclusion Our results suggest that the count of ADL dependencies does not adequately represent the utility for a health state. Cost-effectiveness analyses and other evaluations of programs that prevent or treat functional dependency should apply utility-weights rather than relying on simple ADL counts.

Sims, Tamara; Holmes, Tyson H.; Bravata, Dena M.; Garber, Alan M.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Goldstein, Mary K.

2008-01-01

43

Unmet need for assistance to perform activities of daily living and psychological distress in community-dwelling elderly women.  

PubMed

Community-dwelling seniors increasingly require physical assistance to perform the activities of daily living (ADL). To examine the possible association of this need with psychological distress, we conducted a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling people age 75 and older in Montreal, Canada. We report the results for women only (n = 530). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between met and unmet need in instrumental ADL (IADL) and personal ADL (PADL) with concomitant psychological distress. Unmet IADL need was associated with elevated psychological distress [? = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.60)], as was met IADL need [? = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.33)], but not met and unmet PADL need. The full model explained 32.8 per cent of the total variance in psychological distress. Receiving assistance to meet IADL needs is associated with elevated psychological distress. Not receiving assistance, however, is associated with even greater distress. PMID:22035564

Quail, Jacqueline M; Wolfson, Christina; Lippman, Abby

2011-12-01

44

Effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The res...

M. R. Al-Masri, M. Zarkawi

1992-01-01

45

Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

2013-01-01

46

Statistical assessment of changes in ADL dependence: three-graded versus dichotomised scaling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate how dichotomising three-graded ADL Staircase data affects the possibility of detecting changes in ADL dependence between different assessment occasions. An authentic two-occasion data set was used as a basis for a simulation experiment. In all, we used four different data treatment principles, all utilising the matched pairing of the data. The first principle utilised a sum score technique, and the second within-person comparisons by means of item-by-item analysis of improvement or deterioration. The third principle used ADL ranks, a novel approach, while the fourth used within-item ranks. Independently of the data treatment principle used, the statistical power of all tests was reduced by 13-24% after dichotomisation, compared to when the three-graded scale was utilised. The results indicate that dichotomising ADL Staircase data results in information loss, and hence in reduced ability to detect changes. The need to consider the purpose of the ADL assessment before reducing the number of scale steps is highlighted. The knowledge generated in this study is useful for practitioners and researchers, aiming at evaluating rehabilitation interventions. PMID:15572995

Fänge, Agneta; Lanke, Jan; Iwarsson, Susanne

2004-12-01

47

Trends in late-life disability in Taiwan: The roles of education, environment, and technology  

PubMed Central

This analysis offers the first strong evidence of trends in late-life disability in an emerging economy. Consistent measures of limitations in seeing, hearing, physical functions, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and activities of daily living (ADLs) were available for three to six survey waves, depending on the outcome, from 1989 to 2007 for the population of Taiwan aged 65 and older. Limitations in seeing, hearing, and IADLs declined substantially, but trends were mixed for physical functions and flat for ADLs. The remarkable reduction in difficulty phoning, an IADL, may reflect changes in telecommunications infrastructure and highlights the roles of environment and technology in disability outcomes. Trends for urban residents were more advantageous than those for rural residents for seeing and hearing, but less so for physical functions and IADLs. Were it not for the substantial increase in educational attainment, trends in all outcomes would have been less favorable.

Martin, Linda G.; Zimmer, Zachary; Hurng, Baai-Shyun

2011-01-01

48

MDS-Based State Medicaid Reimbursement and the ADL-Decline Quality Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined the relationship between the quality indicator for decline in activities of daily living (ADL) and the use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) for determining Medicaid skilled nursing facility reimbursement. Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2004 National MDS Facility Quality Indicator reports as…

Bellows, Nicole M.; Halpin, Helen A.

2008-01-01

49

Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to the…

DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

2013-01-01

50

A Cloud-Based Accessible Architecture for Large-Scale ADL Analysis Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

È Recognizing Activities of Daily Living (ADL) plays an important role in healthcare. However, it is often impractical and sometimes impossible for a person to collect those useful data manually, not to mention constant long-term data maintenance and analysis. To address the above-mentioned challenges, we propose an architecture, in which many health-care applications and services can easily build upon, for

Yu-Chiao Huang; Yu-Chieh Ho; Ching-Hu Lu; Li-Chen Fu

2011-01-01

51

Longitudinal Changes in Disabled Husbands' and Wives' Receipt of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: This study contrasts 2-year adjustments in disabled husbands' and wives' amount of received care following both worsening and recovery in personal (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and routine care (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]) disability. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data on 789 husbands and…

Noel-Miller, Claire

2010-01-01

52

Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self-report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based

Eva Ejlersen Wæhrens; Kirstine Amris; Anne G. Fisher

2010-01-01

53

Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants' age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P = 0.002) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P = 0.233). PSD alone (P = 0.001) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.001) significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P = 0.2). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

Badaru, Umaru Muhammad; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Olowe, Olajide Olubanji

2013-01-01

54

Cardiovascular events and geriatric scale scores in elderly (70 years old and above) type 2 diabetic patients at inclusion in the GERODIAB cohort.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between cardiovascular complications and geriatric scale scores in French elderly (?70 years of age) type 2 diabetic patients at inclusion in the GERODIAB cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS GERODIAB is the first French multicenter, prospective, observational survey designed to analyze the influence of glycemic control on morbidity/mortality in type 2 diabetic patients aged ?70 years during a 5-year follow-up period. This study analyzed the relationships between classical macroangiopathic complications and geriatric scale scores in 987 patients at baseline, using bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS Cardiac ischemia (31.2%) was significantly associated with impaired activities of daily living (ADL) scores (P < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression included hypercholesterolemia, ADL, sex, and hypertension successively (70.3% concordance; P < 0.001). Heart failure (10.1%) was associated with impaired Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), instrumental ADL (IADL) (P < 0.05), and ADL scores (P < 0.001). With the logistic model, waist circumference, age, and HDL cholesterol were significant factors (70.7% concordance; P < 0.001). Arterial disease of the lower limbs (25.6%) was associated with impaired IADL and ADL scores (P < 0.001). Significant factors using the logistic model were duration of diabetes, IADL score, hypertension, and sex (62.8% concordance; P < 0.001). Cerebral ischemia (15.8%) was associated with impaired MMSE, Mini Nutritional Assessment, ADL, and IADL scores (P < 0.01). IADL, sex, hypertension, and ADL were included in the logistic model successively (65.6% concordance; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this specific population, impaired geriatric scale scores were found to be associated with classical macrovascular complications, notably using multivariate analyses. This suggests the benefits of thorough screening and management of cognitive and functional decline in elderly type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:23990512

Bauduceau, Bernard; Doucet, Jean; Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Verny, Christiane

2014-01-01

55

The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1  

PubMed Central

Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth.

Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

2001-01-01

56

Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation.

Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

2013-01-01

57

Methods and Prevalence of ADL Limitations in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Subjects in Rural Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Hispanic population in the United States is the fastest growing minority group, yet there is little understanding of the disability patterns that occur as this population ages. We conducted a cross-sectional study to define the prevalence of limitations of activities of daily living (ADL) and measures of observed function.METHODS: We censussed two rural counties in southern Colorado and

Richard F Hamman; Christine L Mulgrew; Judith Baxter; Susan M Shetterly; Carolyn Swenson; Nora E Morgenstern

1999-01-01

58

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

2008-01-01

59

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of ac- tivities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nurs- ing homes in the United States. Longitudinal analyses of outcomes at 3

Charles D. Phillips; Min Chen; Michael Sherman

2008-01-01

60

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living  

PubMed Central

Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients’ independence.

Bienkiewicz, Marta M. N.; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Hermsdorfer, Joachim

2014-01-01

61

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living.  

PubMed

Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients' independence. PMID:24795685

Bie?kiewicz, Marta M N; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M L; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

2014-01-01

62

Does a Standard Measure of Self-Reported Physical Disability Correlate with Clinician Perception of Impairment Related to Cancer Screening?  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with physical disabilities are less likely than others to receive cancer screening. It is not known, however, if commonly used measures assess elements of physical ability necessary for successful screening. This exploratory study sought to determine if patients reporting limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental ADLs (IADLs) are perceived by their primary care clinicians to have physical limitations that might impede cancer screening. Methods Patients at two rural primary care clinics were surveyed about ADLs and IADLs, and up-to-date status for breast, cervical and/or colorectal cancer screening. Clinicians and office staff were asked if they believed each patient had a physical limitation that might impede screening. We evaluated agreement between patient and clinician assessments. Results Clinicians believed 43% of patients with severe disability (ADLs) and 30% of patients with moderate disability (IADLs) had limitations potentially affecting screening. Agreement between patient and clinician assessments was low with the kappa statistic (? = 0.355), but with high percent negative agreement (PNA = 92.3%) and low percent positive agreement (PPA = 42.7%). Patients with ADL/IADL-related disability were less likely than non-disabled patients to be current for cervical and breast cancer screening. Patients who were viewed by clinicians as having limitations relevant for screening were less likely to be current for cervical cancer screening. Conclusions A common measure of general disability may not capture all factors relevant for cancer screening. An instrument designed to include these factors might help identify and accommodate patients with disability that potentially impedes screening.

Buckley, David I.; Davis, Melinda M.; Andresen, Elena M.

2011-01-01

63

Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate how older people, dependent in ADL perceive their participation in a high-intensity, functional exercise program compared to the perceptions of those participating in a control activity. Forty-eight older people living in residential care facilities answered a questionnaire about their perceptions of participating in an activity for three months. They were aged 65-98, had a mean score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 14 on Barthel ADL Index. The participants had been randomized to exercise (n=20) or control activity (n=28). Differences in responses between exercise and control activity were evaluated using logistic and ordinal regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the exercise group perceived positive changes in lower limb strength, balance, and in the ability to move more safely and securely compared to a minority of the control group (p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in the exercise activity answered that they felt less tired due to the activity (p=0.027) and that they prioritized this activity above other activities (p=0.010). More exercise participants reported that meeting for three months was too short, and fewer that it was too long compared to the control group (p=0.038). This study shows that older people living in residential care facilities, dependent in ADL, and with mild or no cognitive impairment had positive perceptions about participating in high-intensity functional exercise. The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people. PMID:23768799

Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Gustafsson, S; Nygaard, J; Gustafson, Y; Nyberg, L

2013-01-01

64

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

65

Relationship between body mass index and different domains of disability in older persons: the 3C study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and different domains of disability in elderly subjects from the French 3C study.SETTING: Three cities in France: Bordeaux (South-West), Dijon (North-East) and Montpellier (South-East).DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: A sample of 8966 elderly community dwellers (age: 65–101 y).MEASUREMENTS:Main outcome measures: BMI, continence, basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL and IADL)

S Larrieu; K Pérès; L Letenneur; C Berr; J F Dartigues; K Ritchie; B Février; A Alpérovitch; P Barberger-Gateau

2004-01-01

66

The Relation of Peripheral Arterial Disease to Leg Force, Gait Speed, and Functional Dependence Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), common among older adults, is associated with poor low-extremity functioning. In considering functional status, varying domains exist, including activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), low-extremity mobility (LEM), and leisure and\\/or social activities (LSA). However, little is known about how PAD is related to functional status beyond low-extremity functioning. Methods.

Hsu-Ko Kuo; Yau-Hua Yu

67

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities\\u000a of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS). This version was obtained with forward\\/backward translations, consensus panels and pre-testing.\\u000a The Portuguese KOS-ADLS and Medical Outcomes Study, 36-item Short Form (SF-36) questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS)\\u000a of pain, disability and discomfort, and a form for

Rui Soles Gonçalves; Jan Cabri; João Páscoa Pinheiro

2008-01-01

68

Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

2011-01-01

69

ADL ORVIS: An air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s-1 fringe-1, differences of 1-2 m s-1 across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS.

Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Cooper, Marcia A.

2014-04-01

70

ADL ORVIS: An air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system.  

PubMed

An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s(-1) fringe(-1), differences of 1-2 m s(-1) across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS. PMID:24784670

Trott, Wayne M; Castañeda, Jaime N; Cooper, Marcia A

2014-04-01

71

Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates several distinct measures, but provides one summary score to quantify overall level of functioning, for example for the identification of older adults at risk of poor functional outcome. Therefore, we selected four measures of functioning: Physical Functioning (PF), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and participation, and tested the possibility to aggregate these measures into one general measure of functioning. Methods A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided baseline data (n?=?407) consisting of PF (PF subscale, RAND-36; 10 items), ADL (KATZ index; 6 items), IADL (Lawton index; 7 items) and participation (KAP; 6 items). We tested two models with confirmatory factor analysis: first, a bifactor model with all four measures and second, a bifactor model with PF, ADL and IADL and a correlated but distinct subgroup factor for participation. Several model fit indexes and reliability coefficients, such as explained common variance (ECV) and omegas were computed for both models. Results The first model fitted the data well, but the reliability analysis indicated multidimensionality and unique information in the subgroup factor participation. The second model showed similar model fits, but better reliability; ECV?=?0.67, omega-t?=?0.94, low omega-s?=?0.18-0.22 on the subgroup factors and high omega of 0.82 on participation, which all were in favour of the second model. Conclusions The results indicate that PF, ADL and IADL could be aggregated into one general measure of functioning, whereas participation should be considered as a distinct measure.

2013-01-01

72

Predicting disabilities in daily functioning in older people with intellectual disabilities using a frailty index.  

PubMed

Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes compared to others of the same age. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more frequently and earlier frail compared to the general population. Frailty challenges much of health care, which will likely further increase due to the aging of the population. Before effective interventions can start, more information is necessary about the consequences of frailty in this, already disabled, population. Here we report whether frailty predicts disabilities in daily functioning. Frailty was measured with a frailty index (FI). At baseline and follow-up activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility were collected by informant report. For 703 older people with ID (?50 yr) baseline and follow-up measures were known. Multivariate linear regression models were used to predict ADL, IADL and mobility at follow-up. The FI was significantly associated with disabilities in daily functioning independent of baseline characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, Down syndrome) and baseline ADL, IADL or mobility. The FI showed to be most predictive for those with relative high independence at baseline. These results stress the importance for interventions that limit the progression of frailty and, thereby, help to limit further disability. PMID:24950014

Schoufour, Josje D; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

2014-10-01

73

Dynamics of Functional Aging Based on Latent-class Trajectories of Activities of Daily Living  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study sought to identify and characterize major patterns of functional aging based on activities of daily living (ADL). Methods 754 community-living adults 70 years or older were followed monthly for ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs), hospitalization and restricted activity over ten years. A generalized growth mixture model was used to identify trajectories of ADL disability across seven 18-month intervals. Cumulative burdens of disability and morbidity from different trajectories were examined using a generalized estimating equation Poisson model. Results Five distinct trajectories emerged. The predominant trajectory maintained ADL independence, with membership probability being 61.6%. The remaining trajectories either stayed at low (1 or 2 ADLs, 13.6%) or high (3 or 4 ADLs, 7.0%) levels of disability or declined gradually towards low (11.2%) or high (6.5%) disability. The independent trajectory was associated with the lowest burdens of disability and morbidity and a decreasing time trend of restricted activity; whereas the high disability trajectory demonstrated opposite trends. About 31% of the cohort remained in the same trajectory throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion The course of functional aging is heterogeneous and dynamic. While most older adults maintain functional autonomy, some may experience persistent disability or progress towards severe disability with substantial morbidity.

Han, Ling; Allore, Heather; Murphy, Terrence; Gill, Thomas; Peduzzi, Peter; Lin, Haiqun

2012-01-01

74

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

75

Clinical indicators derived from the patient assessment instrument in the long-stay residents of 69 VA nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Previous work has shown that clinical indicators reflecting occurrence of bedsores, behavioral disturbances, and deterioration\\u000a of activities of daily living (ADLs) can be calculated for the long-stay residents of Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes\\u000a from the standard biannual Patient Assessment Instrument (PAI). The present study aimed to construct national curves for these\\u000a indicators, against which each facility could in

Daniel Rudman; Dean Bross; Dale E. Mattson

1994-01-01

76

Geodetic instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in geodetic instrumentation during 1975 through 1978 are reviewed. Distance measurement including electronic distance measuring (EDM) application and instrumentation; the improvement of astronomic latitude and longitude determinations by the development of Automated Astronomic Positioning System and an instrument capable of measuring atmospheric refraction and evaluation of the magnitude of anomalous refraction at an observing site; new techniques for astronomic

B. L. Decker

1979-01-01

77

Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: Implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks**  

PubMed Central

Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the saggital plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more curvature than in the object imagined and absent conditions. Curvature in the XZ plane of movement was greater than curvature in the XY plane for all movements. Conclusion The implemented minimum jerk trajectory model was not adequate for generating functional trajectories for these ADLs. The deviations caused by object affordance and functional task constraints must be accounted for in order to allow subjects to perform functional task training in robotic therapy environments. The major differences that we have highlighted include trajectory dependence on: object presence, object orientation, and the plane of movement. With the ability to practice ADLs on the ADLER environment we hope to provide patients with a therapy paradigm that will produce optimal results and recovery.

Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J

2007-01-01

78

The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, engagement in social activities, and mortality among US adults aged 70 years or older, 1994-2006  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess associations among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disability as measured by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL), engagement in social activities, and death among elderly noninstitutionalized US residents. Materials and methods A nationally representative sample of 9,415 adults who were aged ?70 years and responded to the Second Supplement on Aging survey in 1994–1996 and mortality follow-up study through 2006 were assessed. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk of all-cause mortality in participants with COPD after accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Results At baseline, approximately 9.6% of study participants reported having COPD. Compared with participants without COPD, those with COPD were significantly more likely (P<0.05) to have difficulty with at least one ADL (44.3% versus [vs] 27.5%) and with at least one IADL (59.9% vs 40.2%), significantly less likely to be engaged in social activities (32.6% vs 26.3%), and significantly more likely to die by 2006 (70.7% vs 60.4%; adjusted risk ratio 1.15, P<0.05). The association between COPD and risk for death was moderately attenuated by disability status. Conclusion COPD is positively associated with disability and mortality risk among US adults aged ?70 years. The significant relationship between COPD and mortality risk was moderately attenuated, but was not completely explained by stages of ADL and IADL limitations and social activities.

Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B; Anderson, Lynda A; Wheaton, Anne G; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Ford, Earl S

2014-01-01

79

Assessments of functional status, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly.  

