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1

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (I-ADL) trigger an urgent request for nursing home admission  

PubMed Central

Objective Although disabled elderly people mostly prefer to receive care at home or in other community settings, many of them reside in nursing homes. That is why several researchers have tried to identify predictors of institutionalisation. Various different dependency factors seem to explain the request for residential care. The aim of this study is to discover the most important factor triggering an urgent request for nursing home admission. Methods On the basis of social field research, we analysed the profiles and motives of an admission cohort of 125 elderly (31 men and 94 women) who were admitted to four nursing homes in Antwerp (Belgium) between January 2000 and April 2001. The study used data of the 'intake conversation', performed by an experienced social worker of the nursing home, subsequent to the request for nursing home admission. Gender, age, Katz category, marital status, disease, living conditions, Personal and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (P-ADL and I-ADL) were the independent variables. The variable 'time span' was introduced as dependent variable. This is the time between the onset of dependency and the request for institutionalisation. Nursing home carers have classified this time span in three periods: < 3, 3-12, and > 12 months. The statistical analysis focused on the characteristics of the two extremes, namely the earliest versus the latest applicants (n = 74). This was the best strategy to go about investigating the issue due to the vagueness and uncertain status of the data in the midrange. Results The applicants had an average age of 83 years. 31% of the elderly were defined as functioning good (needing assistance from another person in no to maximum two ADLs - washing and dressing) and 69% were classified as ill functioning (needing assistance in minimum three ADLs). Women were more likely to be widowed (83%) and to live alone and isolated (55%) and they had a lower degree of dependency (both P-ADL and I-ADL) when entering institutions. Of the women, 57% had a mental illness, compared with 48% of the men. Of the applicants, 34% were unwilling or unable to start home care and applied for an urgent request (within the first 3 months); 41% tried home care for a time and 26% applied after one year of home care. The stepwise logistic regression analysis identified I-ADL as the decisive factor explaining the difference in 'decision speed' towards institutionalisation. An increase of one unit on the I-ADL score increased the chance of a request within the first three months by 63% (95%CI: 19 to135%, p = 0.006). Conclusions The only factor related to an urgent request for nursing home admission seems to be the I-ADL score. These results have important implications for targeting sheltered housing and further extension of home care services to postpone or prevent institutionalisation.

2012-01-01

2

Prevalence of functional disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and associated factors, as predictors of morbidity and mortality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to establish the existing relationship among variables referred to the person, specifically age and gender, and the functional dependence in basic ADL and in IADL, as well as the possible relationship it has with the increase of morbidity and mortality in a random sample of 598 individuals older than 65 years. Of these individuals, 34.6% were categorized as dependent for at least one ADL, and 53.5% if we refer to IADL. Regarding the ADL, the risk of dependence increases (odds ratio=OR=1.089) per year of age, (OR=2.48) in women's case; while there is an IADL correlation between age and the score (r=-0.527; p<0.001). A relationship exists between dependence and the days of hospitalization (for ADL: r=-0.12, p=0.018 and IADL: r=-0.97, p=0.003), the number of visits to the doctor (ADL: r=-0.27, p<0.001; IADL: r=-0.25, p<0.001) or the presence of concomitant pathologies such as dementia (ADL: p<0.001; IADL: p<0.001). There is a significant association between age, gender and dependence, as well as between dependence and morbidity and mortality, so that dependence could be used as a predictor of both. PMID:19520442

Millán-Calenti, José C; Tubío, Javier; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Fernández-Arruty, Teresa; Maseda, Ana

2009-06-10

3

Long-term declines in ADLs, IADLs, and mobility among older Medicare beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Background Most prior studies have focused on short-term (? 2 years) functional declines. But those studies cannot address aging effects inasmuch as all participants have aged the same amount. Therefore, the authors studied the extent of long-term functional decline in older Medicare beneficiaries who were followed for varying time lengths, and the authors also identified the risk factors associated with those declines. Methods The analytic sample included 5,871 self- or proxy-respondents who had complete baseline and follow-up survey data that could be linked to their Medicare claims for 1993-2007. Functional status was assessed using activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and mobility limitations, with declines defined as the development of two of more new difficulties. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to focus on the associations involving respondent status, health lifestyle, continuity of care, managed care status, health shocks, and terminal drop. Results The average amount of time between the first and final interviews was 8.0 years. Declines were observed for 36.6% on ADL abilities, 32.3% on IADL abilities, and 30.9% on mobility abilities. Functional decline was more likely to occur when proxy-reports were used, and the effects of baseline function on decline were reduced when proxy-reports were used. Engaging in vigorous physical activity consistently and substantially protected against functional decline, whereas obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were only associated with mobility declines. Post-baseline hospitalizations were the most robust predictors of functional decline, exhibiting a dose-response effect such that the greater the average annual number of hospital episodes, the greater the likelihood of functional status decline. Participants whose final interview preceded their death by one year or less had substantially greater odds of functional status decline. Conclusions Both the additive and interactive (with functional status) effects of respondent status should be taken into consideration whenever proxy-reports are used. Encouraging exercise could broadly reduce the risk of functional decline across all three outcomes, although interventions encouraging weight reduction and smoking cessation would only affect mobility declines. Reducing hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates could also broadly reduce the risk of functional decline across all three outcomes.

2011-01-01

4

Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

2001-01-01

5

Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)|

Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

2001-01-01

6

Cognitive Impairment is Independently Associated with Reduced Instrumental ADLs in Persons with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) is a disabling disease that often affects instrumental activities of daily living (instrumental ADLs). Despite high rates of disability in this population, little is known about the effects of cognitive impairment on instrumental ADLs in this population. Objective The current study examined whether cognitive functioning predicts instrumental ADL performance in persons with HF. Participants and Methods Persons with HF (N = 122; 68.49±9.43 years; 35.2% female) completed neuropsychological testing, fitness assessment, and self-reported instrumental and basic ADL function as part of a larger protocol. Neuropsychological tests included the Mini Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A and B. The 2-minute step test estimated fitness. Instrumental and basic ADL function was based on self-report on the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the independent contribution of cognitive function to ADLs in HF. Results HF patients reported high rates of impairments in instrumental ADLs, though indicated requiring little or no assistance with basic ADLs. Cognitive function showed incremental predictive validity for driving (R2 change = .07, p = .03) and medication management (R2 change = .14, p<.001). In each case, poorer neuropsychological test performance was associated with poorer instrumental ADL function. Conclusion In persons with HF, cognitive performance is an independent predictor of independence in driving and medication management. Strategies to maintain or improve cognitive functioning in HF may help patients remain functionally independent in their daily living.

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

2011-01-01

7

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2011-01-01

8

An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper

David A. Gold

2012-01-01

9

Association between muscle mass and disability in performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling elderly in Japan.  

PubMed

This study describes the association between low muscle mass and disability in performing IADL in elderly, community-dwelling Japanese subjects. Subjects were 1268 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 years or older. Low muscle mass was defined by appendicular muscle mass index (AMI, weight [kg]/height [m(2)]), measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We classified "middle" AMI as a value 1-2 standard deviation (SD) below the young normal mean of AMI and "low" as more than 2 SD below the young normal mean. Examination of IADL was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) questionnaire. In this study, 17.2% and 26.2% of elderly men and women, respectively, were classified as having low muscle mass. There was a significant association with age and the change from normal to middle to low muscle mass in both men and women. The prevalence of IADL disability also increased significantly as muscle mass decreased. After adjustment for age and BMI, low muscle mass was significantly associated with IADL disability in men and women. Furthermore, middle muscle mass was significantly associated with IADL disability in women. This study revealed that low muscle mass, defined as a value 2 SD below the mean of young adults, had a significant association with IADL disability in elderly Japanese. Interventions to prevent age-related losses in muscle mass may be an effective strategy to prevent IADL disability among the elderly. PMID:21831461

Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Hirota, Chika; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kono, Rei; Saito, Masahisa; Kono, Koichi

2011-08-09

10

Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that global cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when global cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients.

JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA

2009-01-01

11

Does Gender Moderate Factors Associated with Whether Spouses Are the Sole Providers of IADL Care to Their Partners? *  

PubMed Central

We explored whether gender moderated the influence of other factors on solo spousal caregiving. The subsample (N = 452) from the AHEAD study included elderly care recipients (CRs) receiving IADL assistance and their spouses. Logistic regression modeled the likelihood of solo spousal IADL care. Gender moderation was tested by product terms between CRs’ gender and measures of partners’ health, potential helpers, and sociodemographic characteristics. As numbers of CRs’ IADLs and couples’ proximate daughters increased, wives less often received care solely from their husbands, but husbands’ receipt of care from their wives was unaffected. Age differences between spouses and CRs affected solo spousal caregiving to wives and husbands in opposite ways. Regardless of gender, CRs’ number of ADL limitations and spouses with IADL or ADL limitations reduced the likelihood of solo spouse care. Identifying circumstances influencing solo spouse caregiving differently among couples with frail wives and husbands facilitates gender sensitive services.

Feld, Sheila; Dunkle, Ruth E.; Schroepfer, Tracy; Shen, Huei-Wern

2011-01-01

12

Predictors of performance-based measures of instrumental activities of daily living in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs) in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD), and the majority of these studies have used report-based measures, which can have limited validity. The present study had two main goals: (a) to examine the performance of nondemented PD patients on two performance-based measures of iADLs, which are considered more objective functional measures, and (b) to examine the cognitive, motor, and psychiatric correlates of iADL impairment in PD. Ninety-eight nondemented PD patients and 47 healthy older adults were administered performance-based measures that assess the ability to manage medications (Medication Management Ability Assessment) and finances (University of California, San Diego, UCSD, Performance-based Skills Assessment), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale to assess global cognitive functioning, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III to assess motor symptom severity, and the Geriatric Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms. Nondemented PD patients demonstrated significantly impaired scores relative to the healthy comparison group on the performance-based measure of financial management, but there were no significant group differences in medication management. Global cognitive functioning, motor severity, and depressive symptoms did not correlate with scores on either of the functional measures, except for a small correlation between depressive symptoms and financial management. The two performance-based measures of iADL functioning did not correlate with one another. These findings suggest that medication and financial management may not be predicted based on global cognitive functioning and that iADLs may not be represented by a single construct. Furthermore, these findings suggest the potential need for a multidimensional approach to assessing iADLs. PMID:24074137

Pirogovsky, Eva; Martinez-Hannon, Mercedes; Schiehser, Dawn M; Lessig, Stephanie L; Song, David D; Litvan, Irene; Filoteo, J Vincent

2013-09-30

13

Higher-level hand motor function in aging and (preclinical) dementia: its relationship with (instrumental) activities of daily life--a mini-review.  

PubMed

A causal relationship between physical activity such as walking and cognitive functions - particularly executive functions and memory - has been observed in elderly people with and without dementia. Executive functions play an important role in the (instrumental) activities of daily life [(I)ADL]. However, a close relationship has also been found between motor activity of the upper limb, particularly the hand, and (I)ADL. Indeed, in aging, a decline in hand motor function is related to a decrease in (I)ADL, an increase in functional dependency, admission to a nursing home, and even mortality. This review begins by addressing clinical studies on the effect of age on higher-level hand motor activity. It then discusses higher-level hand motor function in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. It concludes by discussing the contribution of higher-level hand motor function assessment to the diagnosis of the various subtypes of (preclinical) dementia and by addressing the clinical relevance of studying higher-level hand motor function, procedural learning, and (I)ADL in aging and (preclinical) dementia. PMID:18997468

Scherder, Erik; Dekker, Welmoed; Eggermont, Laura

2008-11-11

14

Alexandria Digital Library (ADL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ADL collection provides searching capabilities over geographically-referenced materials. Geographically-referenced means information objects are associated with one or more regions, often called footprints, on the Earth's surface. The ADL collection contains information that supports basic science, including the Earth and social sciences. The ADL collection offers geospatial search as the primary search mechanism. This collection contains photographs, digital elevation models, digital raster graphics, Landsat and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite imagery and world maps.

15

Efficacy of Higher Dose 13.3 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

Background: Stabilizing/reducing decline in the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) is important in management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Post hoc analysis of OPtimizing Transdermal Exelon In Mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (OPTIMA), a double-blind trial comparing 13.3 and 9.5 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in patients with AD demonstrating functional and cognitive decline with 9.5 mg/24 h patch. Efficacy on Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study-instrumental ADL (ADCS-IADL) items, higher level function (HLF), and autonomy factors was assessed. Results: The ADCS-IADL, HLF, and autonomy factors favored 13.3 mg/24 h patch at all time points, reaching significance from weeks 16 to 48, 24 to 48, and 32 to 48, respectively. Higher dose patch demonstrated significantly greater efficacy on 10 of 17 ADCS-IADL items at 1 or more time points (P < .05 vs 9.5 mg/24 h patch). More adverse events were observed with higher dose patch; study discontinuations were similar between the doses. Conclusions: Greater efficacy of 13.3 versus 9.5 mg/24 h patch on ADL, including autonomy and HLF factors, supports this additional dosing option to prolong patients' independence. PMID:23982674

Grossberg, George; Cummings, Jeffrey; Frölich, Lutz; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Molinuevo, José L; Krahnke, Tillmann; Strohmaier, Christine

2013-09-01

16

ADLs and dynamic architecture changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing ADLs typically support only static architecture specifica- tion and do not provide facilities for the support of dynamically changing architectures. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem: in order to adequately support dynamic architecture changes, ADLs can leverage techniques used in dynamic program- ming languages. In particular, changes to ADL specifications should be interpreted. To enable interpretation,

Nenad Medvidovic

1996-01-01

17

HomeADL for adaptive ADL monitoring within smart homes.  

PubMed

In this paper we present homeADL: a representation standard for an inference hierarchy of activities of daily living which may be monitored in a sensor equipped smart home. The approach allows a free exchange of ADL monitoring structures between different communities who share the same concern of providing high quality healthcare to the elderly. Its ability of matching different ADL protocols enables a mapping between an ADL protocol to a suitable smart home which makes an effective management of smart homes within a community hence, not only being able to satisfy an individual's healthcare requirements but also efficiently using monitoring resources at hand. PMID:19163419

Hong, Xin; Nugent, Chris D; Finlay, Dewar D; Mulvenna, Maurice

2008-01-01

18

Factors Associated with ADL and IADL Dependency among Korean Centenarians: Reaching the 100-Year-Old Life Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the functional status of Korean centenarians, who have crossed the relatively rare but increasingly common life transition of living for a century. As functional health is one of the essential components of healthy aging, our primary objective is to identify the correlates of two aspects of functioning, activities of…

Kim, Hyunjee; Lee, Taeyong; Lee, Sokgoo; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Sungkook; Kam, Sin; Ahn, Sangnam; Cho, Jinmyoung; Ory, Marcia G.

2012-01-01

19

Association of the Spatial Layout of the Home and ADL Abilities Among Older Adults With Dementia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between architectural space syntax measures describing the spatial layout of a home and activities of daily living (ADL) among people with dementia. We visited the homes of 82 participants in a dementia care comparative effectiveness clinical trial and measured the space syntax variables intelligibility and convexity along with several clinical variables, including ADLs. In regression models, we estimated the cross-sectional association between space syntax measures and ADLs. Higher convexity was associated with worse performance of basic but not instrumental ADLs (adjusted ? = 19.2, P = .02). Intelligibility was not associated with ADLs. These results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home resulting in better basic ADL performance. These results warrant further research on space syntax measures in the home environment of people with dementia, including longitudinal study, which we are pursuing.

Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S.; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Samus, Quincy M.

2011-01-01

20

Major Depression and Disability in Older Primary Care Patients With Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) and major depression among 415 community-dwelling primary care patients age 65+ with heart failure and significant ADL or IADL dependence. Main findings include (1) a progressive increase in depression prevalence from 0% for no IADL dependence to about

Bruce Friedman; Jeffrey M. Lyness; Rachel L. Delavan; Chunyu Li; William H. Barker

2008-01-01

21

Cognitive and neuroimaging predictors of instrumental activities of daily living.  

PubMed

Impaired ability to conduct daily activities is a diagnostic criterion for dementia and a determinant of healthcare services utilization and caregiver burden. What predicts decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is not well understood. This study examined measures of episodic memory, executive function, and MRI brain volumes in relation to baseline IADLs and as predictors of rate of IADL change. Participants were 124 elderly persons with cognitive function between normal and moderate dementia both with and without significant small vessel cerebrovascular disease. Random effects modeling showed that baseline memory and executive function (EXEC) were associated with baseline IADL scores, but only EXEC was independently associated with rate of change in IADLs. Whereas hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes were significantly associated with baseline IADL scores, only hippocampal volume was associated with IADL change. In a model including cognitive and neuroimaging predictors, only EXEC independently predicted rate of decline in IADL scores. These findings indicate that greater executive dysfunction at initial assessment is associated with more rapid decline in IADLs. Perhaps executive function is particularly important with respect to maintaining IADLs. Alternatively, executive dysfunction may be a sentinel event indicating widespread cortical involvement and poor prognosis. PMID:17521485

Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Julian, Laura; Harvey, Danielle J; Kramer, Joel H; Reed, Bruce R; Mungas, Dan; Wetzel, Margaret; Chui, Helena

2007-05-18

22

ZigADL: an ADL training system enabling teachers to assist children with intellectual disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assistive technology for children with intellectual disabilities is developed to achieve the goal of performing ADLs (Activities of Daily Living) independently. In special education under the guidance of a teacher, we used a ZigBee sensor network called ZigADL to assist a 9-year-old child. The study assessed the effectiveness of ZigADL for teaching waste disposal. A subject research design was used

Zhi-Zhan Lu

2011-01-01

23

Type of High-School Credentials and Older Age ADL and IADL Limitations: Is the GED Credential Equivalent to a Diploma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Educational attainment is a robust predictor of disability in elderly Americans: older adults with high-school (HS) diplomas have substantially lower disability than individuals who did not complete HS. General Educational Development (GED) diplomas now comprise almost 20% of new HS credentials issued annually in the United States but it…

Liu, Sze Yan; Chavan, Niraj R.; Glymour, M. Maria

2013-01-01

24

Variation in Sources of Clinician-Rated and Self-Rated Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. It is unclear how well self-reports and clinician ratings of performance in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs; household maintenance tasks) correspond and why they may differ. Methods. We assessed clinician-rated IADL performance using an occupational therapy protocol, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). AMPS and self-rated IADL disability were compared in two groups of nondemented

Steven M. Albert; Jane Bear-Lehman; Ann Burkhardt; Belkis Merete-Roa; Rafael Noboa-Lemonier; Jeanne Teresi

2006-01-01

25

The development and validation of a screening instrument to identify hospitalized medical patients in need of early functional rehabilitation assessment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale that identifies hospitalized patients in need of physical therapy (PT) and/or occupational therapy (OT) assessments. Preliminary scale items were tested for reliability among 52 patients and remaining items were then administered to 299 patients and items that were associated with the concept of 'need for an assessment' on multivariate analyses were selected as final scale items. The concept of need was based on the clinical judgment of physical and occupational therapists. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine a cut-off score and the predictive ability of this score in determining length of stay and utilization of services was evaluated among 200 patients. The final scale contains two components. The PT component addresses ambulation, falls, breathing, and activities of daily living (ADL). The OT component addresses swallowing, ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The area under the ROC curves of the PT and OT components were 0.71 and 0.72, respectively. Both components predicted length of stay and utilization (p < 0.05). In summary, this scale provides a mechanism for targeting patients for early PT and OT assessment and provides a basis for testing the effectiveness of early PT and OT interventions. PMID:15287276

Foster, Carla Boutin; Gorga, Delia; Padial, Carolyn; Feretti, Ann Marie; Berenson, Debra; Kline, Robin; Belue, Rhonda; Charlson, Mary E

2004-08-01

26

Managing functional decline among the elderly patients in ward 3 Geriatric ward using the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living commonly referred to as Katz ADL by Katz et al (1970) is the most appropriate instrument to assess functional status as a measurement of the person's ability to perform acts of daily living independently.MethodThis Katz ADL was used in 15 geriatric patients aged between 78–84. The instrument employs a dichotomous

E Cheah; S Rajaram; H C Chua; H L Ng; H M Tim; F Fadillah; D Zheng

2011-01-01

27

Addressing Non-Functional Properties in Software Architecture using ADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture definition languages (ADLs) are used to specify high-level structural details of software systems. Many ADLs have emerged recently and whilst all address structural and functional elements such as components and connectors, few can be used to specify non-functional requirements such as security or performance. This paper proposes some constructs to one such ADL, WRIGHT, for specifying non-functional requirements and

Christopher Van; Eenoo Osama; Hylooz Khaled; M. Khan

28

Regulation of ADL6 activity by its associated molecular network.  

PubMed

Plant dynamin-like proteins consist of a group of high molecular weight GTPase with diverse structural arrangements and cellular localizations. In addition, unlike animal dynamins, there was no evidence for the involvement of any plant dynamin-like protein in clathrin-mediated vesicle trafficking. In this study we demonstrate that ADL6 (Arabidopsis dynamin-like protein 6), due to its domain arrangement, behaves similarly to the animal dynamins. The association of ADL6 with clathrin-coated vesicles was demonstrated by co-fractionation and immunocytochemical studies. ADL6 also interacted via its C-terminus with gamma-adaptin, an adaptor protein of clathrin-coated vesicles. Our results suggest that ADL6 participates in clathrin-mediated vesicle trafficking originating from the Golgi. In addition, our studies demonstrate that ADL6 intrinsic GTPase activity is regulated by its association with acidic phospholipids and an SH3 (Src homology 3)-containing protein. PMID:12207647

Lam, Bernard C-H; Sage, Tammy L; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Blumwald, Eduardo

2002-09-01

29

Autonomous Decentralized Loop network - ADL aiming at fault-tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Autonomous Decentralized System (ADS) network is proposed which provides fault detection, fault recovery, transmission, and maintenance for a space system in a distributed manner. An Autonomous Decentralized Loop (ADL) network system is presented as an application of ADS. The ADL system construction, communication protocol, transmission control, and fault detection and recovery are examined. The ADS features autonomous nodes which allow no subsystem to be down without advance notice. The functional availability of ADL is compared with that of a two-redundant loop.

Kanbe, Seiichiro; Ashida, Akira; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kinji; Ihara, Hirokazu

30

An Extensible ADL for Service-Oriented Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While architecture description languages (ADLs) have gained wide acceptance in the research community as a means of describing system designs, the uptake within the service-oriented architecture (SOA) domain has been slower than might have been expected. A contributory cause may be the perceived lack of flexibility and, as yet, the limited tool support. This chapter describes ALI, a new ADL that aims to address these deficiencies by providing a rich, extensible and flexible syntax for describing component and service interface types and the use of patterns and meta-information. These enhanced capabilities are intended to encourage more widespread ADL usage.

Bashroush, R.; Spence, I.

31

INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on instrumentation developments during the period 1960-; 61. Discussion is given on various instruments such as supersonic and ; electrolytic machines, spectrometers, coated filters, multiplier phototube, ; balances, photoelectric refractometers, and others. lt is felt that a milestone ; in instrumentation and metrology was established when a new international ; standard of length was adopted to

1962-01-01

32

Characteristic Profiles of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Different Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The purposes of this study were to describe restrictions in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to assess different patterns of IADL in each MCI subtype. Methods: A total of 566 participants, those not cognitively impaired (NCI; n = 311) and MCI patients (n = 255), 60–94 years old (71.25 ± 6.00), were

Kyung Ran Kim; Kang Soo Lee; Hae-Kwan Cheong; Jin-Sup Eom; Byoung Hoon Oh; Chang Hyung Hong

2009-01-01

33

Executive Function in Daily Life: Age-Related Influences of Executive Processes on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study of older adults used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between 3 executive processes underlying executive function (EF) (inhibition, task switching, updating in working memory), and 2 types of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (self-report, performance based). Experimental tasks of executive attention and self-report or performance-based IADL tests were administered to create latent constructs

Leslie Vaughan; Kelly Giovanello

2010-01-01

34

Staging Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in Elderly Community-Dwelling Persons According to Difficulties in Self-Care and Domestic Life Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to describe the conceptual foundation and development of an activity limitation and participation restriction staging system for community-dwelling people 70 yrs or older according to the severity and types of self-care (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and domestic life (instrumental ADLs (IADLs)) limitations experienced. Design Data from the second Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 9447) were used to develop IADL stages through the analyses of self- and proxy-reported difficulties in performing IADLs. An analysis of activity limitation profiles identified hierarchical thresholds of difficulty that defined each stage. IADL stages are combined with ADL stages to profile status for independent living. Results IADL stages define five ordered thresholds of increasing activity limitations and a “not relevant” stage for those who normally have someone else do those activities. Approximately 42% of the population experience IADL limitations. To achieve a stage, a person must meet or exceed stage-specific thresholds of retained functioning defined for each activity. Combined ADL and IADL stages de-fine 29 patterns of activity limitations expressing the individual’s potential for participating in life situations pertinent to self-care and independent community life. Conclusions ADL and IADL stages can serve to distinguish between groups of people according to both severity and the types of limitations experienced during home or outpatient assessments, in population surveillance, and in research.

Stineman, Margaret G.; Henry-Sanchez, John T.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Pan, Qiang; Xie, Dawei; Saliba, Debra; Zhang, Zi; Streim, Joel E.