PubMed

Functionality, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia affect the prognosis of elderly excessively. These parameters are influenced by the population, living settings and age. We aimed to study these parameters in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly. We studied 274 male elderly ?60 years of age admitted to our Geriatrics outpatient clinics. Mean age was 74.4?±?7.1 years; 47.4% of the subjects were ?75 years, 24.1% were ?80 years. Mean activities-of-daily-living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scores were 9.4 and 11.1, respectively. Patients with at least one-dependence at ADL-IADL were 22.6%-47.2%, and more than half-dependence at ADL-IADL were 2.8%-17.9%, respectively. Mean number of comorbidities were 2.6. Most common diagnosis was hypertension with 65%; mean number of drugs were 4.5; 55.3% were using ?4 chronic drugs. Prevalences of malnutrition were 3.7%-6.9%, malnutrition risk were 23.5%-26.7% by the mini nutritional assessment test-long form and short form, respectively. Calf circumference was measured <31?cm in 10.5%. Our findings suggest that Turkish community-dwelling male elderly may have greater prevalences of functional dependence, sarcopenia but lower rates of malnutrition and similar rates of polypharmacy compared with the western developing countries and developed countries. This study emphasized the geographical differences in and/or between the individual countries highlighting the need for studies both country- and world-wide. PMID:23461711

Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Bahat, Zumrut; Aydin, Yucel; Tufan, Asli; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

2013-06-01

80

The Association Between Noncancer Pain, Cognitive Impairment, and Functional Disability: An Analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging  

PubMed Central

Background. Noncancer pain and cognitive impairment affect many older adults and each is associated with functional disability, but their combined impact has yet to be rigorously studied. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Pain was collapsed from a 5-point to a dichotomous scale (no and very mild vs moderate and greater). Cognitive status was dichotomized from the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (0–100) to no (>77) or mild-moderate (77–50) impairment. Five Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and seven Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were self-rated as “accomplished without any help” (0), “with some help” (1), or “completely unable to do oneself” (2) and then summed to create a composite score of 0–10 and 0–14, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the associations between self-reported functional status with moderate or greater pain, cognitive impairment, and the interaction of the two. Results. A total of 5,143 (90.2%) participants were eligible, 1,813 (35.6%) reported pain at a moderate intensity or greater and 727 (14.3%) were cognitively impaired. The median IADL and ADL summary scores increased among the pain and cognition categories in the following order: no pain and cognitively intact (0.63 SD 1.24, 0.23 SD 0.80), pain and cognitively intact (1.18 SD 1.69, 0.57 SD 1.27), no pain and cognitively impaired (1.64 SD 2.22, 0.75 SD 1.57), and pain and cognitively impaired (2.27 SD 2.47, 1.35 SD 2.09), respectively. Multivariate linear regression found IADL summary scores were associated with pain, coefficient .17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.26), p < .01; cognitive impairment, coefficient .67 (95% CI 0.51–0.83), p < .01; and an interaction effect of pain with cognitive impairment, coefficient .24 (95% CI 0.01–0.49), p = .05. ADL summary scores were associated with pain coefficient .10 (95% CI 0.04–0.17), p < .01 and cognitive impairment, coefficient .29 (95% CI 0.19–0.39), p < .01, but had a nonsignificant interaction term, coefficient .12 (95% CI ?0.03 to 0.29), p = .12. Conclusions. Noncancer pain and cognitive impairment are independently associated with IADL and ADL impairment and IADL impairment is even greater when both conditions are present.

Weiner, Debra K.; Paice, Judith A.; Bilir, S. Pinar; Rockwood, Kenneth; Herr, Keela; Ersek, Mary; Emanuel, Linda; Dale, William

2010-01-01

81

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!).

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

82

Oceanographic Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer s...

1994-01-01

83

Laparoscopic Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laparoscopic instrumentation continues to evolve towards smaller, more reliable, and better ergonomic devices, with a larger\\u000a variety of choices. Since the first edition of this textbook, subtle improvements are readily apparent in existing devices\\u000a as first-generation instruments progress towards later-generation models. New technology exists to allow procedures to be\\u000a performed with fewer complications. Combined with refinements in techniques, new and

Patrick S. Lowry

84

Oceanographic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

1994-01-01

85

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

86

Surgical instruments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A surgical instrument includes an elongated transmission waveguide defining a longitudinal axis. The transmission waveguide has a distal end and a proximal end. The at least one strike surface is formed on the proximal end and is configured to receive vibratory energy.

2012-07-24

87

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

88

Factors associated with functional incapacity in elders living in long stay institutions in Brazil: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The increase of the elderly population and the high prevalence of chronic diseases have contributed to the increasing importance of functional ability as a global public health problem. This study aimed to assess functional capacity in institutionalized elders, as well as undertake an exploratory analysis of its associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with institutionalized Brazilian elders. Functional capacity was assessed using the Katz Index for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Scale for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). The characteristics of dependent individuals were described and logistic regression models were developed for both scales. Multiple models that included all selected variables were developed using a hierarchical approach. We considered the results from the Wald test (p?ADL and 81.2% for IADL. We observed associations between ADL dependence and the following factors: self-report of stroke, difficulty of walking 400 meters, lower total scores in questions related to the temporal orientation section of the cognition test, and self-reports of frequently feeling upset. IADL dependence was associated with educational level, self-report of cancer, difficulty of walking 400 meters, use of glasses, and self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Sociodemographic and health conditions were associated with functional incapacity in institutionalized elders. Based on these findings, we emphasize the importance of both prevention and treatment of chronic conditions as well as social support in the maintenance of individuals’ autonomy.

2014-01-01

89

Sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men: the CHAMP study.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men. A total of 1696 males aged ? 70 years, enrolled in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, were studied. Participants underwent assessments during 2005-2007. Sedative load was computed using a published model. Outcomes included activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical performance measures and a clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Of the participants, 15.3% took medications with sedative properties. After adjusting for age, education, depressive symptoms and comorbidities, participants who took one medication with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load = 1) had odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20-3.85) for ADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. Participants who took at least one primary sedative or two medications with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load ? 2) had an OR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.02-2.35) for IADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. The mean 6-m walking speed (P = 0.001) and grip strength (P = 0.003) were significantly different between sedative load groups in unadjusted models only. No association between sedative load and poorer performance on balance and chair stands tests or cognitive impairment was observed. Participants with sedative load of one were more likely to report ADL disability, whereas participants with sedative load of ?2 were more likely to report IADL disability. Higher sedative load was not associated with poorer physical performance or cognitive impairment in older Australian men. PMID:22849300

Gnjidic, Danijela; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah N; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise; Handelsman, David J; Bell, John Simon; J S, Bell

2014-02-01

90

Sleep Complaints and Incident Disability in a Community-Based Cohort Study of Older Persons.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Sleep complaints are associated with adverse health consequences. We hypothesized that non-disabled older persons with more sleep complaints have an increased risk of developing disability. METHODS: Subjects included 908 older clergy participating in the Religious Order Study without clinical dementia, history of stroke, or Parkinson disease. At baseline, participants rated their difficulty falling asleep, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, sleep efficacy, and napping frequency, from which a summary dyssomnia measure was derived. Self-report assessment of disability included instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), basic activities of daily living (ADLs), and Rosow-Breslau mobility disability at baseline and at annual evaluations. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 9.6 (SD: 4.2) years. At baseline, more than 60% had one or more sleep complaints. In a series of Cox proportional hazards models controlling for age, sex, and education, a one-point higher dyssomnia score at baseline was associated with about 20% increased risk of IADL disability (hazard ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.39; ?(2)1 = 7.62; p <0.05), about 27% increased risk of ADL disability (hazard ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.10-1.47; ?(2)1 = 12.15; p <0.01), and about 27% increased risk of mobility disability (hazard ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; ?(2)1 = 11.04; p <0.01). These associations did not vary by age, sex, or education and remained significant after controlling for potential confounders including body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and several common medications. Controlling for depressive symptoms attenuated the association between sleep complaints and incident IADL and ADL disabilities but the association between sleep complaints and incident mobility disability remained significant. CONCLUSION: Non-disabled older adults with more sleep complaints have an increased risk of developing disability. PMID:23567404

Park, Margaret; Buchman, Aron S; Lim, Andrew S P; Leurgans, Sue E; Bennett, David A

2013-03-25

91

Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE): A Bio-Behavioral-Environmental Intervention to Improve Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Disabled, Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine effect size and acceptability of a multi-component behavior and home repair intervention with low-income, disabled older adults Design Prospective randomized controlled pilot trial Setting Participants’ homes Participants 40 low income older adults with difficulties in at least 1 Activity of Daily Living (ADL) or 2 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Intervention Coordinated occupational therapy (OT), nursing (RN), and handyman (HM) visits compared to attention-control visits. The intervention consisted of up to 6 visits with an OT, up to 4 visits with an RN and an average of $1,300 in HM repairs and modifications. Each intervention participant received all components of the intervention clinically tailored to risk profile and goals. Each attention-control participant received the same number of visits as the intervention participants, involving sedentary activities of their choice. Measurement Primary Outcome: difficulty in performing ADL and IADLs. Secondary outcomes: Health related quality of life and falls–efficacy. Results Thirty five of 40 adults (87%) completed the 6-month trial and 93% and 100% of the control and intervention group, respectively, stated the study benefited them. The intervention group improved on all outcomes. When comparing the mean change in the intervention group compared to the mean change in the control group from baseline to follow up, the CAPABLE intervention had an effect size of 0.63 for reducing difficulty in ADLs, 0.62 for reducing difficulty in IADLs, 0.89 for Quality of Life, and 0.55 for Falls-efficacy. Conclusion The multi-component CAPABLE intervention was acceptable to participants, feasible to provide, and showed promising results, suggesting that this multi-component intervention to reduce disability should be evaluated in a larger trial.

Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Boyd, Cynthia; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Leff, Bruce; Agree, Emily; Xue, Qian-Li; Allen, Jerilyn K.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Weiss, Carlos O.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Gitlin, Laura N

2011-01-01

92

Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) improves language processing and (other) cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone). Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered’ global stimulation vs. cognitive training) and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination) as well as for the single functional areas. Results Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory) improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation) and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

Schecker, M.; Pirnay-Dummer, P.; Schmidtke, K.; Hentrich-Hesse, T.; Borchardt, D.

2013-01-01

93

Analytical Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BEEM (Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy) was invented at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Microelectronics Technology. It is a significant research instrument for microelectronics research because it is able to image underlying layers or interfaces of surface structures. A tiny current is injected into a metal layer and the electrons travel ballistically through the metal allowing the researcher to study the operation and performance of a structure. Other advantages include nondestructive imaging of barrier heights and electronic characterization of devices, as well as the potential to observe processes like molecular beam epitaxy (crystal growth) in situ.

1994-01-01

94

PREX Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lead Radius Experiment (PREx) took place in the Spring of 2010 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its goal was to obtain a clean measurement of the root mean square neutron radius of ^208Pb to 1% accuracy. This was done by measuring the parity violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a Lead target. In order to obtain such a precise measurement, numerous improvements and upgrades were made to the instrumentation and electronics of Hall A. This talk will discuss developments related to the PREx main detectors, Data Acquisition system and Luminosity Monitor.

Mercado, Luis

2011-04-01

95

Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation  

PubMed Central

Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted.

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

2014-01-01

96

Long-term outcome and prediction models of activities of daily living in Alzheimer disease with cholinesterase inhibitor treatment.  

PubMed

In untreated patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) the functional ability is gradually lost. What happens to the patients after continuous long-term cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment is less investigated. The objective of this study was to describe the longitudinal functional outcome and analyze factors affecting the outcome in ChEI-treated patients. In an open, 3-year, nonrandomized, prospective, multicenter study in a routine clinical setting, 790 patients were treated with either donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine. At baseline and every 6 months, they were assessed with several rating scales including Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A faster functional decline was associated with lower cognitive ability at baseline, older age, and the interaction of higher education and longer time in the study. The patients residing with a spouse or relative showed slower deterioration in IADL score. A higher mean dose of ChEI, regardless of drug agent, was also related to slower instrumental ADL decline. Prediction models for longitudinal functional outcome were provided. AD severity at baseline is a key factor in obtaining reliable clinical prognoses of the long-term ADL ability. The dosage of ChEI treatment could possibly lead to a different functional outcome. PMID:20847636

Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Åsa K; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

2011-01-01

97

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

98

Factors Associated with Caregiver Burden in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from psychological and financial burdens. However, the results of the relationship between burden and cognitive function, performance of activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms have remained inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine which factors are more significant predictors of heightened burden, cognitive impairment or functional decline, besides neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample comprised of 1,164 pairs of patients with AD and caregivers from the Clinical Research of Dementia of South Korea study cohorts. The cognitive function of each sub-domain, functional impairments, depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed using the dementia version of Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), Barthel Index for Daily Living Activities (ADL), Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Box (CDR-SB), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI), and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Results We found that higher severity (higher CDR-SB and GDS scores) and more functional impairment (lower ADL and higher S-IADL scores) were significantly associated with higher caregiver burden. In addition, depressive symptoms of patients (higher Geriatric Depression Scale scores) were associated with higher caregiver burden. Conclusion Therefore, interventions to help maintain activities of daily living in patients with AD may alleviate caregiver burden and improve caregiver well-being.

Kang, Hyo Shin; Myung, Woojae; Na, Duk L.; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Hong; Han, Seol-Heui; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, SangYun; Kim, Seonwoo

2014-01-01

99

The importance of negative predictive value (NPV) of vulnerable elderly survey (VES 13) as a pre-screening test in older patients with cancer.  

PubMed

The importance of prognostic value of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is well known in geriatric oncology, but there is no consensus on the use of alternative abbreviated screening methods for the evaluation of older patient disabilities. The participants in this study underwent vulnerable elderly survey 13 (VES 13) at first entry in Oncology Department and were later assessed by a geriatrician according to CGA. A score >3 for VES 13 identified patients as vulnerable. Aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity, sensibility, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of VES 13 versus cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and short portable mental status questionnaire (SPMSQ). Hundred and seventeen patients (mean age 78.8 years) entered the study. The NPV of VES was 74.6% for CIRS, 90.1% for IADL, 93.0% for ADL, and 100% for SPMSQ. As for PPV, the VES 13 showed no accuracy. We can conclude that VES 13 demonstrated sufficient accuracy as a screening test in identifying elderly "fit" patients in order to spare the more time-consuming CGA. PMID:23996243

Castagneto, B; Di Pietrantonj, C; Stevani, I; Anfossi, A; Arzese, M; Giorcelli, L; Giaretto, L

2013-12-01

100

Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with functional and nutritional status among male residents in a nursing home in Turkey.  

PubMed

The prevalence of sarcopenia differs between different populations, ages, gender and between settings such as the community and nursing homes. Studies on the association of sarcopenia with functional status revealed conflicting results whereas its association with nutritional status is well documented. We aimed at investigating the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with functional and nutritional status among male residents in a nursing home in Turkey. Fat free mass (FFM) was detected by bioelectric impedance analysis. Functional status was evaluated with Katz activities of daily living (ADL) and Lawton Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Nutritional assessment was performed by Mini Nutritional Assessment Test (MNA(R)). One hundred fifty-seven male residents composed the study cohort. Mean age was 73.1 +/- 6.7 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 85.4%. No significant correlation was found between sarcopenia and ADL or IADL. There was a weak but significant correlation between IADL score and FFM (r = 0.18; p = 0.02). Sarcopenic residents had lower MNA score than non-sarcopenic residents (18.1 +/- 3.2 vs. 21.8 +/- 0.8, p = 0.02). FFM was significantly lower in the residents with malnutrition compared to well-nourished residents (26.8 +/- 1 kg/body surface area vs. 28.1 +/- 1.8 kg/body surface area, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of sarcopenia was very high among male nursing home residents in Turkey. Sarcopenia was associated with low nutritional status but not with functional status. PMID:20636235

Bahat, Gulistan; Saka, Bulent; Tufan, Fatih; Akin, Sibel; Sivrikaya, Süleyman; Yucel, Nurullah; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet A

2010-09-01

101

A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (?-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (?-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ?-3, or 3) ?-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ?-3 + LA and ?-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ?-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p < 0.01) and IADL (p = 0.01) and the ?-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ?-3 + LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted. PMID:24077434

Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

102

Cognitive Dysfunction Is Associated With Poor Diabetes Control in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between cognitive dysfunction and other barriers and glycemic control in older adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients over the age of 70 years presenting to a geriatric diabetes clinic were evaluated for barriers to successful diabetes management. Patients were screened for cognitive dysfunction with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a clock-drawing test (CDT) scored by 1) a method validated by Mendez et al. and 2) a modified CDT (clock in a box [CIB]). Depression was evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Interview questionnaires surveyed activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), as well as other functional disabilities. RESULTS Sixty patients (age 79 ± 5 years, diabetes duration 14 ± 13 years) were evaluated. Thirty-four percent of patients had low CIB (?5), and 38% of patients had low CDT (?13). Both CIB as well as CDT were inversely correlated with HbA1c, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction is associated with poor glycemic control (r = ?0.37, P < 0.004 and r = ?0.38, P < 0.004, respectively). Thirty-three percent of patients had depressive symptoms with greater difficulty completing the tasks of the IADL survey (5.7 ± 1.7 vs. 4.6 ± 2.0; P < 0.03). These older adults with diabetes had a high incidence of functional disabilities, including hearing impairment (48%), vision impairment (53%), history of recent falls (33%), fear of falls (44%), and difficulty performing IADLs (39%). CONCLUSIONS Older adults with diabetes have a high risk of undiagnosed cognitive dysfunction, depression, and functional disabilities. Cognitive dysfunction in this population is associated with poor diabetes control.

Munshi, Medha; Capelson, Roberta; Grande, Laura; Lin, Susan; Hayes, Mellody; Milberg, William; Ayres, Darlene; Weinger, Katie; Suhl, Emmy

2006-01-01

103

Unique Instruments' Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

104

Instrumentation for Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Projects  

NSF Publications Database

... Such instruments may include, for example, neutron beam lines, synchrotron beam lines, and high ... They include, for example, facilities for neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation, and high ...

105

Instrument Control Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Instruments Instrument Control Fundamentals Series, your FREE resource for instrument control knowledge on the Web, presents technical content through theory, real-world examples, and interactive audiovisual tutorials. This series, organized into four general categories, is designed for a broad range of audiences, from experts who want to review a specific topic to new users who need easy-to-understand documentation for their projects. Subtopics include "What is instrument control?" "Instrument Control Hardware and Bus Technologies" "Instrument Control Software" and "Instrument Control System Architectures."

2013-06-21

106

Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly  

PubMed Central

Background The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Results Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. Conclusion There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

2009-01-01

107

Functional response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in a naturalistic Alzheimer's disease cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Activities of daily living (ADL) are an essential part of the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A decline in ADL affects independent living and has a strong negative impact on caregiver burden. Functional response to cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment and factors that might influence this response in naturalistic AD patients need investigating. The aim of this study was to identify the socio-demographic and clinical factors that affect the functional response after 6 months of ChEI therapy. Methods This prospective, non-randomised, multicentre study in a routine clinical setting included 784 AD patients treated with donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, patients were assessed using several rating scales, including the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Demographic and clinical characteristics were investigated at baseline. The functional response and the relationships of potential predictors were analysed using general linear models. Results After 6 months of ChEI treatment, 49% and 74% of patients showed improvement/no change in IADL and in PSMS score, respectively. The improved/unchanged patients exhibited better cognitive status at baseline; regarding improved/unchanged PSMS, patients were younger and used fewer anti-depressants. A more positive functional response to ChEI was observed in younger individuals or among those having the interaction effect of better preserved cognition and lower ADL ability. Patients with fewer concomitant medications or those using NSAIDs/acetylsalicylic acid showed a better PSMS response. Conclusions Critical characteristics that may influence the functional response to ChEI in AD were identified. Some predictors differed from those previously shown to affect cognitive response, e.g., lower cognitive ability and older age predicted better cognitive but worse functional response.

2012-01-01

108

Brookhaven instrumentation workshop roundtable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the edited transcript of the Brookhaven instrumentation workshop roundtable, the topics covered include cost of accelerator instrumentation, standarization, development by industry, and the USDOE Small Business Innovative Research program. (AIP)

van Dyck, Moderator: Olin B.

1990-10-01

109

Brookhaven instrumentation workshop roundtable  

SciTech Connect

This is the edited transcript of the Brookhaven instrumentation workshop roundtable, the topics covered include cost of accelerator instrumentation, standarization, development by industry, and the USDOE Small Business Innovative Research program. (AIP)

van Dyck, M.O.B. (Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States))

1990-10-02

110

Instrument Flying Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Is an Instrument Rating Necessary. The answer to this question depends entirely upon individual needs. Pilots may not need an instrument rating if they fly in familiar uncongested areas, stay continually alert to weather developments, and accept an altern...

2009-01-01

111

Automotive Laboratory Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automotive laboratory instrumentation may be divided into the five broad classifications, power absorption and measurement, temperature measurement and control, pressure measurements, fluid flow, and dimensional measurement. Many of these instruments find...

1968-01-01

112

Regional Instrumentation Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

Cromie, William J.

1980-01-01

113

Operational Test Instrumentation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operational Test Instrumentation Guide presents the results of an operational test-oriented survey of some twenty-eight Department of Defense test/training facilities. In addition to the available instrumentation, information is provided on the landsc...

1981-01-01

114

Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

Sperl, Gary

1980-01-01

115

Make Your Own Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will give you some ideas on how to make your own musical instrument. So, you have to make your own musical instrument, huh? No idea where to start? Feeling overwhelmed? NEVER FEAR! Here are some great ideas. Although these websites talk about specific instruments which might not be what you want to make, they will get you started thinking. Often, the principles behind many instruments are the ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

116

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

117

Instrumentation technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Instrumentation Technology program advances the state of the art of instrumentation associated with the SSME to improve service life and performance by providing increased measurement capability. Two broad categories of instrumentation technology are sought. The first category includes sensors and systems destined to be used in and on the operational engine either during operation or between operations. These measurements

W. C. Nieberding

1985-01-01

118

Assessment Instrument Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an extensive list of assessment instruments in science including instruments for specific topics, general conceptual surveys, and affective/attitudinal assessments. Information about the assessments, their development, their use, and results is also included. This web page also provides instructions for accessing the assessments, usually through contacting the author, and ways to help preserve the integrity of the instruments.

2007-06-25

119

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

Hunt, F L

1923-01-01

120

Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

121

High temperature geophysical instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

Hardee, H.C.

1988-06-01

122

Present status of aircraft instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

1932-01-01

123

Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

2009-01-01

124

aladdin nulling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.

Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.

125

Wet chemistry instrument prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

1974-01-01

126

Space applications instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1972-01-01

127

Instrument validation project  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

1996-06-01

128

Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs: 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades there has been a general concern that the level of research funding for academic instrumentation was not sufficient to keep pace with the requirements of cutting edge research. To develop the factual trend data necessary to understand the depth of the problems in academia and thus provide an adequate response to these concerns,…

Arena, Carolyn B.

129

Instrumentation in endourology  

PubMed Central

Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

Khanna, Rakesh; Monga, Manoj

2011-01-01

130

Music: Instrumental Techniques, Conducting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in introduction to the conducting of music groups of voices or instruments is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skills in score reading, physical gestures, rehearsal techniques, transpositions, voice and instrument ranges. Course objectives include: (1) The pupil will identify all…

Grozan, Carl

131

The Relationship between Health and Community across Aging Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Research is needed to examine the connection between older adults and their community as they age. This is important as increasing numbers of older adults wish to age in place. Regression models were examined across 3 cohorts testing relationships among social capital indicators (neighborhood trust, neighborhood support, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood participation, and telephone interaction) with health outcomes (self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)). Results showed that most social capital indicators remained significant for all health outcomes into very old age. Development of tools for individual and community interventions to ensure optimal fit between the aging individual and their environment is discussed, along with recommendations for enhancing social work theory and practice.

Chan, Keith T.

2014-01-01

132

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

133

Instrument thimble tube shroud  

SciTech Connect

In a nuclear reactor having a core, a core support plate, a flow distribution plate, an instrument guide thimble extending into the core from the flow distribution plate, in-core instrumentation means for monitoring reactor operations extendable through the core support plate and flow distribution plate into the guide thimble, and, means for reducing flow induced vibration of the instrumentation means is described comprising: an instrument shroud disposed between the core support plate and flow distribution plate and having a cup with first and second openings for passing the instrument means there through, the first opening disposed adjacent an opening in the flow distribution plate and being of sufficient diameter to allow fluid flow into the instrument guide thimble, the second opening disposed adjacent to the core support plate and being of sufficient diameter to allow fluid flow into the cup, the cup having passages for diverting part of the fluid flow received from the second opening away from the instrument guide thimble, and, one or more shroud arms extending radially from the cup for engaging a substantially parallel core structure, each shroud arm having means for engaging the adjacent core structure at an end thereof, said engaging means having a locking pad disposed at the end of each shroud arm and spring means extending resiliently from each pad for biasing the shroud into position, the shroud arms preventing movement of the shroud due to fluid flow.

Yates, J.

1993-06-01

134

Successful aging in centenarians: myths and reality.  

PubMed

The term "successful aging" appeared in the first issue of "The Gerontologist" in 1961. During the successive years, this expression has changed its meaning. Nowadays, successful aging means "absence of diseases and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive abilities, preservation of the social and productive activities". It has become a common opinion that the centenarians may represent the prototypes of the successful aging. This motivated our work to study the clinical, psychical, and functional aspects in a centenarian group, verifying the real autonomy, instrumental capacities, and working abilities. Our study pool consisted of 602 centenarians, who were also subjects of then epidemiological studies of the Italian Multicenter Studies on Centenarians (IMUSCE). All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnestic evaluation, cognitive-functional tests by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the independence index in activities of daily living (ADL), the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale. The centenarians were classified in three groups, according to the criteria elaborated previously by us, based on their psychophysical status and autonomy, as follows. Group A: centenarians in good health status; Group B: centenarians in an intermediate health status. Group C: centenarians in bad health status. Group A represented 20.0% of the total pool, Group B amounted to 33.4%, and the Group C was 46.6%. The centenarians of Group A presented normal ADL values, and 47.9% of them were autosufficient in all functions; 5.7% of them were independent in all IADL items. These data confirm that the centenarians of Group A are free of invalidating chronic diseases, are autonomous, maintain good physical and cognitive capacities, however, have not maintained any social or productive activities. Therefore, they cannot be considered as prototypes of successful aging. PMID:15814158

Motta, M; Bennati, E; Ferlito, L; Malaguarnera, M; Motta, L

2005-01-01

135

Acoustic emission calibration instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

An automatic calibration instrument was developed to improve calibration accuracy of acoustic emission (AE) transducers by one order-of-magnitude over commercially available equipment. The instrument facilitates calibration by automatically displaying the maximum value of the stress used to produce AE calibration pulses and the AE pulse. Low-noise amplifiers and filters were also developed to improve the sensitivity of AE measurements by more than one order-of-magnitude over commercially available instruments; thus smaller signals may be detected in parts. 1 ref., 10 figs.

Duncan, M.G.; Whittaker, J.W.

1987-11-13

136

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

137

Aircraft speed instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

Beij, K Hilding

1933-01-01

138

Soil monitoring instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described.

Umbarger, C.J.

1980-01-01

139

AIR Instrument Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

2003-01-01

140

Hetdex: Virus Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

141

NPP: The Five Instruments  

NASA Video Gallery

The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

142

Mikroaaltoalueen Instrumentit (Microwave Instruments).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous microwave telemapping instruments usable in flight have been designed and built. Microwave radiometers and radars are used in campaigns to measure forests, snow and the sea. Up to the present these measurements were taken from helicopters. Instru...

M. Hallikainen E. Panula-Ontto P. Ahola J. Koivula L. Kurvonen

1991-01-01

143

Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

1976-01-01

144

Aeronautic instruments. Section III : aircraft speed instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

1923-01-01

145

Advanced optical instruments technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William (uw319824)

1992-01-01

146

Medical instrument data exchange.  

PubMed

Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments. PMID:19163033

Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

2008-01-01

147

EPOXI instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments' performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments' performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras' readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Besse, Sebastian; Bodewits, Dennis; Carcich, Brian; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Huisjen, Marty; Kelley, Michael S.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Merlin, Frederic; Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2013-07-01

148

Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

1923-01-01

149

Hematologic improvement and response in elderly AML/RAEB patients treated with valproic acid and low-dose Ara-C.  

PubMed

The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to be active on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB). Thirty-one elderly AML/RAEB patients (AML n=25; RAEB n=6) with a high rate of comorbidity were entered in a phase II study with low-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) and VPA. Fitness was evaluated by means of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), including the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score, the self-sufficiency scores of Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL). Eight patients obtained a lasting complete remission and 3 other patients obtained hematologic improvement for a total response rate of 35%. Five of 11 responding patients were relapsed or resistant after a previous treatment with Ara-C. Seven of 11 responding patients were assessed as frail at enrollment and/or had IADL impairment. Grades 3 and 4 toxicities were mainly hematological. Low-dose Ara-C and VPA is a relatively non-toxic combination with good therapeutic activity in elderly patients with AML/RAEB. This therapeutic approach represents an alternative treatment for patients who cannot undergo standard induction therapy. PMID:21474179

Corsetti, M T; Salvi, F; Perticone, S; Baraldi, A; De Paoli, L; Gatto, S; Pietrasanta, D; Pini, M; Primon, V; Zallio, F; Tonso, A; Alvaro, M G; Ciravegna, G; Levis, A

2011-08-01

150

Instrument Refresher Course Precourse Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air Force pilots attend and Instrument Refresher Course (IRC) yearly to review instrument procedures and learn new techniques of instrument flying. Instructors are often forced to spend too much time reviewing basic procedures and are thus unable to cover...

D. R. Vandenburg

1985-01-01

151

Building Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not many people go around wishing to be the Stradivarius of the hurdy-gurdy, but this websiteâÂÂs instructional materials might just make this dream a reality for some lucky individual. The staff at WannaLearn.com have brought together a set of resources for the aspiring musical instrument craftsperson that will be a source of delight, inspiration, and potentially, future innovation. Within categories that include flutes, guitars, and keyboard instruments, visitors can learn how to make wind chimes, banjos, a tinwhistle, and a dulcimer. Most of the instructional materials are quite easy to follow, and in no time at all, visitors can realize the joy of creating their own instruments from such basic materials as plumbing pipe, wine boxes, and nylon string.

152

Instrumentation technology overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Instrumentation Technology program advances the state of the art of instrumentation associated with the SSME to improve service life and performance by providing increased measurement capability. Two broad categories of instrumentation technology are sought. The first category includes sensors and systems destined to be used in and on the operational engine either during operation or between operations. These measurements supply information necessary for engine control and/or diagnostics throughout the life of the engine. The second category includes measurement systems and techniques whose application will be to engine component test stands and possibly to the test bed engine. The measurements provide the detailed information necessary to verify computer models of the performance of the various engine subsystems.

Nieberding, W. C.

1985-04-01

153

Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

1925-01-01

154

Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of functions. The sensor data is processed in a distributed fashion across the network, providing a large pool of resources in real time to meet stringent latency requirements.

Wang, Roy

2011-01-01

155

[Hardening of dental instruments].  

PubMed

The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented. PMID:7300627

Gerasev, G P

1981-01-01

156

Animation of MARDI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

157

Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

Kounaves, Sam

2011-01-01

158

Standard NIM instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

Not Available

1990-05-01

159

Instrumentation in medical systems  

SciTech Connect

The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

Chu, W.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1995-05-01

160

Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the causes of declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the US Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations.

Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G; Schoeni, Robert F; Cornman, Jennifer C

2008-01-01

161

Frequency, severity and determinants of functional limitations in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: results of a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Older adults with joint pain and comorbidity are especially at risk of becoming functionally impaired. Therefore, we studied the frequency and severity of functional limitations and identified potential modifiable determinants that may reduce functional limitations. A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided cross-sectional baseline data (n=407). Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model, we measured Physical Functioning; PF, (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living; (I)ADL, and participation. Apart from examining the frequency and severity, we identified determinants of functional limitations with multivariate regression analyses, by adding determinants in two steps: (1) only physical determinants, (2) physical and psychosocial determinants. Limitations in PF, ADL, IADL and participation were present in 66%, 31%, 61% and 47% of the participants, respectively. About 22% reported limitations on all four measures. Of the physical determinants, especially frailty and higher pain intensity were related to functional limitations. Remarkably, adding psychosocial determinants to the model weakened some of these relations. The psychosocial determinants were especially related to poor PF (i.e. anxiety symptoms, activity avoidance and poor general health perception) and participation restrictions (i.e. depressive symptoms, less social support). An inverse relation was present between self-efficacy and both outcomes. In conclusion, our sample reported substantial levels of functional limitations. More depressive symptoms, more activity avoidance and less social support were indicative of more functional limitations, whereas higher perceived self-efficacy was indicative of better functioning. Such psychosocial determinants should receive more attention in research. PMID:24726180

Hermsen, Lotte A H; Leone, Stephanie S; Smalbrugge, Martin; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

2014-01-01

162

OA01. 35. Role of matravasti as rasayana in jarajanya vikara - A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To prove whether Matravasti shows multiple effects on different systems in old people and to substantiate the effects of Matravasti and Rasayana on clinical basis in ageing. Method: Eighty two patients - Men of age group 50 - 80 years; Women aged above 45 years or who have attained Menopause and <75 years suffering from common problems of old age irrespective of sex, caste, religion etc. were registered for the study from the OPD of MCD Ayurvedic Dispensary, Krishna Nagar, Delhi and OPD and IPD of PG Dept. of Panchakarma, Madhav vilas hospital, Jaipur. Out of which, 16 patients dropped out did not complete treatment. Matravasti was administered for 21 times with Balashwagandha lakshadi (BAL) Taila on alternate days with a dosage 30 - 80 ml accordingly. After completion of 21 days of Matravasti, all the patients were reviewed for successive 6 months. All the cases were assessed by considering 15 different aspects reflecting the common problems of ageing like Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) etc., Result: The overall effect and maximum benefit observed was FAIR (25 % - 50 %) in 38 cases out of 66 patients. GOOD response (51 - 75 % response) in 26 cases and remaining 2 cases Best response (>75%). And the maximum benefit observed among all the cases is 81.8 % and the least effect was 25 %. Among all clinical parameters considered for the study maximum efficacy was found in sleep disturbances (67.5%) followed with gait balance deficit (56.25%), emotional status (55.1%), urinary incontinence (55%), Mobility (53.96 %), IADL (51.3%), ADL(50.8%), constipation (49.5%), cognitive status (48.78%), pain (48.14%), dyspnoea (47.25%), hearing impairment (42.5%), visual impairment (41.8%), dermatological manifestations (41.17%), and involuntary movements (22.2%). Conclusion: Matravasti is a multifaceted and highly effective therapeutic measure in the geriatric conditions.

Dornala, Sathyanarayana; Sharma, Om Prakash

2012-01-01

163

University Reactor Instrumentation Program  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

Vernetson, W.G.

1992-11-01

164

Parental Bonding Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

1994-01-01

165

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

166

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

167

Polar Plasma Wave Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fiel...

D. A. Gurnett A. M. Persoon R. F. Randall D. L. Odem S. L. Remington

1995-01-01

168

Instrument Performance of AIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIRS, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM spacecraft, is an infrared radiometer which covers the 3.7 - 15.4 micron spectral range with spectral resolving power better than 1000. Performance of the AIRS flight unit will be discussed based on measurements in a thermal vacuum test and calibration facility. Simulated data, based on measured instrument performance

H. H. Aumann

169

Micro Mushroom Instrumentation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps t...

W. F. Davidson

1986-01-01

170

University Reactor Instrumentation Grant  

SciTech Connect

A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

S. M. Bajorek

2000-02-01

171

Designing Intelligent Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

2007-11-01

172

Instrument for Textbook Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

Huetteman, Julie Doidge

173

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

174

The GLO Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced solar occultation sensors, miniature in size and complexity, are now possible with modern space-qualified components and measurement techniques. This poster describes the GLO (Gfcr Limb Occultation) instrument, a static sensor with cubesat dimensions that performs solar occultation measurements using a combination of broadband and gas filter correlation channels. GLO can be applied to measure temperature, pressure, aerosol, and trace gases from cloud-top to the lower thermosphere. Though GLO has a broad range of applicability, for this poster we present a version of GLO designed for the UTLS. A feasibility study for such an instrument demonstrates unprecedented fidelity in retrieved profiles, with sub kilometer vertical resolution, of temperature, pressure, aerosol extinction from 0.4 to 4 microns and trace gases that are key to understanding UTLS exchange. Using a single 2D detector array to image the sun for all channels simultaneously, a 10 x 10 x 20 cm instrument is shown to provide UTLS profile measurements of geophysical parameters that are predicted to match or surpass the quality of such profiles from previous limb sensors. A suite of GLO instruments in different orbits can be used to provide global coverage that rivals limb emission sensors, but with occultation measurement capabilities in calibration, precision and accuracy.

Gordley, L.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M. J.; Hervig, M. E.; Paxton, G. J.; Fish, C. S.; Bailey, S. M.; Marchant, A.

2011-12-01

175

Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

176

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

177

Portable dynamic fundus instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

Taylor, Gerald R. (inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (inventor)

1992-01-01

178

Coronographic instrumentation at LUAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our experimental High Dynamic Range Imaging activities developed at Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice (LUAN). They comprise experimental results with Phase Knife and Four Quadrant Phase Masks prototypes. This research will contribute to define future high dynamic range instruments equipping ground-based (e.g. VLT- Planet Finder) or space-based (e.g. DARWIN/TPF) observatories.

Abe, Lyu; Aime, Claude; Beaulieu, Mathilde; Domiciano, Armando; Soummer, Rémi; Vakili, Farrokh

2003-10-01

179

Instrumentation Control Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

180

Relation of neurocardiovascular instability to cognitive, emotional and functional domains.  

PubMed

There is bulk of evidence suggesting that blood pressure dysregulation, as low blood pressure (LBP) or hypotension, orthostatic hypotension (OH) and high blood pressure (HPB) or hypertension are associated with alterations in cognitive and emotional domains. Some studies suggest that LBP, neurocardiovascular instability, like the OH, and atherosclerosis resulting from long standing HBP, reduces cerebral blood flow, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment, morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate whether patients with cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease would show any differences in some anamnestic indicators and/or psychometric measures of cognitive performance and affective symptoms. We recruited 36 patients over 65 years of age admitted to both psycho- and cardio-geriatric ambulatories of our hospital during the last year. The population (mean age of 80.5 years, 72.2% females, 27.8% males) was divided in 2 groups, with OH (25%), and without OH (75%). The first group was subdivided in subgroups: patients with HBP, normal BP and LBP, respectively. Cognitive and depressive domains were assessed with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Italian "scala di valutazione del benessere emotivo nell' anziano" (SVEBA). Information about the present status, comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale=CIRS), functional ability (activities of daily living=ADL, instrumental ADL=IADL) and drugs were collected during clinical examination. BP was measured 4 times, at the beginning of examination, then with the patient in clinostatic and orthostatic position (1st and 3rd minute). Data were analyzed by MANCOVA, considering age and gender as covariates, MMSE, SVEBA, CIRS, ADL, IADL and drugs as dependent variables, and presence/absence of OH as factor. Covariates were not significant sources of variance, as well as overall factor. Due to the heuristic aim of the study, we considered of interest the results of subsequent ANOVAs showing significant differences in SVEBA and ADL with respect to the factor. These data give us the basis to develop a longitudinal study to confirm the detrimental effect of OH on a wide range of health domains. PMID:17317436

Bendini, C; Angelini, A; Salsi, F; Finelli, M E; Martini, E; Neviani, F; Mussi, C; Neri, M

2007-01-01

181

Identifying functional decline: a methodological challenge  

PubMed Central

Background Functional decline (FD) in older people has commonly been measured in the hospital setting with instruments which have been validated on decrease over time in capacity to undertake basic activities of daily living (ADL). In a nonhospitalized sample of older people (independently community dwelling, but potentially on the cusp of FD), it is possible that other measures could be used to predict decline. Early, accurate, and efficient identification of older community-dwelling people who are on the cusp of FD can assist in identifying appropriate interventions to slow the rate of decline. Methods This paper reports on associations between four outcome measures which have been associated with FD (instrumental ADLs [IADLs], quality of life, hospitalizations and falls). The sample was older individuals who were discharged from one large metropolitan emergency department (ED) during 2011–2012, without an inpatient admission. Results Of 597 individuals aged 65+ who provided baseline information, 148 subjects provided four outcome measures at both 1 and 3 months follow up. Overall, approximately 24% demonstrated decreased IADL scores over the 3 months, with domains of home activities, laundry, shopping, and getting places declining the most. Over this time, 18% fell often, and 11% were consistently hospitalized. Between 1 and 3 months follow up, 41% declined in mental component scores, and 50% declined in physical component scores. Low mental and physical component quality of life scores were associated with downstream increased falls and hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life and IADLs. However, change in the four outcome measures was largely independent in factor analysis. Conclusion Measuring the four outcome measures over 3 months post-discharge from an ED presentation, showed that changes in one were not generally correlated with changes in another. This result suggests that a wider measurement net could be cast to identify individuals who may not be coping safely or independently in the community after a minor health crisis. Individuals who declined in at least one outcome measure at 1 month, generally continued to decline over the next 2 months, thus suggesting early opportunities to screen and intervene to slow FD.