2012-01-01

35

A state preserving approach to recognizing human behavior using wireless infrared and vibration sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some home monitoring research has tried to deal with a broad range of human behaviors such Activity of Daily Living (ADL) or Instrumented ADL (IADL) in an entire home, but most research results does not yet seem satisfactory. So we focused on modeling human behaviors in a bedroom, not an entire home. To do this, we define a behavior state

Seung Ho Cho; William D. Phillips; Ravi Sankar; Bonghee Moon

2012-01-01

36

Simple Counts of ADL Dependencies Do Not Adequately Reflect Older Adults' Preferences toward States of Functional Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective To use unweighted counts of dependencies in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) to assess the impact of functional impairment requires an assumption of equal preferences for each ADL dependency. To test this assumption, we analyzed standard gamble utilities of single and combination ADL dependencies among older adults. Study Design and Setting: Four hundred older adults used multimedia software (FLAIR1) to report standard gamble utilities for their current health and hypothetical health states of dependency in each of 7 ADLs and 8 of 30 combinations of ADL dependencies. Results Utilities for health states of multiple ADL dependencies were often greater than for states of single ADL dependencies. Dependence in eating, the ADL dependency with the lowest utility rating of the single ADL dependencies, ranked lower than 7 combination states. Similarly, some combination states with fewer ADL dependencies had lower utilities than those with more ADL dependencies. These findings were consistent across groups by gender, age, and education. Conclusion Our results suggest that the count of ADL dependencies does not adequately represent the utility for a health state. Cost-effectiveness analyses and other evaluations of programs that prevent or treat functional dependency should apply utility-weights rather than relying on simple ADL counts.

Sims, Tamara; Holmes, Tyson H.; Bravata, Dena M.; Garber, Alan M.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Goldstein, Mary K.

2008-01-01

37

Effect of occupation- and activity-based interventions on instrumental activities of daily living performance among community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review examines the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions on community-dwelling older adults' performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). It was conducted as part of the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised and synthesized. Within occupation-based and client-centered interventions, the evidence that multicomponent interventions improve and maintain IADL performance in community-dwelling older adults is strong. The results also indicate that client-centered, occupation-based interventions can be effective in improving and maintaining IADL performance. The evidence is moderate for functional task exercise programs and limited for simulated IADL interventions to improve IADL performance. In the area of performance skills, the evidence related to physical activity and cognitive skills training is mixed, and the evidence that vision rehabilitation interventions improve IADL performance in older adults with low vision is moderate. Implications for practice, education, and research are also discussed. PMID:22549594

Orellano, Elsa; Colón, Wanda I; Arbesman, Marian

38

Performance Measures Predict the Onset of Basic ADL Difficulty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the predictive value of five performance-based measures for the onset of difficulty in basic activities of daily living (ADL). DESIGN A prospective cohort study; home visits every 6 months for 18 months. SETTING Community-based PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older adults, n=110, (mean age, 80; SD, 7.0; range, 67-98 years) who reported no difficulty in basic ADLs. MEASUREMENTS The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), grip strength, and Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) were evaluated at baseline. Seven ADL items were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The onset of basic ADL disability was self-report of difficulty in any of the 7 ADL items. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the physical performance measures to predict onset of basic ADL difficulty at 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS After controlling for age, co-morbid conditions, and gender, the BBS was the most consistent and best predictor for the onset of basic ADL difficulty over an 18-month period (6 months, c-statistic=.725 (.60, .85); 12 months, c-statistic=.840 (.75, .93); 18 months, c-statistic=.821 (.71, .93)). The SPPB showed excellent predictive value for the onset of difficulty at 12 months. The number of older adults completed the 6, 12, and 18-month follow-up visits were 95, 89, and 75, respectively. CONCLUSION BBS, followed by SPPB, TUG, gait speed and grip strength were predictive for the onset of basic ADL difficulty over an 18-month period in community-dwelling older adults. Screening nondisabled older adults with simple performance tests could allow clinicians to identify those at risk for ADL difficulty, and may help to detect early functional decline.

Huang, Wen-Ni Wennie; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Studenski, Stephanie

2010-01-01

39

Unmet need for assistance to perform activities of daily living and psychological distress in community-dwelling elderly women.  

PubMed

Community-dwelling seniors increasingly require physical assistance to perform the activities of daily living (ADL). To examine the possible association of this need with psychological distress, we conducted a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling people age 75 and older in Montreal, Canada. We report the results for women only (n = 530). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between met and unmet need in instrumental ADL (IADL) and personal ADL (PADL) with concomitant psychological distress. Unmet IADL need was associated with elevated psychological distress [? = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.60)], as was met IADL need [? = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.33)], but not met and unmet PADL need. The full model explained 32.8 per cent of the total variance in psychological distress. Receiving assistance to meet IADL needs is associated with elevated psychological distress. Not receiving assistance, however, is associated with even greater distress. PMID:22035564

Quail, Jacqueline M; Wolfson, Christina; Lippman, Abby

2011-10-31

40

ADL State of the Union. Where We Are and Where We Are Going.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ADL VISION: Provide access to the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered cost effectively, anywhere and anytime: Web-based Learning - Content Repositories - Distributed Simulation - Job Aiding - Immersive Learning ...

P. Jesukiewicz

2009-01-01

41

Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is an adverse outcome of frailty that places a burden on frail elderly people,\\u000a care providers and the care system. Knowing which physical frailty indicators predict ADL disability is useful in identifying\\u000a elderly people who might benefit from an intervention that prevents disability or increases functioning in daily life. The\\u000a objective of this

Joan Vermeulen; Jacques CL Neyens; Erik van Rossum; Marieke D Spreeuwenberg; Luc P de Witte

2011-01-01

42

xADL: Enabling Architecture-Centric Tool Integration with XML  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to support architecture-centric tool integration within the ArchStudio 2.0 Integrated Development Environment (IDE), we adopted Extensible Markup Language (XML) to represent the shared architecture-in- progress. Since ArchStudio is an architectural style-based development environment that incorporates an extensive number of tools, including commercial off-the-shelf products, we developed a new, vendor-neutral, ADL-neutral interchange format called Extensible Architecture Description Language (xADL),

Rohit Khare; Michael Guntersdorfer; Peyman Oreizy; Nenad Medvidovic; Richard N. Taylor

2001-01-01

43

Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults.

Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.

2013-01-01

44

Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to…

DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

2013-01-01

45

Nonlinear adjustment to purchasing power parity in transition countries: the ADL test for threshold cointegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies a newly developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) test for threshold cointegration, proposed by Li and Lee (2010) to test the validity of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) for a sample of transition countries (i.e. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Russia) over January 1995 to December 2008. The empirical results indicate that

Yang-Cheng Ralph Lu; Tsangyao Chang; Chia-Hao Lee

2012-01-01

46

Nonlinear adjustment to purchasing power parity in transition countries: the ADL test for threshold cointegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies a newly developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) test for threshold cointegration, proposed by Li and Lee (2010) to test the validity of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) for a sample of transition countries (i.e. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Russia) over January 1995 to December 2008. The empirical results indicate that

Yang-Cheng Ralph Lu; Tsangyao Chang; Chia-Hao Lee

2011-01-01

47

Nonlinear adjustment to purchasing power parity in Latin American countries: the ADL test for threshold cointegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies a newly developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) test for threshold cointegration proposed by Li and Lee (2010) to test the validity of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) for a sample of 15 Latin American countries from December 1994 to February 2010. Empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for most of the countries studied, with the exception

Guochen Pan; Tsangyao Chang; D. P. Tang; Chia-Hao Lee

2012-01-01

48

Trends in late-life disability in Taiwan: The roles of education, environment, and technology  

PubMed Central

This analysis offers the first strong evidence of trends in late-life disability in an emerging economy. Consistent measures of limitations in seeing, hearing, physical functions, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and activities of daily living (ADLs) were available for three to six survey waves, depending on the outcome, from 1989 to 2007 for the population of Taiwan aged 65 and older. Limitations in seeing, hearing, and IADLs declined substantially, but trends were mixed for physical functions and flat for ADLs. The remarkable reduction in difficulty phoning, an IADL, may reflect changes in telecommunications infrastructure and highlights the roles of environment and technology in disability outcomes. Trends for urban residents were more advantageous than those for rural residents for seeing and hearing, but less so for physical functions and IADLs. Were it not for the substantial increase in educational attainment, trends in all outcomes would have been less favorable.

Martin, Linda G.; Zimmer, Zachary; Hurng, Baai-Shyun

2011-01-01

49

Sarcopenic Obesity Predicts Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Disability in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the association of sarcopenic obesity with the onset of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) disability in a cohort of 451 elderly men and women followed for up to 8 years.Research Methods and Procedures: Sarcopenic obesity was defined at study baseline as appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by stature squared <7.26 kg\\/m2 in men and 5.45 kg\\/m2

Richard N. Baumgartner; Sharon J. Wayne; Debra L. Waters; Ian Janssen; Dympna Gallagher; John E. Morley

2004-01-01

50

Monitoring Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) of Elderly Based on 3D Key Human Postures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a cognitive vision approach to recognize a set of interesting activities of daily living (ADLs) for elderly\\u000a at home. The proposed approach is composed of a video analysis component and an activity recognition component.\\u000a \\u000a A video analysis component contains person detection, person tracking and human posture recognition. A human posture recognition\\u000a is composed of a set of

Nadia Zouba; Bernard Boulay; François Brémond; Monique Thonnat

2008-01-01

51

Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

Hacihasano?lu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

2011-04-22

52

Change in instrumental activities of daily living disability in female senior patients with musculosceletal pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Previous studies found that depressive symptoms and low functional self-efficacy are associated with the occurrence of disabling musculoskeletal pain, and diminished quality of life in elderly people. The target of this study was to consider the change in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability and health related quality of life after integrative psychotherapeutic treatment program of depressive symptoms in senior female patients with musculoskeletal pain. In an 8-week outpatient-based, random, prospective, controlled trial, 36 female patients between 70 and 79 with a history of clinically evident musculoskeletal pain and afflicted with depressive symptoms, but who were able to bathe, walk, dress, and transferring inside the house were evaluated. The study was performed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), IADL, and the Health Survey (SF-36). In comparison with the untreated group, according to the intent-to-treat principle, significant changes on the CES-D (P < 0.01), IADL (P < 0.01), and all scales of SF-36 were observed after eight weeks in the treated subjects. The treatment of moderate depression with integrative psychotherapy may be efficacious in improving of IADL disability and health related quality of life in affected senior female patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:16140405

Nickel, Marius K; Lahmann, Claas; Muehlbacher, Moritz; Nickel, Cerstin; Pedrosa Gil, Francisco; Buschmann, Wiebke; Rother, Nadine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Leiberich, Peter K; Tritt, Karin; Mitterlehner, Ferdinand O; Kettler, Christian; Egger, Christoph; Rother, Wolfhardt K; Loew, Thomas H

2005-09-02

53

Effect of a multimodal exercise program on sleep disturbances and instrumental activities of daily living performance on Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

AIM: To assess the contribution of a multimodal exercise program on the sleep disturbances (SD) and on the performance of instrumental activities daily living (IADL) in patients with clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease patients (PD). METHODS: A total of 42 consecutive patients (23 training group, 19 control group) with PD and 35 demented patients with AD (19 trained group, 16 control group) were recruited. Participants in both training groups carried out three 1-h sessions per week of a multimodal exercise program for 6 months. The Pfeffer Questionnaire for Instrumental Activities and the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire were used to assess the effects of the program on IADL and SD respectively. RESULTS: Two-way ancova showed interactions in IADL and SD. Significant improvements were observed for these variables in both intervention groups, and maintenance or worsening was observed in control groups. The analysis of effect size showed these improvements. CONCLUSION: The present study results show that a mild to moderate intensity of multimodal physical exercises carried out on a regular basis over 6 months can contribute to reducing IADL deficits and attenuating SD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ??: ??-??. PMID:23647635

Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Ayan, Carlos; Cancela, Jose Maria; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastião; Stella, Florindo

2013-05-01

54

The Complex Association between Religious Activities and Functional Limitations in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To examine the longitudinal associations between 3 dimensions of religious involvement--religious attendance, use of religious media, and private religious activities--and 3 domains of functional status--limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mobility in…

Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; George, Linda K.; Koenig, Harold G.

2012-01-01

55

Home Health Care Nursing Visit Intensity and Heart Failure Patient Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a secondary analysis of data for 107 home health care heart failure patients. The authors investigate the impact of patient characteristics and nursing visit intensity on change in activities of daily living (ADL) status and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) status and improvement\\/stabilization of dyspnea. Prior hospital stay (ß = .38, p = .001) and nursing

Jennifer S. Riggs; Elizabeth A. Madigan; Richard H. Fortinsky

2011-01-01

56

Longitudinal Changes in Disabled Husbands' and Wives' Receipt of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: This study contrasts 2-year adjustments in disabled husbands' and wives' amount of received care following both worsening and recovery in personal (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and routine care (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]) disability. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data on 789 husbands and…

Noel-Miller, Claire

2010-01-01

57

The Complex Association between Religious Activities and Functional Limitations in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: To examine the longitudinal associations between 3 dimensions of religious involvement--religious attendance, use of religious media, and private religious activities--and 3 domains of functional status--limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mobility in…

Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; George, Linda K.; Koenig, Harold G.

2012-01-01

58

Women Over 50: Caregiving Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caregiving involves direct personal assistance [assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs3) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs4)], as well as primary responsibility for the health and welfare of people receiving informal care in the community or formal\\u000a care in institutions. Many women over the age of 50 provide caregiving.

Rosalie J. Ackerman; Martha E. Banks

59

Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants' age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P = 0.002) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P = 0.233). PSD alone (P = 0.001) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.001) significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P = 0.2). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

Badaru, Umaru Muhammad; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Olowe, Olajide Olubanji

2013-01-01

60

Higher Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Disability in Hispanics Compared with Non-Hispanic Whites in Rural Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Hispanic versus non-Hispanic white patterns of needing assistance with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The authors interviewed 798 Hispanic and 614 non-Hispanic white residents of rural Colorado, who were aged 60 years and older between 1993 and 1995. Seventy-five participants were nursing home residents at the time of the interview. Community-dwelling Hispanics were 1.6 times as

S. M. Shetterly; J. Baxter; N. E. Morgenstern; J. Grigsby; R. F. Hamman

61

The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1  

PubMed Central

Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth.

Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

2001-01-01

62

Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation.

Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

2013-01-01

63

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

2008-01-01

64

Relationship between physical strain during standardised ADL tasks and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 44 men with spinal cord injuries (C4-L5) performed a set of standardised tasks. The physical strain was defined as the highest heart rate response expressed as a percentage of the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The physical strain averaged over the subjects who performed all tasks (n = 24) was

T W J Janssen; C A J M van Oers; H E J Veeger; A P Hollander; L H V van der Woude; R H Rozendal

1994-01-01

65

To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

2008-01-01

66

Concept and modular telemedicine platform for measuring of vital signs, ADL and behavioral patterns of elderly in home settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution a new centralized platform for telemedicine is presented. It combines functions for measuring of vital signs, ADL and behavioral patterns and is especially designed for home care scenarios and the use by elderly people who are not familiar with the use of a PC. Unlike many other approaches we did not use a modified standard PC but

A. Czabke; J. Loeschke; T. C. Lueth

2011-01-01

67

Associations and Impact Factors between Living Arrangements and Functional Disability among Older Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relationship. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from Healthy Aging study in Zhejiang Province. Participants Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative rural population of older persons in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, including 1542 participants aged 60 and over in the second wave of the study. Measurements Living arrangements, background, functional disability, self-rated health, number of diseases, along with contemporaneous circumstances including income, social support (physical assistance and emotional support). Instrument was Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, including Basic Activities Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Results Living arrangements were significantly associated with BADL, IADL and ADL disability. Married persons living with or without children were more advantaged on all three dimensions of functional disability. Unmarried older adults living with children only had the worst functional status, even after controlling for background, social support, income and health status variables (compared with the unmarried living alone, ß for BADL: ?1.262, ß for IADL: ?2.112, ß for ADL: ?3.388; compared with the married living with children only, ß for BADL: ?1.166, ß for IADL: ?2.723, ß for ADL: ?3.902). In addition, older adults without difficulty in receiving emotional support, in excellent health and with advanced age had significantly better BADL, IADL and ADL function. However, a statistically significant association between physical assistance and functional disability was not found. Conclusion Functional disabilities vary by living arrangements with different patterns and other factors. Our results highlight the association of unmarried elders living with children only and functioning decline comparing with other types. Our study implies policy makers should pay closer attention to unmarried elders living with children in community. Community service especially emotional support such as psychological counseling is important social support and should be improved.

Wang, Hui; Chen, Kun; Pan, Yifeng; Jing, Fangyuan; Liu, He

2013-01-01

68

Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e.,

Angela L. Jefferson; Lamia P. Barakat; Tania Giovannetti; Robert H. Paul; Guila Glosser

2006-01-01

69

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

70

Enriching ADL: Integrating HLA Simulation and SCORM Instruction using SITA (Simulation-based Intelligent Training and Assessment)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint ADL CoLab in Orlando, FL, in conjunction with Intelligent Automation, Inc. in Rockville, MD, is conducting research to include the use of High Level Architecture (HLA)-compliant simulations for on- line instruction and assessment. This research focuses on developing instructional paradigms, training- specific data structures and communication methods between a simulation, Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)-based instructional content,

Jacqueline Haynes; Susan Marshall; Vikram Manikonda

71

A 12-week open-label pilot study of donepezil for cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living in late-life bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether donepezil is effective in enhancing cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in older adults with bipolar disorder. Methods Twelve elderly patients with bipolar I or II disorder, with evidence of mild cognitive decrements, were administered donepezil 5–10 mg daily for 3 months. Participants had cognitive and functional evaluation pre-, on-, and 3-months post donepezil administration. Results Three subjects dropped out of the study. In the remaining nine subjects, no significant effects were observed in cognitive and functional measures. Seven of the nine participants asked to resume the medication after completion of the study because of the perceived beneficial effects. Conclusions In this small pilot study of older adults with bipolar disorder, acute treatment with donepezil was not associated with improvements in cognitive and IADL functioning. Given limitations of the study design, placebo effects could not be ruled out in the subjects who asked to resume donepezil.

Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.; Chisholm, Denise; Reynolds, Charles F.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

2009-01-01

72

A New Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL6, Is Involved in Trafficking from the trans-Golgi Network to the Central Vacuole in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamin, a high-molecular-weight GTPase, plays a critical role in vesicle formation at the plasma membrane during en- docytosis in animal cells. Here we report the identification of a new dynamin homolog in Arabidopsis named Arabidopsis dynamin-like 6 (ADL6). ADL6 is quite similar to dynamin I in its structural organization: a conserved GTPase domain at the N terminus, a pleckstrin homology

Jing Bo Jin; A Kim; Soo Jin Kim; Sung Hoon Lee; Dae Heon Kim; Gang-Won Cheong; Inhwan Hwang

2001-01-01

73

Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate how older people, dependent in ADL perceive their participation in a high-intensity, functional exercise program compared to the perceptions of those participating in a control activity. Forty-eight older people living in residential care facilities answered a questionnaire about their perceptions of participating in an activity for three months. They were aged 65-98, had a mean score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 14 on Barthel ADL Index. The participants had been randomized to exercise (n=20) or control activity (n=28). Differences in responses between exercise and control activity were evaluated using logistic and ordinal regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the exercise group perceived positive changes in lower limb strength, balance, and in the ability to move more safely and securely compared to a minority of the control group (p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in the exercise activity answered that they felt less tired due to the activity (p=0.027) and that they prioritized this activity above other activities (p=0.010). More exercise participants reported that meeting for three months was too short, and fewer that it was too long compared to the control group (p=0.038). This study shows that older people living in residential care facilities, dependent in ADL, and with mild or no cognitive impairment had positive perceptions about participating in high-intensity functional exercise. The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people. PMID:23768799

Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Gustafsson, S; Nygaard, J; Gustafson, Y; Nyberg, L

2013-06-13

74

Relationship between body mass index and different domains of disability in older persons: the 3C study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and different domains of disability in elderly subjects from the French 3C study.SETTING: Three cities in France: Bordeaux (South-West), Dijon (North-East) and Montpellier (South-East).DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: A sample of 8966 elderly community dwellers (age: 65–101 y).MEASUREMENTS:Main outcome measures: BMI, continence, basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL and IADL)

S Larrieu; K Pérès; L Letenneur; C Berr; J F Dartigues; K Ritchie; B Février; A Alpérovitch; P Barberger-Gateau

2004-01-01

75

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities\\u000a of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS). This version was obtained with forward\\/backward translations, consensus panels and pre-testing.\\u000a The Portuguese KOS-ADLS and Medical Outcomes Study, 36-item Short Form (SF-36) questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS)\\u000a of pain, disability and discomfort, and a form for

Rui Soles Gonçalves; Jan Cabri; João Páscoa Pinheiro

2008-01-01

76

Effects of fall injury type and discharge placement on mortality, hospitalization, falls, and ADL changes among older people in Taiwan.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the effects of injury type and discharge placement on mortality, falls, hospital admissions, and changes in activities of daily living (ADLs) over a 12-month period among older fallers. Of 762 community-dwelling people aged 65 years or older who visited an emergency department (ED) of a general hospital in Taiwan due to a fall, 273 sustained a hip fracture, 157 had a vertebral fracture, 47 had a distal forearm fracture, 102 had a traumatic brain injury, and 183 had soft-tissue injuries. Results showed that, compared to patients with a soft-tissue injury, those with TBI had significantly higher risks of dying (rate ratio (RR)=3.59) and hospital admissions (RR=3.23) and better improvement in ADLs (1.93 points) at 6 months post-injury, and those who sustained a hip fracture (4.26 and 4.41 points), a vertebral fracture (3.81 and 3.83 points), or a distal-forearm fracture (2.80 and 2.80 points) had significantly better improvement in ADLs at 6 and 12 months post-injury. Patients discharged to a nursing home had a significantly increased risk of death (RR=2.08) and hospital admission (RR=2.05) than those returning to their usual residence during the first year post-injury. No significant differences in the occurrence of falls during the first post-injury year were found among patients with different injury types or between those with different discharge placements. In conclusion, among the five major fall injury types in older people, TBIs result in the highest risk of death and hospital admissions, while hip and vertebral fractures exhibited the largest improvement during the first year after injury. Additionally, nursing home care may be associated with increased risks of death and hospital admissions than home care. In addition to primary prevention of falls, further research to investigate mechanisms leading to TBIs during a fall is needed to facilitate effective secondary fall-prevention programs for older people. PMID:22878142

Yu, Wen-Yu; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung

2012-08-09

77

The arm motor ability test: Reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of an instrument for assessing disabilities in activities of daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To continue and expand determination of the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT), an instrument for assessing deficits in activities of daily living (ADL).Design: The AMAT was administered twice to patients, with an interest interval of either 1 or 2 weeks, by one of two examiners assigned to patients in counterbalanced order.

Bruno Kopp; Annett Kunkel; Herta Flor; Thomas Platz; Ulrike Rose; Karl-Heinz Mauritz; Klaus Gresser; Karen L. McCulloch; Edward Taub

1997-01-01

78

Quick lateral movements of the trunk in a seated position reflect mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) function in frail elderly individuals.  

PubMed

A novel and safe performance test for measuring mobility is described. The test, which we have named the Seated Side Tapping test (Side Tapping test), requires the subjects to move their bodies laterally to the left and right in turn as quickly as possible whilst remaining in a seated position. We examined the associations between the results of the new test and those of other mobility tests, ADL, and the use of walking aids. The participants were 75 frail elderly people who were receiving rehabilitation services. Gait speed and the timed up and go (TUG) test were employed as mobility tests, and the participants' use of walking aids was recorded. The ADL score was assessed using the Barthel Index. Significant correlations were found between the side tapping test and gait speed (r=-0.59, p<0.01), and TUG (r=0.63, p<0.01). This test also revealed significant relationships with the ADL scores and the use of walking aids. These results indicate that an ability to perform quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects their mobility during standing. Thus, we concluded that since the side tapping test is simple and safe, it is useful for detecting mobility impairments, ADL levels, and the need for walking aids, especially in frail elderly individuals. PMID:23270712

Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Kimura, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kensuke; Arai, Shin; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

2012-12-25

79

Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: Implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two

Kimberly J Wisneski; Michelle J Johnson

2007-01-01

80

Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

2011-01-01

81

Case Study of Elderly Home Health Care Users.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cross-sectional analyses of all 4,235 ADL/IADL impaired respondents, age 60+, in the 1984 National Health Interview Survey on Aging (SOA) revealed that certain ADL/IADL limitations were most strongly associated with Home Health Care (HHC) use. Those with ...

D. L. Rabin

1989-01-01

82

Cordless Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

1981-01-01

83

Fabrication of Rare-earth Aluminate (ReAlO3) Glass and Crystalline phases by Aerodynamic Levitation (ADL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containerless processing by levitation technique has been extensively used for material science and engineering because it suppresses inhomogeneous nucleation from the container wall and helps to produce stable, metastable and glass phases. The containerless levitation technique is widely explored for material processing because of its technological and scientific advantages. Recently, research on bulk glass and glass-ceramics have attracted the attention of material scientists as they are considered as low cost optical materials of the future. In the present study, the formation of bulk spherical glass and crystalline ReAlO _{3}(Re=La-Lu,Y) phases has been investigated due to their unique features in terms of the solidification process from an undercooled melt, glass structure and optical properties. An Aerodynamic levitation (ADL) was used to undercool the melt well below the melting temperature. Sintered bits of ReAlO _{3} sample with a diameter of ~2.5 mm and mass of ~20-25 mg was levitated by an ADL and completely melted by a CO _{2} laser and then the droplet was cooled by turning off the CO _{2} laser and solidified. The surface temperature and solidification process of the levitated droplet was monitored using pyrometer and high speed video camera, respectively. Among the rare earth aluminum perovskites Lanthanum, Neodymium and samarium aluminum perovskites solidified as glass and others YAlO _{3} and Europium to Lutetium aluminum perovskites solidified as crystalline phases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of cross-sectioned samples, TG/DTA, Transmittance and Refractive Index studies were performed for both glass and crystalline phases. The results of the above studies revealed the formation of glass and crystalline phases directly from the undercooled melt. The glass transition temperature (Tg) gradually increased with increasing ionic radius of the rare-earth elements. The NdAlO _{3} glass phase showed a high refractive index of ~1.89, suggesting that containerless levitation is an elegant technique for fabrication of new glass and crystalline ceramics from an undercooled melt.