Grimmer, Karen; Beaton, Kate; Hendry, Kevan

2013-01-01

182

Instrument techniques for rheometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a review of some latest advances in rheology measuring techniques. Consideration is given to the modification and approaches in conventional measuring techniques and also to the development of specialty instruments. A number of sensing technologies such as nuclear-magnetic-resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulse Doppler mapping have recently been adopted to produce viscoelastic measurements for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials. The working principles of these technologies and their applications are described. Other recent developments in modifications of conventional rheometers for performance enhancement and for complex material characterizations have been thoroughly discussed. Some instrument designs and their special applications, such as interfacial rheometers, extensional rheometers, and high-pressure rheometers, have also been evaluated in detail.

Hou, Ying Y.; Kassim, Hamida O.

2005-10-01

183

Musical Instrument Makers Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With links to over 400 pages on acoustic guitar building, violin, dulcimer, flute, recorder, and bagpipe making, brass instrument building and repair, drum making and much, much more this is the site to visit to better understand how musical instruments are made and maintained. The Forum itself hosts a long list of topics which include discussions related to everything from splitting spruce billets to how to alter a violin to better fit a musician's hand to how to use bird's eye maple in guitar building. And as if all of that were not enough the site also provides links to appropriate books, magazines and hosts a tools store section with links to wood turning tools, hand tools and everything else that's needed to keep your fiddle, guitar or flute in tip top shape.

2006-10-17

184

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

185

Astrometry with Small Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Hipparcos mission, as well as the perspective of future astrometric space missions (DIVA, SIM, GAIA, FAME), brings hard endeavours to the ground-based astrometry, especially the one that uses small instruments still existing in certain observatories. The selection of the best such instruments and the setup of the scientific programmes that can still be performed with these ones determined the International Astronomical Union to accept, for the next triennium, the organization of the Working Group ``The Future Development of Ground-Based Astrometry''. Joint Discussion 3 is the first meeting in which some conclusions formulated since the setup of this WG, at the IAU General Assembly in Manchester, can be presented.

Stavinschi, M.

186

Ion desorption test instrument  

SciTech Connect

An instrument is described which allows the determination of the number of CO molecules released from a surface and equilibrating into the gas phase when an approximately 1000 eV argon ion strikes a metal wall. Evidence is reported on an enhancement of the CO outgassing rate due to ion bombardment. The above measurements are of significance in the design of high intensity proton storage rings as well as in characterizing a first wall process in fusion reactors.

Edwards, Jr., D..; Halama, H.; Aggus, J.

1977-01-01

187

Frontiers of accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

New technology has permitted significant performance improvements of established instrumentation techniques including beam position and profile monitoring. Fundamentally new profile monitor strategies are required for the next generation of accelerators, especially linear colliders (LC). Beams in these machines may be three orders of magnitude smaller than typical beams in present colliders. In this paper we review both the present performance levels achieved by conventional systems and present some new ideas for future colliders.

Ross, M.

1992-08-01

188

The LSST Instrument Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LSST Instrument is a wide-field optical (0.3 to 1um) imager designed to provide a three degree field-of-view with better than 0.2 arcsecond sampling. The image surface of the LSST is approximately 55cm in diameter with a curvature radius over 30 meters. The detector format is currently defined to be a circular mosaic of 568 2k x 2k devices faceted

B. Starra; C. F. Clavera; S. Wolff; J. A. Tyson; M. Lesser; L. Daggert; R. Domingueza; R. Gomez; G. Muller

189

An ice lithography instrument  

PubMed Central

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

2011-01-01

190

An ice lithography instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

2011-06-01

191

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

192

Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

Bisset, K.R.

1998-09-01

193

Major Research Instrumentation Program (MRI) Instrument Development and Acquisition  

NSF Publications Database

Both instrument acquisition and instrument development proposals require detailed management plans as described in Proposal Preparation Instructions. The Major Research Instrumentation Program (MRI) is designed to increase access to scientific and engineering equipment for research and research training in our Nation's organizations of higher education, research museums and non-profit research organizations. The Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program is designed to increase access to ...

194

Outsider's look at flight instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents ideas and speculations on possible diagnostic instrumentation for use in missile flight testing. A plea is made for increased instrumentation efforts. There is some discussion of telemetry methods.

Lundy, A.S.

1981-01-01

195

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

196

High resolution tomographic instrument development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction th...

1992-01-01

197

Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

Ballinger, Dwight G.

1972-01-01

198

Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

Wood, H. John

2004-01-01

199

EMP Instrumentation Shielding and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special purpose hardware was developed to harden recording instrumentation to EMP simulator fields. This included probe shields, instrumentation system shields, and differential voltage attenuators. Calibration and shielding evaluation techniques were als...

B. C. Tupper

1970-01-01

200

LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

1979-01-01

201

Micromachining inertial instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Draper Laboratory, using silicon microfabrication techniques to achieve high yields by batch processing, has been developing miniature microelectromechanical instruments for over 10 years. During this time, considerable progress has been made in the development and fabrication of micromechanical gyroscopes, accelerometers, and acoustic sensors. Inertial instruments have become a worldwide research and commercial topic. Draper gyroscopes and accelerometers have been fabricated with measurement ranges from 50 to 500 deg/s and 10 to 100,000 g, respectively. In gyroscopes, stabilities are 20 deg/h in room temperature tests and 4.4 deg/h applying 0.3 degrees C thermal control. For accelerometers, less than 1 mg has been demonstrated in room temperature tests. These units have performed successfully across a temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees C, and have survived 80,000- to 120,000-g shock tests along all axes. Continuing development activities are expected to yield over an order of magnitude in performance enhancement. These micromechanical instruments are built using a silicon wafer process that results in crystal silicon structures that are anodically bonded on a Pyrex substrate that contains sensing and control electrodes. This silicon-on-glass configuration has low stray capacitance, and is ideally suited for hybrid or flip-chip bonding technology. Draper's inertial sensors incorporate excellent fabrication, however, building the silicon and Pyrex sensor chip is only one of many important contributions in a complete sensor system. Other equally important steps include: 1) electronics and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) 2) packaging, 3) test, and 4) modeling and analysis. This presentation focuses on sensor fabrication. Draper's accelerometers and gyroscopes and the dissolved wafer fabrication process are described. The evolution of gyro design, fabrication, and performance is summarized. Garnered through experience in both conventional and micromachined inertial sensors, rules of thumb that have guided Draper's micromachining efforts are discussed.

Weinberg, Marc S.; Bernstein, Jonathan; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Campbell, J.; Cousens, J.; Cunningham, Robert K.; Fields, R.; Greiff, Paul; Hugh, B.; Niles, Les; Sohn, Jerome B.

1996-09-01

202

ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

Kaukler, William

2001-01-01

203

National Instruments: Online Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Instruments hosts this collection of free technical tutorials covering a variety of subjects. While some of the tutorials are specific to the company's products, most can be applied to general theory and practices related to engineering. People who are learning about signal processing will find the section on frequency domain measurements to be very insightful. It explains topics such as the power spectrum and the fast Fourier transform. Another tutorial describes image processing methods. A free online registration is required to access the tutorials.

204

Evaluation Instruments in UTeach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I will discuss three documents employed in the UTeach program at UT Austin to monitor the progress of students. The first is a document guiding preparation of the student portfolio. The second is the Teacher Development Rubric, which is used to evaluate classroom performance in field experiences. The third is the UTeach Observation Protocol (UTOP), based both on the RTOP and Inside the Classroom instruments of Horizon Research, which we have been employing to observe the classroom practices of inservice teachers. I will provide some preliminary results concerning data gathered with the UTOP.

Marder, Michael

2009-03-20

205

[Assessment instruments for bulimia].  

PubMed

Systematic assessment of bulimia, alike the clinical definition of the disorder, is still meager and lacks reliability. Development of new evaluation instruments is the focus of many current researches. This article will distinguish: rating scales specific of bulimia, for screening in epidemiological surveys and clinical practice, as well as for measure of the severity of the symptoms; structured interviews for evaluation of bulimic patients, for clinical and research use; eating disorders rating scales, already used for anorexia nervosa; other rating scales of interest with bulimic patients; and more possible evaluation methods. Finally, we will review assessment measures for use in treatment studies of bulimia. PMID:2759018

Flament, M; Guelfi, J D

1989-01-01

206

Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

Iufer, E. J.

1978-01-01

207

Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

Hersey, M D

1924-01-01

208

Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

209

Surface composition mapping radiometer instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and fabrication of a three-channel scanning radiometer are discussed. The instrument was flown on Nimbus 5 satellite and measured infrared energy in the 8.3 to 9.3, 10.2 to 11.2, and 0.8 to 1.1 micron spectral regions. The instrument parameters are presented. Theoretical discussions of the instrument subassemblies are provided. Operational details of the mechanical and electrical portions of the instrument are included.

1974-01-01

210

A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

Torbert, Roy B.

1993-01-01

211

Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury) requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL), typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics) is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Methods Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). Results A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92) with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. Conclusions The device satisfied the desired system requirements in terms of low cost, stable sensor signal over time, full finger-flexion range of motion tracking and capability to monitor all three joints of one finger. The developed rapid calibration system for easy use (high feasibility) and excellent psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) qualify the device for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings.

2012-01-01

212

Instrumentation at the Keck observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current instruments and plans for new instruments for the W.M. Keck Observatory are reviewed on behalf of the Keck Science Steering Committee. Much has happened in the last two years. Both 10-meter telescopes have been in full operation for some time and each has a significant complement of instruments. Adaptive optics systems are functioning on both telescopes, the Keck II

Ian S. McLean; David Sprayberry

2003-01-01

213

Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

1998-01-01

214

An Instrumental Innovation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

1978-01-01

215

The QUIET Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

2012-01-01

216

The QUIET Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

Bischoff, C.; et al.

2012-07-01

217

Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans.

2010-01-01

218

Childhood Sexual Abuse is Associated With Physical Illness Burden and Functioning in Psychiatric Patients 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) with cumulative illness burden, physical function, and bodily pain (BP) in a sample of male and female psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. Previous research on the health consequences of sexual abuse has focused on nonpsychiatric samples of younger-age adults, especially women. The health implications of abuse for mixed-gender samples of older psychiatric patients have not been explored. Methods Participants were 163 patients with primary mood disorders. Sexual abuse histories were collected via patient self-report, as was BP. The measure of medical illness burden was based on chart review. Clinical interviewers rated physical function, using the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales. Linear and logistic regressions examined the association between CSA and health outcomes. Results As hypothesized, severe childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher cumulative medical illness burden, worse physical function, and greater BP. Comparisons of regression coefficients revealed that severe CSA’s influence on illness burden is roughly comparable to the effects of adding 8 years of age. For ADL impairment and BP, the effects are comparable to adding 20 years of age. Conclusions Strong relationships exist between CSA and medical illness burden, function, and pain among psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. These relationships cannot be ascribed to shared method variance. Early detection of patients’ abuse histories could inform targeted interventions to prevent or decelerate the progression of morbidity in this high-risk group.

Talbot, Nancy L.; Chapman, Ben; Conwell, Yeates; McCollumn, Kelly; Franus, Nathan; Cotescu, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul R.

2009-01-01

219

A systematic review and meta-analysis of diabetes and risk of physical disability and functional impairment - protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and increased age are known risk factors for physical disability. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes within our aging population, the future burden of disability is expected to increase. To date, there has not been a pooled estimate of the risk for disability associated with diabetes or its precursor states, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between prediabetes and diabetes with disability, and quantify the risk of association. Methods/design We will search for relevant studies in Medline via Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), as well as scan reference lists from relevant reviews and publications included in our review. We will review all publications that include studies on human adults (18 years and older) where information is included on diabetes status and at least one measure of disability (Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental ADL (IADL) or functional/mobility limitation), and where a risk association is available for the relationship between diabetes and/or prediabetes with disability, with reference to those without diabetes. We will further conduct a meta-analysis to pool estimates of the risk of disability associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to assess for publication bias and study quality.Findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis will be widely disseminated through discussions with stake-holders, publication in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentation.

2012-01-01

220

Robotic servicing of EOS instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

1990-01-01

221

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

222

FMIT diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility (FMIT) cw prototype accelerator has noninterceptive beamline instrumentation to measure beam parameters. The transverse emittances and beam profiles are measured with an array of photodiode sensors viewing light emitted from the beam region. Tomographic reconstructions of both spatial-density distributions and of transverse-emittance distributions are performed throughout a quadrupole focusing section. Beam bunches passing through capacitive probes produce bipolar waveforms whose zero crossing corresponds to the bunch's longitudinal centroid. By measuring the time required for a bunch to travel the known distance between two probes, velocity and energy are determined. A toroidal transformer measures the average ac beam current. Beam spill is measured by a set of movable jaws that intercept the beam edges. Each jaw contains a water flow channel whose flow rate and differential temperature are measured to derive a transverse power distribution. Beam centroid position is measured by a four-lobe, magnetic-loop pickup. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Gilpatrick, J.D.; Chamberlin, D.D.

1985-01-01

223

Undergraduate instrumental analysis  

SciTech Connect

This book contains: a new chapter on surface analysis that examines ESCA, Auger spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion microprobe mass spectrometry, and depth of sample analyzed - with special attention to equipment, analytical applications, and quantitative analysis; extensive revisions of chapters on electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and plasma emission spectroscopy - covering major instrumental methods of analysis with the latest information and explaining the physical bases, equipment, chief uses, and significant shortcomings of each method; and updating throughout, treating such objects as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared absorption, thermal analysis, x-ray spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, colorimetry, ultraviolet molecular and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and much more - giving a survey of the field for non-chemistry, premed, engineering, environmental science, and chemistry majors alike.

Robinson, J.W.

1987-01-01

224

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

225

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

226

Novel ultraviolet instrumentation concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical surveys have demonstrated an enormous capability for increasing our understanding of the universe around us. There are significant wavelength regions, which for various reasons are poorly sampled. Powerful diagnostics of hot gas in the universe are well understood, but there are few instruments capable of making measurements at the wavelengths of the most important lines (103 nm, 123 nm, and 155 nm, the lithium-like series of O, N, and C). No complete survey has been done with moderate spatial resolution in emission even though virtually all measurements capable of detecting the presence of lithium-like oxygen do so. We present a technique to eliminate the spectral-spatial confusion inherent in a wide field imaging spectrograph based on a type of imaging spectrograph that takes advantage of the large, well-corrected field of view from a three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) in conjunction with aberration-corrected holography applied to the tertiary.

Beasley, Matthew

2006-06-01

227

Virtual instrument simulator for CERES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-12-01

228

Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-01-01

229

Improving instrument air system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrument air systems support the front-line operating systems at nuclear power plants by providing high-quality air to instruments and controls. Since plants are designed so that this air is not needed for achieving safe shutdown, instrument air systems do not have to be safety-grade. From the standpoint of electricity production, however, it is vital that they be as reliable and

Wyckoff

2009-01-01

230

Instrumentation in vegetable oil processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of instrumentation to control properly all processes in the manufacture of vegetable oil is now well accepted.\\u000a Instrumentation and controls in oil processing can reduce manpower requirements, improve yields, improve quality, reduce energy\\u000a usage, reduce regrade or rework, and allow reduction in inventories. The best instrumentation system for a particular operation\\u000a is one that utilizes or takes into

W. E. Farr

1983-01-01

231

Ultrasonics and space instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

1987-01-01

232

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

233

Halo vest instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

1996-05-01

234

Instrumentation and Facilities (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... EARTH SCIENCES (EAR) Instrumentation and Facilities Supports the acquisition or upgrade of ... operation of multiuser regional or national facilities that provide access to complex and expensive ...

235

Instrumentation advances for transonic testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New and improved instrumentation, like new and improved wind tunnels, provide capabilities which stimulate innovative research and discovery. During the past few years there have been a number of instrumentation developments which have aided and abetted the acquisition of more accurate aerodynamic data and have led to new physical insights as well. Some of these advances are reviewed, particularly in the area of thin film gages, hot wire anemometry, and laser instrumentation. A description is given of the instruments and/or techniques and some sample results are shown.

Bobbitt, Percy J.

1989-01-01

236

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION IN CONTINUOUS RECORDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of musical instruments in multi-instrumental, poly- phonic music is a difficult challenge which is yet far from being solved. Successful instrument recognition techniques in solos (monophonic or polyphonic recordings of single instruments) can help to deal with this task. We introduce an instrument recognition process in solo re- cordings of a set of instruments (bassoon, clarinet, flute, guitar, piano,

Arie A. Livshin; Xavier Rodet

2004-01-01

237

D0 Instrument Air System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

T. J. Serges

1988-01-01

238

Portable mine dust concentration instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve health and safety conditions, there is need for a portable instrument that mine inspectors can use routinely for rapidly checking concentrations of dust in mine atmospheres. The objective of the study was to build, calibrate, and evaluate two prototype instruments. The emphasis was on certain minimum standards of size, weight, response time, sensitivity, ruggedness, reproducibility, permissibility, and cost

C. E. Lapple; C. F. Schadt

1972-01-01

239

New instruments for solar research  

Microsoft Academic Search

New instruments have been installed at observatories in New Mexico and California for measuring solar magnetic fields and surface velocities. The magnetic fields provide the enrgy for all eruptive and accelerative processes on the Sun, and the surface velocities reveal the dynamics of the solar interior. The new instruments incorporate several technical innovations, including a lithium niobate filter for high

D. M. Rust; J. W. O'Byrne; R. E. Sterner II

1991-01-01

240

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

241

Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

Stinson, Stephen

1981-01-01

242

Experimenting with String Musical Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2012-01-01

243

Science Process Instrument. Experimental Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instrument contains activities by which one can determine a child's intellectual development in: (1) observing, (2) classifying, (3) measuring, (4) using numbers, (5) using space/time relationships, (6) inferring, and (7) communicating and predicting. The seven sections of the instrument correspond to those processes defined in Science - A…

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. Commission on Science Education.

244

Instrument Remote Control Application Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

2006-01-01

245

Solid motor diagnostic instrumentation. [design of self-contained instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of typical surveillance and monitoring practices followed during the flight phases of representative solid-propellant upper stages and apogee motors was conducted to evaluate the need for improved flight diagnostic instrumentation on future spacecraft. The capabilities of the flight instrumentation package were limited to the detection of whether or not the solid motor was the cause of failure and to the identification of probable primary failure modes. Conceptual designs of self-contained flight instrumentation packages capable of meeting these reqirements were generated and their performance, typical cost, and unit characteristics determined. Comparisons of a continuous real time and a thresholded hybrid design were made on the basis of performance, mass, power, cost, and expected life. The results of this analysis substantiated the feasibility of a self-contained independent flight instrumentation module as well as the existence of performance margins by which to exploit growth option applications.

Nakamura, Y.; Arens, W. E.; Wuest, W. S.

1973-01-01

246

HYDICE Instrument Design and Its Application to Planetary Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral r...

R. Basedow P. Silverglate W. Rappoport R. Rockwell D. Rosenberg

1993-01-01

247

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

248

Potentiostat Circuits for Biomedical Instrumentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potentiostat system consisting of a constant voltage driving negative feedback circuit is very useful in understanding of electrochemical interfacial phenomena. This paper proposes a designing method for a simplified potentiostat circuit for biomedical instrumentations and bio-sensors, by using conventional op-amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers. The ranges are 10?V˜10mV, 0.1nA˜10mA in the frequency of 10Hz˜10kHz. Results of the loop frequency characteristics, the intrinsic noises and the Lissajous characteristic of a designed potentiostat consisting of low noise and low bias-current op-amps. and instrumentation amps. are shown.

Dendo, Isao

249

Foundations of measurement and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

Warshawsky, Isidore

1990-01-01

250

Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are related to late-life disability; (2) the role of habitual gait speed in the cognition-disability association; and (3) the combined effect of cognitive function and habitual gait speed on late-life disability. Method Participants (>60 years, n = 2,481) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), and lower extremity mobility (LEM) was obtained by self-report. Cognitive function was measured by a 2-min timed Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), an executive function measure from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test. Habitual gait speed was obtained from a 20-foot timed walk. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between cognitive function and disability. Results Cognitive function was associated with decreased likelihood for disability in each domain. The odds ratios (ORs) for disability in ADL, IADL, LSA, and LEM for each standard deviation (SD) increase in the DSST score were 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34–0.64), 0.53 (95% CI = 0.42–0.67), 0.61 (95% CI = 0.47–0.79), and 0.73 (95% CI = 0.61–0.86), respectively, in the multivariable models. After additional adjustment for habitual gait speed in the cognition-disability relationship, DSST score was no longer a significant correlate for LSA and LEM disability. The strength of the association between DSST score and disability in ADL/IADL was also diminished. The attenuated association between cognition and disability implies that limitation in gait speed likely mediates the association between cognitive function and disability. We found additive effects of cognition and habitual gait speed on late-life disability. The OR of disability in respective domains were lowest among participants with high-DSST score (high executive function) and with high gait speed. In contrast, the OR tended to be highest among participants with low-DSST score (low executive function) and low gait speed. Conclusion Cognitive function was associated with multiple domains of disability. There was a joint effect of cognitive function and gait speed on late-life disability. This study also suggested that habitual gait speed partially mediated the inverse association between cognitive function and late-life disability, providing a mechanistic explanation in the context of disablement process.

Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Yu, Yau-Hua; Milberg, William P.

2008-01-01

251

Instrument detects bacterial life forms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

Plakas, C.

1971-01-01

252

Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

1986-01-01

253

Aircraft power-plant instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

1934-01-01

254

Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

Deming, Richard L.; And Others

1982-01-01

255

NCL Instrumentation - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory  

Cancer.gov

The mention of trade names and manufacturers is for informational purposes only. The NCL does not endorse any of the suppliers listed below. Equivalent instrumentation from alternate vendors can be substituted.

256

KMRR instrumented capsule flow test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the pressure drop measurements of the KMRR (Korea multipurpose research reactor) instrumented test capsule. Pressure drops were measured for different sizes of simulated capsules in order to investigate the thermal hydraulic safety an...

M. K. Chung S. K. Yang H. J. Chung B. D. Kim Y. H. Kang

1994-01-01

257

Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.  

PubMed

Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

2011-11-29

258

Enhanced Assessment in Instrumental Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to implement student self-assessment and large-group assessment in the high school instrumental music classroom. Reports on the students' thoughts about these assessment types. Includes various forms to assist in assessment. (CMK)

Burrack, Frederick

2002-01-01

259

Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

1974-01-01

260

Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

Long, Joseph W.

1983-01-01

261

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

262

Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

1934-01-01

263

Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry  

PubMed Central

Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

264

The SPIRE Instrument on HERSCHEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPIRE instrument is one of the three instruments onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory launched on 14th of May 2009. SPIRE is fully functional with performance and scientific capabilities matching or exceeding prelaunch estimates. SPIRE has already completed the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) observations of its Guaranteed Time and Open Key Time programs. The largest projects to be performed with Herschel are HerMES and ATLAS with their first results already been published.

Trichas, M.

2010-06-01

265

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

266

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

267

14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements...the following engine instruments: (a) A carburetor air temperature...

2010-01-01

268

14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements...the following engine instruments: (a) A carburetor air temperature...

2009-01-01

269

Development of Airblast and Thermal Radiation Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is part of a continuing effort to develop instrumentation for use in underground nuclear tests. In particular, the development of instrumentation to measure airblast and thermal radiation is described. The initial development of an instrumented spher...

H. R. Kratz P. L. Coleman R. S. Wilson

1978-01-01

270

Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

1974-01-01

271

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a)...

2014-01-01

272

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2014-01-01

273

On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

2007-01-01

274

Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever had a penchant to check out an ancient flageolet or a historic bass horn, this delightful online collection from the Birmingham Conservatoire Historical Instrument Collection is just the ticket. The project was developed by Professor George Caird and his colleagues at Birmingham City University, and funding for the project was provided by Arts & Humanities Research Council. From the homepage, visitors can browse the catalog of instruments by name or by maker, look over a host of images, and listen to some excellent audio samples of the instruments. The instruments are divided into categories that include "Trombones", "Plucked Strings", "Keyboards", and "Serpents, Ophicleides and Bass Horns". Each instrument is accompanied by information about its place of origin, its maker, its overall size, and numerous photographs. Moving on, the "Audio Resources" area is quite a pip, and visitors can listen to expert musicians playing everything from an 1836 piccolo to a folded coach horn making its way through Mozart's Post Horn Serenade.

275

Instrumentation at the Subaru Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing new instruments and upgrading existing instruments has been an important aspect of Subaru telescope's operation. Seven facility instruments and two visiting instruments are currently under use. Among them HiCIAO, a coronagraphic imager combined with adaptive optics (AO188), has started its full operation in the 2nd semester of 2009. We are using HiCIAO for a large program (SEEDS) to find new exo-planets and comprehend planet formation from proto-planetary disks. To achieve higher contrast, a new coronagraph attachment with an extreme AO (SCExAO) will be installed as a PI instrument. AO188 is also used with the IRCS in natural guide star mode. Its laser guide star mode is currently commissioning. The Fibre multi-object spectrograph (FMOS), which is comprised of 400 fibers placed at the prime focus and delivers 0.9-1.8um spectra, will be partly offered to open use from mid 2010. Hyper Suprime-Cam, the wide-field upgrade (1.5 deg FoV) of the Suprime-Cam, is under development for its first light in 2011. Development of an immersion grating has taken place for upgrading the IRCS with a high-resolution infrared spectrograph.

Takato, Naruhisa; Usuda, Tomonori

2010-07-01

276

SEA applications to wind instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of wind instruments, including brass instruments, is primarily determined by the shapes of their air columns, and their interaction with the sound generation mechanism. However, the influence of the surrounding body of the instrument has been a matter of some debate, and papers exploring this question have been published since the early years of the J. Acoust Soc. Am. An apparent correlation between instrument material and playing behavior is disputed by arguments that the structure is stiff and massive compared to the air inside, and that many of the apparent effects are linked to machining differences among materials. The complexity of the instrument body makes this problem well suited for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA), which treats the air column and the external structure as coupled statistical subsystems that share energy. For trumpets and trombones, the power radiated from the structural vibrations is about 40 dB lower than the energy radiated directly from the air column, with an enhancement at high frequencies due in part to the increasing modal density of the three dimensional structure. The coupling to the structural vibrations themselves from the player's lips and from the air vibrations are similar to each other in magnitude.

Hoekje, Peter L.

2003-04-01

277

Readiness Issues for Emergency Response Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Issues in maintaining readiness of instruments for deployment and use in emergency response situation often differ from those in maintaining instruments for normal operations. Confunding circumstances include use of non-availability of check sources, ensuring instruments are always in calibration and operable, possible use of instruments in different climates, packaging of instrumentation for deployment, transport of instrumentation and check sources, and ensuring users are familiar with instruments. Methods and procedures for addressing these issues are presented. Instrumentation used for survey, in situ measurements, electronic dosimetry, and air conditioning are discussed.

C.A. Riland; D.R. Bowman; R.J. Tighe

1999-03-01

278

Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 Hypertext Format Academic Research ... Needs 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993, Needs ...

279

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

280

Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately.

Kennedy, W.N.

1998-09-30

281

ac-resistance-measuring instrument  

SciTech Connect

An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

Hof, P.J.

1981-04-22

282

Approach and Instrument Placement Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) from the 2003 flight mission represents the state of the art technology for target approach and instrument placement on Mars. It currently takes 3 sols (Martian days) for the rover to place an instrument on a designated rock target that is about 10 to 20 m away. The objective of this project is to provide an experimentally validated single-sol instrument placement capability to future Mars missions. After completing numerous test runs on the Rocky8 rover under various test conditions, it has been observed that lighting conditions, shadow effects, target features and the initial target distance have an effect on the performance and reliability of the tracking software. Additional software validation testing will be conducted in the months to come.

Ator, Danielle

2005-01-01

283

FTIR instrumentation for atmospheric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, extensive observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the spectral region from 3.6 - 20 micrometers with resolving powers of 1000 - 4000 have been made, both from the ground and nadir viewing from NASA high altitude aircraft. Two recent field experiments in which both instruments participated are the FIRE II/SPECTRE experiment Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, KS and the STORMFEST experiment Feb. - Mar. 1992 in Seneca, KS. Experience with these instruments has led to instrument designs for advanced sounders on geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. Applications include remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and water vapor for improved weather forecasting, measurement of cloud radiative impact for improvement of global climate modelling, and trace gas retrieval for climate and air pollution monitoring.

Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, F. A.; Smith, William L.

1993-09-01

284

Instrument performance enhancement and modification through an extended instrument paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended instrument paradigm is proposed, developed and shown in various applications. The CBM (Chin, Blass, Mahan) method is an extension to the linear systems model of observing systems. In the most obvious and practical application of image enhancement of an instrument characterized by a time-invariant instrumental response function, CBM can be used to enhance images or spectra through a simple convolution application of the CBM filter for a resolution improvement of as much as a factor of two. The CBM method can be used in many applications. We discuss several within this work including imaging through turbulent atmospheres, or what we've called Adaptive Imaging. Adaptive Imaging provides an alternative approach for the investigator desiring results similar to those obtainable with adaptive optics, however on a minimal budget. The CBM method is also used in a backprojected filtered image reconstruction method for Positron Emission Tomography. In addition, we can use information theoretic methods to aid in the determination of model instrumental response function parameters for images having an unknown origin. Another application presented herein involves the use of the CBM method for the determination of the continuum level of a Fourier transform spectrometer observation of ethylene, which provides a means for obtaining reliable intensity measurements in an automated manner. We also present the application of CBM to hyperspectral image data of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact with Jupiter taken with an acousto-optical tunable filter equipped CCD camera to an adaptive optics telescope.

Mahan, Stephen Lee

285

TCTE Instrument Performance and Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSI Continuity Transfer Experiment (TCTE) instrument is nearly identical to the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) that has been providing high accuracy total solar irradiance measurements from the NASA/SORCE spacecraft since 2003. To maintain continuity in this essential climate data record, for which stability and inter-instrument overlap are critical, the TCTE on the Air Force STP-Sat3 spacecraft is intended to acquire solar irradiance measurements bridging the current aging SORCE mission and the future NOAA/JPSS/TSIS mission. We describe the TCTE measurement requirements, calibration accuracies, operations plans, and post-launch status.

Kopp, G.; Boyle, B.; Heuerman, K.; Pilewskie, P.; Seidel, D.; Swieter, D.; Ucker, G.

2013-12-01

286

Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments  

SciTech Connect

Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

Rio, Yvon [CEA/IRFU/Sap, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2009-05-11

287

Instrumentation for air quality measurements.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

Loewenstein, M.

1973-01-01

288

Thermography instruments for predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Thermography (infrared imaging, or IR scanning) is not only the most versatile predictive maintenance technology available today; it is, in general, the most cost-effective. Plant engineering can apply a virtually unlimited variety of predictive maintenance instruments, but all are restricted regarding the types of existing and incipient problems they can detect. Inplant applications of thermography, however, are truly limited only by the extent of the plant engineer's imagination. Here are ways that thermography can be used to fight downtime in plants, and factors to consider when selecting the best instrument for particular circumstances.

Palko, E.

1993-08-12

289

Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast.

Zhang, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

290

Sample acquisition and instrument deployment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

Boyd, Robert C.

1995-01-01

291

Evaluation of an eHealth Intervention in Chronic Care for Frail Older People: Why Adherence is the First Target  

PubMed Central

Background Older people suffering from frailty often receive fragmented chronic care from multiple professionals. According to the literature, there is an urgent need for coordination of care. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an online health community (OHC) intervention for older people with frailty aimed at facilitating multidisciplinary communication. Methods The design was a controlled before-after study with 12 months follow-up in 11 family practices in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Participants consisted of frail older people living in the community requiring multidisciplinary (long-term) care. The intervention used was the health and welfare portal (ZWIP): an OHC for frail elderly patients, their informal caregivers and professionals. ZWIP contains a secure messaging system supplemented by a shared electronic health record. Primary outcomes were scores on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL), mental health, and social activity limitations. Results There were 290 patients in the intervention group and 392 in the control group. Of these, 76/290 (26.2%) in the intervention group actively used ZWIP. After 12 months follow-up, we observed no significant improvement on primary patient outcomes. ADL improved in the intervention group with a standardized score of 0.21 (P=.27); IADL improved with 0.50 points, P=.64. Conclusions Only a small percentage of frail elderly people in the study intensively used ZWIP, our newly developed and innovative eHealth tool. The use of this OHC did not significantly improve patient outcomes. This was most likely due to the limited use of the OHC, and a relatively short follow-up time. Increasing actual use of eHealth intervention seems a precondition for large-scale evaluation, and earlier adoption before frailty develops may improve later use and effectiveness of ZWIP.

Perry, Marieke; Robben, Sarah HM; Schers, Henk J; Heinen, Maud M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM; Melis, Rene F

2014-01-01

292

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

Scales, John W., Ed.

293

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

294

Drug-taking instruments recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an algorithm for the recognition of three kinds of drug-taking instruments, including bongs, hookahs and spoons. A global feature - Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) - is used to represent images. PHOG is calculated by partitioning an image into increasingly fine sub-regions and concatenating the appropriately weighted histograms of orientation gradients of each

Ruiguang Hu; Nianhua Xie; Weiming Hu

2011-01-01

295

Instrumentation for atmospheric ion measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ions are part of the atmospheric aerosol spectrum, and study of ion-aerosol interactions is fundamental in atmospheric physics. Air ion physics and instrumentation are reviewed, including the historical context. A miniaturised Gerdien condenser for ion measurement, operating in situ to minimise inlet errors, is described. Two operating modes using independent current and voltage decay measurements are employed. A more sophisticated self-calibrating and fully programmable ion mobility spectrometer (PIMS) based on the same principles, is also discussed. Detailed analysis of error terms and application of new technology is demonstrated to greatly improve its capability. Self-consistent experimental approaches, including ionisation and ion concentration instruments, are used for calibration. In developing and characterising the individual components of the PIMS, favourable and unfavourable operating regimes are identified: this approach can also be applied to other aspiration ion counting techniques. Use of a sophisticated programmable electrometer permits compensation for leakage terms. Electrically-charged aerosol particles have been found to complicate the ion measurements. Consequently, conventional ion-aerosol theory, which neglects the particulate concentration, is thought to be incomplete. The polymodal ion mobility spectrum is also found to influence the instrument's operation. Development of the novel programmable ion instrumentation, in conjunction with consideration of the ion mobility spectrum yields an improved and flexible approach to in situ atmospheric ion measurements.

Aplin, K. L.

2005-01-01

296

Portable Mine Dust Concentration Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype portable coal dust concentration instrument was developed based upon forward low-angle light scattering. The unit weighs 7 pounds and has a response time of 10 seconds. Readout can be set for 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 10,000 mg/cu m. The calibratio...

C. E. Lapple C. F. Schadt

1972-01-01

297

Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish t...

L. Pedersen M. Bualat C. Kunz S. Lee R. Sargent R. Washington A. Wright

2002-01-01

298

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

299

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

300

Portable Radiation Survey Instrument Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The External Dose Evaluation Manual, BNWL-MA-6Z, is being issued by sections as individual procedures are completed to describe the portable radiation survey instruments in use on the Hanford site. The manual is in two parts. Part 1 covers general adminis...

D. M. Fleming

1973-01-01

301

Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

LoPresto, Michael C.

2003-01-01

302

Instrument measures dynamic pressure fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure probe instrument, incorporating "infinite line" principle, can be used to remotely measure dynamic pressure fluctuations in hot high-pressure environemnts too severe for sensors. System is designed and can be utilized for measurements in core of operating turbofan engine.

Coats, J. W.; Penko, P. E.; Reshotko, M.

1977-01-01

303

Historic Scientific Instruments of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalog of historic scientific instruments (around 10,000) is detailed. The author is the curator of the Physical Sciences & Space, National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa, which has a 15-inch Warner & Swasey refractor (1905) and a 7- or 8- inch mirror with Brashear's name on the side (1889).

Brooks, Randall C.

304

Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to…

Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar

2004-01-01

305

Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post/premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2011-01-01

306

Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post?premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time. PMID:21280897

Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2011-01-01

307

Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post?premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2011-01-01

308

Instrumentation for Automated Determination of Protein Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument system has been developed that automatically carries out solvent and thermal denaturations of proteins using fluorescence as a probe of structure. This instrument also automatically performs pH titrations and can make kinetic measurements on the time scale of seconds. The design philosophy and implementation are described. The prototype instrument was subjected to extensive testing. The instrument can

W. E. Stites; M. P. Byrne; J. Aviv; M. Kaplan; P. M. Curtis

1995-01-01

309

The SOFIA Science Instrument Program: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the science instrument program for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Funded for an initial suite of facility and PI class instruments, the SOFIA instrument development program includes imagers and spectrometers from both U.S. and German development teams. With an emphasis on lessons learned, we review the development of the facility instrument suite. We

S. C. Casey; M. Savage

2004-01-01

310

Dynamic program instrumentation for scalable performance tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a new technique called `dynamic instrumentation' that provides efficient, scalable, yet detailed data collection for large-scale parallel applications. Our approach is unique because it defers inserting any instrumentation until the application is in execution. We can insert or change instrumentation at any time during execution by modifying the application's binary image. Only the instrumentation required for the currently selected

Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Barton P. Miller; Jon Cargille

1994-01-01

311

Regeneration in brass wind instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the production of musical notes by the interaction between the lips of a player and a brass wind instrument. The mechanism of this non-linear oscillation, together with that in the voice and for woodwind instruments, is discussed and past theories reviewed. Each element in the interaction is then carefully delineated and reasonable approximations to the governing equations for the lip dynamics and flow conditions through the lip opening are deduced: the acoustic parameters of the instrument and pressure source from the lungs can be experimentally determined. In contrast to the case of woodwind instruments, for example, many of the important parameters controlling the interaction can vary over a wide range and are under the complete control of the player. The expressions describing each component of the interaction are then combined to form an overall theory of regeneration, following Helmholtz, which leads to a description of the conditions necessary for a note to be sustained, and to an expression describing the characteristic waveform of the mouthpiece pressure at low frequencies. Experimental measurements of this mouthpiece pressure are presented, together with measurements of the steady and alternating components of the pressure in the mouth, and of the velocity in the mouthpiece for blown notes on a trombone and trumpet. Good agreement was observed between the harmonics of the measured mouthpiece pressure and those deduced from theory. Measurements are presented of the intonation of a trombone, and the range and characteristics of notes "buzzed" on a mouthpiece alone are discussed. Finally the steady pressure in the mouth and the average flow down the instrument are used to calculate the average lip opening, and hence the effective mass of the moving parts of the lips for a variety of notes played on a trombone and trumpet.