Basavalingu, B.; Yoda, Shinichi; Kumar, M. S. Vijaya

2012-07-01

84

Instrumental activity of daily living limitations and supports in a clinic population of low-income puerto rican elderly adults with chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Latino older adults in the United States have disproportionately high rates of chronic and disabling medical conditions. Puerto Ricans have a higher prevalence of several chronic medical conditions and higher rates of functional disability than other Latinos. Earlier studies have documented that Puerto Rican older adults traditionally have relied mostly on family members for assistance with their functional needs, with low use of formal support services, but little is known about their functional help needs and caregiving practices. This study examined independent living and caregiving practices of community-dwelling Puerto Rican older adults in western New York using a mixed-methods approach with a sample of 49 individuals attending an inner-city primary care clinic. Standard instruments were used to obtain information on socioeconomic and health status and functional ability. Forty participants who needed help with any instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were probed qualitatively for how their needs were addressed. Participants averaged six chronic medical conditions, mean age was 76.2 ± 5.3, most reported annual household income of $15,000 or less and had low fluency in English, and all had healthcare insurance. For the most part, participants' children and spouses were primary caregivers, and few used formal support services. Nearly one-third reported having insufficient help. Qualitative findings elucidated how IADL needs were addressed. In this sample of indigent Puerto Rican older adults, most needed help with IADLs. Although family members most often helped, one-third had unmet or undermet needs. Linguistically and culturally congruent formal support services are still needed for Puerto Rican older adults and their family caregivers. PMID:24083542

Zayas, Luis E; Wisniewski, Angela M; Kennedy, Teri

2013-09-19

85

SURVEY INSTRUMENT  

DOEpatents

This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

Borkowski, C.J.

1952-10-31

86

[Need for help and nursing care in the elderly of the new German territories: results of a Leipzig long-term study of the elderly population (LEILA75+)].  

PubMed

In a representative sample of the Leipzig population age 75 and older 61.8% of the participants showed relevant deficits in their capacity of independent living as assessed by a combined ADL/IADL scale. According to a staging model of care as promoted by Schneekloth and coworkers, 17% of the sample was in need of care. Especially, mobility-related instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) such as shopping, cleaning and visiting are affected, but also basic activities (ADL) such as climbing stairs, walking or taking a shower/bath. Each of these activities created problems for more than 45% of the participants. Between 18 and 33% of the sample even regarded it as impossible to carry out these activities. Expectedly, the percentages of assistance needed with ADLs/IADLs appeared to be strongly age-related with exponential increases beyond the age of 85. Beyond effects of sampling and life expectancy, significantly more women suffered from decreases in their capacity of independent living. Community-dwelling elderly on average had a 10% higher rate of problems with ADLs/IADLs as compared to German reference data from the studies on "Chances and Limits of Independent Living in Old Age"; the rate of institutionalized participants, who regarded it impossible to carry out these activities, was even higher by about 30%. As discussed by Schneekloth et al., data from the LEILA study support the hypothesized pattern that ecological disadvantages under both community-dwelling as well as insitutionalized living conditions lead to higher percentages of elderly in the former East German states who are in need of care. As a consequence and although more disabled, elderly seem to stay longer under community-dwelling living conditions and move even more disabled into an institutionalized form of living. PMID:11718097

Wilms, H U; Riedel-Heller, S G; Busse, A; Angermeyer, M C

2001-10-01

87

Interaction of HDL cholesterol concentrations on the relationship between physical function and inflammation in community-dwelling older persons  

PubMed Central

Background: the existence of a relationship among inflammation, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and physical function has been suggested. Objective: the aim of the study is to investigate the possible interaction of HDL-C on inflammation and physical function. Design: cross-sectional study. Setting: town of Tuscania (Italy). Subjects: all the 329 community-dwelling older persons aged ?75?years (mean age 79.8?±?5.2?years, women 56.2%). Methods: HDL-C, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL) and 4-m walking speed were assessed. Linear regression models were performed. Results: given the multiple significant interactions, models were stratified according to HDL-C concentrations. In participants with normal HDL-C concentrations, only IL-6 showed a significant association with IADL (??=??0.439, SE?=?0.176, P?=?0.01). In participants with low HDL-C concentrations, all three inflammatory biomarkers were significantly associated with 4-m walking speed and IADL. IL-6 was also significantly associated with ADL (??=??0.755, SE?=?0.259, P?=?0.006), whereas borderline significances were reported for CRP and ESR. Conclusions: the association between inflammation and physical function is particularly enhanced in elders with low HDL-C concentrations. Though HDL-C may merely act as a wellbeing index, HDL-C concentrations should be considered in studies evaluating inflammation and physical function.

Cesari, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Laudisio, Alice; Antonica, Livia; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Zuccala, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

88

Instrumentation '79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

89

Dental instrument  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An instrument for determining the occlusal space between a person's upper and lower teeth thereby facilitating the formation of apparatus such as dentures and splints for removable positioning in the person's mouth.

2008-04-22

90

Laparoscopic Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laparoscopic instrumentation continues to evolve towards smaller, more reliable, and better ergonomic devices, with a larger\\u000a variety of choices. Since the first edition of this textbook, subtle improvements are readily apparent in existing devices\\u000a as first-generation instruments progress towards later-generation models. New technology exists to allow procedures to be\\u000a performed with fewer complications. Combined with refinements in techniques, new and

Patrick S. Lowry

91

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

92

Instrumented SSH  

SciTech Connect

NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

2009-05-27

93

Divided Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

94

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

95

Longitudinal Changes in Disabled Husbands' and Wives' Receipt of Care  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study:?This study contrasts 2-year adjustments in disabled husbands’ and wives’ amount of received care following both worsening and recovery in personal (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and routine care (instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]) disability.?Design and Methods:?Using longitudinal data on 789 husbands and 778 wives from the Health and Retirement Study (2000 and 2002), changes in marital partners’ monthly hours of spousal and nonspousal care were jointly modeled using bivariate Tobit models. In addition, asymmetry in the magnitude of responses to worsening and improvement of function was examined.?Results:?Disabled husbands receive more hours of spousal and nonspousal care following worsening in ADL function than wives. Conversely, disabled wives lose more spousal and nonspousal care hours following improvements in ADL disability than husbands. Moreover, wives recovering in ADL function lose more hours of spousal care than they receive following worsening in personal care disability. There is no evidence of corresponding gender differences in the dynamics of assistance received following changes in IADL function.?Implications:?Compared with husbands, disabled wives are disadvantaged in the adjustment of their personal care hours. Although disabled married community residents receive more hours of care than their unmarried counterparts, there are important gender differences in the advantages offered by marriage.

Noel-Miller, Claire

2010-01-01

96

Changes in activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly Chinese by marital status, living arrangement, and availability of healthcare over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The purpose of this study was to assess how changes from different baselines of activities of daily living (ADL) can be explained\\u000a by marital status, living arrangement and healthcare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Study conducted in 2002 and 2005, 8,099 surviving and 3,822 deceased\\u000a elderly aged 65 years and over were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  After

Dewen Wang; Jianmin Zheng; Michiko Kurosawa; Yutaka Inaba; Noriko Kato

2009-01-01

97

Prevalence and significance of stroke symptoms among patients receiving maintenance dialysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and potential significance of stroke symptoms among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients without a prior diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Methods: We enrolled 148 participants with ESRD from 5 clinics. Stroke symptoms and functional status, basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), were ascertained by validated questionnaires. Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive battery. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score 2 SDs below norms for age and education in 2 domains. IADL impairment was defined as needing assistance in at least 1 of 7 IADLs. Results: Among the 126 participants without a prior stroke or TIA, 46 (36.5%) had experienced one or more stroke symptoms. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, language, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, participants with stroke symptoms had lower scores on tests of attention, psychomotor speed, and executive function, and more pronounced dependence in IADLs and ADLs (p ? 0.01 for all). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, language, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, participants with stroke symptoms had a higher likelihood of cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–5.92) and IADL impairment (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.60–9.28). Conclusions: Stroke symptoms are common among patients with ESRD and strongly associated with impairments in cognition and functional status. These findings suggest that clinically significant stroke events may go undiagnosed in this high-risk population.

Meyer, Jaclyn Biada; Saxena, Anjali B.; Huh, J.W. Terri; Wadley, Virginia G.; Schiller, Brigitte

2012-01-01

98

Scientific instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF), through its College Science Instrumentation Program (CSIP), is now accepting proposals from qualified undergraduate colleges or consortiums for the purchase of laboratory and instructional equipment. CSIP provides matching support from $5,000 to $50,000 for acquisition of new state-of-the-art instructional scientific equipment or renovation, replacement, and upgrading of existing equipment. The deadline for submission of proposals is January 11, 1985. All fields of science and engineering are eligible for the grants.Proposals will be evaluated on the basis of performance competence, intrinsic merit, utility, or relevance of the project, and effect on the infrastructure of science and engineering. Evaluation and processing of proposals will require approximately 6 months.

99

Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains.

Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young

2013-01-01

100

Which body mass index (BMI) is better in the elderly for functional status?  

PubMed

BMI is commonly used indicator of malnutrition and 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) is generally regarded optimal. However, there is an ongoing debate on ideal range for elderly. BMI cut-off values vary also between ethnic groups. We aimed to investigate relationships between BMI, functional status and malnutrition in elderly living in a nursing home in Turkey. BMIs of 254 residents were calculated. Chronic diseases and currently used drugs were noted. Functional status was evaluated with Katz-activities-of-daily-living (ADL) and Lawton-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living (IADL). Nutritional assessment was performed by Mini-Nutritional-Assessment (MNA) test. Mean age was 75.2 ± 8.2 years. Subjects were classified into 4 groups as BMI <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and ? 30.0 kg/m(2). ADL scores and IADL scores were higher in higher BMI groups. There were no differences in terms of age-number of chronic diseases. Even in BMI ? 35 kg/m(2) residents, ADL was significantly higher than 25-34.9 kg/m(2) residents. BMI was significantly correlated with ADL and IADL scores. In Groups 3 and 4, there were 22.2% and 9.1% residents without normal nutrition, respectively. Better functional status was associated with higher BMI values even in BMIs ? 30 kg/m(2). In elderly, relative high rates of undernutrition may be present in BMIs regarded as overweight or obese. PMID:21628078

Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Saka, Bulent; Akin, Sibel; Ozkaya, Hilal; Yucel, Nurullah; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

2011-05-31

101

Assessments of functional status, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly.  

PubMed

Functionality, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia affect the prognosis of elderly excessively. These parameters are influenced by the population, living settings and age. We aimed to study these parameters in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly. We studied 274 male elderly ?60 years of age admitted to our Geriatrics outpatient clinics. Mean age was 74.4?±?7.1 years; 47.4% of the subjects were ?75 years, 24.1% were ?80 years. Mean activities-of-daily-living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scores were 9.4 and 11.1, respectively. Patients with at least one-dependence at ADL-IADL were 22.6%-47.2%, and more than half-dependence at ADL-IADL were 2.8%-17.9%, respectively. Mean number of comorbidities were 2.6. Most common diagnosis was hypertension with 65%; mean number of drugs were 4.5; 55.3% were using ?4 chronic drugs. Prevalences of malnutrition were 3.7%-6.9%, malnutrition risk were 23.5%-26.7% by the mini nutritional assessment test-long form and short form, respectively. Calf circumference was measured <31?cm in 10.5%. Our findings suggest that Turkish community-dwelling male elderly may have greater prevalences of functional dependence, sarcopenia but lower rates of malnutrition and similar rates of polypharmacy compared with the western developing countries and developed countries. This study emphasized the geographical differences in and/or between the individual countries highlighting the need for studies both country- and world-wide. PMID:23461711

Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Bahat, Zumrut; Aydin, Yucel; Tufan, Asli; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

2013-03-06

102

Optical Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

103

[End-of-life care in emergency settings in the super-aged society: withholding CPR from frail elderly with severe ADL impairment].  

PubMed

Emergency and intensive care unit demographics have changed with the advent of the super-aged society in Japan. Japan has the highest population aging rate in the world. It is now predicted that an increasing number of people will die at higher age. The oldest old individuals show increasing frailty, with an excess vulnerability to stressors. It is believed that frail elderly would receive limited benefit from highly invasive emergency treatment and advanced intensive care which, on the contrary, could bring about harmful effects on frail elderly. So far a number of frail oldest-old nursing home residents with cardiopulmonary arrest have been taken by ambulance to emergency medical centers to receive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in vain in Japan. Now is the time to stop the harmful ritual. Withholding CPR from frail elderly with severe ADL impairment would not constitute an act of ageism but the act of humanity based on medical evidence. PMID:23855219

Aita, Kaoruko

2013-06-01

104

Predictors of functional outcome after right hemisphere stroke in patients with or without thrombolytic treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the predictors of functional outcome after right hemisphere stroke at 6-month follow up in patients with or without thrombolytic treatment. Thrombolysis did not predict functional outcome in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Lower acute phase basic activities of daily living (ADL) measured by the Barthel Index was a statistically significant predictor of IADL when adjusted for age and education (p = .015) and had borderline significance (p = .076) as a predictor of functional outcome when adjusted for severity of stroke at admission. When stroke severity was taken into account also higher age became a statistically significant (p = .039) predictor of functional outcome. The acute phase neuropsychological symptoms predicted the functional outcome in unadjusted analyses but when adjusted for age, education, and severity of stroke no independent association was found. PMID:22145931

Losoi, H; Kettunen, J E; Laihosalo, M; Ruuskanen, E-I; Dastidar, P; Koivisto, A-M; Jehkonen, M

2011-12-06

105

The relationship between neuropsychological performance and daily functioning in individuals with Alzheimer's disease: ecological validity of neuropsychological tests.  

PubMed

The current study examined the relationship between neuropsychological test performance and functional status in 42 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive battery of cognitive tests was employed in order to assess a wide range of neuropsychological abilities. Functional status was measured through the use of both a performance-based scale of activities of daily living (an expanded version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status; DAFS, Loewenstein et al., 1989), and by a caregiver/informant-based rating scale (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; IADL, Lawton & Brody, 1969). Findings suggest that neuropsychological functioning is moderately predictive of functional status. Using multiple regression analyses, neuropsychological variables accounted for 25% of the variance in the IADL and 50% of the variance in the DAFS. Individual domains of both functional measures were also significantly predicted by the neuropsychological variables. The findings provide evidence of a relationship between neuropsychological test performance and ADLs in an Alzheimer disease patient population. PMID:14591439

Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Harrell, Ernest; Neumann, Craig; Houtz, Andrew

2003-08-01

106

Reduced cognitive function predicts functional decline in patients with heart failure over 12 months.  

PubMed

Background:Occurrences of impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown.Aims:This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living (ADL) in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population.Methods:Altogether 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody scale, including total, instrumental, and basic ADL.Results:HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADL, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADL from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p<0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (?=0.15, p=0.049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p<0.05 for all).Conclusion:The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

2013-06-01

107

The Relationship Between Body Weight, Frailty, and the Disablement Process  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To prospectively examine the relationship between body weight, frailty, and the disablement process. Method. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2006) were used to examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491). Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and intra-individual changes in body weight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health conditions over the course of 8 years. Results. Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents have a 16% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ? 0.01) and 36% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p ? 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate. Discussion. This study’s findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess body weight in later life may be beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability.

2012-01-01

108

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

109

Unique Instruments' Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

110

Reentry vehicle instrumentation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the state of the art in reentry vehicle on-board instrumentation. Brief descriptions of each class of instruments are given with the discussion centering principally on the currently employed instrumentation and their limitations (accuracy). References are given to provide further information on individual instrumentation systems. These systems include methods to measure nosetip forces and shapes, vehicle dynamics, and

W. R. Grabowsky; H. P. Eldridge; R. C. Wheaton

1981-01-01

111

IOT Overview: IR Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing,\\u000a in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype\\u000a for the coming instruments.

E. Mason

2008-01-01

112

The evolution of a crystal surface: Analysis of a one-dimensional step train connecting two facets in the ADL regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of a monotone step train separating two facets of a crystal surface. The model is one-dimensional and we consider only the attachment-detachment-limited regime. Starting with the well-known ODEs for the velocities of the steps, we consider the system of ODEs giving the evolution of the “discrete slopes.” It is the l2-steepest-descent of a certain functional. Using this structure, we prove that the solution exists for all time and is asymptotically self-similar. We also discuss the continuum limit of the discrete self-similar solution, characterizing it variationally, identifying its regularity, and discussing its qualitative behavior. Our approach suggests a PDE for the slope as a function of height and time in the continuum setting. However, existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic self-similarity remain open for the continuum version of the problem. We describe the relaxation of a monotone one-dimensional crystal surface in the ADL regime. We identify a steepest-descent structure for the system of ODEs for the slope evolution. In the discrete setting, the evolution is asymptotically self-similar as t??. The continuum self-similar solution is the limit of the discrete self-similar solution as N??. We give a detailed analysis of the continuum self-similar solution.

Shehadeh, Hala Al Hajj; Kohn, Robert V.; Weare, Jonathan

2011-10-01

113

Portable direct reading instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct reading instruments are those instruments in which the analysis of the contaminant is carried out within the instrument itself. When selecting equipment, the industrial hygienist must consider the physical characteristics of the instruments as well as their performance characteristics and price. Some of the methods of detection that are used in instruments with multi-gas detection capabilities are: photoionization, Flame ionization, infrared, gas chromatography, infrared photoacoustic, and electrochemical.

Hermon-Cruz, Ivette Z.

1991-09-01

114

Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) improves language processing and (other) cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone). Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered’ global stimulation vs. cognitive training) and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination) as well as for the single functional areas. Results Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory) improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation) and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

Schecker, M.; Pirnay-Dummer, P.; Schmidtke, K.; Hentrich-Hesse, T.; Borchardt, D.

2013-01-01

115

Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE): A Bio-Behavioral-Environmental Intervention to Improve Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Disabled, Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine effect size and acceptability of a multi-component behavior and home repair intervention with low-income, disabled older adults Design Prospective randomized controlled pilot trial Setting Participants’ homes Participants 40 low income older adults with difficulties in at least 1 Activity of Daily Living (ADL) or 2 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Intervention Coordinated occupational therapy (OT), nursing (RN), and handyman (HM) visits compared to attention-control visits. The intervention consisted of up to 6 visits with an OT, up to 4 visits with an RN and an average of $1,300 in HM repairs and modifications. Each intervention participant received all components of the intervention clinically tailored to risk profile and goals. Each attention-control participant received the same number of visits as the intervention participants, involving sedentary activities of their choice. Measurement Primary Outcome: difficulty in performing ADL and IADLs. Secondary outcomes: Health related quality of life and falls–efficacy. Results Thirty five of 40 adults (87%) completed the 6-month trial and 93% and 100% of the control and intervention group, respectively, stated the study benefited them. The intervention group improved on all outcomes. When comparing the mean change in the intervention group compared to the mean change in the control group from baseline to follow up, the CAPABLE intervention had an effect size of 0.63 for reducing difficulty in ADLs, 0.62 for reducing difficulty in IADLs, 0.89 for Quality of Life, and 0.55 for Falls-efficacy. Conclusion The multi-component CAPABLE intervention was acceptable to participants, feasible to provide, and showed promising results, suggesting that this multi-component intervention to reduce disability should be evaluated in a larger trial.

Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Boyd, Cynthia; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Leff, Bruce; Agree, Emily; Xue, Qian-Li; Allen, Jerilyn K.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Weiss, Carlos O.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Gitlin, Laura N

2011-01-01

116

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Beh?et's disease quality of life questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD) specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL). We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL. Results The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91). The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02), and IADL (but not ADL). Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients.

2011-01-01

117

The generic 15D instrument is valid and feasible for measuring health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the validity and feasibility of the generic 15D health related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compare parkinsonian patients with the general population. Much effort has gone into developing disease specific HRQoL measures for PD, but only generic measures allow comparisons with the general population. New HRQoL tools are needed for PD because earlier ones have low feasibility in elderly patients. Methods: The study comprised 260 patients with idiopathic PD and age and sex matched controls. HRQoL was evaluated using the disease specific questionnaire PDQ-39 and the 15D generic instrument. PD severity was assessed by Hoehn and Yahr staging, and the activities of daily living (ADL) and motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Results: The mean 15D score (scale 0–1; overall HRQoL) was lower in PD (0.77) than in controls (0.86). Patients with PD had significantly lower scores than controls in 13 of the 15 dimensions of 15D. Scores of the corresponding dimensions of PDQ-39 and 15D correlated significantly, confirming the convergent validity of 15D. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, the UPDRS ADL score explained 55% of the variation in the 15D score. Conclusions: 15D is a valid, feasible, and sensitive tool to assess quality of life in PD. PD has a major impact on HRQoL, which is related to disease progression. Mobility, eating, speech, and sexual functions are most affected. The ADL measure of the UPDRS and the 15D provide an easily assessable view of HRQoL in PD.

Haapaniemi, T; Sotaniemi, K; Sintonen, H; Taimela, E

2004-01-01

118

[Three new observational scales for use in Dutch nursing homes: scales from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Activities of Daily Living, cognition and depression].  

PubMed

The reliability and validity of three MDS scales for ADL, cognition and depression are described. The scales consist of items of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument and are available just after an MDS assessment. Data collection took place in nine Dutch nursing homes (N = 227) and consisted of three MDS assessments within one month to determine reliability. Several criterion measures were assessed in order to determine convergent validity. Intra- and inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were determined as well as correlation coefficients of the criterion measures and the MDS scales. All three MDS scales appear reliable, especially the ADL-Hierarchy has very good psychometric properties (intra- and inter-rater Intra Class Correlation were 0.81 and 0.83, respectively). Convergent validity of the ADL-Hierarchy and the Cognitive Performance Scale is good, the Depression Rating Scale appears valid in residents with moderate cognitive disorders at the most, but the results are more difficult to interpret in residents with severe cognitive disorders. The MDS scales appear useful in clinical practice and for research purposes in the Dutch nursing homes. PMID:15230054

Gerritsen, Debby; Ooms, Marcel; Steverink, Nardi; Frijters, Dinnus; Bezemer, Dick; Ribbe, Miel

2004-04-01

119

Multidimensionality in Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of self-reported ADL (activity of daily living) scales has a long history, the Katz-based assumptions of unidimensionality and hierarchy are increasingly found lacking, and ADLs alone are found to underestimate dysfunction and disability. Data from nearly 8900 elderly respondents in the community sample of the 1991 Canadian Study of Health and Aging were used to examine the

Vince Salazar Thomas; Kenneth Rockwood; Ian McDowell

1998-01-01

120

Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

Sperl, Gary

1980-01-01

121

Wet Chemistry Instrument Prototype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and ...

1974-01-01

122

Regional Instrumentation Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)|

Cromie, William J.

1980-01-01

123

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

124

Assessment Instrument Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an extensive list of assessment instruments in science including instruments for specific topics, general conceptual surveys, and affective/attitudinal assessments. Information about the assessments, their development, their use, and results is also included. This web page also provides instructions for accessing the assessments, usually through contacting the author, and ways to help preserve the integrity of the instruments.

2007-06-25

125

Standards for acoustical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to 1930, sounds were classified from subjective judgments of loudness. General-purpose instruments that could make objective measurements of sounds were not yet developed, nor were there any national or international standards with specifications for the performance characteristics of such instruments. In recognition of the need for instruments that could provide objective measurements of a sound, as well as the

Alan H. Marsh

2001-01-01

126

Fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n?=?255). It was found that there was significant difference between Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F) point averages and gender, education levels, marital status and economical status of patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the participants in this study, 36.5% had an anxiety disorder whereas 69.0% exhibited depression. In the study, it was determined that 85.5% of those were independent in their Katz's Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and 49.4% of those were independent in their Lawton and Brody's Index of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). This study has shown that VAS-F, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ADL and IADL instruments that measure the various aspects of health-related quality of living can contribute considerably to a more diversified understanding of the patients' situation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23577980

Karakurt, Papatya; Ünsal, Ayla

2013-04-01

127

Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

2009-01-01

128

aladdin nulling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.

Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.

129

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn to apply the principles and concepts associated with energy and the transfer of energy in an engineering context through the designing and making of a musical instrument. The students must choose from a variety of supplies presented to them to make an instrument capable of producing three different tones. After the accomplishment of the design, students must explain the energy transfer mechanism in sufficient detail and describe how they could make their instruments better.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

130

The Impact of Homebound Status in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examining the impact of homebound status of older persons in Israel on mortality, mental health, and function, future homebound status, and institutionalization. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using existing datasets of a national survey. Participants Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative cohort of older persons in Israel including 1191 participants (age; M=83.10, SD=5.3) in the first wave of the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS) and 621 participants in the second wave of the study. Measurements Homebound status, health, function, environment, mental health, distal events, mortality. Instruments included Activities Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Mortality data were recorded from the Israeli National Population Registry. Results Homebound participants had a significantly higher risk for mortality than their non-homebound counterparts, even after controlling for background variables, health and function (risk ratio=1.33, confidence interval 1.08-1.63). In cross-sectional analysis, homebound status was related to depressed affect even after controlling for demographics, health and function. In longitudinal analysis, homebound status predicted future depressed affect, ADL and IADL difficulties when controlling for demographics and health, but only IADL prediction was statistically significant when baseline levels of the outcome variable were entered into the regression. Conclusion The results highlight the detrimental effects of homebound status, thus underscoring the importance of improving prevention of this state, of interventions to assist those who are homebound, and of future research to examine the efficacy and coverage of services to this population.

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Hazan, Haim

2011-01-01

131

JBI instrumentation services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) is an information management infrastructure that provides a basic set of flexible core services: publish, subscribe, and query. Managed Information Objects (MIOs) are published by JBI clients and are subsequently managed and disseminated to other subscribing JBI Clients by the JBI Core Services. MIOs can also be archived into a repository managed by the JBI Core Services upon publication and can later be queried for by JBI Clients. A reference implementation (RI) of the JBI Core Services using Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology is currently being developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) in Rome, NY. JBI Instrumentation Services will allow users to gain insight into what activity is occurring inside the JBI Core Services. The phase 1 Instrumentation Services implementation has been developed as a standalone system that interacts with the JBI Core Services through a set of interfaces that provide a low impact, multi-implementation compatible connection. The Instrumentation Services Architecture makes use of the Instrumentation Entity Model to create entities that describe the real elements of the JBI Core Services: platforms, connections, users, nodes, and sequences. These entities populate the Instrumentation Space and are accessed by clients through the Instrumentation Client API (ICAPI). A web-based client that makes use of this ICAPI has been developed to visualize instrumentation information and demonstrate the capabilities of the Instrumentation Services. This client utilizes numerical rate graphs and dynamic graph trees to visualize JBI activity. This paper describes the phase 1 Instrumentation Services Architecture and development efforts involved in creating the JBI Instrumentation Services and prototype instrumentation client.

Muccio, M.; Lopez, E.; McKeel, R.

2005-05-01

132

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

133

Quality of Surgical Instruments  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Many surgeons will have encountered the scissors that would not cut, and the artery clip that comes off in a deep difficult location, but it would be reasonable to assume that new instruments should be of assured quality. This study reports the surprising findings of a local quality control exercise for new instruments supplied to a single trust. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between January 2004 and June 2004, all batches of new surgical instruments ordered by the Central Sterile Supplies Department of St Bartholomew's and the Royal London Hospitals were assessed by three clinical engineers, with reference to British Standards (BS) requirements. RESULTS Of 4800 instruments examined, 15% had potential problems. These included 116 with machining burrs and debris in the teeth of the tissue-holding regions, 71 defects of ratcheted instruments, 34 scissors with deficient cutting action, and 35 tissue forceps protruding guide pins. In addition, 254 instruments did not have a visible manufacturer's mark. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the value of local quality control for surgical instruments. This is of importance in an increasingly hazard-conscious environment, where there are concerns over instrument sterilisation, surgical glove puncture and the potential for transmission of blood-borne and prion diseases.

Brophy, T; Srodon, PD; Briggs, C; Barry, P; Steatham, J; Birch, MJ

2006-01-01

134

Sources of Evaluation Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help evaluators find the right measurement instrument, this annotated bibliography lists 46 compendia listing, reviewing, or presenting instruments devoted to (1) psychological/behavioral assessment; (2) mental health; (3) physical health; (4) sociological scales; (5) attitudinal scales; (6) observational measures; (7) standardized tests; and…

Bausell, R. Barker

1992-01-01

135

Instrumentation and Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter contains a broad introduction to astronomical instruments and detectors. The basic design principles for cameras, spectrometers, polarimeters, and interferometers are given, together with some practical material on instrument building techniques, including vacuum-cryogenic methods. Different detector technologies are introduced, such as CCDs and infrared arrays, together with basic information on semiconductors.

McLean, Ian S.; Larkin, James; Fitzgerald, Michael

136

GOME instrument simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a detailed software simulation package for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument which will fly on ERS-2 in 1994. The GOME instrument is a nadir-viewing spectrometer designed for measurements of ozone and related trace gases such as NO, NO2, ClO, BrO, OClO, HCHO, SO2, O2/O4, and H2O. Examples are presented of input and output spectra and signal-to-noise calculations for normal viewing mode (nadir observations) and for sun and moon calibration mode. The GOME instrument simulating program can be used for a variety of purposes during instrument development, such as tests and calibrations, and tests of the so-called Zero-to-One processing step. The scheme could be adapted to other optical instruments.

Kamperman, Th. M.; Goede, A. P. H.; Gunsing, C. J. Th.; Mewe, R.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Slijkhuis, S.; de Vries, J.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Burrows, J. P.; Chance, K. V.

1993-02-01

137

[Impact of thoracic and abdominopelvic surgery on the functional status in the elderly].  

PubMed

The quality of life of older people is determined by their functional capacity, rather than by the number or type of disease suffered. We analyzed 43 patients over 65 years undergoing major surgery. Longitudinally continued evolution of functional status by analyzing six variables, activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), the get up and walk test, functional reach test of arm, strength of handgrip and walking speed, measured before surgery (baseline measurement) and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after discharge. The objectives were to estimate the impact that surgery has on functional status in the elderly, determine how long each of the measurements returned to preoperative values at 4 months follow-up. Recovery curves compared the baseline AIVD, grip strength and hand speed on the fly, between two groups defined by baseline walking speed in slow (< 0.8 m/s) and fast (> 0.8 m/s). The impact of surgery on physical fitness showed a statistically significant decrease in ADL, IADL, and the get up and walk test and walking speed, with variable time recovery beyond convalescence. All return to baseline at 4 months except test walking speed that exceeded the baseline. Functional status can be evaluated quickly and should be included in the preoperative evaluation, since it allows planning strategies to meet the needs and limitations of patients and their families, in the immediate postoperative period. PMID:23732198

Landi, Pablo J; Torrejón, Gisell A; Muiños, Roberto; Freue, Roberto D; Semeniuk, Guillermo B

2013-01-01

138

Joint modeling of self-rated health and changes in physical functioning  

PubMed Central

Self-rated health is an important indicator of future morbidity and mortality. Past research has indicated that self-rated health is related to both levels of and changes in physical functioning. However, no previous study has jointly modeled longitudinal functional status and self-rated health trajectories. We propose a joint model for self-rated health and physical functioning that describes the relationship between perceptions of health and the rate of change of physical functioning or disability. Our joint model uses a non-homogeneous Markov process for discrete physical functioning states and connects this to a logistic regression model for “healthy” versus “unhealthy” self-rated health through parameters of the physical functioning model. We use simulation studies to establish finite sample properties of our estimators and show that this model is robust to misspecification of the functional form of the relationship between self-rated health and rate of change of physical functioning. We also show that our joint model performs better than an empirical model based on observed changes in functional status. We apply our joint model to data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large, multi-center, longitudinal study of older adults. Our analysis indicates that self-rated health is associated both with level of functioning as indicated by difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and the risk of increasing difficulty with ADLs and IADLs.

Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Diehr, Paula

2009-01-01

139

IXO: The Instrument Complement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) has recently been created as a mission concept by a joint team of NASA, ESA and JAXA scientists, based on the previous Constellation-X and XEUS concepts. Definition of the IXO instruments is still under evolution, but the core instrument complement will include a Wide Field X-ray Imager, an X-ray Calorimeter / Narrow Field X-ray Imager, and an X-ray Grating Spectrometer. Other, modest additional instruments (such as a hard X-ray capability, a polarimeter, and a high time resolution detector) will also be considered. We present the current status of the IXO instrument complement and offer the opportunity for discussion of ideas relevant to the IXO mission concept process.

Nousek, John A.; IWG, IXO

2009-01-01

140

Instrumentation Fabrication Branch  

NASA Website

Branch Overview The Instrumentation Fabrication Branch (OC) is responsible for providing Para-Engineering and Technical services which encompass Telemetry support (system development, programming, troubleshooting to data decommutation and display), ...

141

Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiati...

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

142

Ozone monitoring instrument calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched on July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite. The OMI instrument is an ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrograph that uses two-dimensional charge-coupled device detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath perpendicular to the flight direction with a 115° wide swath, which enables global daily ground

Marcel R. Dobber; Ruud J. Dirksen; Pieternel F. Levelt; Robert H. M. Voors; Quintus Kleipool; Glen Jaross; Matthew Kowalewski; Ernest Hilsenrath; Gilbert W. Leppelmeier; Johan de Vries; Werner Dierssen; Nico C. Rozemeijer

2006-01-01

143

SABER instrument design update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design

Roy W. Esplin; Lorin Zollinger; J. Clair Batty; Steve Folkman; Mehrdad Roosta; Joseph J. Tansock; Mark Jensen; John Stauder; Jim Miller; Michael Vanek; Don Robinson

1995-01-01

144

Mars miniature science instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For robotic Mars in-situ missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (less than 10 W) and compact (1-2 liters), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990s, NASA recognized the need

Soon Sam Kim; Samad Hayati; David Lavery; Karen S. McBride

2006-01-01

145

RHIC beam instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RHIC instrumentation systems must accurately characterize diverse beams of up to 110 bunches in each of the two collider rings, ranging from 1011 protons\\/bunch at 250GeV to 109 Au+79 ions\\/bunch at 100GeV\\/nucleon, as well as lower-intensity commissioning and pilot bunches. The collider instrumentation includes: 667 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 363 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, wall current monitors, DC

M. Bai; P. Cameron; P. Cerniglia; R. Connolly; J. Cupolo; C. Degen; A. Drees; R. Fliller; D. Gassner; J. Mead; V. Ptitsyn; T. Satogata; T. Shea; R. Sikora; P. Thompson; R. Witkover

2003-01-01

146

Ultrasonic Diagnostic Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying physical principles and current limitations of diagnostic ultrasonic instruments are reviewed. Recently developed ultrasonic imaging devices using pulsed-reflected ultrasound are discussed in detail. These instruments transmit short trains of 1.5- to 10-megahertz sound. Echoes reflected from tissue are converted to electrical signals, which are presented on a display device to outline the contour of tissues and organs within

Richard L. Popp; Albert Macovski

1980-01-01

147

EPOXI instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments' performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments' performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras' readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Besse, Sebastian; Bodewits, Dennis; Carcich, Brian; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Huisjen, Marty; Kelley, Michael S.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Merlin, Frederic; Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2013-07-01

148

Cognitive Dysfunction Is Associated With Poor Diabetes Control in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between cognitive dysfunction and other barriers and glycemic control in older adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients over the age of 70 years presenting to a geriatric diabetes clinic were evaluated for barriers to successful diabetes management. Patients were screened for cognitive dysfunction with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a clock-drawing test (CDT) scored by 1) a method validated by Mendez et al. and 2) a modified CDT (clock in a box [CIB]). Depression was evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Interview questionnaires surveyed activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), as well as other functional disabilities. RESULTS Sixty patients (age 79 ± 5 years, diabetes duration 14 ± 13 years) were evaluated. Thirty-four percent of patients had low CIB (?5), and 38% of patients had low CDT (?13). Both CIB as well as CDT were inversely correlated with HbA1c, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction is associated with poor glycemic control (r = ?0.37, P < 0.004 and r = ?0.38, P < 0.004, respectively). Thirty-three percent of patients had depressive symptoms with greater difficulty completing the tasks of the IADL survey (5.7 ± 1.7 vs. 4.6 ± 2.0; P < 0.03). These older adults with diabetes had a high incidence of functional disabilities, including hearing impairment (48%), vision impairment (53%), history of recent falls (33%), fear of falls (44%), and difficulty performing IADLs (39%). CONCLUSIONS Older adults with diabetes have a high risk of undiagnosed cognitive dysfunction, depression, and functional disabilities. Cognitive dysfunction in this population is associated with poor diabetes control.

Munshi, Medha; Capelson, Roberta; Grande, Laura; Lin, Susan; Hayes, Mellody; Milberg, William; Ayres, Darlene; Weinger, Katie; Suhl, Emmy

2006-01-01

149

A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 Fatty acids and alpha lipoic Acid in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (?-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (?-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ?-3, or 3) ?-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ?-3 + LA and ?-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ?-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p < 0.01) and IADL (p = 0.01) and the ?-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ?-3 + LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted. PMID:24077434

Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

150

The geriatric hand: correlation of hand-muscle function and activity restriction in elderly.  

PubMed

On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle function and activity restriction in the geriatric age group, through grip and pinch measurements and a set of questionnaires. Twenty-four geriatric (aged 65-79 years) volunteers participated in the study. Bilateral grip and pinch strengths have been recorded. To document impairment of manual functions, self-estimated hand function, Duruöz and Dreiser hand indices, Geriatrics-Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (GERI-AIMS) manual dexterity questionnaires have been completed. Activity restriction and quality of life of these patients were inquired with short form (SF)-36 and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores. Grip and pinch strengths correlated best with Duruöz and Dreiser indices. Similarly, SF-36 and IADL had higher correlation coefficients for Duruöz and Dreiser indices. A very good correlation between IADL and SF-36 was calculated too. Male and female participants revealed statistically significant differences for grip and pinch strengths as well as self-estimated hand function and SF-36. Another result was that none of our parameters, including grip strength and SF-36 had differed significantly between the 65-70 and 70-79 years age subgroups. However, grip strength displayed statistically significant lower values when compared with young adult mean values of a previous study. Our data in this study support the hypothesis that hand-muscle function correlates with functional dependency in the elderly. Manual function can be determined by grip strength in addition to multiple available functional tools. In this study, Dreiser and Duruöz hand function indices were the best to correlate with ADL and quality of life. PMID:19293723

Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

2009-09-01

151

Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

1981-01-01

152

Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

1981-01-01

153

Instrumentation in Learning Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In physics experiments, a great deal of effort is spent calibrating instruments. These include instruments that precipitate some event, and instruments that measure the effects of those events. Design research in the learning sciences often focuses on precipitating learning events, but it does not pay equal attention to designing effective measures. We present the results of a study that compared two types of instruction on students working alone or in pairs. We show how one measure, common to most studies of learning, failed to detect any effects. Then we show how a second measure, called a Preparation for Future Learning measure, detected important differences. Specifically, pairs working to invent solutions to problems in statistics were more prepared to learn about new, related types of statistics than pairs who were shown how to solve the original problems, as well as individuals who invented or were shown how to solve the original problems.

Sears, David A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

2009-07-13

154

Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2005-10-01

155

Automated office hematology instruments.  

PubMed

Evaluation of an automated hematology instrument begins with analysis of one's practice needs, followed by analysis of initial start-up costs, cost of maintenance, and staffing. In one situation, the decision to purchase an automated instrument may allow personnel working with low-efficiency pipetting and slide chamber counting time to assist in other functions of the clinic. In another practice, an automated counter may permit in-office complete blood counts to be added to the workload of current staff. These instruments are more than time-saving conveniences. They can facilitate clinical decision making and monitoring for complications of disease and therapy by making it easier for the physician to obtain reliable hematologic results. They can generate additional practice income and reduce patient cost by improving the quality and efficiency of medical care. PMID:3541015

Nixon, G A; Mentrup, P

1986-12-01

156

Microtechnology for instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

Mariella, R.

1998-01-01

157

Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

Shea, T.J.

1995-12-31

158

Instrumentation in medical systems  

SciTech Connect

The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

Chu, W.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1995-05-01

159

Instrumentation and control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instrumentation and control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor consists of the instrumentation, control equipments and safety protection systems. There are not many differences in the instrumentation and control equipments design between the HTTR and light water reactors except for some features. Various kinds of R&D of reactor instrumentation were performed taking into account the HTTR operational

Kenji Saito; Hiroaki Sawahata; Fumitaka Homma; Makoto Kondo; Toshihiko Mizushima

2004-01-01

160

The tissue diagnostic instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not

Paul Hansma; Hongmei Yu; David Schultz; Azucena Rodriguez; Eugene A. Yurtsev; Jessica Orr; Simon Tang; Jon Miller; Joseph Wallace; Frank Zok; Cheng Li; Richard Souza; Alexander Proctor; Davis Brimer; Xavier Nogues-Solan; Leonardo Mellbovsky; M. Jesus Peña; Oriol Diez-Ferrer; Phillip Mathews; Connor Randall; Alfred Kuo; Carol Chen; Mathilde Peters; David Kohn; Jenni Buckley; Xiaojuan Li; Lisa Pruitt; Adolfo Diez-Perez; Tamara Alliston; Valerie Weaver; Jeffrey Lotz

2009-01-01

161

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

162

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

163

The GLO Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced solar occultation sensors, miniature in size and complexity, are now possible with modern space-qualified components and measurement techniques. This poster describes the GLO (Gfcr Limb Occultation) instrument, a static sensor with cubesat dimensions that performs solar occultation measurements using a combination of broadband and gas filter correlation channels. GLO can be applied to measure temperature, pressure, aerosol, and trace gases from cloud-top to the lower thermosphere. Though GLO has a broad range of applicability, for this poster we present a version of GLO designed for the UTLS. A feasibility study for such an instrument demonstrates unprecedented fidelity in retrieved profiles, with sub kilometer vertical resolution, of temperature, pressure, aerosol extinction from 0.4 to 4 microns and trace gases that are key to understanding UTLS exchange. Using a single 2D detector array to image the sun for all channels simultaneously, a 10 x 10 x 20 cm instrument is shown to provide UTLS profile measurements of geophysical parameters that are predicted to match or surpass the quality of such profiles from previous limb sensors. A suite of GLO instruments in different orbits can be used to provide global coverage that rivals limb emission sensors, but with occultation measurement capabilities in calibration, precision and accuracy.

Gordley, L.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M. J.; Hervig, M. E.; Paxton, G. J.; Fish, C. S.; Bailey, S. M.; Marchant, A.

2011-12-01

164

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field o...

D. S. Hartley

1998-01-01

165

Instrumentation for capillary electrochromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the reasons for the immense interest in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is its feature to combine chromatographic selectivity with the high efficiency and the miniaturization potential of capillary electrophoresis (CE). The capability of commercial CE instruments to run CEC has enforced the readiness of users and researchers to work on this separation technique. Nevertheless, to fully exploit the potential

Frank Steiner; Bernd Scherer

2000-01-01

166

Instrumentation Control Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

167

Sprint start instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype instrument has been developed to measure the forces generated on the starting blocks and the speed of a sprinter at the start of a sprint event. The starting block forces can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components for each foot, or the various combinations of these four forces can be calculated and displayed along with the resultant

R. E. Gander; J. D. McClements; L. K. Sanderson; B. A. Rostad; K. E. Josephson; A. J. Pratt

1994-01-01

168

Instrument for Measuring Evaporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaporation rate meter, or evaporimeter, has been devised that shows promise of directly measuring the rate of evaporation near the sea surface. The simplicity of the instrument indicates that it may be of interest to oceanographers, and possibly to me...

A. H. Schooley

1965-01-01

169

Timber Crib Instrumentation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes instrumentation of a timber crib retaining wall. Nine pressure transducers were placed at various locations in this crib, 26 strain gages were affixed to stretchers and headers, and one slope meter tube was positioned on the face of t...

R. L. Schuster R. L. Sack W. V. Jones

1974-01-01

170

Borehole survey instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member

H. E. Sharp; J. W. Lin; E. S. Macha; M. A. Smither

1984-01-01

171

Instruments for Natural Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an extensive collection of images and descriptions of historical instruments used in the physical sciences. Images of over 1800 pieces of apparatus are included along with information and references about each. The collection is divided into topics covering all of classical physics. Many of the items were used for demonstrations, labs, or other teaching purposes.

Greenslade Jr., Thomas

2007-04-17

172

Designing Intelligent Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that

Kevin H. Knuth; Philip M. Erner; Scott Frasso

2007-01-01

173

Instrumentation for neutron reflectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic requirements for neutron reflectivity experiments are discussed, and some current instrumentation is described. Examples from the reflectometer CRISP are used to demonstrate the present capabilities of the technique and analysis methods in the context of surface chemistry and solid films.

Penfold, J.

1991-08-01

174

Kenyon College: Acoustics Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an extensive collection of images and descriptions of historical instruments used in the teaching acoustics. Many of the items were used for demonstrations, labs, or other teaching purposes. This is part of a large collection of image covering all classical physics topics.

Greenslade Jr., Thomas

2011-04-09

175

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

176

Optomechanical medical devices (instruments)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optomechanical Medical Devices (Instruments) use lightwaves (UV, Visible, IR) for one or more of the following functions; to observe, to measure, to record, to test (align) and or to cut\\/repair. The evolution of Optomechanical Medical Devices probably started when the first torch or candle or petrochemical lamp used a polished reflector (possibly with a concave configuration) to examine a part

Roger S. Reiss

2004-01-01

177

Micro Mushroom Instrumentation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps t...

W. F. Davidson

1986-01-01

178

Portable Dynamic Fundus Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a CCD device which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on a...

G. Taylor R. Meehan N. Hunter M. Caputo C. R. Gibson

1990-01-01

179

Interstellar Dust Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine

Zoltan Sternovsky; E. Gruen; M. Horanyi; K. Drake; A. Collette; S. Kempf; R. Srama; F. Postberg; H. Krueger; S. Auer

2010-01-01

180

University Reactor Instrumentation Program  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

Vernetson, W.G.

1992-11-01

181

Instrument for Textbook Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

Huetteman, Julie Doidge

182

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

183

Analytical chemistry instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in these conference proceedings. The topics covered include: analytical chemistry and the environment; environmental radiochemistry; automated instrumentation; advances in analytical mass spectrometry; Fourier transform spectroscopy; analytical chemistry of plutonium; nuclear analytical chemistry; chemometrics; and nuclear fuel technology. (LEW)

Laing

1986-01-01

184

Supernova / Acceleration Probe: Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a space experiment to measure the cosmological parameters and investigate the properties of the dark energy. The SNAP science goals require the control of measurement systematics using high resolution, high signal-to-noise photometric and spectrocopic observations. These science goals drive the design requirements for SNAP instrumentation. We describe an instrument suite which is optimized to meet these stringent requirements. The baseline optic is a diffraction limited, f/10, three-mirror, anastigmatic, 2-meter class telescope with a plate scale of 0.1 arcsec/pixel. The optical imager is a wide field, one square degree, billion pixel CCD mosaic. A high-resolution, near-IR camera consists of a HgCdTe array, with a FOV of 10 square arcminutes, covering the wavelength region from 1 to 1.7 microns. An optical/NIR multi-arm spectrograph system with resolution approximately R=200, comprises the third science instrument. Other instruments include a star tracker able to guide with a stability of within 0.03 arcsec. This project is funded in part by the US DOE and the NSF.

Deustua, S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Baden, A.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Curtis, D.; Edwards, W.; Ellis, R.; Fruchter, A.; Frye, B.; Genat, J. F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Goodman, J.; Graham, J.; Hardin, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Hook, I.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.; Kim, A.; Knop, R.; Lafever, R.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.; Levy, J.-M.; Lidman, C.; Lin, R.; Loken, S.; Metzger, M.; Mourao, A.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pankow, D.; Pennypacker, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Rich, J.; Robinson, K.; Schamahneche, K.; Spadafora, A.; Smoot, G.; Sullivan, G.; SNAP Collaboration

2000-12-01

185

Lifestyle risk factors and utilization of preventive services in disabled elderly adults in the community.  

PubMed

Lifestyle risk factor counseling and preventive health services are important to disabled elderly adults to prevent adverse health outcomes. We aimed to examine the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors and utilization of preventive health services in community-dwelling 2,982 adults, aged 60 years or older, with or without disability, in Southeastern Pennsylvania in 2004. The severity of disability was classified as no [independent activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)], some (independent ADL, dependent IADL), and severe limitation (dependent ADL). The prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity, binge alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity) and utilization rate of a comprehensive list of preventive health services (risk factor counseling, disease management, vaccination, and cancer screening) were measured, across the disability categories. The prevalence of disability was 14.6% for some limitation and 10.3% for severe limitation. As disability increases, participants with unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and obesity became more prevalent (8.8, 15.7, and 25.2% for no, some, and severe limitation, respectively) and fewer osteoporosis screenings were performed (51.5, 38.8, and 37.8%). Utilization of other services did not vary significantly across the disability categories, but participants with some or severe limitation were less likely than those without to receive needed health services overall (19.3% or 16.2 vs. 24.2%; P for trend = .047). In conclusion, disabled elderly adults have more undesirable lifestyle risk factors, but are less likely to receive needed health services than nondisabled counterparts. More attention is needed to this vulnerable population. PMID:19517224

Kim, Dae Hyun; Sagar, Utpal N; Adams, Suzanne; Whellan, David J

2009-10-01

186

netherland hydrological modeling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many decision supports and evaluations. The main focus of the instrument is operational drought management and evaluating adaptive measures for different climate scenario's. It has also been used though as a basis to evaluate water quality of WFD-water bodies and measures, nutrient-leaching and describing WFD groundwater bodies. There is a toolkit to translate the hydrological NHI results to values for different water users. For instance with the NHI results agricultural yields can be calculated, effects on ground water dependant ecosystems, subsidence, shipping, drinking water supply. This makes NHI a valuable decision support system in Dutch water management.

Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

2012-04-01

187

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

188

The ARCADE 2 Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Seiffert, M.; Villela, T.; Wollack, E.; Wuensche, C. A.