Elliott, S. J.; Bowsher, J. M.

1982-07-01

312

Reference instrument complement for IPNS Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study for a new 1 MW pulsed neutron source has recently been completed at Argonne. As part of this feasibility study, an instrument package to instrument 24 of the 36 beam ports has been considered. This complement of instruments is outlined, and details of some of the instruments are discussed. Developments required before some of these instruments can be built are also indicated.

Crawford, R.K.

1993-07-01

313

Vertebroplasty combined with pedicular instrumentation.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis and cancer patients may suffer sudden severe back pain due to vertebral body osteolysis, microfractures and/or compression fractures. These patients need immediate restabilisation of the vertebral body to eliminate the pain generator, to prevent further crushing, and to reduce the comorbidity of prolonged immobilisation. Vertebroplasty combined with pedicular instrumentation is presented as a therapy for a selected group of such patients. Eight patients with an average age of 69.1 years experienced significant relief from disabling back pain. The ability to ambulate increased significantly. The risks associated with prolonged bed rest and hospital stay were reduced. There were only minor surgical complications. Follow-up was short because of the limited life expectancy of these severely ill patients. Disabling back pain was successfully treated and ongoing vertebral body collapse was prevented by vertebroplasty combined with pedicular instrumentation in the eight selected osteoporosis and cancer patients. PMID:18207410

Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

2008-03-01

314

New instrumentation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the procedure of choice for removing large, complex, and/or multiple renal calculi. Since its first description in 1976, PCNL techniques and equipment have evolved to maximize procedural efficacy, safety, and reproducibility. We reviewed current literature from January 2004 to November 2009 using Medline search regarding PCNL instrumentation and technology. Additional equipment discovered during the review process without published Medline evidence was summarized from manufacturer brochures and data. Included in this review are summaries of intracorporeal lithotriptors and accessory equipment, stone manipulation devices, PCNL tract sealants, and a digital rigid nephroscope. The evolution of these devices from their predecessors has increased the instrumentation options for the treating urologist and may represent more effective technology for the percutaneous treatment of large renal stones.

Pugh, Joseph W.; Canales, Benjamin K.

2010-01-01

315

Systematic Differences Between Radiosonde Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deviations of radiosonde reports' geopotential heights from the zonal mean are examined. In the summer Northern Hemisphere stratosphere, systematic differences are found between radiosonde instrument types. Persistent meridional wind anomalies, approximately constant in magnitude and fixed in location, have previously been reported in the summer stratosphere, and one such anomaly over Europe is found to be co-located with boundaries between regions in which differing types of radiosonde instruments are used. The magnitude and orientation of the radiosonde geopotential height biases are consistent with the wind anomalies. Because the overall winds tend to be light in this region and season, these wind anomalies can represent significant perturbations of the flow and must be considered when interpreting the results of trajectory and diagnostic studies.

Lait, Leslie R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

316

Holy Trinity of Instrumentation Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being user friendly should be the main guidance, beside the self-understood high performance, in today's instrumentation development. Here we identify three components of the user-friendly policy: the all-in-one concept, customization, and connectivity. All-in-one is the concept of unification of various building blocks and thus various functionalities in one product. The customization is enabled by the product's reconfigurability that allows a product to grow and support new requirements and applications without changing hardware. The consequence of the two is the capacity of the single instrument to perform a variety of tasks that before were split among different devices. The last of the three is connectivity that improves the relationship between controls and beam diagnostics, brings out-of-the-crate freedom, and opens unforeseen possibilities for intra-accelerator cooperation and remote technical support.

Urši?, Rok; Šolar, Borut

2004-11-01

317

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

318

Energy Transfer in Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers concepts of energy and energy transfer, with a focus on energy transfer in musical instruments. More specifically, students learn the two different ways in which energy can be transferred between a system and its environment. The law of conservation of energy is also described. Example systems are presented (two cars on a track and a tennis ball falling to the ground) and students make predictions and explain the energy transfer mechanisms. The engineering focus becomes clear in the associated activity when students apply the concepts learned in the lesson to design musical instruments. The systems analyzed in the lesson help in discussing how to apply conservation of energy and energy transfer to make things.

Engineering K-Phd Program

319

Health Physics Instrumentation Museum Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This particular online collection from the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (a university consortium that oversees the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) contains over 1000 objects, many of which are on view at this site. The Health Physics Historical Instrumentation Museum Collection has been deemed the official repository for historical radiological instruments by the Health Physics Society, and at its essence, "chronicles the scientific and commercial history of radioactivity and radiation." This online collection is divided into sections that include atomic movie posters, radiation warning signs, radioluminescent items, ionization chambers, and electrometers. One of the more engaging sections details a number of items designed as radioactive quack cures, such as jars for adding radon to water, emanators for adding radon to water, and radium tablets and bath salts.

320

In Situ Instruments: Overview of In Situ Instruments for Deployment in Extreme Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews the design and specifications for several instruments for deployment in extreme environments. The instruments are: (1) In Situ Geochronology Instrument, (2) Laser Ablation Sampling Instrument, (3) Micro Hygrometer (4) Micro Lidar, (5) Atmospheric Electron X-Ray Spectrometer and (6) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. Included in the descriptions are the contact people and the objective of each instrument.

Taylor, M.; Cardell, G.

2000-01-01

321

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

322

Neutron interferometry instrumentation at MURR.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades more than 35 fundamental quantum interference experiments have been performed using the perfect-silicon-crystal neutron interferometer. About one-half of these experiments have been carried out at the University of Missouri research reactor center (MURR). The authors describe in some detail the instrumentation and the neutron optics of the two neutron interferometry setups currently situated at this 10 MW reactor.

Allman, B. E.; Jacobson, D. L.; Lee, W.-T.; Littrell, K. C.; Werner, S. A.

1998-08-01

323

Earth Sciences: Instrumentation and Facilities  

NSF Publications Database

EAR/IF accepts proposals seeking support for the development of new instrumentation, analytical techniques or software that extend current research capabilities in the Earth sciences; such proposals may only be submitted to the August 8 target date. Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation via the NSF FastLane System should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the general guidelines contained in the NSF Grant Proposal Guide (GPG).

324

High-Frequency EPR Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the most recent developments in high-frequency high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) instrumentation\\u000a is given. In particular, the practical choices concerning sources, detectors, resonators, propagation systems as well as magnet\\u000a technology are discussed in the light of various possible applications. Examples of particular homodyne and heterodyne quasi-optic\\u000a EPR systems illustrate the potential for future developments in EPR technology.

Edward J. Reijerse

2010-01-01

325

Building and Using Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Objectives, an overview, materials needed, time, teacher preparation, directions, and procedures for the lesson can all be found here.

2008-01-16

326

Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique  

SciTech Connect

This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Smith, K.A. (Edinburgh School of Agriculture (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

327

Ionospheric instrumentation - A new approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design criterion is proposed for the realization of receivers suitable for ionospheric research. The goal of this criterion is to extend as much as possible the use of microprocessor-based systems to perform not only data handling and instrumentation control, but also to substitute classical radiotechnical circuitry, i.e., the software receiver approach. The motivations of such effort will be presented and discussed.

Ciraolo, L.; Spalla, P.

328

Microprocessors in instrumentation and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art in design and applications of microprocessors in instrumentation and control are discussed. Principles and techniques for designing microprocessor-based systems for data acquisition and digital control are presented. The general topics discussed include: program techniques, arithmetic and logic operations, parallel and serial input-output, counting and timing operations, analog input-output, data acquisition, control systems, interrupts and real time operation, software development, and hardware design.

Money, S. A.

329

Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

Bly, Vince

2007-01-01

330

Wind infrared Doppler lidar instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the project WIND (wind infrared Doppler lidar) is the development of an airborne conical scanning CO2 Doppler lidar in French-German cooperation by CNRS\\/CNES and DLR. The instrument and its peculiarities are described. Measurements of the Doppler shift from a moving platform with an accuracy of 1 m\\/s require instantaneous access to the position data of the platform.

Christian H. Werner; Pierre H. Flamant; Oliver Reitebuch; Friedrich Koepp; Juergen Streicher; Stephan Rahm; Engelbert Nagel; Michael Klier; H. Herrmann; Claude Loth; P. Delville; Ph. Drobinski; B. Romand; Ch. Boitel; D. Oh; M. Lopez; Mireille Meissonnier; Didier Bruneau; Alain M. Dabas

2001-01-01

331

Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

1989-01-01

332

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-08-01

333

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-01-01

334

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

335

The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth`s polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp {minus}1).

Gurnett, D.A.; Persoon, A.M.; Randall, R.F.; Odem, D.L.; Remington, S.L.; Averkamp, T.F.; Debower, M.M.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Huff, R.L.; Kirchner, D.L.

1995-01-01

336

Operational standards for CASA instruments.  

PubMed

Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology is 7 years old. Over 120 papers have been written that verify the technology or apply it in basic and clinical studies. Most of the technical problems with CASA, such as the dependence of velocity on video frame rate, inaccuracy of count and percent motility for low- and high-concentration specimens, parameter dependence on the number of frames analyzed, sensitivity of the subjective threshold setting, confusion over the presence of debris, and different implementations of algorithms across instruments, still persist. A critical review of the literature reveals that no standard practices are followed within or across instruments. Moreover, no standards have been embraced or recommended by professional societies. Despite its potential to provide objective measurements of specimen and individual sperm parameters, and to automate the laboratory semen analysis, the promise of CASA has not been fulfilled. Unless laboratory medicine defines instrument performance and laboratory standards and co-operates with industry to achieve these goals, CASA technology may remain a research curiosity. This outcome is especially worrisome in the context of increasing requirements for laboratory accuracy, precision, standardization, and accreditation under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988. PMID:8288492

Davis, R O; Katz, D F

1993-01-01

337

MUSE instrument global performance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and will be assembled to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in 2012. The MUSE instrument can simultaneously record 90.000 spectra in the visible wavelength range (465-930nm), across a 1*1arcmin2 field of view, thanks to 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU). A collaboration of 7 institutes has successfully passed the Final Design Review and is currently working on the first sub-assemblies. The sharing of performances has been based on 5 main functional sub-systems. The Fore Optics sub-system derotates and anamorphoses the VLT Nasmyth focal plane image, the Splitting and Relay Optics associated with the Main Structure are feeding each IFU with 1/24th of the field of view. Each IFU is composed of a 3D function insured by an image slicer system and a spectrograph, and a detection function by a 4k*4k CCD cooled down to 163°K. The 5th function is the calibration and data reduction of the instrument. This article depicts the breakdown of performances between these sub-systems (throughput, image quality...), and underlines the constraining parameters of the interfaces either internal or with the VLT. The validation of all these requirements is a critical task started a few months ago which requires a clear traceability and performances analysis.

Loupias, M.; Bacon, R.; Caillier, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Manescau, A.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal, A.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M. M.; Rupprecht, G.; Stuik, R.

2010-07-01

338

Financial instrument and related business method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A financial instrument of an entity and a related business method. The financial instrument includes: a conventional investment instrument; a penalty feature added to the conventional investment instrument; and a dividend feature added to the conventional investment instrument. The penalty feature is characterized by a penalty assessed against a holder of at least one share of the financial instrument who sells the at least one share on a date of sale that precedes an extinguish date associated with the financial instrument. The dividend feature is characterized by a dividend adapted to be distributed, on a date subsequent to the date of sale, to all Holders of Record of the financial instrument on the date of sale. The dividend is derived from the penalty. The financial instrument is adapted to be acquired by a plurality of investors.

2010-10-19

339

Outcome Instruments: Rationale for Their Use  

PubMed Central

The number of outcome instruments available for use in orthopaedic observational studies has increased dramatically in recent years. Properly developed and tested outcome instruments provide a very useful tool for orthopaedic research. Criteria have been proposed to assess the measurement properties and quality of health-status instruments. Unfortunately, not all instruments are developed with use of strict quality criteria. In this article, we discuss these quality criteria and provide the reader with a tool to help select the most appropriate instrument for use in an observational study. We also review the steps for future use of outcome instruments, including the standardization of their use in orthopaedic research.

Poolman, Rudolf W.; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Fairbank, Jeremy C.T.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Sprague, Sheila; de Vet, Henrica C.W.

2009-01-01

340

Aeronautic instruments. Section VI : aerial navigation and navigating instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

Eaton, H N

1923-01-01

341

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

Eaton, H N

1923-01-01

342

Optical Fibers and Their Instrumentation Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of optical fibers in instrumentation requires a knowledge of their properties as ''photon carriers'' and ''sensors''. New instrumentation design implies a satisfactory evaluation of the entire measurement circuit, including the emitter, optical co...

G. Boisde

1982-01-01

343

Evaluation of Potential VOC Screening Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the evaluation of potential fugitive source emission screening instruments for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An initial review of available portable VOC detection instruments indicated that detectors operating on seve...

K. T. Menzies R. E. Fasano

1982-01-01

344

Test and Evaluation of Total Station Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total station instruments, which combine an electronic distance measuring instrument and a theodolite, have been widely accepted by the surveying community to perform geodetic surveys as well as other types of measurements. In response to this new technol...

S. R. DeLoach

1987-01-01

345

Laboratory Computer and Lecture Demonstration Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project sought to improve hands-on access to modern instrumentation and enhancement of students classroom learning experiences in two physics courses. The outcomes of this instrumentation award have been to double the capacity of the introductory lab...

G. Karshner

1999-01-01

346

Turbulence Measurements with a Moored Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new, autonomous and moored microstructure measuring instrument has been tested in coastal waters. The instrument measures shear in the dissipation range of the wavenumber spectrum using 4 shear probes, temperature fluctuations using two FP-07 thermistor...

R. Lueck D. Huang D. Newman J. Box

1996-01-01

347

Alternative Financial Instruments for Less Developed Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Issues and approaches related to the development of new financial instruments (including term lending) in less developed countries (LDCs). The specific components are policy restrictions that restrain the growth of financial instruments, policy constraint...

1987-01-01

348

Hypervelocity Impact Effects on Space Mission Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physics and chemistry of hypervelocity collisions of small impactors on spacescrafts and their instruments is critical to their survival and operational accuracy, as well as for the design of future mission instrumentation.

Jaramillo-Botero, A. J. B.; Beegle, L. W. B.; Hodyss, R. P. H.; Goddard, W. A. G.; Darrach, M. R.

2014-06-01

349

14 CFR 25.1333 - Instrument systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instruments at the first pilot's station to operating systems which are independent of the operating systems at other flight crew stations, or other...equipment may not be connected to the operating systems for the required instruments,...

2009-01-01

350

14 CFR 25.1333 - Instrument systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instruments at the first pilot's station to operating systems which are independent of the operating systems at other flight crew stations, or other...equipment may not be connected to the operating systems for the required instruments,...

2010-01-01

351

Capabilities and Limitations of Geochemical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to understand the capability and limitations of several instruments (AA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS) used for geochemical analysis. Students compare and contrast the cost, detection limits, etc. of these instruments.

Nezat, Carmen

352

Exhibition of Contemporary Geodetic and Photogrammetric Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred and twenty geodetic and photogrammetric instruments developed in the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, and East Germany in 1962-1965 were exhibited at Moscow from 15 September to 5 October 1965. The exhibits included aerial cameras, instruments for pro...

S. P. Shokin

1966-01-01

353

Prototype Ultrasonic Instrument for Quantitative Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and ...

J. L. Dubois L. C. Lynnworth P. R. Kranz

1972-01-01

354

Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

OKeefe, Anthony

2005-01-01

355

Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

356

New instrumentation for phase partitioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells and molecules can be purified by partitioning between the two immiscible liquid phases formed by aqueous solutions of poly/ethylene glycol and dextran. Such purification can be more selective, higher yielding, and less destructive to sensitive biological materials than other available techniques. Earth's gravitational field is a hindering factor as it causes sedimentation of particles to be purified and shear-induced particle randomization. The present proposal is directed toward developing new instrumentation for performing phase partitioning both on Earth and in microgravity.

Harris, J. M.

1985-01-01

357

Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

2009-01-01

358

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long-time scales; and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellites.

Weber, Paul G.

1992-08-01

359

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long-time scales; and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite.

Weber, P. G.

360

pH Optrode Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

1995-01-01

361

Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish this. This paper describes the technologies being developed and integrated onto the NASA Ames K9 prototype Mars rover to both accomplish this in one cycle, and to extend the complexity and duration of operations that a Mars rover can accomplish without intervention from mission control.

Pedersen, Liam; Bualat, Maria; Kunz, C.; Lee, Susan; Sargent, Randy; Washington, Rich; Wright, Anne; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

362

Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

363

Dust instrument for Mars investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrument for measure dust particles physical behavior (impulse, velocity, charge, dimension etc.) is it represented of three type of sensor. The goals of it are to investigate the dust cycle in situ of dust flux at the surface of Mars. The exploring of dust on Mars has a big interest because of it is presented as permanent continuum in atmosphere; matter is mixed in planet's scope and transported in different areas etc. The investigation of dust transport's mechanism can be realize whether high condition dusting or thin mist.

Dolnikov, G. G.

2013-12-01

364

Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

1972-01-01

365

Aid Effectiveness: New Instrument, New Results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a voluminous literature on the topic, the question of whether foreign aid leads to growth is still controversial. To observe the pure effect of aid, researchers used instruments that must be exogenous to growth and explain well aid flows. This paper argues that instruments used in the past do not satisfy these conditions. We propose a new instrument based

Emmanuel Frot; Maria Perrotta

2009-01-01

366

Space Infrared Telescope Facility science instruments overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will contain three cryogenically cooled infrared instruments: the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and the Multiband Infrared Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS). These instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in the 1.8-1,200 micrometer range. This paper will discuss the three instruments' functional requirements and their accommodation in the SIRTF telescope system.