2011-04-01

189

KEKB beam instrumentation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

2003-02-01

190

Superfluid helium tanker instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

An instrumentation system for a 1992 space shuttle flight demonstration of a superfluid helium (SFHe) tanker and transfer technology is presented. This system provides measurement of helium temperatures, pressures, flow rates, mass, and the presence of liquid or vapor. The instrumentation system described consists of analog and digital portions which provide a space qualified electronics system that is fault tolerant, compact, and relatively lightweight. The data processing hardware and software are ground commandable, perform measurements asynchronously, and format telemetry for transmission to the ground. The novel heat pulse mass gaging technique is described. A new liquid/vapor sensor is presented. Flowmeters for SFHe are discussed. A SFHe fountain effect pump is described. Results of tests to date are presented.

Woodhouse, C.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine); Kashani, A. (Sterling Federal Systems, Inc., NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (US)); Lukemire, A.T. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center)

1990-02-01

191

Astrometry with Small Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Hipparcos mission, as well as the perspective of future astrometric space missions (DIVA, SIM, GAIA, FAME), brings hard endeavours to the ground-based astrometry, especially the one that uses small instruments still existing in certain observatories. The selection of the best such instruments and the setup of the scientific programmes that can still be performed with these ones determined the International Astronomical Union to accept, for the next triennium, the organization of the Working Group ``The Future Development of Ground-Based Astrometry''. Joint Discussion 3 is the first meeting in which some conclusions formulated since the setup of this WG, at the IAU General Assembly in Manchester, can be presented.

Stavinschi, M.

192

Frontiers of accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

New technology has permitted significant performance improvements of established instrumentation techniques including beam position and profile monitoring. Fundamentally new profile monitor strategies are required for the next generation of accelerators, especially linear colliders (LC). Beams in these machines may be three orders of magnitude smaller than typical beams in present colliders. In this paper we review both the present performance levels achieved by conventional systems and present some new ideas for future colliders.

Ross, M.

1992-08-01

193

Instrumentation for medical beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams have been clinically used at an increasing number of accelerator facilities worldwide. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation therapy of cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Descriptions are presented of diverse instruments that have been developed in modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, measuring the delivery of treatment beams, and controlling the treatment process to ensure patient safety.

Chu, W. T.

1995-05-01

194

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

195

An ice lithography instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

2011-06-01

196

SABER instrument design update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design with a clam shell reimager and a one-axis scan mirror. The telescope is cooled below 210 K by a dedicated radiator. The focal plane assembly (consisting of a filter array, a detector array, a Lyot stop, and a window) is cooled to 75 K by a miniature cryogenic refrigerator. The conductive heat load on the refrigerator is minimized by a Kevlar support system that thermally isolates the focal plane assembly from the telescope. Kevlar is also used to thermally isolate the telescope from the spacecraft. Instrument responsivity drifts due to changes in telescope and focal plane temperatures as well as other causes are neutralized by an in-flight calibration system. The detector array consists of discrete HgCdTe, InSb, and InGaAs detectors. Two InGaAs detectors are a new long wavelength type, made by EG&G, that have a long wavelength cutoff of 2.33 micrometers at 77 K.

Esplin, Roy W.; Zollinger, Lorin; Batty, J. Clair; Folkman, Steve; Roosta, Mehrdad; Tansock, Joseph J.; Jensen, Mark; Stauder, John; Miller, Jim; Vanek, Michael; Robinson, Don

1995-09-01

197

Impact dynamics instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

McCormck, R. F.

1986-01-01

198

An ice lithography instrument  

PubMed Central

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

2011-01-01

199

An ice lithography instrument  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15

200

Instruments for nuclear astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst high-energy astrophysics still is considered a young science, its photon messenger was celebrating his centennial anniversary by the end of the 30th Saas Fee Advanced Course. What made progress so slow? On the threshold to the 21st century, astrophysics has in fact just started to take advantage of the unique insights nuclear gamma-rays can provide: Only today, one century after Villard's discovery, can we say that the sky has been surveyed for the first time at gamma-ray energies. The reason for this slow pace is an intricate compound of experimental difficulties that the discipline has to face. The instrumental problems are a major component of this text and will be introduced in Sect. 1.2. First of all, high-energy astronomy had to wait - and sill has to wait - for the rare space missions. Unlike the instruments used for research in optical and radio wavelength, gamma-ray observations can be done exclusively from space. Even the penetrating MeV photons interact within the top of the atmosphere; as a consequence, gamma-ray telescopes must be carried at altitudes of at least 35 to 40 km in order to observe unscattered photons. Although stratospheric balloons have opened the way, systematic operation of instruments above the atmosphere became practicable only with the era of space exploration, starting in the second half of the 20th century.

von Ballmoos, Peter

201

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

Manche, Emanuel P.

1979-01-01

202

Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

1985-01-01

203

Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Ra...

J. J. Chapman

1997-01-01

204

Outsider's Look at Flight Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents ideas and speculations on possible diagnostic instrumentation for use in missile flight testing. A plea is made for increased instrumentation efforts. There is some discussion of telemetry methods. (ERA citation 06:029195)

A. S. Lundy

1981-01-01

205

Nuclear Instrumentation Evaluation and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project provides the program for improving instrumentation reliability as well as developing a cost-effective preventive maintenance activity through evaluation and analysis of nuclear instrumentation concerning pilot plants, large-scale test facilit...

S. J. Park S. J. Han C. E. Chung K. S. Han D. H. Kim

1986-01-01

206

Evaluation Instruments for Technology Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Evaluation Resource Library (OERL) was developed for professionals seeking to design, conduct, document, or review project evaluations. OERL's instrument collection is designed to provide models for the development of new instruments. Users are encouraged to use or adapt instruments, sections, or individual questions to create instruments that are tailored to their projects. The instruments were selected from data collection forms and protocols developed especially for evaluations of actual NSF-funded projects. There are also some instruments from technology projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education. The instruments gather information that is not contained in data and indicators available from archival sources (such as registrar records of courses taken and grade-point averages). The instruments are grouped by respondent (e.g., teachers/faculty, students) and by type (e.g., questionnaires, surveys, interviews, assessments).

207

Instrumentation for Soil Motion Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present instrumentation being used by AFSWC in High Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST) tests is presented in this report. Outlines of some of the current developments in soil motion transducers are also included. This instrumentation is used to gat...

H. M. Fernandez R. B. Bunker

1968-01-01

208

Evaluation Instruments in UTeach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I will discuss three documents employed in the UTeach program at UT Austin to monitor the progress of students. The first is a document guiding preparation of the student portfolio. The second is the Teacher Development Rubric, which is used to evaluate classroom performance in field experiences. The third is the UTeach Observation Protocol (UTOP), based both on the RTOP and Inside the Classroom instruments of Horizon Research, which we have been employing to observe the classroom practices of inservice teachers. I will provide some preliminary results concerning data gathered with the UTOP.

Marder, Michael

2009-03-20

209

Instrumental musicians' hazards.  

PubMed

In the last two decades, injuries to instrumental musicians have been well documented. Major categories of performance-related injuries include musculoskeletal overuse, nerve entrapment/thoracic outlet syndrome, and focal dystonia. Other areas of concern to instrumentalists include hypermobility, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and hearing loss. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, physical exam, treatment, and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists. Emphasis is placed on the team approach of treatment and prevention and the need for close collaboration of the various health professionals, music educators, and performers. Additional resources are presented for those interested in pursuing performing arts medicine in greater detail. PMID:11567922

Hoppmann, R A

210

National Instruments: Online Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Instruments hosts this collection of free technical tutorials covering a variety of subjects. While some of the tutorials are specific to the company's products, most can be applied to general theory and practices related to engineering. People who are learning about signal processing will find the section on frequency domain measurements to be very insightful. It explains topics such as the power spectrum and the fast Fourier transform. Another tutorial describes image processing methods. A free online registration is required to access the tutorials.

211

Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications  

SciTech Connect

A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

1998-06-11

212

TOWARDS POLYPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic musical instrument recognition is a relatively new topic in the growing field of Music Information Retrieval. Early studies mostly focused on instrument recognition from recordings of isolated notes. More recently, some studies tackled the problem of musical phrases played in solo (i.e. without accompaniment) which better covers the timbre variability of a given instrument. However, the current trend is

Laurent Daudet; Bertrand David

213

The instrumental rationality of addiction.  

PubMed

The claim that non-addictive drug use is instrumental must be distinguished from the claim that its desired ends are evolutionarily adaptive or easy to comprehend. Use can be instrumental without being adaptive or comprehensible. This clarification, together with additional data, suggests that Müller & Schumann's (M&S's) instrumental framework may explain addictive, as well as non-addictive consumption. PMID:22074973

Pickard, Hanna

2011-12-01

214

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT INSTRUMENTATION HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Instruments are required for proper operation of wastewater plants. To be of use the instruments must be operable and maintainable. This requires care in the selection, application and installation of instruments and control equipment. Contents of the handbook address the 'how-to...

215

The QUIET Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., EFI /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; /Chicago U., EFI /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Buder, I.; /Chicago U., EFI /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Chinone, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Tohoku U.; Cleary, K.; /Caltech; Dumoulin, R.N.; /Columbia U., CBA; Kusaka, A.; /Chicago U., EFI /Princeton U.; Monsalve, R.; /Miami U.; Naess, S.K.; /Oslo U.; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U.; Nixon, G.; /Princeton U. /Caltech

2012-07-01

216

Instrument specificity in experienced musicians.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that experienced pianists have acquired integrated action-effect (A-E) associations. In the present study, we were interested in how specific these associations are for the own instrument by investigating pianists and guitarists. A-E associations were examined by testing whether the perception of a "potential" action-effect has an influence on actions. Participants played chords on their instrument in response to visual stimuli, while they were presented task-irrelevant auditory distractors (congruent or incongruent) in varying instrument timbre. In Experiment 1, pianists exhibited an interference effect with timbres of their own instrument category (keyboard instruments: piano and organ). In Experiment 2 guitarists showed an interference effect only with guitar timbre. Thus, integrated A-E associations primarily seem to consist of a specific component on a sensory-motor level involving the own instrument. Additionally, categorical knowledge about how an instrument is played seems to be involved. PMID:17455063

Drost, Ulrich C; Rieger, Martina; Prinz, Wolfgang

2007-04-01

217

Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Music Heritage Network Instrument Encyclopedia is an initiative of the CHICO (Cultural Heritage Information and Community Outreach) project at the University of Michigan's School of Information (SI). SI cooperated with the School of Music's Stearns Museum of Musical Instruments to develop this comprehensive resource about instruments from around the world. Users may browse the encyclopedia by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification scheme, by geographic origin, or by four major instrument types: percussion, string, wind, and electronic. Users may also conduct full-text searches, or they may search the encyclopedia by instrument title, origin, maker, materials, or description. In addition, an instrument glossary as well as links to other instrument reference resources are available at the site.

1999-01-01

218

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

219

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

220

Undergraduate instrumental analysis  

SciTech Connect

This book contains: a new chapter on surface analysis that examines ESCA, Auger spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion microprobe mass spectrometry, and depth of sample analyzed - with special attention to equipment, analytical applications, and quantitative analysis; extensive revisions of chapters on electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and plasma emission spectroscopy - covering major instrumental methods of analysis with the latest information and explaining the physical bases, equipment, chief uses, and significant shortcomings of each method; and updating throughout, treating such objects as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared absorption, thermal analysis, x-ray spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, colorimetry, ultraviolet molecular and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and much more - giving a survey of the field for non-chemistry, premed, engineering, environmental science, and chemistry majors alike.

Robinson, J.W.

1987-01-01

221

FMIT diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility (FMIT) cw prototype accelerator has noninterceptive beamline instrumentation to measure beam parameters. The transverse emittances and beam profiles are measured with an array of photodiode sensors viewing light emitted from the beam region. Tomographic reconstructions of both spatial-density distributions and of transverse-emittance distributions are performed throughout a quadrupole focusing section. Beam bunches passing through capacitive probes produce bipolar waveforms whose zero crossing corresponds to the bunch's longitudinal centroid. By measuring the time required for a bunch to travel the known distance between two probes, velocity and energy are determined. A toroidal transformer measures the average ac beam current. Beam spill is measured by a set of movable jaws that intercept the beam edges. Each jaw contains a water flow channel whose flow rate and differential temperature are measured to derive a transverse power distribution. Beam centroid position is measured by a four-lobe, magnetic-loop pickup. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Gilpatrick, J.D.; Chamberlin, D.D.

1985-01-01

222

NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT  

DOEpatents

A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

Mims, L.S.

1961-08-22

223

Ideology as instrument.  

PubMed

Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

2007-12-01

224

Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

225

Short-term trends in functional limitation and disability among older Asians: a comparison of five Asian settings.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to examine short-term trends in the prevalence of limitation in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Nagi physical functioning tasks among persons age 60 years or older in five Asian settings: Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and the Beijing Municipality. The data come from recent panel surveys of older adults that span a period of 3-4 years during the mid to late 1990s. Results suggest a general trend toward an increase in functional limitation in four of the five settings, with the most pronounced increases occurring for the Nagi functioning tasks. Compositional differences in the population accounted for little of the increase. The paper discusses the potential implications of these results and places them in the context of past and current trends in functional limitation observed in the United States. PMID:17273937

Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Zimmer, Zachary; Hermalin, Albert I; Chan, Angelique; Chuang, Yi-Li; Natividad, Josefina; Tang, Zhe

2007-02-02

226

Virtual instrument simulator for CERES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive simulation system capable of high fidelity.

Chapman, John J.

1997-12-01

227

Experimenting with string musical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

LoPresto, Michael C.

2012-03-01

228

14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 25.1337 Section 25.1337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments...

2013-01-01

229

14 CFR 29.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 29.1337 Section 29.1337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 29.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments...

2013-01-01

230

14 CFR 27.1337 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 27.1337 Section 27.1337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 27.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments...

2013-01-01

231

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (c) Have enough distance...cause shorting. A cabin dome light is not an instrument...

2009-01-01

232

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (c) Have enough distance...cause shorting. A cabin dome light is not an instrument...

2010-01-01

233

Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study  

PubMed Central

Background The studio di intervento nel decadimento vascolare lieve (IDEALE study) was an open multicenter Italian study, the aim of which was to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral citicoline in elderly people with mild vascular cognitive impairment. Methods The study was performed in 349 patients. The active or citicoline group was composed of 265 patients and included 122 men and 143 women of mean age 79.9 ± 7.8 years selected from six Italian regions. Inclusion criteria were age ? 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ? 21, subjective memory complaints but no evidence of deficits on MMSE, and evidence of vascular lesions on neuroradiology. Those with probable Alzheimer’s disease were excluded. The control group consisted of 84 patients, including 36 men and 48 women of mean age 78.9 ± 7.01 (range 67–90) years. Patients included in the study underwent brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma dosage of vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid hormones. Functional dependence was investigated by scores on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales, mood was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and behavioral disorders using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale. Comorbidity was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. An assessment was made at baseline (T0), after 3 months (T1), and after 9 months (T2, ie, 6 months after T1). The main outcomes were an improvement in MMSE, ADL, and IADL scores in the study group compared with the control group. Side effects were also investigated. The study group was administered oral citicoline 500 mg twice a day throughout the study. Results MMSE scores remained unchanged over time (22.4 ± 4 at T0; 22.7 ± 4 at T1; 22.9 ± 4 at T2), whereas a significant difference was found between the study and control groups, both in T1 and in T2. No differences were found in ADL and IADL scores between the two groups. A slight but not statistically significant difference was found in GDS score between the study and control groups (P = 0.06). No adverse events were recorded. Conclusion: In this study, citicoline was effective and well tolerated in patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment. Citicoline activates biosynthesis of phospholipids in neuronal membranes, increases brain metabolism as well as norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the central nervous system, and has neuroprotective effects during hypoxia and ischemia. Therefore, citicoline may be recommended for patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment.

Cotroneo, Antonino Maria; Castagna, Alberto; Putignano, Salvatore; Lacava, Roberto; Fanto, Fausto; Monteleone, Francesco; Rocca, Filomena; Malara, Alba; Gareri, Pietro

2013-01-01

234

Instrumentation and Facilities (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... EARTH SCIENCES (EAR) Instrumentation and Facilities Supports the acquisition or upgrade of ... operation of multiuser regional or national facilities that provide access to complex and expensive ...

235

Halo vest instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

1996-05-01

236

POLDER instrument: mission objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization and directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) is an optical imaging radiometer developed by CNES for flight on NASA's ADEOS mission (launch date 1995). It is a wide field of view (50 degree(s)) and moderate spatial resolution (6 km) instrument, giving an almost daily coverage of the Earth. It gives access to the bidirectional reflectance and polarization distribution functions (BRDFs and BPDFs) by acquiring, for a given target, measurements in variable viewing configurations along the track of the satellite. These measurements are acquired in nine spectral bands of the visible-near infrared spectrum, and at three polarization angles at 443, 665, and 865 nm. Its main scientific objectives are: (1) tropospheric aerosols -- determination of the characteristics of the aerosols; (2) ocean color -- accurate determination of the sea surface reflectances, due in particular to improved capabilities of atmospheric corrections; (3) land surface -- determination of surface BRDFs and improvement of the correction of surface bidirectional effects and atmospheric effects on vegetation indices; (4) Earth radiation budget and clouds -- determination of clouds BRDF and classification of clouds according to bidirectional radiative properties, but also on cloud altitude and phase. The objective of the paper is to present and discuss these mission objectives.

Deschamps, P. Y.; Herman, M.; Podaire, A.; Ratier, A.

1992-12-01

237

Load sensing surgical instruments.  

PubMed

Force and pressure sensing technology applied to smart surgical instruments as well as implants allow to give a direct feedback of loads to the surgeon lead to better reliability and success of surgical operations. A common technology used for sensors is low-cost piezoresistive thick-film technology. However, the standard thick-film firing conditions degrade the properties of medical alloys. In order to avoid this problem, the solution is to decrease the firing temperature of thick films. This work presents the development and characterisation of low-firing thick-film systems (dielectrics, resistors and conductors), formulated to achieve chemical and thermal expansion compatibility with an austenitic stainless steel medical alloy. Adherence tests and results on electrical properties of these systems: resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are presented. It was found that the main issue in these systems lies in mastering the materials interactions during firing, especially at the silver-based resistor terminations. The interaction of silver, resistor and dielectric tends to give rise to highly resistive zones at the terminations, affecting reliability. This can be circumvented by post-firing the resistor terminations at a moderate temperature. PMID:18679770

Jacq, C; Maeder, T; Ryser, P

2008-08-05

238

Reliability principles for instruments and instrument parts in quantum electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard procedures are outlined for solving a complex of interrelated problems concerning reliability. The solution is based on a stochastic parametric degradation model of working capacity. The model characterizes the statistical dependence of the output parameters of an instrument on the parameters of the elements making up the instrument and on the conditions under which these elements operate. It also

G. N. Toropkin

1983-01-01

239

D0 Instrument Air System  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

1988-09-15

240

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS IN SPACE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path is a long one between the conception of a scientific instrument ; for space exploration and the goal of obtaining scientific measurements from ; space, from the moon, or from the atmosphere or the surface of a planet. These ; instruments must be designed to meet the scientific objectives under adverse ; environmental conditions and within the constraints

R. L. Heacock

1963-01-01

241

Trends in data acquisition instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including

George J. Blanar

1993-01-01

242

Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin 10-m telescopes of the W.M. Keck Observatory have now been in operation for almost a decade. The original complement of first generation instruments remains in use (NIRC, HIRES, LRIS, and LWS) and all second generation instruments have been commissioned and are in regular operation (NIRSPEC, ESI, NIRC2 and DEIMOS). Both telescopes are equipped with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems,

Ian S. McLean; Sean Adkins

2004-01-01

243

Wii Remote National Instrument Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a YouTube video clip showing a Wii Remote controlling a large table top robotic arm. The video clip talks about how National Instruments has created Virtual Instruments coding(VIs) via LabVIEW that you can download for free and duplicate what they have done in this video demonstration.

2009-07-03

244

The BigBOSS Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will give an overview of the proposed BigBOSS instrument, to be installed at the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The BigBOSS instrument includes an optical corrector to provide a 3 degree diameter field of view, a focal plane with 5000 robotically actuated fibers, and 10 identical moderate resolution 3-arm spectrographs.

Roe, Natalie

2012-01-01

245

Experimenting with String Musical Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2012-01-01

246

Luminescence techniques: instrumentation and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena – thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the state

Lars BØtter-Jensen

1997-01-01

247

Economic Instruments of Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an ecological point of view, economic instruments are to be preferred to other instruments of environmental policy, the command and control regulations in particular, for several reasons: They are more cost efficient in the short term in a static sense. While command and control regulations impose an emission ceiling or even a certain technology on each polluter, independently of

Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

1995-01-01

248

Associations in Human Instrumental Conditioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted to study the contents of human instrumental conditioning. Experiment 1 found positive transfer between a discriminative stimulus (S[superscript D] and an instrumental response (R) that shared the outcome (O) with the response that was originally trained with the S[superscript D], showing the formation of an…

Gamez, A. Matias; Rosas, Juan M.

2007-01-01

249

Instrumentation at the Subaru Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these two years, FMOS was fully commissioned and the laser guide star mode of AO188 became available for open use. The telescope was recovered from coolant leak accident and the two damaged instruments, Suprime-Cam and FOCAS, will both be back in operation in 2012. All the components of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) were transported to the telescope site and on-sky engineering will start in the summer 2012. As a future facility instrument, Prime-Focus Spectrograph (PFS), an optical to near-IR multi-object spectrograph with 2400 fibers, was endorsed by Japanese community and the project is in PDR phase. Upgrading MOIRCS, IRCS and HDS are on going. Several visiting instruments are also planed. The feasibility of a ground-layer AO with a wide-field NIR instrument is beeing investigated for a possible next facility instrument after PFS.

Takato, Naruhisa; Iwata, Ikuru

2012-09-01

250

Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury) requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL), typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics) is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Methods Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). Results A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92) with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. Conclusions The device satisfied the desired system requirements in terms of low cost, stable sensor signal over time, full finger-flexion range of motion tracking and capability to monitor all three joints of one finger. The developed rapid calibration system for easy use (high feasibility) and excellent psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) qualify the device for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings.

2012-01-01

251

The effectiveness of a health promotion program for the low-income elderly in Taipei, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effectiveness of a health promotion program for low-income elderly provided by trained low-income home health aides. Indicators of the effectiveness of this program included improvement in physical health, psychosocial health and functional status, including activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) as well as changes in perceived health promotion needs. This evaluation study used a single group pre- and post-test experiment design. After informed consent forms were signed by participants, 89 purposively selected low-income elderly (aged 64-96) completed pre-test structured surveys, while 60 participants (aged 68-96) completed post-test surveys. Post-test scores indicated improved nutritional status (paired t = 2.64, p < .05) and chore management of IADL abilities (paired t = 2.83, p < .01). No significant difference in psychosocial status were found between pre- and post-test scores. Perceived needs for health promotion services decreased after the intervention. The results show that the health promotion services were effective in improving health status and decreasing perceived needs for services among low-income elderly in Taipei. Recommendations based on this study for developing services for the low-income elderly must take health promotion intervention into consideration. PMID:15587349

Li, I-Chuan

2004-12-01

252

GEO sounding using microwave instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding by themselves and in conjunction with companion IR sounders. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and are undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power requirements from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and Aqua spacecraft, with the IR sounders HIRS3 and AIRS respectively. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS IR sounder. A number of enabling technologies acquired from the ATMS instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to performing similar microwave sounding on a geostationary platform. Because these technologies are already in place, they are readily available for the development of a geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, thereby avoiding costly technology development and minimizing the risk of not achieving the scientific requirements. In fact, the MMIC microwave components that were developed by ATMS for size and volume reduction are directly applicable to a GEO microwave sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known. They penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for accurate soundings obtained with a collocated high spectral resolution IR sounder in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be its ability to provide high temporal resolution and uniform spatial resolution, and it will expand the utility of a collocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint in the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 57 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Lambeck, Robert; Davis, Martin A.

2004-11-01

253

Commissioning Instrument for the GTC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

2005-12-01

254

Burried broken extraction instrument fragment.  

PubMed

Despite adequate effort to perform tooth removal carefully, some accidents may happen when defective instruments are unknowingly used. This article reports of a non-symptomatic case of a retained fractured dental elevator tip during an uneventful extraction a decade earlier. Patient was not aware till routine radiographic examination revealed its presence. Use of three dimensional imaging techniques in this case is highlighted. Rarely, instruments breakage may occur during surgical procedures. It is duty of the dentists to check the surgical instrument for signs of breakage and be prepared to solve a possible emergency. Retained fragments should be carefully studied prior to attempt of removal. PMID:23662269

Balaji, S M

2013-01-01

255

Evaluation of humoral immune response to nosocomial pathogen and functional status in elderly patients with sepsis.  

PubMed

The clinical significance of humoral immune response to nosocomial pathogens and functional status in elderly patients with sepsis is not clear. We evaluated the humoral immune to nosocomial pathogens and the effect of functional dependencies on clinical outcomes among elderly patients with sepsis. This study prospectively enrolled patients aged ?65 years with sepsis from September 2011 to May 2012 at a 2000-bed university hospital. The data including CD4 and CD8 T-cell count, functional status by measuring basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were collected for all patients. In addition, the collected blood samples were analyzed for serum antibody levels against nosocomial pathogens using an ELISA. During the study period, 72 patients (38 males) treated with sepsis were enrolled. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 16.7% (12/72). The mean CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors (1.08±0.72 vs. 1.93±1.42, P=0.003). Serum antibody titers to Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterococcus faecalis were statistically higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. On multivariate analysis, the IADL score was independently predictive of mortality in elderly patients with sepsis (odds ratio 1.410, 95% confidence interval 1.007-1.975, P=0.046). These results suggest that IADL scores could be used as predictors to identify elderly patients with a poor prognosis of nosocomial infections. PMID:23998496

Jeong, Su Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun; Han, Sang Hoon; Yong, Dong Eun; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, June Myung

2013-08-30

256

Portable Instrumentation Kit Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing an airborne instrumentation kit that could be easily transported and quickly installed. The system would need to be compatible with anticipated US Army vehicle and test requirement...

R. P. Jefferis W. T. Rivers

1972-01-01

257

Evaluation of Fuel Flowmeter Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flight tests on the Flow Technology Inc. standard line turbine flow transducer were conducted between 5 August and 20 October 1970 to determine its acceptability as a test instrument. The evaluation was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California, by ...

A. L. Winn R. P. Jefferis

1971-01-01

258

Titan Saturn System Mission Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM), another future mission proposed for Titan's exploration, includes an orbiter and two in situ elements: a hot-air balloon and a lake lander. The instrumentation of those two elements will be presented.

Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.; Matson, D.

2012-10-01

259

Laser Instrumentation for Attosecond Experimentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isolated attosecond pulses are produced with instrumentation developed in a multi-investigator collaborative MURI effort and used for first experiments in attosecond electron dynamics. A new method of ionization phase match gating is developed for isolate...

A. P. Alivisatos D. Neumark J. Ye R. Kaindl S. Leone

2009-01-01

260

Blast Noise Standards and Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of noise from quarry production blasting was conducted at seven crushed-stone quarries, providing information on close-in noise generation, comparative instrumentation, and evaluation of the sound levels as related to blasting parameters and exis...

D. E. Siskind C. R. Summers

1974-01-01

261

PILOTS Database Instruments Authority List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This list includes all projective tests, self-report questionnaires, structured interviews, and other instruments that have been used in papers indexed in the PILOTS Database. PILOTS is an electronic index to the Published International Literature on Trau...

F. Lerner

1994-01-01

262

Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

1986-01-01

263

Trends in data acquisition instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

Blanar, George J.

1993-10-01

264

PILOTS Database Instruments Authority List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lists all projective tests, self-report questionnaires, structured interviews, and other assessment instruments that have been used in papers indexed in the PILOTS database, an electronic index to published literature on post-traumatic stress disorder and...

F. Lerner

1995-01-01

265

Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.  

PubMed

Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

2011-03-14

266

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

2011-03-22

267

Flexible bio-medical instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid advancement in the bio-medical field leads to the need of frequently modifying instrumentation and control software. This paper presents a dynamic real time component binding architecture that permits the flexible addition or replacement of software modules

Lui Sha

1999-01-01

268

Instrumentation for Air Density Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details an operational system for measuring air density at altitudes above those investigated by instrumented balloons and below those investigated by orbiting satellites. The system described is a 7-inch, rigid, falling sphere which is ejecte...

C. D. Westlund O. C. Haycock R. L. Smith G. D. Allred

1967-01-01

269

Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry  

PubMed Central

Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

270

Enhanced Assessment in Instrumental Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to implement student self-assessment and large-group assessment in the high school instrumental music classroom. Reports on the students' thoughts about these assessment types. Includes various forms to assist in assessment. (CMK)|

Burrack, Frederick

2002-01-01

271

Pilots Database: Instruments Authority List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lists all projective tests, self-report questionnaires, structured interviews, and other instruments that have been used in papers indexed in the PILOTS database, and electronic index to published literature on post-traumatic stress disorder and other men...

F. Lerner

2001-01-01

272

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)|

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

273

Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the causes of declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the US Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations.

Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G; Schoeni, Robert F; Cornman, Jennifer C

2008-01-01

274

The AsteroidFinder Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DLR Institute of Planetary Exploration has proposed a novel design for a space instrument accommodated on a small satellite bus (SSB) that is dedicated to the detection of inner earth objects (IEOs) from a low earth orbit (LEO). The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5m (V-Band) and astrometric

Harald Michaelis; Stefano Mottola; Ekkehard Kuehrt; Harald Hoffmann; Thomas Behnke; Gabriele Messina; Matthias Tschentscher; Karsten Scheibe; Michael Solbrig; Herbert Mosebach; Michael Hartl; Kay Lenfert

2010-01-01

275

Advances in instrumentation. Volume 38  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined measuring instruments and control systems used in the petroleum, natural gas, electric power and nuclear industries. Topics considered at the conference included data terminals for petrochemical plants, strain measurements on offshore platforms, reactor instrumentation, algorithms for electric energy control, human factors, carbon dioxide recovery for well stimulation, natural gas chromotography, information systems, and combustion control systems.

Not Available

1983-01-01

276

CALIBRATION OF RADIATION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-monitoring instruments are regularly calibrated to assure ; radiological protection of employees at the Savannah River Plant. Radiation ; sources used to calibrate about 1300 portable instruments include 30 curies Co\\/; sup 60\\/, 10 curies Pu²³⁹-Be, and 250 kvp x ray. A separate building for ; this extensive calibration program houses specifically designed equipment with ; which 21,000 calibrations per

Zippler

1963-01-01

277

Composite instrumentation amplifier for biopotentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of an instrumentation biopotential amplifier that, (a) combines the ac coupling and high input impedance\\u000a of an ac-coupled buffer with the CMRR of a simple differential amplifier or a monolithic instrumentation amplifier, (b) improves\\u000a the CMRR by using a potentiometer without requiring either precision resistors or high-CMRR op amps, (c) illustrates how to\\u000a calculate the CMRR

R. Pallfis-Areny; J. G. Webster

1990-01-01

278

The future of radiological instrumentation.  

PubMed

Future trends in the development of radiation protection instrumentation can be expected to be closely related to current trends in political and social activity that drive legislation, rule-making, and standard practice, with assistance provided by trends in material and electronic technology. Wide-range performance will be emphasized to arm the daily worker with instruments that routinely log background rates and, at the same time, are prepared to measure accident rates. Separate and simultaneous accumulation of data from several sensors to ensure complete coverage of the radiation types will be common. Mathematical manipulation of data will provide for summary data logging and, in some cases, solutions to integral equations to provide corrections to experimental data. Instruments will become more reliable by way of self-checking and correction. Miniaturization and large-scale integration of measuring instruments will provide some instrumentation for the people at large. To be effective, the instruments will necessarily cover a wide range and be very reliable. The net result of these several trends will provide for a widespread understanding of radiation protection and an implementation of "as low as reasonably achievable" among large segments of the population. PMID:3410685

Lucas, A C

1988-08-01

279

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

280

Posterior instrumentation for occipitocervical fusion.  

PubMed

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-06-02

281

CARMENES. IV: instrument control software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German- Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols.

Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Morales, Rafael; Abril, Miguel; Galadí-Enríquez, David; Seifert, Walter; Sánchez Carrasco, Miguel A.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Mandel, Holger

2012-09-01

282

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

283

Episodes of falling among elderly people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of social and demographic pre-disposing characteristics  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: The multifactorial nature of falls among elderly people is well-known. Identifying the social-demographic characteristics of elderly people who fall would enable us to define the typical profile of the elderly who are at risk of falling. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to isolate studies in which the social-demographic risk factors for falls among the elderly have been evaluated and to carry out a meta-analysis by combining the results of all of these selected studies. METHOD: We did a systematic literature review using the key words "accidental fall / numerical data" and "risk factors.” Inclusion criteria entailed the selection of articles with the following characteristics: population of subjects aged 60 years or over, falls that took place in everyday life, and social-demographic risk factors for falls. RESULTS: 3,747 indexed articles published between 1981 and 2007 were identified, and 177 studies with available data were included, of which 129 had data on social-demographic risk factors for falls. Difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL) or in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) double the risk of falling: The OR and 95% Cl were 2.26 (2.09, 2.45) for disturbance ADL and 2.10 (1.68, 2.64) for IADL. The OR and 95% Cl for Caucasians were 1.68 (0.98 - 2.88) and 0.64 (0.51 - 0.80) for Hispanics. In the subgroup of patients older than eighty, being married protected people from falling with an OR and 95% Cl ?=?0.68 (0.53 - 0.87). CONCLUSION: Defining factors that create a risk of falling and protect elderly people from falls using social-demographic characteristics lets us focus on an “at risk” population for which a specific program could be developed.

Bloch, F; Thibaud, M; Dugue, B; Breque, C; Rigaud, AS; Kemoun, G

2010-01-01

284

Prevalence of physical disability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated risk factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: To analyze the prevalence of disability among patients with COPD as compared to people without this lung disease and to identify sociodemographic and health factors associated with these physical limitations. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on data taken from the European Health Interview Survey for Spain (EHISS) 2009. The survey included adults aged 40 to 79 years (n = 13624). We identified patients with COPD using a direct question from the survey. The main study variable was disability, including basic activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities (IADLs), and mobility disability (MD). Independent variables analyzed included socio-demographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, presence of mental disease and co-morbid chronic conditions and lifestyles. Results: The overall prevalence of self-reported COPD was 7.2%. The total prevalence of ADL, IADL and MD was higher among men suffering COPD than among the population without this disease (16.39% vs. 4.91%; 27.70% vs. 12.45%; 48.94% vs. 17.46% respectively). These significant differences were also observed among women with equivalent figures of: 23.25% vs. 8.71%; 31.03% vs. 10.53%; 64.83% vs. 34.08%. Being older, having a self-perceived health status of "fair/poor/very poor" and suffering from mental disease (anxiety and/or depression) were factors associated with a higher probability of reporting any disability in both men and women suffering from COPD. Conclusions: Higher rates of disability were seen among COPD patients compared to the general population. Among COPD patients older age, depression, anxiety and worse self-rated health were associated with higher disability. PMID:23844776

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Puente-Maestu, Luis; de Miguel-Díez, Javier

2013-07-11

285

Burden of Cirrhosis on Older Americans and Their Families: Analysis of the Health and Retirement Study  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of cirrhosis among older adults is expected to increase; therefore, we studied the health status, functional disability, and need for supportive care in a large national sample of individuals with cirrhosis. A prospective cohort of individuals with cirrhosis was identified within the longitudinal, nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Cirrhosis cases were identified in linked Medicare data via ICD-9-CM codes, and compared to an age-matched cohort without cirrhosis. Two primary outcome domains were assessed: 1) patients’ health status (perceived health status, comorbidities, healthcare utilization, and functional disability as determined by activities of daily living [ADLs] and instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs]), and 2) informal caregiving (hours of caregiving provided by a primary informal caregiver and associated cost). Adjusted negative binomial regression was used to assess the association between cirrhosis and functional disability. 317 individuals with cirrhosis and 951 age-matched comparators were identified. Relative to the comparison group, individuals with cirrhosis had worse self-reported health status, more comorbidities, and used significantly more health care services (hospitalizations, nursing home stays, physician visits; p<0.001 for all bivariable comparisons). They also had greater functional disability (p<0.001 for ADLs and IADLs), despite adjustment for covariates such as comorbidities and healthcare utilization. Individuals with cirrhosis received over twice the number of informal caregiving hours per week (p<0.001), at an annual cost of $4,700 per person. Conclusion Older Americans with cirrhosis have high rates of disability, health care utilization, and need for informal caregiving. Improved care coordination and caregiver support is necessary to optimize management of this frail population.

Rakoski, Mina O.; McCammon, Ryan J.; Piette, John D; Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Marrero, Jorge A.; Lok, Anna S.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Volk, Michael

2011-01-01

286

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights...

2013-01-01

287

14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a)...

2013-01-01

288

21 CFR 882.4560 - Stereotaxic instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stereotaxic instrument. 882.4560 Section 882...Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4560 Stereotaxic instrument. (a) Identification. A stereotaxic instrument is a device...

2010-04-01

289

21 CFR 882.4560 - Stereotaxic instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Stereotaxic instrument. 882.4560 Section 882...Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4560 Stereotaxic instrument. (a) Identification. A stereotaxic instrument is a device...

2009-04-01

290

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...direct rays are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (2) No objectionable...

2013-01-01

291

14 CFR 27.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...direct rays are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (2) No objectionable...

2013-01-01

292

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights mustâ (1) Provide...are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (ii) No objectionable...b) Unless undimmed instrument lights are satisfactory under...

2010-01-01

293

14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights mustâ (1) Provide...are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (ii) No objectionable...b) Unless undimmed instrument lights are satisfactory under...

2009-01-01

294

21 CFR 882.4525 - Microsurgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4525 Microsurgical instrument. (a) Identification. A microsurgical instrument is a nonpowered surgical instrument used in neurological microsurgery procedures....

2013-04-01

295

Readiness Issues for Emergency Response Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Issues in maintaining readiness of instruments for deployment and use in emergency response situation often differ from those in maintaining instruments for normal operations. Confunding circumstances include use of non-availability of check sources, ensuring instruments are always in calibration and operable, possible use of instruments in different climates, packaging of instrumentation for deployment, transport of instrumentation and check sources, and ensuring users are familiar with instruments. Methods and procedures for addressing these issues are presented. Instrumentation used for survey, in situ measurements, electronic dosimetry, and air conditioning are discussed.

C.A. Riland; D.R. Bowman; R.J. Tighe

1999-03-01

296

Academic Research Instruments: Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... 1993, Needs 1994 Hypertext Format Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 ... Academic Research Instruments:Expenditures 1993, Needs 1994 This page was last updated on April ...

297

Identifying functional decline: a methodological challenge  

PubMed Central

Background Functional decline (FD) in older people has commonly been measured in the hospital setting with instruments which have been validated on decrease over time in capacity to undertake basic activities of daily living (ADL). In a nonhospitalized sample of older people (independently community dwelling, but potentially on the cusp of FD), it is possible that other measures could be used to predict decline. Early, accurate, and efficient identification of older community-dwelling people who are on the cusp of FD can assist in identifying appropriate interventions to slow the rate of decline. Methods This paper reports on associations between four outcome measures which have been associated with FD (instrumental ADLs [IADLs], quality of life, hospitalizations and falls). The sample was older individuals who were discharged from one large metropolitan emergency department (ED) during 2011–2012, without an inpatient admission. Results Of 597 individuals aged 65+ who provided baseline information, 148 subjects provided four outcome measures at both 1 and 3 months follow up. Overall, approximately 24% demonstrated decreased IADL scores over the 3 months, with domains of home activities, laundry, shopping, and getting places declining the most. Over this time, 18% fell often, and 11% were consistently hospitalized. Between 1 and 3 months follow up, 41% declined in mental component scores, and 50% declined in physical component scores. Low mental and physical component quality of life scores were associated with downstream increased falls and hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life and IADLs. However, change in the four outcome measures was largely independent in factor analysis. Conclusion Measuring the four outcome measures over 3 months post-discharge from an ED presentation, showed that changes in one were not generally correlated with changes in another. This result suggests that a wider measurement net could be cast to identify individuals who may not be coping safely or independently in the community after a minor health crisis. Individuals who declined in at least one outcome measure at 1 month, generally continued to decline over the next 2 months, thus suggesting early opportunities to screen and intervene to slow FD.

Grimmer, Karen; Beaton, Kate; Hendry, Kevan

2013-01-01

298

SEA applications to wind instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of wind instruments, including brass instruments, is primarily determined by the shapes of their air columns, and their interaction with the sound generation mechanism. However, the influence of the surrounding body of the instrument has been a matter of some debate, and papers exploring this question have been published since the early years of the J. Acoust Soc. Am. An apparent correlation between instrument material and playing behavior is disputed by arguments that the structure is stiff and massive compared to the air inside, and that many of the apparent effects are linked to machining differences among materials. The complexity of the instrument body makes this problem well suited for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA), which treats the air column and the external structure as coupled statistical subsystems that share energy. For trumpets and trombones, the power radiated from the structural vibrations is about 40 dB lower than the energy radiated directly from the air column, with an enhancement at high frequencies due in part to the increasing modal density of the three dimensional structure. The coupling to the structural vibrations themselves from the player's lips and from the air vibrations are similar to each other in magnitude.

Hoekje, Peter L.

2003-04-01

299

The Quito Astronomical Instruments Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quito Astronomical Observatory was build in the 1873s thanks to the generous sponsoring of the president of the Republic of Ecuador Dr. Gabriel García Moreno who desire was to build a long-lasting monument to Ecuadorian science . Thanks to the collaboration of father J. B. Menten one of the leading german astronomer the President' s dream came true. The Observatory with its splendid buildings was in fact equipped with a series of very important instruments such as the 30-cm Mertz refractor a large Molteni meridian instrument and a Bamber of 10 cm. Other instruments were subsequently added in the course of the 20th century. Recently we have performed a detailed inventory of all the historical instruments still preserved at the Observatory. This paper is dedicated to briefly trace the history of the Quito Observatory and describe its most characteristic instruments. Moreover it is presented the work done for preserving this important scientific heritage and discuss some of the typical problems that the researchers the students amateur astronomers and the public find in a still active scientific institution in a developing country.

Lopez, Ericsson

300

FTIR instrumentation for atmospheric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, extensive observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the spectral region from 3.6 - 20 micrometers with resolving powers of 1000 - 4000 have been made, both from the ground and nadir viewing from NASA high altitude aircraft. Two recent field experiments in which both instruments participated are the FIRE II/SPECTRE experiment Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, KS and the STORMFEST experiment Feb. - Mar. 1992 in Seneca, KS. Experience with these instruments has led to instrument designs for advanced sounders on geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. Applications include remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and water vapor for improved weather forecasting, measurement of cloud radiative impact for improvement of global climate modelling, and trace gas retrieval for climate and air pollution monitoring.

Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, F. A.; Smith, William L.

1993-09-01

301

Instrumentation for the genome project.  

PubMed

Much of the recent rapid progress in large-scale genomic sequencing has been driven by the dramatic improvements both in the area of biological protocols and in the availability of improved laboratory instrumentation and automation platforms. We discuss recent developments in the area of bioinstrumentation that are contributing to the current revolution in genetic analysis. Examples of systems for laboratory automation are described together with specific single-purpose instruments. Emphasis is placed on those tools that are contributing significantly to the scale-up of genomic mapping and sequencing efforts. In addition, we present a selection of more advanced measurement techniques and instrumentation developments that are likely to contribute significantly to future advances in sequencing and genome analysis. PMID:11701503

Jaklevic, J M; Garner, H R; Miller, G A

1999-01-01

302

Instrumental Capabilities of the EST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EST has recently finished its conceptual design study. A number of instruments have been devised to make possible the observation of the solar photosphere and chromosphere with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, as well as with high polarimetric sensitivity. To achieve these goals, the telescope is provided with a powerful MCAO system and a polarimetrically compensated optical design. In this paper, a summary of the present situation of the telescope and its different subsystems is outlined. Especial emphasis is put in the description of the instruments and of the flexible light distribution system. The latter will allow scientists to perform observations using all instruments at the same time or individually, to maximize the efficiency of the system. With this expected performance, EST will provide to the community with data of unprecedented quality to study solar magnetic phenomena at its finest scales.

Collados Vera, M.; EST Team

2012-12-01

303

ac-resistance-measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

Hof, P.J.

1981-04-22

304

Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately.

Kennedy, W.N.

1998-09-30

305

ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts  

SciTech Connect

A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide improved in-pile instrumentation to users.

Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

2011-01-01

306

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

307

The LSST camera instrument model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) requires a camera system of unprecedented size and complexity. Achieving the science goals of the LSST project, through design, fabrication, integration, and operation, requires a thorough understanding of the camera performance. Essential to this effort is the camera modeling which defines the effects of a large number of potential mechanical, optical, electronic or sensor variations which can only be captured with sophisticated instrument modeling that incorporates all of the crucial parameters. This paper presents the ongoing development of LSST camera instrument modeling and details the parametric issues and attendant analysis involved with this modeling.

Gilmore, D. Kirk K.; Kahn, Steven; Hascall, Pat; Ku, John; O'Connor, Paul; Rasmussen, Andrew; Riot, Vincent; Singal, Jack

2012-09-01

308

The SOFIA Science Instrument Program: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the science instrument program for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Funded for an initial suite of facility and PI class instruments, the SOFIA instrument development program includes imagers and spectrometers from both U.S. and German development teams. With an emphasis on lessons learned, we review the development of the facility instrument suite. We

S. C. Casey; M. Savage

2004-01-01

309

Dynamic program instrumentation for scalable performance tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a new technique called `dynamic instrumentation' that provides efficient, scalable, yet detailed data collection for large-scale parallel applications. Our approach is unique because it defers inserting any instrumentation until the application is in execution. We can insert or change instrumentation at any time during execution by modifying the application's binary image. Only the instrumentation required for the currently selected

Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Barton P. Miller; Jon Cargille

1994-01-01

310

Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

Haig, Brian D.

2005-01-01

311

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

Scales, John W., Ed.

312

Demonstration of an instrumented patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration

M. Martinez; G. Renaud; D. Backman; M. Genest; M. Delannoy

2007-01-01

313

Beryllium Copper in Instrument Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of beryllium copper are described with particular reference to elastic properties. The usefulness of this alloy for instrument springs and similar parts is shown to be in its combination of high elastic limit with relatively low elastic modulus. The bearing of these and of other properties of beryllium copper upon the problems of arriving at appropriate deflexions

L B Hunt

1944-01-01

314

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

315

Analysis of Key Education Instrumentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Key Assessment System, consisting of test instruments which measure psychological functioning, work related competencies, and attitudinal and motivational characteristics, is described. The system is a vocational assessment battery designed to differentiate levels of psychophysical capabilities in a nondiscriminatory manner. It provides a…

Penfield, Douglas A.; And Others

316

Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to…

Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar

2004-01-01

317

Instrument Deployment for Mars Rovers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Mars rovers, such as the planned 2009 MSL rover, require sufficient autonomy to robustly approach rock targets and place an instrument in contact with them. It took the 1997 Sojourner Mars rover between 3 and 5 communications cycles to accomplish t...

L. Pedersen M. Bualat C. Kunz S. Lee R. Sargent R. Washington A. Wright

2002-01-01

318

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the

Collins P. Cannon; Donald P. Brown

1979-01-01

319

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is disclosed. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed

C. P. Cannon; D. P. Brown

1979-01-01

320

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

Scales, John W., Ed.

321

Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

Haig, Brian D.

2005-01-01

322

Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

Scales, John W., Ed.

323

Video games as research instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop aims to help researchers share experience and expertise on the use of video games as research instruments in HCI and related disciplines. It will focus on existing uses, methodologies, results and issues with using video games, and is expected to lead to a better shared understanding of their current and future use across a variety of disciplines.

Eduardo H. Calvillo Gámez; Paul A. Cairns; Jeremy Gow; Jonathan Back; Eddie Capstick

2010-01-01

324

Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post?premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2011-01-01

325

Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

LoPresto, Michael C.

2003-01-01

326

Instrumented Footwear for Interactive Dance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have instrumented a dance sneaker with an array of sensors that measure many parameters of foot, sole, and toe expression, continuously broadcasting them to a base-station and PC over a wireless link. This paper describes this system, reports its performance and outlines applications that we have developed for it in the field of interactive dance.

Joseph Paradiso; Eric Hu; Kai-yuh Hsiao

1998-01-01

327

Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)|

LoPresto, Michael C.

2003-01-01

328

KIWI Ground Test Neutronics Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis is placed on some unusual requirements for the reactor neutron power instrumentation for a rocket propulsion reactor. These are; 1) the requirement for accurate, fast automatic control over a dynamic range of many decades, 2) the unusual difficulties involved in detector location, 3) the requirement for absolute calibration prior to any chance of obtaining thermal power data. The first

John McLeod

1962-01-01

329

Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

Miller, J. A.; And Others

330

Payload instrumentation for probing rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personnel, facilities, services and materials were provided for the design, development, fabrication, assembly, installation and testing of electro-mechanical instrumentation comprising the payloads utilized in aerospace vehicles as a part of the upper atmosphere and astronomical research program being conducted by the U.S. Air Force. Special devices such as a field programmable digital timer and low cost vibration recorder suitable for

R. W. Ebacher

1979-01-01

331

New Advances in Cytometric Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

The growing field of flow cytometry industry continues to produce exciting and innovative developments. Although the CyTOF mass spectrometry flow cytometer is one of the most revolutionary new developments (to be presented in another session), other advances have built upon the original FACS technology. The trends in cytometric instrumentation include smaller, easier to use analyzers and cell sorters, instrumentation capable of detecting multiple fluorescent colors even if their spectra overlap significantly, microfluidic cell sorter, analyzers that use acoustic focusing of cells in flow for potentially better precision of detection, flow cytometers that provide images and image analysis of cells in flow, and cell sorters integrated into biosafety cabinets for biohazardous work. In addition, software development has made possible the automated analysis of complete multiparametric datasets, and software is now available to aid investigators in multi-color reagent selection tailored to their specific instrument capabilities encompassing the majority of reagent and instrument vendors. These systems and their application will be presented, and the utility of these new systems in the flow cytometry core facility will be discussed.

Lopez, Peter

2013-01-01

332

Portable Radiation Survey Instrument Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The External Dose Evaluation Manual, BNWL-MA-6Z, is being issued by sections as individual procedures are completed to describe the portable radiation survey instruments in use on the Hanford site. The manual is in two parts. Part 1 covers general adminis...

D. M. Fleming

1973-01-01

333

Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

Traeger, R.K.

1984-05-01

334

Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

Miller, J. A.; And Others

335

Offshore megaproject instrumentation needs planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of the Statfjord ''C'' drilling\\/production platform in the North Sea is a good example of the demands a megaproject like this can put on instrumentation activities. The huge platform is in production in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It is a result of modern construction techniques. Such techniques emphasize the fabrication of large modular

Guerrero

1986-01-01

336

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

337

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The mission of the UVPI was to obtain radiometrically calibrated images of rocket plumes at high altitude and background image data of

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

338

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-07

339

Coaxial curved instrumentation for minimal access surgery.  