Bothwell, Mary

1991-01-01

367

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

Ulf Leonhardt

2003-01-01

368

Development of airblast and thermal radiation instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is part of a continuing effort to develop instrumentation for use in underground nuclear tests. In particular, the development of instrumentation to measure airblast and thermal radiation is described. The initial development of an instrumented sphere to measure dynamic pressure in the supersonic flow behind a blast front was completed. Experiments are described that show that it is feasible

H. R. Kratz

1978-01-01

369

ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 13, Fall 1996  

SciTech Connect

The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

NONE

1996-12-01

370

Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate…

Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

371

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment nonscanner instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner instruments are flying with companion scanner instruments to measure the earth's energy budget from low earth orbit. A third set of instruments will be launched in March 1986. This program is the first designed to make a comprehensive set of highly accurate measurements of the earth's energy budget on the spectral, spatial, and

M. R. Luther; J. E. Cooper; G. R. Taylor

1986-01-01

372

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Nonscanner Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner instruments are flying with companion scanner instruments to measure the earth's energy budget from low earth orbit. A third set of instruments will be launched in March 1986. This program is the first designed to make a comprehensive set of highly accurate measurements of the earth's energy budget on the spectral, spatial, and

M. R. Luther; J. E. Cooper; G. R. Taylor

1986-01-01

373

The GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. The major science instrument on GLAST is the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Operations support and science data processing for the LAT instrument on GLAST will be performed by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The ISOC supports GLAST

Robert A. Cameron; GLAST LAT ISOC

2006-01-01

374

(abstract) Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MIRO is a scientific instrument designed for the orbiter of the Rosetta International Mission. It will address the nature of the cometary nucleus, outgassing, and the development of the coma as strongly interrelated aspects of cometary physics. Detailed parameters of the MIRO instrument and the scientific objectives to be met will be discussed. Simulated observations with the MIRO instrument will be shown.

Gulkis, S.; Frerking, M.; Allen, A.; Janssen, M.; Hofstadter, M.; Spilker, T.; Muhleman, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Crovisier, J.; Beaudin, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Encrenaz, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Lellouch, E; Despois, D.; Ip, W. H.; Hartogh, P.; Mann, I.; Rauer, H.

1996-01-01

375

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

376

Instrumentation: Analytical Capabilities on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of Mars will consist of a series of long-term missions, with early missions focusing upon establishing the Mars base, and undertaking basic field reconnaissance. A capable laboratory on Mars is an essential element in the exploration strategy. Analytical equipment both in the field and in the laboratory serves to extend the senses of the crew and help them sharpen their sampling skills as they learn to recognize rocks in the field and understand their geologic context and significance. On-site sample analyses allow results to be incorporated into evolving surface exploration plans and strategies, which will be developing in real-time as we learn more about Mars. Early Mars missions will focus on reconnaissance EVAs to collect rock and soil samples, maximizing the amount of Mars material returned to Earth. Later missions will be increasingly devoted to both extensive field campaigns and laboratory analyses. The capabilities and equipment described below will be built up at the Mars base incrementally over many missions, with science payloads and investigative infrastructure being partitioned among launch opportunities. This discussion considers what we require to measure, observe, and explore on a new planetary territory. Alternatively, what do we need to know and how do we equip ourselves to provide ample capabilities to acquire these data? Suggestions follow describing specific instruments that we could use. Appendix 5 lists a strawman science instrument payload, and a feasibility study of equipment transportation into the field on pressurized or unpressurized rovers.

Westall, Frances; Allen, Carl; Braiser, Martin; Farmer, Jack; Massell, Wulf; Agee, Carl B.; Steele, Andrew; Fortson, Russ

1998-01-01

377

The SPIRE Instrument for Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be a bolometer instrument for ESA's Herschel satellite. Its main scientific goals are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. The SPIRE detectors are feedhorn-coupled NTD ``spider-web'' bolometers. The instrument comprises a three-band imaging photometer covering the 250-500 micron range, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200-670 microns. The photometer has a field of view of 4 x 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously at 250, 350 and 500 microns, with dichroic beam dividers separating the three spectral bands. Its angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and observations can also be made by scanning the telescope without chopping, providing better sensitivity for source confusion-limited deep surveys. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and an adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04 - 2 cm-1 (?/?? = 20 - 1000 at 250 microns). It employs a dual-beam configuration with novel broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports.

Griffin, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vigroux, L.

2001-07-01

378

Climate Observations - The Instrumental Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is given of the available instrumental data for monitoring and analysis of climatic variations. We focus on temperature measurements, both over land and ocean, at the surface and aloft. Over land, the older observations were subject to exposure changes which may not have been fully compensated. The effects of urbanization have been largely avoided in studies of climatic change over the last 150 years. There are few records for pre-1850 outside Europe and eastern North America, and the global network shows a recent decline. Over the ocean, sea surface temperature (SST) has been measured using buckets, engine intakes, hull sensors, buoys, and satellites. Many of these data have been effectively homogenized, but new challenges arise as observing systems evolve. Available SST and marine air temperature datasets begin in the 1850s. The data are concentrated in shipping lanes especially before 1900, and very sparse during the world wars, but additional historical data are being digitized. The radiosonde record is short (~40 years) and has major gaps over the oceans, tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Instrumental heterogeneities are beginning to be assessed and removed using physical and statistical techniques. The MSU record is complete but only began in 1979, and is not highly resolved in the vertical: major biases, mainly affecting the lower-tropospheric retrieval, have been reduced as a result of recent analyses. Advanced interpolation or data-assimilation techniques are being applied to these data, but the results must be interpreted with care.

Parker, D. E.; Basnett, T. A.; Brown, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Horton, E. B.; Rayner, N. A.

2000-11-01

379

PACMAN: PRIMA astrometric instrument software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual feed astrometric instrument software of PRIMA (PACMAN) that is currently being integrated at the VLTI will use two spatially modulated fringe sensor units and a laser metrology system to carry out differential astrometry. Its software and hardware compromises a distributed system involving many real time computers and workstations operating in a synchronized manner. Its architecture has been designed to allow the construction of efficient and flexible calibration and observation procedures. In parallel, a novel scheme of integrating M-code (MATLAB/OCTAVE) with standard VLT (Very Large Telescope) control software applications had to be devised in order to support numerically intensive operations and to have the capacity of adapting to fast varying strategies and algorithms. This paper presents the instrument software, including the current operational sequences for the laboratory calibration and sky calibration. Finally, a detailed description of the algorithms with their implementation, both under M and C code, are shown together with a comparative analysis of their performance and maintainability.

Abuter, Roberto; Sahlmann, Johannes; Pozna, Eszter

2010-07-01

380

SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) is a contribution to the ENVISAT-1 satellite, which is to be launched in spring 2000. The SCIAMACHY instrument is designed to measure sunlight transmitted, reflected and scattered by the Earth's atmosphere or surface. The instrument measures simultaneously from the UV to the NIB spectral spectral region (240 - 2380 nm). Observations are made in alternate nadir and limb viewing geometries and also for solar sunrise and lunar moonrise occultation. Inversion of the SCIAMACHY measurements will provide the following: the amount and distributions of some important trace gases O(subscript 3), BrO, OClO, ClO, SO(subscript 2), H(subscript 2)CO, NO(subscript 2), CO, CO(subscript 2), CH(subscript 4), H(subscript 2)O, N(subscript 2)O, p, T, aerosol, and radiation flux profiles, cloud cover and cloud top height. Combination of the near simultaneous limb and nadir observations enables the tropospheric column amounts of O(subscript 3), NO(subscript 2), CO, CH(subscript 4), H(subscript 2)O, N(subscript 2)O, SO(subscript 2), and H(subscript 2)CO to be detected. SCIAMACHY will provide new insight into the global behavior of the troposphere and the stratosphere.

Noel, S.; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.; Frerick, Johannes; Chance, Kelly V.; Goede, Albert P.; Muller, C.

1998-12-01

381

Method for improving instrument response  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

Hahn, David W. (7528 Oxford Cir., Dublin, Alameda County, CA 94568) [7528 Oxford Cir., Dublin, Alameda County, CA 94568; Hencken, Kenneth R. (2665 Calle Alegre, Pleasanton, Alameda County, CA 94566) [2665 Calle Alegre, Pleasanton, Alameda County, CA 94566; Johnsen, Howard A. (5443 Celeste Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550) [5443 Celeste Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550; Flower, William L. (5447 Theresa Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550) [5447 Theresa Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550

2000-01-01

382

Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several attempts have been made recently to apply techniques such as model checking and theorem proving to the analysis of programs. This shall be seen as a current trend to analyze real software systems instead of just their designs. This includes our own effort to develop a model checker for Java, the Java PathFinder 1, one of the very first of its kind in 1998. However, model checking cannot handle very large programs without some kind of abstraction of the program. This paper describes a complementary scalable technique to handle such large programs. Our interest is turned on the observation part of the equation: How much information can be extracted about a program from observing a single execution trace? It is our intention to develop a technology that can be applied automatically and to large full-size applications, with minimal modification to the code. We present a tool, Java PathExplorer (JPaX), for exploring execution traces of Java programs. The tool prioritizes scalability for completeness, and is directed towards detecting errors in programs, not to prove correctness. One core element in JPaX is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. The instrumentation is driven by a user provided script that specifies what information to log. Examples of instructions that such a script can contain are: 'report name and arguments of all called methods defined in class C, together with a timestamp'; 'report all updates to all variables'; and 'report all acquisitions and releases of locks'. In more complex instructions one can specify that certain expressions should be evaluated and even that certain code should be executed under various conditions. The instrumentation package can hence be seen as implementing Aspect Oriented Programming for Java in the sense that one can add functionality to a Java program without explicitly changing the code of the original program, but one rather writes an aspect and compiles it into the original program using the instrumentation. Another core element of JPaX is an observation package that supports the analysis of the generated event stream. Two kinds of analysis are currently supported. In temporal analysis the execution trace is evaluated against formulae written in temporal logic. We have implemented a temporal logic evaluator on finite traces using the Maude rewriting system from SRI International, USA. Temporal logic is defined in Maude by giving its syntax as a signature and its semantics as rewrite equations. The resulting semantics is extremely efficient and can handle event streams of hundreds of millions events in few minutes. Furthermore, the implementation is very succinct. The second form of even stream analysis supported is error pattern analysis where an execution trace is analyzed using various error detection algorithms that can identify error-prone programming practices that may potentially lead to errors in some different executions. Two such algorithms focusing on concurrency errors have been implemented in JPaX, one for deadlocks and the other for data races. It is important to note, that a deadlock or data race potential does not need to occur in order for its potential to be detected with these algorithms. This is what makes them very scalable in practice. The data race algorithm implemented is the Eraser algorithm from Compaq, however adopted to Java. The tool is currently being applied to a code base for controlling a spacecraft by the developers of that software in order to evaluate its applicability.

Havelund, Klaus; Goldberg, Allen; Filman, Robert; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

383

Infrared Instrument for Detecting Hydrogen Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows an instrument incorporating an infrared camera for detecting small hydrogen fires. The instrument has been developed as an improved replacement for prior infrared and ultraviolet instruments used to detect hydrogen fires. The need for this or any such instrument arises because hydrogen fires (e.g., those associated with leaks from tanks, valves, and ducts) pose a great danger, yet they emit so little visible light that they are mostly undetectable by the unaided human eye. The main performance advantage offered by the present instrument over prior hydrogen-fire-detecting instruments lies in its greater ability to avoid false alarms by discriminating against reflected infrared light, including that originating in (1) the Sun, (2) welding torches, and (3) deliberately ignited hydrogen flames (e.g., ullage-burn-off flames) that are nearby but outside the field of view intended to be monitored by the instrument. Like prior such instruments, this instrument is based mostly on the principle of detecting infrared emission above a threshold level. However, in addition, this instrument utilizes information on the spatial distribution of infrared light from a source that it detects. Because the combination of spatial and threshold information about a flame tends to constitute a unique signature that differs from that of reflected infrared light originating in a source not in the field of view, the incidence of false alarms is reduced substantially below that of related prior threshold- based instruments.

Youngquist, Robert; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Immer, Christopher; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Cox, Robert; Taylor, John

2006-01-01

384

Endoscopes integrated into instruments for spinal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimally invasive approaches the visual path to guide instruments becomes constricted. Often one is unable to visualize adequately interaction of the instrument with tissue. We have incorporated 1.2-mm diameter 10,000 pixel fiberoptic endoscopes into instruments for spinal surgery. With these instruments one has a direct view of the instrument's interaction with the surgical anatomy. We have studied a variety of endoscopic instruments including malleable forceps, retractors and punches in over 40 cases of lateral disc herniations, migrated disc fragments and spinal stenosis. The instruments provided excellent visualization of spinal structures. The size and effect of the pathologic process could be readily evaluated, as could neural decompression. Operative times were not significantly increased and there were no complications attributable to the instruments. This preliminary work documents that 'seeing instruments' can be safely used and add to our appreciation of operative anatomy. It is suggested that these instruments may provide more complete decompression through a more limited, less invasive, access. Further study of these instruments may provide better understanding of their overall utility.

Frank, E.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Winn, Shelley R.

2000-06-01

385

Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

1980-05-01

386

Economic Aspects of Instrument Evaluation and Acquisition Part 2 Economic Aspects of Instrument Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previously noted in Part 1 (1), three avenues of instrument acquisition are available to management if the decision is reached to obtain the instrument that has been evaluated in the clinical chemistry laboratory: namely, (i) purchase the instrument outright if funding is available, (ii) acquire the instrument via a financial loan at the most favorable interest rate over a

Benjamin J. Gudzinowicz; James L. Driscoll; Horace F. Martin; Joanne Hologgitas; Herbert Fanger

1980-01-01

387

Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

Aplin, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Urbak, E.; Keane, D.; Sawyer, E. C.

2011-06-01

388

Plaque removal with variable instrumentation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental plaque removal in a normal healthy mouth, during routine oral hygiene appointments using different techniques and without the use of any disclosing agents. 12 dental hygienists, randomly selected from a continuing education course, were asked to perform oral hygiene on the same patient to remove all the supra-gingival plaque without any time restriction and without the use of a disclosing agents. The plaque index score (O'Leary) was assessed before and after each session with the use of fluorescine and UV light source by an independent examiner. 3 groups of instruments were utilized: group A: ultrasonic scalers + prophy cups; group B: ultrasonic scalers + prophy cups + dental floss; group C: Gracey curettes + prophy cups. While no group was able to remove all the plaque, groups B and C performed significantly better. PMID:9350554

Checchi, L; Forteleoni, G; Pelliccioni, G A; Loriga, G

1997-10-01

389

Instrumentation Manuals On-Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This database will serve as an international clearing house for observatory manuals and information on how to access them. At present, CFHT, STScI, and IRTF are participating in this project. It is the author's intention that each observatory will submit electronically a pre-formatted template which is now available on NCSA Mosaic (URL http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/html/obs-manuals.html). The template describes the instrumentation manual in the following manner: location, version, revision, institution, description wavelength region, field, keywords, contact person, size of document, figures, tables and availability. In addition the template provides the user with a direct link to the manual if it is on-line. The project author will contact the individual or institution in charge of the template at six month intervals in order to insure the manual's accuracy. It is hoped the availability of this service will encourage all observatories to make information about their manuals available electronically.

Bryson, E.

390

Instrumentation Manuals On-Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This database will serve as an international clearing house for observatory manuals and information on how to access them. At present, CFHT, STScI, and IRTF are participating in this project. It is the author's intention that each observatory will submit electronically a pre-formatted template which is now available on NCSA Mosaic (URL http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/html/obs-manuals.html). The template describes the instrumentation manual in the following manner: location, version, revision, institution, description, wavelength region, field, keywords, contact person, size of document, figures, tables, and availability. In addition, the template provides the user with a direct link to the manual if it is online. The project author will contact the individual or institution in charge of the template at six month intervals in order to insure the manual's accuracy. It is hoped the availability of this service will encourage all observatories to make information about their manuals available electronically.

Bryson, Elizabeth

1994-12-01

391

Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

2012-01-01

392

Musical instrument with improved keyboard  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved keyboard for a musical instrument includes a plurality of keys arranged in a side-by-side order, all lying in a common plane. Different embodiments of the invention have a varying number of keys per octave, from as small as 12 keys per octave to as high as 90-120 keys per octave. In those embodiments of the invention in which the number of keys per octave results in a key whose width is too narrow to be uniquely depressed by an operator's finger, associated apparatus determines from a plurality of keys which have been depressed, a particular tone to be produced. The keyboard may be associated with apparatus to distinguish one set of keys from other sets of keys, which apparatus can include a selectively energizable light source associated with each different key or other equivalent apparatus.

1984-11-06

393

Recent Developments in PET Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr3, and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic.

Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S.

2013-01-01

394

Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4), 197–200 (2004)], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3), 324 (2001); Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4), 283–286 (2002)], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45), 847–852 (2002)]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. Results: A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85%) of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g). Mean operative time was 214 min (45–390 min). The conversion rate was 11.5% (n = 3). Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3–30 days). Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

Dalvi, A. N.; Thapar, P. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Rege, S. A.; Prabhu, R. Y.; Supe, A. N.; Kamble, R. S.

2005-01-01

395

Characteristics of Mexican American Elders Admitted to Skilled Nursing Facilities in the United States: Data from the Hispanic EPESE Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of the current study is to describe the factors associated with Mexican American elders who have spent time in a SNF compared to those who have not in the Southwestern United States. Design Data were collected on the Mexican American elders who reported a SNF stay within 10 years of baseline. Participants A probability sample of 3050 Mexican American elders from five Southwestern states followed from 1993 to 2005 were examined. Measures Variables examined included socio-demographics, language of interview, disabilities with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), selfreported health, cognitive status and depression. Results A total of 78 (3.9%) out of 2020 subjects resided in SNF’s. Using univariate analyses older age, English-language interview, poorer cognitive status, and functional disabilities were independently associated with Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) admissions. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age reveal that SNF patients were older (OR =1.08, p=0.001), have an ADL disability (OR=4.94, p<0.001), scored in the Geriatric Depression Scale depressed range (OR=2.72, p=0.001) and were more likely to interview in English (OR=1.95, p=0.042), when compared to community counterparts. Conclusions Mexican American elders resided in a SNF at some point in the previous ten years were older and more likely to be functionally impaired. They also were more likely to prefer English as their primary language indicating they were more likely to agree to a SNF stay than their Spanish speaking counterparts.

Espino, David V.; Angel, Jaqueline L.; Wood, Robert C.; Finely, M. Rosina; Ye, Y.

2013-01-01

396

Is pre-fracture functional status better than cognitive level in predicting short-term outcome of elderly hip fracture patients?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to determine to what extent severe cognitive impairment impacts short-term rehabilitation outcomes of elderly patients with proximal hip fracture. Material and methods A total of 337 community-dwelling elderly patients with acute hip fracture were observed during a 12-month period at a major teaching hospital in Serbia. Cognitive status was assessed at admission with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Outcome after 4 months was analysed with respect to presence of severe cognitive impairment, defined as an SPMSQ score of < 3. Outcome assessment included presence of postoperative complications, absolute motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gain, Activities of Daily Living index (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score (IADL), and walking ability. Results An SPMSQ score of < 3 was observed in 36 patients (10.7%) with acute hip fracture. Patients with an SPMSQ score of < 3 achieved worse short-term outcomes regarding all observed variables. However, cognitive status was found to be an independent predictor only with respect to mortality at 4 months (odds ratio (OR) = 0.969, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.947-0.992, p = 0.009). In contrast, pre-fracture motor FIM independently predicted mortality (OR = 2.982, 95% CI = 1.271-7.000, p = 0.012), and preserved walking ability at 4 months follow-up (OR = 0.945, 95% CI = 0.912-0.980, p = 0.002). Correspondingly, pre-fracture ADL was an independent predictor of absolute motor FIM gain at 4 months follow-up (OR = 0.175, 95% CI = 0.405-11.426, p = 0.035). Conclusions Failure to consider functional status prior to fracture might overestimate the impact of cognitive status on functional outcome of hip fracture patients.

Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana; Matanovic, Dragana; Grajic, Mirko; Krstic, Nevena; Bumbasirevic, Marko

2012-01-01

397

A review of instruments measuring resilience.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of instruments for the study of resilience in adolescents. A search was completed using the terms resilience and instruments or scales using the EBSCO database (CINAHL, PreCINAHL, and Academic Search Premier), MEDLINE, PsychINFO and PsychARTICLES, and the Internet. After instruments were identified, a second search was performed for studies reporting the psychometric development of these instruments. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, six psychometric development of instrument studies were selected for a full review. A data extraction table was used to compare the six instruments. Two of the six instruments (Baruth Protective Factors Inventory [BPFI] and Brief-Resilient Coping Scale) lacked evidence that they were appropriate for administration with the adolescent population due to lack of research applications. Three instruments (Adolescent Resilience Scale [ARS], Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Resilience Scale for Adults) had acceptable credibility but needed further study in adolescents. One instrument (Resilience Scale [RS]) was determined to be the best instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population due to psychometric properties of the instrument and applications in a variety of age groups, including adolescence. Findings of this review indicate that the RS is the most appropriate instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population. While other instruments have potential (e.g., ARS, BPFI) as they were tested in the adolescent and young adult populations, they lack evidence for their use at this time. An evaluation of the review and recommendations are discussed. PMID:16772239

Ahern, Nancy R; Kiehl, Ermalynn M; Sole, Mary Lou; Byers, Jacqueline

2006-01-01

398

Scientific Set of Instruments "Solar Cosmic Rays"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of scientific instruments SCR (Solar Cosmic Rays) was developed by the scientists of SINP MSU and IEP SAS in order to study relations between the radiation conditions in the near-Earth space and solar activity. This set of instruments was installed on board the satellites CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F launched to the orbit on March 2, 1994, and July 30, 2001, respectively. Detailed description of the instruments is presented.

Kuznetsov, S. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Denisov, Yu. I.; Podorolsky, A. N.; Ryumin, S. P.; Kudela, K.; Rojko, J.

399

Instrumental Genesis, Individual and Social Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter 6, we analyzed didactic phenomena occurring during experiments in integrating symbolic calculators. We then showed\\u000a how adopting an instrumental approach to analyzing these phenomena helped in understanding the influence of such tools upon\\u000a mathematical activity and upon knowledge building. It is during the process of instrumental genesis that a calculator becomes\\u000a a mathematical instrument.\\u000a \\u000a In the first part

Luc Trouche

400

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

401

Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

2010-03-01

402

Instrumentation of UALR labscale hybrid rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Arkansas Combustion Group has used a NASA EPSCoR grant to improve the instrumentation and control of its labscale hybrid rocket facility. The research group investigates fundamental aspects of combustion in hybrid rocket motors. This paper describes the new instrumentation, provides examples of measurements taken, and describes novel instrumentation which is in the process of development. A six degree-of-freedom

Andrew B. Wright; Warfield Teague; Ann M. Wright; Edmond W. Wilson

2006-01-01

403

LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

Guzman, Felipe

2010-01-01

404

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

405

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

406

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

407

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

408

Overview of the instrumentation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

Nieberding, William C.

1989-04-01

409

Overview of the instrumentation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

Nieberding, William C.

1989-01-01

410

Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

Not Available

2005-09-01

411

Simple instruments in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy has a major role in the study of the universe. The spiral structure of our Galaxy and the cosmic background radiation were first detected, and the dense component of interstellar gas is studied, at radio wavelengths. COBE revealed very weak temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, considered to be the seeds of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Most electromagnetic radiation from outer space is absorbed or reflected by the Earth's atmosphere, except in two narrow spectral windows: the visible-near-infrared and the radio, which are nearly transparent. Centimetre and longer radio waves propagate almost freely in space; observations of them are practically independent of weather. Turbulence in our atmosphere does not distort the wavefront, which simplifies the building of radio telescopes, because no devices are needed to correct for it. Observations at these wavelengths can be made in high atmospheric humidity, or where the sky is not clear enough for optical telescopes. Simple instruments operating at radio wavelengths can be built at low cost in tropical countries, to teach students and to familiarize them with radio astronomy. We describe a two-antennae radio interferometer and a single-dish radio telescope operating at centimetre wavelengths. The Sun and strong synchrotron radio-sources, like Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A, are potential targets.

Nguyen-Quang-Rieu

412

Increase of Help at Activities of Daily Life Given to Frail Elderly With Chronic Heart Failure in a Nursing Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unknown whether chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with activities of daily life (ADL) functioning in nursing home residents; therefore, we studied that association. One hundred and three residents were screened on age, sex, comorbidity, and CHF. ADL dependence and ADL help were scored with the use of minimal data set (MDS) items of the Resident Assistant Instrument.

Maaike Barents; Froukje Boersma; Hans H. Hillege; Mike J. L. de Jongste

2011-01-01

413

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

ScienceCinema

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

414

Knee System Utilizing Personalized Solutions Instrumentation  

MedlinePLUS

ATTUNE® Knee System utilizing the TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions Instrumentation Click Here to view the Broadcastmed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2014 Broadcastmed, Inc. All rights reserved.

415

USAF Dental Instrument Processing Center Design Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Design Guidance includes USAF dental clinic dental instrument processing center space planning and construction criteria inclusive of architectural, mechanical, and electrical design requirements.

J. H. Hatfield J. J. Kane R. H. Blankman

1996-01-01

416

Remote Sensing Instrument Suite for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads onboard of orbiting spacecrafts around planetary bodies of our solar system are very strongly limited in mass because of the challenging Dv requirements to transfer the spacecraft and its scientific payload from Earth to the selected body and perform the orbit insertion. Also the overall cost envelope of the mission play a major role in the limitation of possible payload mass. On the other hand a range of different instruments (cameras, UV- and IR-spectrometer, Gamma-ray, x-ray and neutron spectrometer, laser altimeter, etc…) are required to perform a successful exploration of the planetary body by means of remote sensing. A viable solution is a strong integration of the envisaged instruments into a suite of instruments rather than a collection of single more or less independent instruments. The suite has to share available resources as much as possible and uses a central data handling system and an optimised payload power supply. Use of newest technologies for the detectors helps to reduce or at least relax cooling requirements of the instrument suite. Combination of instrument apertures and optics lead to a further reduction in mass and help to simplify the thermal design of the spacecraft. In the frame of the BepiColombo mission the instruments onboard of the Planetary Orbiter (MPO) undergo such an integration and optimisation process. During the talk the proposed instruments suit architecture and the resulting reductions in resource requirements are presented and compared with a conventional instrumentation approach.

Falkner, P.; Erd, C.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

2003-04-01

417

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2013-11-21

418

Kids with disabilities inspire a musical instrument  

ScienceCinema

The Midiwing is a musical instrument that unites music and computer technology for those who lack the experience, physical ability, or maturity to play music with traditional instruments. To create the instrument, Dan Daily, Director of Musicode Innovations, reworked and recoded Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technology and introduced ergonomic design. He applied to the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program to receive help when he discovered the microcontroller he used was being phased out. Daily and Kent Pfeifer, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories and musician himself, partnered to create a new state-of-the-art design.

Daily, Dan; Pfeifer, Kent

2014-02-10

419

Instrumentation system for breast engorgement evaluation.  

PubMed

An instrumentation system is described for obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of breast engorgement in postpartum nursing mothers. The system uses an LVDT and associated electronics. PMID:2334771

Ferris, C D

1990-01-01

420

Portable instrument for detection of illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, portable instrument, model NDS-2000 for the detection of illicit drugs was developed. The instrument is based on surface ionization detection system, where ionization is carried out on a heated filament. Positive ions formed in the process are drifted to a collector and a signal is registered. The front-end of the instrument consists of an integral vacuum sampler with built-in desorber system for narcotic particles. The model NDS-2000 has an internal microprocessor and LCD display, as well as visible and audible alarm indicators. RS-232 port on the instrument provides communication to an external PC for data storage and printing.

Nacson, Sabatino; Walker, H.; Chang, Allan; Siu, Tony; McNelles, L.; Uffe, M.

1997-02-01

421

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

422

Ozone Monitoring Instrument geolocation verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verification of the geolocation assigned to individual ground pixels as measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite was performed by comparing geophysical Earth surface details as observed in OMI false color images with the high-resolution continental outline vector map as provided by the Interactive Data Language (IDL) software tool from ITT Visual Information Solutions. The OMI false color images are generated from the OMI visible channel by integration over 20-nm-wide spectral bands of the Earth radiance intensity around 484 nm, 420 nm, and 360 nm wavelength per ground pixel. Proportional to the integrated intensity, we assign color values composed of CRT standard red, green, and blue to the OMI ground pixels. Earth surface details studied are mostly high-contrast coast lines where arid land or desert meets deep blue ocean. The IDL high-resolution vector map is based on the 1993 CIA World Database II Map with a 1-km accuracy. Our results indicate that the average OMI geolocation offset over the years 2005-2006 is 0.79 km in latitude and 0.29 km in longitude, with a standard deviation of 1.64 km in latitude and 2.04 km in longitude, respectively. Relative to the OMI nadir pixel size, one obtains mean displacements of ˜6.1% in latitude and ˜1.2% in longitude, with standard deviations of 12.6% and 7.9%, respectively. We conclude that the geolocation assigned to individual OMI ground pixels is sufficiently accurate to support scientific studies of atmospheric features as observed in OMI level 2 satellite data products, such as air quality issues on urban scales or volcanic eruptions and its plumes, that occur on spatial scales comparable to or smaller than OMI nadir pixels.

Kroon, M.; Dobber, M. R.; Dirksen, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; van den Oord, G. H. J.; Levelt, P. F.

2008-08-01

423

Plans for Advanced LIGO Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Advanced LIGO detector will have an increase in sensitivity over initial LIGO by a factor of ten, with an increased bandwidth in the region of highest sensitivity and the ability to tune for specific astrophysical sources. Advanced LIGO will achieve the equivalent of the one-year integrated observation time of initial LIGO in just several hours, allowing observation of astrophysical gravitational waves on a regular basis. The Advanced LIGO detector will replace the existing detector at the LIGO Observatories while retaining the existing building and vacuum system infrastructure. The new instruments build on the initial LIGO Fabry-Perot Michelson Interferometer layout and take advantage of significant advances in technology since the design of initial LIGO in the 1990's. Signal strength/sensitivity will be improved by increasing the laser power, lowering optical absorption, and adding signal recycling to the Fabry-Perot arm cavities. Stray forces on the test masses will be controlled by reducing thermal noise sources in the suspensions and optics and using a multi-staged seismic isolation system with inertial sensing and feedback control. The LIGO laboratory, the LIGO Science Collaboration, and international partners have undertaken a structured program of research and development, including testing of full-scale prototypes in context. Significant progress has been made on several of the detector subsystems. The Advanced LIGO project has been through National Science Foundation peer review and the National Science Board has recommended it for funding. Based on a proposed funding start in 2007, detector installation will begin in 2010, with observations at an advanced level of commissioning in 2013.

Wilkinson, Carol

2005-04-01

424

Aeronautic instruments. Section I : general classification of instruments and problems including bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended as a technical introduction to the series of reports on aeronautic instruments. It presents a discussion of those subjects which are common to all instruments. First, a general classification is given, embracing all types of instruments used in aeronautics. Finally, a classification is given of the various problems confronted by the instrument expert and investigator. In this way the following groups of problems are brought up for consideration: problems of mechanical design, human factor, manufacturing problems, supply and selection of instruments, problems concerning the technique of testing, problems of installation, problems concerning the use of instruments, problems of maintenance, and physical research problems. This enumeration of problems which are common to instruments in general serves to indicate the different points of view which should be kept in mind in approaching the study of any particular instrument.

Hersey, Mayo D

1923-01-01

425

Uncertain Information Management for ADL Monitoring in Smart Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart Homes offer improved living conditions and levels of independence for the elderly population who require support with\\u000a both physical and cognitive functions. Sensor technology development and communication networking have been well explored\\u000a within the area of smart living environments to meet the demands for ageing in place. In contrast, information management\\u000a still faces a challenge to be practically sound.

Xin Hong; Chris Nugent; Weiru Liu; Jianbing Ma; Sally McClean; Bryan Scotney; Maurice Mulvenna

426

Soft Sleeve Between Glove Box And Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sleeve protects instrument from low frequency vibrations and helps maintain clean atmosphere for semiconductor analysis. Flexible sleeve joins glove box to specimen-introduction port of instrument chamber. Coupling made of brown nylon with inner layer of white rubber, attached to both areas with specially designed clamps. Thickness of sleeve material 0.01 in.

Lombardi, Frank

1993-01-01

427

32 CFR 22.610 - Award instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award instruments. 22.610 Section 22.610 National...AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Award § 22.610 Award instruments. (a)...

2010-07-01

428

32 CFR 22.610 - Award instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award instruments. 22.610 Section 22.610 National...AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Award § 22.610 Award instruments. (a)...

2013-07-01

429

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

430

Instrumented impact testing at high velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact loading of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic CFRP) aircraft parts is a major concern. Birds or hailstones striking an aircraft generally have a low mass and a high velocity, whereas typically instrumented impact experiments are performed with a high mass and a low velocity. Our aim has been to build an instrumented impact facility with a low-mass projectile capable of simulating

Daniel Delfosse; Gilles Pageau; Roger Bennett; Anoush Poursartip

1993-01-01

431

Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2011-03-29

432

D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The

J. Urbin

1990-01-01

433

Developing an Instrument to Measure General Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Mountain Empire Community College's locally-developed instrument, called the Schoch-Tucker Assessment of General Education (STAGE), which provides student biographical data, insight on students' self-esteem, and a means of measuring students' knowledge in the eight areas of general education. Also describes the adoption of the instrument

Tucker, Kendall; Schoch, Eugene; Fisher, Sharon

1997-01-01

434

Ground Instrumentation for Mariner IV Occultation Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mariner IV occultation experiment imposed unique requirements upon the NASA\\/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Instrumentation Facility. It was necessary to measure extremely small deviations in the frequency to a few parts in 109. The instrumentation used and the results obtained are described.

Gerald S. Levy; Tom Y. Otoshi; Boris L. Seidel

1967-01-01

435

Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

Peletier, D. P.

1973-01-01

436

POLYPHONIC INSTRUMENT RECOGNITION USING SPECTRAL CLUSTERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of the instruments playing in a poly- phonic music signal is an important and unsolved prob- lem in Music Information Retrieval. In this paper, we pro- pose a framework for the sound source separation and tim- bre classification of polyphonic, multi-instrumental music signals. The sound source separation method is inspired by ideas from Computational Auditory Scene Analysis and

Luis Gustavo Martins; George Tzanetakis; Mathieu Lagrange

437

An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

Cohen-Zada, D.

2009-01-01

438

Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

439

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument design status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design configuration of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are presented. The ERBE scanners and nonscanners are discussed in terms of hardware and optical development, operational parameters, and calibration plans for ground and flight systems. The various instrument designs are given and described in detail. It is emphasized that the design goal is to approach state-of-the-art laboratory radiometric accuracies

L. P. Kopia; M. R. Luther

1981-01-01

440

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Scanner Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital measurements of the earth's radiation budget are being made from several spacecraft launched in the latter part of 1984. Three sets of instruments have been designed to measure the incident solar flux, the earth's long-wave emitted radiation, and the earth's reflected radiation more accurately than have been measured before. These instruments consist of a three-channel narrow field of view

Leonard P. Kopia

1986-01-01

441

Earth radiation budget experiment scanner instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital measurements of the earth's radiation budget are being made from several spacecraft launched in the latter part of 1984. Three sets of instruments have been designed to measure the incident solar flux, the earth's long-wave emitted radiation, and the earth's reflected radiation more accurately than have been measured before. These instruments consist of a three-channel narrow field of view

L. P. Kopia

1986-01-01

442

GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. Operations support and science data processing for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on GLAST will be provided by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (...

R. A. Cameron

2007-01-01

443

The GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. Operations support and science data processing for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on GLAST will be provided by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The ISOC supports GLAST mission operations in conjunction with other GLAST mission ground

Robert A. Cameron; Robert A

2007-01-01

444

Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments  

Cancer.gov

Welcome to the Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments. Unlike food records and 24-hour dietary recalls that aim to capture the total diet, short instruments assess limited aspects of the diet and are thus less burdensome for respondents and researchers.

445

A laser tracking dynamic robot metrology instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research work over several years has resulted in the development of a laser tracking instrument capable of dynamic 3-D measurements of robot end-effector trajectories. The instrument characteristics and experiments to measure the static and dynamic performance of a robot in an industrial manufacturing environment are described. The use of this technology for space applications is examined.

Parker, G. A.; Mayer, J. R. R.

1989-01-01

446

Optical system design for the WAMDII instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the optical system design for WAMDII instrument. WAMDI is an acronym for Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer. The function of the instrument is to determine upper atmospheric wind velocities, temperatures and volume emission rate over a wide visual field of view by measuring parameters such as Doppler wavelength shift, Doppler line broadening and emission intensities.

Powell, Ian

1986-01-01

447

Musical instruments from the Mayan culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research work presents different kinds of sound generation instruments from the Mayan culture together with the Pablo Castellanos and Arturo Chamorro classification. It has to be noted that most of these musical instruments, whistles and noise generators are lost and some of them can only be seen on codex and museums. (To be presented in Spanish.)

Rizo, Isabel Elena Romero; Redondo, Jose de Jesus Negrete; Paulin, Pablo Roberto Lizana

2002-11-01

448

Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.

2011-01-01

449

General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report includes specifications for the use and production of instruments used in the navigation and operation of aircraft. Specifications are included for the following instruments: barometer or altimeter, compass, air speed meter, inclinometer, drift meter, tachometer, oil gauge, oil pressure gauge, gasoline gauge, gasoline flow indicator, distance indicator, barograph, angle of attack indicator, radiator temperature indicator, gasoline feed system pressure indicator, sextant, airplane director.

1917-01-01

450

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

451

A Computerized Screening Instrument of Language Learnability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents further analyses of a pilot study that examined the effectiveness of a computerized language screening instrument for 60 multicultural children (ages 7-8). Results suggest that because of its computerization and language learnability features, this innovative instrument may be an effective alternative to current screening…

Jacobs, Ellen L.; Coufal, Kathy L.

2001-01-01

452

The Treatment Validity of Autism Screening Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…

Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela

2010-01-01

453

The oscilloscope as a measuring instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a wide-ranging revision and modernization of the first-year laboratory program a work package was put into effect based solely on introducing our students to the oscilloscope as a measuring instrument. The features of the instrumentation developed to allow the students to investigate the oscilloscope bandwidth and rise time are described and the correct use and value of

B. A. Cooke; T. J. Harris; H. S. Derbyshire

1990-01-01

454

Ethical sourcing of dental instruments and materials.  

PubMed

There is evidence that dental instruments and materials are being manufactured in the developing world under poor labour conditions. It is suggested that the level of awareness of the dental team with regard to this is raised and that a culture of greater inquiry into the sourcing of instruments and materials is developed. PMID:20966996

Kelly, P T; Bhutta, M

2010-10-23

455

Life Events and Academic Performance: Instrument Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 1987, a pilot study was undertaken to develop an instrument designed to assess the effects of life events on undergraduate students' academic performance. Focus was on the design and construction of the instrument--the Life Events and Academic Performance Questionnaire (LEAPQ). Subjects were 75 male and 75 female undergraduates at a large…

Burke, Janet; Cartwright, Noel

456

SSCL RFQ-DTL Matching Section instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the SSCL RFQ-DTL Matching Section instrumentation is presented with emphasis on design issues and early instrumentation commissioning results. The H(sup (minus)) beam energy through the RFQ-DTL matching section is 2.5 MeV, the beam curren...

P. Datte R. Aielo M. Hayworth

1993-01-01

457

Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

2001-01-01

458

Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships.  

PubMed

The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However,