PubMed

New coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been designed which permit controlled dissection and directional change of the functional tip, blunt dissection and lift retraction. The instruments are introduced into the peritoneal and thoracic cavities through flexible re-usable metal cannulae. The excellent ergonomic properties of the new instruments have been confirmed by their use in major laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operations. Coaxial instruments enhance the scope of minimal access surgery and have distinct advantages over the traditional straight instruments. PMID:8081901

Cuschieri, A; Shimi, S; Banting, S; Van Velpen, G; Dunkley, P

340

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-06-01

341

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-08-13

342

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-05-01

343

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-09-09

344

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-10-01

345

Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans.

2010-01-01

346

Borehole survey instrument control circuitry  

SciTech Connect

A borehole survey instrument and control circuitry are described. The borehole survey instrument includes indicators for measuring angle of deviation from the vertical and angle of deviation from magnetic north and a photographic recording means for recording the output of the indicators at selected times. A lighting system is utilized in conjunction with the photographic recording means to expose photographic film and a novel time control circuit is utilized in conjunction with the lighting system to alter the length of time of illumination in accordance with the operativeness of individual bulbs within the lighting system. In this manner, the failure of one or more bulbs within the lighting system will not substantially affect the amount of illumination to which the film in the photographic recording means is exposed.

Sharp, H.E.; Smither, M.A.

1984-11-06

347

Energy Transfer in Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers concepts of energy and energy transfer utilizing energy transfer in musical instruments as an example. More specifically, the lesson explains the two different ways in which energy can be transferred between a system and its environment. The law of conservation of energy will also be taught. Example systems will be presented to students (two cars on a track and a tennis ball falling to the ground) and students will be asked to make predictions and explain the energy transfer mechanisms. The engineering focus comes in clearly in the associated activity when students are asked to apply the fundamental concepts of the lesson to design a musical instrument. The systems analyzed in the lesson should help a great deal in terms of discussing how to apply conservation of energy and energy transfer to make things.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

348

Test of dip cup instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation has been developed which will measure the alumina content of cryolite baths based upon the detection of a thermal arrest in the cooling curve when a small sample is pulled from the bath using a graphite cup. Detection of the temperature at which thermal arrest occurs is automatic, and an alumina content is automatically calculated and displayed. Recent measurements at a production plant indicate a standard error of 0.38% or less in the determination of alumina content based upon a set of 9 measurements. The time required for a single measurement is less than 5 minutes. No further development of the technique of instrumentation is planned at the present time. 1 ref., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Brenden, B.B.

1988-11-01

349

Moored optical particle flux instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype instrument has been developed to measure the settling velocity of marine particulates using optical techniques in an in-situ settling chamber. Particles from 100 micrometers to several mm are imaged by a shadowgraph system, which has a 30 cm depth of field. Particles in the 10 to 100 micrometers range are monitored by a laser diffraction system. Flow management considerations have been incorporated into the instrument to ensure minimal disruption of the aggregates and their settling rates. We present the results of laboratory tests in which the settling rates of polystyrene spheres and natural marine particulates have been measured using the component systems. Design considerations for the self-contained moored version are also specified.

Chang, Enson; Patton, Randall J.; Gran, Robert L.

1994-10-01

350

Health Physics Instrumentation Museum Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This particular online collection from the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (a university consortium that oversees the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) contains over 1000 objects, many of which are on view at this site. The Health Physics Historical Instrumentation Museum Collection has been deemed the official repository for historical radiological instruments by the Health Physics Society, and at its essence, "chronicles the scientific and commercial history of radioactivity and radiation." This online collection is divided into sections that include atomic movie posters, radiation warning signs, radioluminescent items, ionization chambers, and electrometers. One of the more engaging sections details a number of items designed as radioactive quack cures, such as jars for adding radon to water, emanators for adding radon to water, and radium tablets and bath salts.

351

Evaluation Framework for Search Instruments  

SciTech Connect

A framework for quantitatively evaluating current and proposed gamma-ray search instrument designs has been developed. The framework is designed to generate a large library of “virtual neighborhoods” that can be used to test and evaluate nearly any gamma-ray sensor type. Calculating nuisance-source emissions and combining various sources to create a large number of random virtual scenes places a significant computational burden on the development of the framework. To reduce this burden, a number of radiation transport simplifications have been made which maintain the essential physics ingredients for the quantitative assessment of search instruments while significantly reducing computational times. The various components of the framework, from the simulation and benchmarking of nuisance source emissions to the computational engine for generating the gigabytes of simulated search scenes, are discussed.

Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Kaye, William R.

2005-10-23

352

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

DOEpatents

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

Cannon, Collins P. (Richland, WA); Brown, Donald P. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01

353

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-08-01

354

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-01-01

355

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

356

Van Allen Probes - The Instruments  

NASA Video Gallery

Dr. David Sibeck explains the instruments on the twin Van Allen Probes (formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP). The Van Allen Probes will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charged particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. The mission also will allow researchers to understand fundamental radiation and particle acceleration processes throughout the universe.

gsfcvideo

2012-11-08

357

Instrumentation for Ultrasonic Transkull Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A~$stmct-lnstrumentation operating in the 0.5 to 1.0 MHz frequency range specifically designed for acoustic visualization of intracranial anatomy through the intact adult human skull is described. The instrumentation consists of a commercial B-mode scanner which has been extensively modified to enhance the reduced sensitivity and resolution inherent in such visualization schemes, as well as aid in the identification of intracranial

W. A. Erdmann; F. J. Fry; K. W. Johnston; N. T. Sanghvi

1982-01-01

358

Instrumented riser now at work  

SciTech Connect

An instrumented marine riser assembly operated offshore northwestern Australia from May through December 1979 is described in detail. The installation was part of Gulf's riser investigation program set up to gather data for use with production riser design for deepwater areas. The system monitored and reported subsea tension and bending and subsea pressure and temperature. Events recorded included landing and release of the stack, drop in mud level from diverter level to sea level, and efficiency of the riser tensioning system. (BLM)

Kendall, R. (Interstate Electronics Corp., Anaheim, CA); Mitchell, J.

1980-06-05

359

Instrumentation for thermopenetrometry of fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument for thermopenetrometry of fats was developed. A linear displacement transducer was modified by removing the\\u000a spring actuated return mechanism on the moving shaft and attaching a cone to the lower end of the shaft. The cone dimensions\\u000a were those specified in AOCS method Cc 16–60. A platform was fitted to the upper end of the shaft to

J. M. Deman; S. Gupta; M. Kloek; G. E. Timbers

1984-01-01

360

Structural dynamic testing and instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment is made of the state of the art in structural testing and instrumentation for flight vehicle systems. Flight vehicles considered include both aeronautical systems and space systems. All forms of static and dynamics tests performed on such vehicles are considered, including those assessing strength, durability, damage tolerance and/or sensitivity, and tests designed to assess validity of static and dynamic models related to these characteristics.

Allemang, Randall J.; Brown, David L.

361

NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.

1993-08-12

362

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

363

Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin 10-m telescopes of the W.M. Keck Observatory have now been in operation for almost a decade. The original complement of first generation instruments remains in use (NIRC, HIRES, LRIS, and LWS) and all second generation instruments have been commissioned and are in regular operation (NIRSPEC, ESI, NIRC2 and DEIMOS). Both telescopes are equipped with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems, but only Keck II is equipped for AO science at the present time. Several detector upgrades and new third generation instruments are in progress. The blue side of the LRIS double spectrograph received two new E2V 2k x 4k CCDs in July 2002 and a 3-CCD mosaic upgrade to HIRES is scheduled for commissioning in mid-2004. An upgrade of the LRIS-R CCD is planned for completion in late 2005. The near-infrared integral field spectrometer for AO (OSIRIS) has passed critical design review and is in advanced fabrication, and studies for a near-infrared multi-object spectrometer are in the preliminary design phase. An Atmospheric Dispersion Compensator (ADC) for LRIS is currently under development. Other major developments include regular operation of the Keck-Keck interferometer, and the first successful closed-loop operations with the Laser Guide Star on Keck II.

McLean, Ian S.; Adkins, Sean

2004-09-01

364

The OMPS Limb Profiler instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) will continue the monitoring of the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. OMPS is scheduled to be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in October 2011. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth's limb radiance, from which ozone profile will be retrieved from the upper tropopause uo to 60km. End-to-end studies of the sensor and retrieval algorithm indicate the following expected performance for ozone: accuracy of 5% or better from the tropopause up to 50 km, precision of about 3-5% from 18 to 50 km, and vertical resolution of 1.5-2 km with vertical sampling of 1 km and along-track horizontal sampling of 1 deg latitude. The paper will describe the mission, discuss the retrieval algorithm, and summarize the expected performance. If available, the paper will also present early on-orbit data.

Rault, D. F.; Xu, P.

2011-12-01

365

Composite instrumentation amplifier for biopotentials.  

PubMed

We present the design of an instrumentation biopotential amplifier that, (a) combines the ac coupling and high input impedance of an ac-coupled buffer with the CMRR of a simple differential amplifier or a monolithic instrumentation amplifier, (b) improves the CMRR by using a potentiometer without requiring either precision resistors or high-CMRR op amps, (c) illustrates how to calculate the CMRR for differential-input stages for either differential output or single-ended output. With our approach, for the 741 op amp, the CMRR of the differential stage exceeds 126 dB at 10 Hz and 106 dB at 100 Hz, which is higher than the 90 dB of the op amp alone. This is because a potentiometer permits mismatch of the resistor ratio, which compensates for the low CMRR of the op amp. Use of the LF355 op amp, which has a wider band-width, yields a CMRR of 126 dB at both 10 and 100 Hz. If the second stage is an instrumentation amplifier then no adjustment is necessary. Mismatch of passive components in the bootstrapped input buffer stage decreases the CMRR from 126 dB to 112 dB at 60 Hz and decreases it further at lower frequencies, but that is not a problem for the usual power-line interference. PMID:2372162

Pallás-Areny, R; Webster, J G

1990-01-01

366

The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth`s polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp {minus}1).

Gurnett, D.A.; Persoon, A.M.; Randall, R.F.; Odem, D.L.; Remington, S.L.; Averkamp, T.F.; Debower, M.M.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Huff, R.L.; Kirchner, D.L.

1995-01-01

367

14 CFR 25.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Instruments using a power supply. (a) For each instrument...1303(b) that uses a power supply, the following apply...instrument, to indicate when power adequate to sustain proper...the instruments. For electric instruments, the...

2013-01-01

368

APOLLO Experience Report Flight Instrumentation Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three types of instrumentation-calibration data were used in the Apollo Program to provide the correct engineering data for tests and mission support. The command and service module instrumentation-component procurement specifications required individual-...

J. F. Demoss

1973-01-01

369

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL VOC SCREENING INSTRUMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the evaluation of potential fugitive source emission screening instruments for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An initial review of available portable VOC detection instruments indicated that detectors operating on several principles (i.e., fla...

370

Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the interim progress for contract NASW-4818, Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID), a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedo...

R. C. Boyd

1994-01-01

371

Radiological Instrument Design Investigation for OCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Circuit and electronic component designs for the Office of Civil Defense radiological instrumentation were studied. Miniature gas-discharge ionization chamber instruments were studied, and two experimental modules were constructed and tested. Additional o...

E. J. Kennedy F. M. Glass F. W. Manning J. M. Rochelle J. T. DeLorenzo

1971-01-01

372

Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's robotic solar system exploration program requires a new generation of science instruments. Design concepts are now judged against stringent mass, power, and size constraints--yet future instruments must be highly capable, reliable, and, in some app...

J. Appleby

1993-01-01

373

Journey to Fielded BioInstrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last ten years, a team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory created fieldable instruments that performed identification/quantification via bioassays. These instruments have been based on molecular surface-recognition assays, such as immunoas...

R. Mariella

2005-01-01

374

[Instruments for quantitative methods of nursing research].  

PubMed

Instruments for quantitative nursing research are a mean to objectify and measure a variable or a phenomenon in the scientific research. There are direct instruments to measure concrete variables and indirect instruments to measure abstract concepts (Burns, Grove, 1997). Indirect instruments measure the attributes by which a concept is made of. Furthermore, there are instruments for physiologic variables (e.g. for the weight), observational instruments (Check-lists e Rating Scales), interviews, questionnaires, diaries and the scales (Check-lists, Rating Scales, Likert Scales, Semantic Differential Scales e Visual Anologue Scales). The choice to select an instrument or another one depends on the research question and design. Instruments research are very useful in research both to describe the variables and to see statistical significant relationships. Very carefully should be their use in the clinical practice for diagnostic assessment. PMID:11228871

Vellone, E

375

Theory of the Gyroscope and Gyroscopic Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is designed as a textbook for students in higher technical institutes specializing in gyroscopic instrumentation. It sets forth applied gyroscope theory, the fundamentals of the theory of gyroscopic instruments used in stabilization and control...

V. A. Pavlov

1966-01-01

376

Capabilities and Limitations of Geochemical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to understand the capability and limitations of several instruments (AA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS) used for geochemical analysis. Students compare and contrast the cost, detection limits, etc. of these instruments.

Nezat, Carmen

377

Quality control and testing of optical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality control and testing of optical instruments are examined from both theoretical and practical standpoints. In particular, attention is given to methods for determining the differential and complex quality characteristics of optical instruments and their subsystems, service conditions of optical instruments, metrological aspects of quality control and testing, and organizational aspects and the efficiency of quality control and testing. Other topics discussed including control, testing, and adjustment equipment; methods for testing optical instruments during assembly; and classification of tests and testing techniques.

Petrov, V. P.

378

A portable luminescence dating instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a portable luminescence reader suitable for use in remote localities in the field. The instrument weighs about 8 kg and is based around a 30 mm bialkali photomultiplier detecting signals through a glass filter centered on 340 nm. Stimulation is by 470 nm blue LEDs (24 W in total) operating in both continuous wave and pulsed mode; photon counting can be gated such that it is active only during the pulse off-period. There are also two bleaching light sources (470 nm, 5 W and 940 nm, 3 W), and the luminescence signals can be regenerated using a cold-cathode 30 kV X-ray tube, delivering ˜0.06 Gy.s-1. The three position sampling device has a heating element under each sampling position, able to heat the sample at 3 °C.s-1 up to at least 250 °C. The sampler can be inserted into unconsolidated sediments, and is designed to prevent exposure of the mineral grains to ambient light during sampling. The performance of the instrument in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility is comparable to that of the standard bench-top laboratory TL/OSL Risø reader.We show that the portable luminescence reader is able to measure accurately an ˜20 Gy quartz burial dose in a natural (unpretreated, no mineral separation) sandy sediment. We also show that, because of the configuration of the measurement head, the portable reader can be used to measure radioluminescence at elevated temperature in the presence of stimulation light; this facility is not available on conventional bench-top instruments. It is concluded that the portable luminescence reader can be used to accurately determine the quartz burial dose in loose sandy sediments in the field, without sample preparation or darkroom facilities.

Kook, M. H.; Murray, A. S.; Lapp, T.; Denby, P. H.; Ankjærgaard, C.; Thomsen, K.; Jain, M.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, G. H.

2011-06-01

379

Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)  

SciTech Connect

Emerging technologies in the field of "Test & Measurement" have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW®, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past.

Vargo, Timothy D.

1999-06-07

380

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

381

Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth`s climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-05-01

382

The AsteroidFinder Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR Institute of Planetary Exploration has proposed a novel design for a space instrument accommodated on a small satellite bus (SSB) that is dedicated to the detection of inner earth objects (IEOs) from a low earth orbit (LEO). The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5m (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1 arcsec (1). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak?90). The instrument design is based on a novel focal plane consisting of four Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EMCCD). These detectors operate at a high frame rate of nominally 5fps and very low effective readout noise (¡2e rms), in order to compensate the spacecraft's pointing jitter. The telescope optics is based on an off-axis anastigmatic design (TMA). A reflective Schmidt-type corrector plate enables a corrected 22 field of view to be achieved by the fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of center obscurations or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, HB-Cesic R was selected as material for the telescope structure and mirrors. This new composite ceramic material is highly promising for space telescope applications. The electronics design comprises high speed signal and data processing chains for on-board acquisition, filtering, accumulation and compression of the CCD data. One of the most important tasks of the on-board processing software is to implement the image stabilization function. For this purpose the images are oversampled, guide stars are automatically identified and tracked, and the individual short-exposure images are shifted and co-added with sub-pixel accuracy. During this process, spurious events as cosmic ray hits or dark spikes are identified and eliminated. Some more detailed instrument design features, as shown in the poster, are described below.

Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Hoffmann, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Messina, Gabriele; Tschentscher, Matthias; Scheibe, Karsten; Solbrig, Michael; Mosebach, Herbert; Hartl, Michael; Lenfert, Kay

383

Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

384

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The mission of the UVPI was to obtain radiometrically calibrated images of rocket plumes at high altitude and background image data of the Earth, Earth's limb, and celestial objects in the near- and middle-UV wave bands. The UVPI was designed for nighttime observations, i.e., to acquire and track relatively bright objects against a dark background.

Horan, D. M.

385

Evaluation Instruments in Health Education. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Descriptive information on evaluation instruments for measuring effective health education programs is included in this bibliography. The evaluation instruments are listed in five categories, four of which correspond to the school level for which the instrument has been designed--elementary, junior high, senior high, and college and nonstudent…

Solleder, Marian K.

386

Instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Volume 3. Radiation  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive survey of instrunnentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory under a grant from the Natioral Science Foundation. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements of Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedical Parameters related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. The survey material is compiled in 5 loose- leaf volumes which can be periodically updated. An update for volume 3 on radiation instrumentation is presented. New pages are included for insertion in the introductory material and also under the headings nuclear reactors, combination instruments, alpha particle instrumentation, beta particle instrumentation, x and gamma radiation monitoring instrumentation, gamma spectrometry, neutron monitoring instrumentation, personnel dosimetry, radionuclides (strontium -89 and -90, iodine -129 and -131, radium, uranium, plutonium, and instrument notes), and infrared. (WHK)

None

1973-10-01

387

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

Ulf Leonhardt

2003-01-01

388

ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 13, Fall 1996  

SciTech Connect

The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

NONE

1996-12-01

389

A malleable endoscopic suction instrument: technical note.  

PubMed

Flexible endoscopes are being employed for a variety of neurosurgical procedures. These instruments have drawbacks, especially in their ability to evacuate clotted blood. We have attempted to rethink the design of these instruments and have developed a malleable endoscopic suction instrument. This has proved to be helpful in a variety of intracranial and intraspinal procedures. PMID:9651915

Frank, E H; Ragel, B R

1998-06-01

390

A Programming Model for Instrument Calibration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programming model for instrument calibration system is designed applying the concepts and techniques of software architecture. The model consists of two parts: one is the instrument calibration framework that provides an infrastructure and general functions to the calibration system, and the other is the calibration component library that performs different instrument calibration tasks. A calibration system was implemented applying

Xu Lili

2007-01-01

391

High energy gamma ray balloon instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Energy Gamma Ray Balloon Instrument was built in part to verify certain subsystems' performance for the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument, the high energy telescope to be carried on the Gamma Ray Observatory. This paper describes the instrument, the performance of some subsystems, and some relevant results.

D. J. Thompson; R. G. Baker; D. L. Bertsch; J. R. Chesney; S. M. Derdeyn; C. H. Ehrmann; C. E. Fichtel; S. D. Hunter; J. S. Jacques; N. A. Laubenthal

1985-01-01

392

Microbial contamination of musical wind instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective and prospective studies were used to assess the numbers, types and persistence of microbes that contaminate wind instruments. All previously played instruments (n = 20) harbored viable bacteria as well as mold and\\/or yeast. Reedinstruments consistently carried higher microbial loads than did flutes or trumpets. Instruments played within the previous three days bore typical mouth flora, while bacteria recovered after 72 h

Bonnie Marshall; Stuart Levy

2011-01-01

393

Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To…

Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

394

ROLES OF INSTRUMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

What roles have instruments played in psychology and related disciplines? How have instruments affected the dynamics of psychological research, with what possibilities and limits? What is a psychological instrument? This article provides a conceptual foundation for specific case studies concerning such questions. The discussion begins by challenging widely accepted assumptions about the subject and analyzing the general relations between scientific

Thomas Sturm; Mitchell G. Ash

2005-01-01

395

ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 14, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation.

NONE

1997-07-01

396

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

397

PACMAN: PRIMA astrometric instrument software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual feed astrometric instrument software of PRIMA (PACMAN) that is currently being integrated at the VLTI will use two spatially modulated fringe sensor units and a laser metrology system to carry out differential astrometry. Its software and hardware compromises a distributed system involving many real time computers and workstations operating in a synchronized manner. Its architecture has been designed to allow the construction of efficient and flexible calibration and observation procedures. In parallel, a novel scheme of integrating M-code (MATLAB/OCTAVE) with standard VLT (Very Large Telescope) control software applications had to be devised in order to support numerically intensive operations and to have the capacity of adapting to fast varying strategies and algorithms. This paper presents the instrument software, including the current operational sequences for the laboratory calibration and sky calibration. Finally, a detailed description of the algorithms with their implementation, both under M and C code, are shown together with a comparative analysis of their performance and maintainability.

Abuter, Roberto; Sahlmann, Johannes; Pozna, Eszter

2010-07-01

398

Instrument Development for SHOW project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a critically important constituent throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere The SHOW project will develop a new instrument to measure water vapour from 15km to 85km height on a global scale using the unique capabilities provided by Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy SHS This work builds on Canadian expertise in fabricating solid Michelson interferometers to fill a significant niche in our current capability The SHS setup the FTS with the mirrors replaced by diffraction gratings at Littrow configuration wavelength depended Fizeau fringes are recorded by a 320 256 InGaAs near infrared camera without any scanning elements the high resolution spectral information along one detector dimension can be obtain from Fourier analysis and the other dimension will provide the spatial information At a limb view point a field-widened SHS with half-angle of 6 degrees for water observations at 1364nm is desired the resolution is 0 02nm within full bandwidth of 2nm and the resolving power is about 68 000 The laboratory work for the instrument development and the designing building and testing of the pre-prototype are presented

Lin, Y. L.; Shepherd, M. G.; Shepherd, G. G.; Solheim, B. H.; Brown, S.

399

PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech offers support of seismic instrumentation, maintenance of equipment, training, and logistical field support for seismology experiments. The website provides thorough explanations of the sensors, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation. Researchers can find a users guide, schedules of the instrumentation, and forms to request the use PASSCAL equipment with the stipulation that the data will be made available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) two years after the field work is completed. Users can learn about the growing number of technological instruments available at the Center due to the support of the Department of Energy.

400

Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews the advances in particle measuring and sampling instruments, with particular emphasis on instruments for atmospheric studies. Devices for particle generation needed for instrument calibration and experimental purposes are also covered in this review.

Pui, David Y. H.; Liu, Benjamin Y. H.

1988-02-01

401

Acoustical analysis of woodwind musical instruments for virtual instrument implementation by physical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we present the development of a framework of methodologies, which allow the creation of acoustic analysis, by woodwind musical instrument recordings corpora, as well as the implementation of virtual instruments, by physical modeling. We emphasize on traditional instruments, starting with the zournas. By analysis, acoustical aspects of the instrument are derived (attack-release time, spectral harmonic distribution,

Panagiotis Tzevelekos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou

2004-01-01

402

Proceedings of International Instrumentation Symposium, 27th, parts 1, 2  

SciTech Connect

Various new instrument applications are discussed. Topics include advances in instrumentation and measurement, microcomputer applications, thermal and force measurements, instrumentation for material measurements, instrumentation in machinery applications, two-phase flow measurement, flight test instrumentation, pressure and flow measurement, data acquisition and analysis, vibration instrumentation and control, strain measurement, and reentry vehicle instrumentation.

Not Available

1981-01-01

403

Keck Interferometer nuller instrument performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Keck Interferometer combines the two 10 m Keck telescopes as a long baseline interferometer. It is funded by NASA as a joint development among the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the W. M. Keck Observatory, and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. In February 2008, the 10 um nulling mode began a 32 night observing program with three key science teams to perform a survey of nearby stars for exozodiacal dust. This program has recently concluded, and has been followed by nuller observing on a variety of science topics through the standard proposal process. We provide a review and update of the nuller implementation, and describe the data reduction process, including the calibration approach. We then review the technical performance of the instrument based on the full key science data set, including sensitivity and systematic errors. We also provide some summary data on atmospheric effects applicable to the cophasing approach.

Colavita, M. M.; Serabyn, E.; Ragland, S.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Akeson, R. L.

2010-07-01

404

(Analytical instrumentation in clinical chemistry)  

SciTech Connect

As chairman of the Expert Panel on Instrumentation (EPI) of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), I presided over its closed and open meetings held on June 29, 1987, and July 2, 1987, respectively. As chairman-elect of the Organizing Committee of the 1990 International Congress on Clinical Chemistry, I also attended the meeting of the IFCC Congress Committee to give a progress report. This report was subsequently also presented to the IFCC Executive Board and Council and to its corporate members. These meetings were held prior to, or in conjunction with, the 13th International Congress of Clinical Chemistry. Consequently, I had an opportunity to attend several of the scientific sessions and the Trade Exposition of the Congress.

Burtis, C.A.

1987-07-14

405

Musical instrument with improved keyboard  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved keyboard for a musical instrument includes a plurality of keys arranged in a side-by-side order, all lying in a common plane. Different embodiments of the invention have a varying number of keys per octave, from as small as 12 keys per octave to as high as 90-120 keys per octave. In those embodiments of the invention in which the number of keys per octave results in a key whose width is too narrow to be uniquely depressed by an operator's finger, associated apparatus determines from a plurality of keys which have been depressed, a particular tone to be produced. The keyboard may be associated with apparatus to distinguish one set of keys from other sets of keys, which apparatus can include a selectively energizable light source associated with each different key or other equivalent apparatus.

1984-11-06

406

The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is making detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Cerro Toco in northern Chile. In this talk, I focus on the design and operation of the telescope and its commissioning instrument, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The camera contains three independent sets of optics that operate at 148 GHz, 217 GHz, and 277 GHz with arcminute resolution, each of which couples to a 1024-element array of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. I will report on the camera performance, including the beam patterns, optical efficiencies, and detector sensitivities. Under development for ACT is a new polarimeter based on feedhorn-coupled TES devices that have improved sensitivity and are planned to operate at 0.1 K.

Thornton, Robert J.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Team

2010-01-01

407

MC and A instrumentation catalog  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-06-01

408

Mild cognitive deficits and everyday functioning among older adults in the community: The Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective A key component of successful aging in old age is the ability to independently perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). We examined the ability to perform multiple IADL tasks in relation to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) defined on purely neuropsychological grounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based cohort in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Participants 1,737 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older. Measurements Classification of MCI based on performance with reference to norms in the cognitive domains of memory, language, attention, executive and visuospatial function. The ability to perform seven IADL tasks (travel, shopping, meal preparation, housework, taking medications, handling personal finances, and telephone use) as assessed by the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) scale. Results Those with cognitively defined MCI were more likely to be dependent in at least one IADL task, and in each individual IADL task, than cognitively normal participants. Better memory and executive functioning were associated with lower odds of IADL dependence in MCI. Across the subtypes of MCI, those with the multiple-domain amnestic subtype were the most likely to be dependent in all IADL tasks; with better executive functioning associated with lower risk of dependence in select IADL tasks in this group. Conclusions Mild impairment in cognition is associated with difficulty performing IADL tasks at the population level. Understanding these associations may help improve prediction of the outcomes of MCI. It may also allow appropriate targeting of cognitive interventions in MCI to potentially help preserve functional independence.

Hughes, Tiffany F.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Bilt, Joni Vander; Snitz, Beth E.; Ganguli, Mary

2012-01-01

409

A decibel measuring instrument for fiber optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable instrument has been designed for measuring the power output of fiber optic sources in both absolute dBm units and relative dB units over a 90 dB range. The battery-operated instrument employs a series of plug-in light sensors to monitor light sources and transmission devices on wavelengths ranging from 220 to 2000 nm. The instrument has a selectable resolution

P. H. Wendland; D. N. Horwitz

1979-01-01

410

Remote Monitoring of Instrumentation in Sealed Compartments  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been exploring the instrumentation of sealed canisters where the flight application will not tolerate either the presence of a chemical power source or penetration by power supply wires. This paper will describe the application of a low power micro-controller based instrumentation system that uses magnetic coupling for both power and data to support a flight application.

Landron, Clinton; Moser, John C.

1999-05-20

411

Instrumentation of UALR labscale hybrid rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Arkansas Combustion Group has used a NASA EPSCoR grant to improve the instrumentation and control of its labscale hybrid rocket facility. The research group investigates fundamental aspects of combustion in hybrid rocket motors. This paper describes the new instrumentation, provides examples of measurements taken, and describes novel instrumentation which is in the process of development. A six degree-of-freedom

Andrew B. Wright; Warfield Teague; Ann M. Wright; Edmond W. Wilson

2006-01-01

412

Operation and performance of the OSSE instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is described. An overview of the operation and control of the instrument is given, together with a discussion of typical observing strategies used with OSSE and basic data types produced by the instrument. Some performance measures for the instrument are presented that were obtained from pre-launch and in-flight data. These include observing statistics, continuum and line sensitivity, and detector effective area and gain stability.

Cameron, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Leising, M. D.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.

1992-02-01

413

Instrumental requirements for minimal invasive fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Minimal invasive intrauterine interventions have gained their place in fetal medicine. Interventions on the placenta, umbilical cord, fetal membranes or on the fetus require special endoscopes with their respective sheaths, cannulas and additional instruments. Instruments for fetal therapy are purpose designed for the procedure of interest and most gynaecologists are therefore not familiar with them. We review the currently available instrumentation used during operations for complicated monochorionic multiple pregnancies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, amniotic band syndrome, urinary tract obstruction and hydrothorax. PMID:19076951

Klaritsch, P; Albert, K; Van Mieghem, T; Gucciardo, L; Done', E; Bynens, B; Deprest, J

2009-01-01

414

NASA Airborne Satellite Instrumentation Calibrator (NASIC) Technical Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Satellite Instrumentation Calibrator (NASIC) is a visible and near-infrared spectrometer used to calibrate various satellite instruments by underflying those instruments in a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The calibration instrument's hardware and software ...

J. L. Ward G. Mcintire

1993-01-01

415

Instrumented hip implants: Electric supply systems.  

PubMed

Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

2013-08-24

416

Portable instrument for detection of illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, portable instrument, model NDS-2000 for the detection of illicit drugs was developed. The instrument is based on surface ionization detection system, where ionization is carried out on a heated filament. Positive ions formed in the process are drifted to a collector and a signal is registered. The front-end of the instrument consists of an integral vacuum sampler with built-in desorber system for narcotic particles. The model NDS-2000 has an internal microprocessor and LCD display, as well as visible and audible alarm indicators. RS-232 port on the instrument provides communication to an external PC for data storage and printing.

Nacson, Sabatino; Walker, H.; Chang, Allan; Siu, Tony; McNelles, L.; Uffe, M.

1997-02-01

417

Residual stress instrument at the HANARO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A residual stress instrument was developed and measurement service has been available since early 2000 at the HANARO. The instrument is an optional instrument to a high-resolution powder diffractometer sharing its sample table and monochromator with changeable optical components and a linear position-sensitive detector unit. We report here the installation of the residual stress instrument at the HANARO and its early measurements on the samples of VAMAS and some engineering components. A short description of future plans is also included.

Moon, M.-K.; Lee, C.-H.; Em, V. T.; Kim, H.-J.

418

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

419

In the Spotlight: BioInstrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed physiological measurement instrumentation for ambulatory\\/wearable physiological monitoring, cardio-pulmonary monitoring, activity monitoring, and biochemical monitoring. Future aspects also were discussed

Ken-ichi Yamakoshi

2010-01-01

420

In the Spotlight: BioInstrumentation.  

PubMed

This paper discussed physiological measurement instrumentation for ambulatory/wearable physiological monitoring, cardio-pulmonary monitoring, activity monitoring, and biochemical monitoring. Future aspects also were discussed. PMID:22275193

Yamakoshi, Ken-Ichi

2010-01-01

421

An evaluation of four automated coagulation instruments.  

PubMed

Four automated coagulation instruments were evaluated for performance of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT): the Dade Auto-Fi, General Diagnostics Dual Channel Coag-a-Mate, MLA Electra 600D, and Sherwood Lancer Coagulyzer. Statistical comparisons showed only minor differences among values determined with these instruments. Reproducibilities of duplicate prothrombin times and APTTs were equivalent on all machines except the Coag-a-Mate; the problem here was in the alignment of the two channels, and should be correctable. Differences exist in the costs, technician acceptance, computer interfacing, and normal values on these instruments. The MLA instrument has the lowest purchase price, followed by the Sherwood and then the General Diagnostics instruments. These three instruments have comparable costs for disposable supplies. The Dade has a substantially higher purchase price and higher costs of disposable supplies. The Sherwood and MLA had the best technician acceptance. All instruments except the Coag-a-Mate can be easily interfaced to a computer. The Dade instrument gave longer coagulation times than the other three instruments when General Diagnostics reagents were used. PMID:707433

Klee, G G; Didisheim, P; Johnson, R J; Giere, G M

1978-10-01

422

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

423

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980, at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 317/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. The materials development programs cover all aspects of geothermal energy extraction. Research on drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and wellbore logging were necessary to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the hot dry rock concepts.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.; Cruz, J.

1982-01-01

424

Overview of the instrumentation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

Nieberding, William C.

1989-04-01

425

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

426

Development of Egyptian instrumentation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During early 1977, USAID/CAIRO engaged Dor. Huston and two UW/ISC staff members, Mr. Weckel and Mr. Falk, as consultants. The purpose of this engagement was to prepare technical specifications and submit procurement plans for scientific instruments, apparatus, and equipment required for the National Research Center in Cairo. More than 2 man months were spent in Cairo and 2 man months in Wisconsin in performing these tasks. Mr. Falk made 2 additional trips to Cairo in August 1977 and December 1978 in performing work ancillary to the earlier assignments. The outcome of this engagement was the initiation of procurement for about two million dollars worth of equipment. In the course of these interactions a detailed familiarity was obtained with the NRC and SIC facilities and a close rapport was established with the Egyptian managers, scientists and engineers associated with them. Another program detailing with the development of maintenance and repair programs within the Egyptian scientific community was undertaken under NSF sponsorship in 1978.

Huston, N. E.; Falk, E. D.

427

Combining within and between instrument information to estimate precision  

SciTech Connect

When two instruments, both having replicated measurements, are used to measure the same set of items, between instrument information may be used to augment the within instrument precision estimate. A method is presented which combines the within and between instrument information to obtain an unbiased and minimum variance estimate of instrument precision. The method does not assume the instruments have equal precision.

Jost, J.W.; Devary, J.L.; Ward, J.E.

1980-01-01

428

Cryogenic optical systems and instruments II  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of a conference of the Society for Optical Engineering. Topics covered are: Cryogenic optical systems considerations; Cryogrenic instruments and components; Design and performance of cryogenic dewars for space; and Supporting technology for crogenic systems and instruments.

Melugin, R.K.

1986-01-01

429

Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

2008-01-01

430

Nuclear test instrumentation with miniature superconductive cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instrumentation requirements for nuclear testing are particularly stringent because of the nature of the transients involved and because of the distance at which instrumentation must be placed. Presently used high-quality transmission lines are not capable of nanosecond performance where cable runs of approximately 1000 meters are concerned. Experimental data from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site show

D. K. Rathbun; H. J. Jensen

1968-01-01

431

Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.

2011-01-01

432

Geoscientific Instrumentation in River Valley Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day development of the engineering projects, especially river valley development, underground storage chamber and metro rail projects require lot of instrumentation work, many of hydroelectric projects are located in the Himalayan region. Instruments are required in different stages of the project, especially during excavation and in the areas of poor to very poor rock mass. Monitoring of slope in

G. C. Pargaien

433

Instrumental Enrichment with Low Achieving Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An assessment study was conducted on the effectiveness of a cognitive education program, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment, in meeting the needs of a class of low achieving adolescents at a vocational school in Calgary, Canada. Fifteen students participated in an Instrumental Enrichment class for one 45 minute period five days a week over two…

Samuels, Marilyn; And Others

434

Gender differences in musical instrument choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music Services in England as part of a

Susan Hallam; Lynne Rogers; Andrea Creech

2008-01-01

435

On Time-Aware Instrumentation of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software instrumentation is a key technique in many stages of the development process. It is of particular importance for debugging embedded systems. Instrumented programs pro- duce data traces which enable the developer to locate the origins of misbehaviours in the system under test. However, producing data traces incurs runtime overhead in the form of additional computation resources for capturing and

Sebastian Fischmeister; Patrick Lam

2009-01-01

436

Time-Aware Instrumentation of Embedded Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software instrumentation is a key technique in many stages of the development process. It is particularly important for debugging embedded systems. Instrumented programs produce data traces which enable the developer to locate the origins of misbehaviors in the system under test. However, producing data traces incurs runtime overhead in the form of additional computation resources for capturing and copying the

Sebastian Fischmeister; Patrick Lam

2010-01-01

437

Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

1994-09-01

438

Economical approaches to updating range instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of test range instrumentation radars is reviewed briefly, centering on the digital instrumentation radar (DIR), the Nike Hercules variant (NIDIR), and new laser-radar packages in precision tracking systems. More stringent requirements in range and accuracy, detection and tracking capability, and reliability are noted; reliance on low-cost and surplus equipment is discussed, and new transportable systems (movable on flatbed

R. G. Higbee

1977-01-01

439

Adaptive Instruments for Students with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main adaptations that will be made for music students with physical disabilities are those that make the classroom accessible and those that make classroom instruments accessible. There are a number of principles to guide one when selecting instruments for students with physical disabilities. These principles can assist one in determining the…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2012-01-01

440

Acoustical evaluation of historic wind instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The later decades of the twentieth century saw a remarkable revival in the use of wind instruments of pre- modern design in historically informed performances of Renaissance, Baroque, Classical and Romantic music. In some cases surviving historic instruments have been available, but more frequently museum spec- imens have been carefully measured and reproduced for peformance. This process raises many questions;

D. M. Campbell

441

Instrumentation for radiological emergency responses. Memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview of the instrumentation and associated techniques that would be used to perform radiological monitoring at an accident\\/incident involving the release of radioactive materials. This article is not intended to serve as a user's manual for the various instruments. However, it is intended to include sufficient detail to provide an appreciation and use of such techniques

Klopcic

1989-01-01

442

Development of the servant leadership assessment instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Building upon Patterson's servant leadership theory, this study aims to present an instrument to measure the constructs of this working theory (identified as agapao love, humanity, altruism, vision, trust, service, and empowerment). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Specifically, the seven component concepts, as defined by Patterson, were used to build items for a servant leadership instrument. This study used DeVellis' “Guidelines

Robert S. Dennis; Mihai Bocarnea

2005-01-01

443

Performance summaries for SOFIA science instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOFIA will permit observations from the visible to mm wavelengths, and offer higher spectral and spatial resolution than any other facility at some wavelengths. Nine focal-plane instruments are being developed to exploit this capability during the first several years of SOFIA operation. These instruments are being built at universities, at research institutes in Germany, and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight

Allan W. Meyer; Edwin F. Erickson

2003-01-01

444

Ethical sourcing of dental instruments and materials.  

PubMed

There is evidence that dental instruments and materials are being manufactured in the developing world under poor labour conditions. It is suggested that the level of awareness of the dental team with regard to this is raised and that a culture of greater inquiry into the sourcing of instruments and materials is developed. PMID:20966996

Kelly, P T; Bhutta, M

2010-10-23

445

Using the near infrared VLTI instrument AMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMBER is the General User near infrared focal instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. Its a single mode, dispersed fringes, three telescopes instrument. A limiting magnitude of the order of H=13 will allow to tackle a fair sample of extra galactic targets. A very high accuracy, in particular in color differential phase and closure phase modes gives good hope

Romain G. Petrov; Fabien Malbet; Gerd Weigelt; Franco Lisi; Pascal Puget; Pierre Antonelli; Udo Beckmann; Stephane Lagarde; Etienne Le Coarer; Sylvie Robbe-Dubois; Gilles Duvert; Sandro Gennari; Alain Chelli; Michel Dugue; Karine Rousselet-Perraut; Martin Vannier; Denis Mourard

2003-01-01

446

Infrared Multispectral Imaging: Principles and Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral imaging spectrometer is an instrument that can simultaneously record spectral and spatial information of a samples. Chemical and physical properties of the sample can be elucidated from such images. In a multispectral imaging instrument, a camera is used to record the spatial distribution of the sample, and the spectral information is gained by scanning a dispersive device to

Chieu D. Tran

2003-01-01

447

Surgical instrument guidance using synthesized anatomical structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method of intraoperative, image-based surgical instrument guidance. The method has the potential to significantly improve visualization of intraoperative procedures that currently depend on fluoroscopic images for navigation. 3D information from preoperative computed tomography (CT) is fused with images of the instrument taken intraoperatively. Our approach employs synthesized anatomical structures, a novel approach using the effect of

Alan Liu; Elizabeth Bullitt; Stephen M. Pizer

1997-01-01

448

Instrumentation opportunities for ocean science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in ocean research is inextricably linked to advances in instrumentation and technology. Modern ocean science research increasingly deals with the dynamic physical, chemical, and biological processes within the oceans and how these processes interact over long time and spatial scales. This type of research requires strong links between scientists conducting the research and others developing the instruments and technology.

1993-01-01

449

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

450

BIT: A Tool for Instrumenting Java Bytecodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIT (Bytecode Instrumenting Tool) is a collection of Java classes that allow one to build customized tools to instrument Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecodes. Because understanding program behavior is an essential part of developing effective optimization algorithms, researchers and software developers have built numerous tools that carry out program analysis. Although there are existing tools that analyze and modify executables

Han Bok Lee; Benjamin G. Zorn

1997-01-01

451

PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

452

?Dirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new instrument (?Dirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical requirements in the design, and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to ?Dirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (CFCs and shorter-lived halocarbons having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precisions ranging from ∼1% sd (CCl4) to ∼9% sd (CH3I). Since the prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground based campaigns. Results from one aircraft and two ground-based deployments are described.

Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Pyle, J. A.

2009-09-01

453

?Dirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new instrument (?Dirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical design requirements and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground-based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to ?Dirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (including short-lived tracers having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precision relative standard deviations ranging from ± 1% (CCl4) to ± 9% (CH3I). The prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 and the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground-based campaigns. Results from an aircraft and a ground-based deployment are described.

Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Yong, S. E.; Pyle, J. A.

2010-04-01

454

The Roderic C. Knight Musical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Roderic C. Knight came to Oberlin College as a researcher and professor in the field of organology, or the scientific study of musical instruments. He had begun collecting a range of instruments when he was in high school, and he was rather proud of his diverse collection. In 2008, Knight donated his personal collection of instruments to Oberlin. This digital collection allows users to learn about and view images of all the instruments. The site includes a search engine and several menus that give users access to instruments organized by name, country or area of origin, and materials used in their construction. First-time visitors should start by clicking on the Central America area, as they will find eight delightful images of some wonderful clay flutes there.

2012-02-17

455

Gender Association of Musical Instruments and Preferences of Fourth-Grade Students for Selected Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides research findings concerning the musical instrument preferences of fourth grade students. Finds that, although gender associations with certain instruments have lessened, they remain noticeably present. Identifies drums, saxophone, and flute as the most popular instruments. Notes a moderate relationship between student perceptions of…

Delzell, Judith K.; Leppla, David A.

1992-01-01

456

Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with molten fluoride salt at 700 C (1,292 F) as part of a reactor cooling loop. The motor-pump combination during normal operation would be red-hot (Figure 1). This environment challenges every facet of the design including seals, wiring, magnetic materials, and sensors. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of sensor design in extreme environments and specifically the sensor design for a high-temperature fluoride salt coolant pump. This pump will be used as a test-bed for embedded I&C development and validation in extreme environments.

Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

2013-01-01

457

Doppler color imaging. Principles and instrumentation.  

PubMed

DCI acquires Doppler-shifted echoes from a cross-section of tissue scanned by an ultrasound beam. These echoes are then presented in color and superimposed on the gray-scale anatomic image of non-Doppler-shifted echoes received during the scan. The flow echoes are assigned colors according to the color map chosen. Usually red, yellow, or white indicates positive Doppler shifts (approaching flow) and blue, cyan, or white indicates negative shifts (receding flow). Green is added to indicate variance (disturbed or turbulent flow). Several pulses (the number is called the ensemble length) are needed to generate a color scan line. Linear, convex, phased, and annular arrays are used to acquire the gray-scale and color-flow information. Doppler color-flow instruments are pulsed-Doppler instruments and are subject to the same limitations, such as Doppler angle dependence and aliasing, as other Doppler instruments. Color controls include gain, TGC, map selection, variance on/off, persistence, ensemble length, color/gray priority. Nyquist limit (PRF), baseline shift, wall filter, and color window angle, location, and size. Doppler color-flow instruments generally have output intensities intermediate between those of gray-scale imaging and pulsed-Doppler duplex instruments. Although there is no known risk with the use of color-flow instruments, prudent practice dictates that they be used for medical indications and with the minimum exposure time and instrument output required to obtain the needed diagnostic information. PMID:1497942

Kremkau, F W

1992-01-01

458

Novel Instrumentation for Methane Flux Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development and testing of a new compact, rugged and inexpensive instrument for measurements of methane flux in ambient air. The instrument is based on a new technology called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS). This novel instrument measures methane with high sensitivity, accuracy (<2 ppbv at 1 Hz), and specificity in real time (no cross interferences). The instrument combines inexpensive, robust telecommunications-grade room-temperature diode laser operating at 1.65 microns with Off-Axis ICOS to yield an instrument capable of continuously recording data in the field with high precision (better than 0.2% uncertainty at a 10-Hz rate). We will discuss the measurement strategy in detail and present recent results demonstrating real-time measurements without the need for any user intervention. Ongoing efforts to demonstrate the instrument's capabilities to record measurements with high precision and accuracy without calibration over extended periods as well as testing of the instrument at field sites in the AmeriFlux and FLUXNET networks, and NOAA/CMDL will also be discussed. By significantly increasing the accuracy and precision of methane flux measurements, the Off-Axis ICOS instrument will enhance local, regional and global studies of global warming and facilitate controlled multi-year studies and comparisons between field sites. These studies, which could involve using the instruments aboard airplanes to enable coverage over large distances and to correlate with satellite images, will help track and quantify the global carbon cycle on small and large spatial scales, and enable atmospheric chemists to generate more reliable models of climate change and determine environmental impact.

Owano, T.; Baer, D.; Gupta, M.; Ricci, K.; O'Keefe, A.

2004-12-01

459

MANIFEST instrument concept and related technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) has recently completed a feasibility study for a fiber-positioner facility proposed for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), called MANIFEST (the Many Instrument Fiber System). The MANIFEST instrument takes full advantage of the wide-field focal plane to efficiently feed other instruments. About 2000 individually deployable fiber units are envisaged, with a wide variety of aperture types (single-aperture, image- or pupil-slicing, IFU). MANIFEST allows (a) full use of the GMT's 20' field-of-view, (b) a multiplexed IFU capability, (c) greatly increased spectral resolution via image-slicing, (d) the possibility of OH-suppression in the near-infrared.

Goodwin, Michael; Brzeski, Jurek; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Farrell, Tony; Gers, Luke; Gilbert, James; Heijmans, Jeroen; Hopkins, Andrew; Lawrence, Jon; Miziarski, Stan; Monnet, Guy; Muller, Rolf; Saunders, Will; Smith, Greg; Tims, Julia; Waller, Lewis

2012-09-01

460

Role of instrumentation in UCG process development  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification field test results obtained since 1976 are reviewed, illustrating the important role that the UCG process feature of a varying reactor geometry has on resource recovery and gas quality. The different instrumentation used on these tests is then reviewed, particularly as to its effectiveness or lack of in defining process geometry. Instrumentation such as thermocouples, HFEM, acoustic and surface resistivity are discussed with respect to concept, cost, resolution, data acquisition and data analysis. Results indicate that when instrumentation is appropriately deployed it can provide significant insight into the dynamics of reactor growth.

Hommert, P.J.

1982-09-01

461

Role of instrumentation in UCG process development  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification field test results obtained since 1976 are reviewed, illustrating the important role that the UCG process feature of a varying reactor geometry has on resource recovery and gas quality. The different instrumentation used on these tests is then reviewed, particularly as to its effectiveness, or lack of, in defining process geometry. Instrumentation such as thermocouples, HFEM, acoustic and surface resistivity are discussed with respect to concept, cost, resolution, data acquisition and data analysis. Results indicate that when instrumentation is appropriately deployed it can provide significant insight into the dynamics of reactor growth.

Hommert, P.J.

1982-01-01

462

Hedonic and Instrumental Motives in Anger Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—What motivates,individuals to regulate their emotions? One answer, which has been highlighted in emotion-regulation research, is that individuals are mo- tivatedbyshort-termhedonicgoals(e.g.,themotivationto feel pleasure). Another answer, however, is that individu- als are motivated by instrumental goals (e.g., the moti- vation to perform,certain behaviors). We suggest that both answers,have merit. To demonstrate,the role instrumental goalsmay playinemotionregulation,wepitted short-term hedonic,motives and,instrumental,motives against each other,

Maya Tamir; Christopher Mitchell; James J. Gross

2008-01-01

463

Gotha - the instruments of the observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. Looking to the newer equipment we recognize a general trend: The English instrument makers did no longer play an important role after the beginning of the 19th century and in contrast the German instrument makers becoming prominent. In the 19th century the Gotha observatory acquired new instruments: A theodolit made by Reichenbach, Utzschneider & Liebherr, München [DM 67757 a, b]; a heliometer made by Fraunhofer, München, 1817 / in the 1850s: new mounting made by Ausfeld; a 3-ft meridian circle made by Ertel, ``Utzschneider & Fraunhofer'', München, 1826/30 [DM 67744 a, b]. For the new observatory in the town (after 1857)3: a 162-cm equatorial refractor made by Repsold, Hamburg, 1860 [Gotha]; a 90-cm transit instrument made by C. Bamberg, Berlin, 1912 [Jena]. The only astrophysical equipment of the Gotha observatory was a Zöllner photometer made by Ausfeld, Gotha. Nothing for spectroscopy and photography could be found; this can not be only a problem of too less money. The astronomers were very much interested in astrometric topics, and for this purpose they got also new expensive clocks like Tiede and Riefler. In 1934 German astronomers had no success in preventing the closing of Gotha observatory. Most of the instruments went to the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

464

47 CFR 73.688 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that: (1) If the defective instrument is the transmission line meter used for determining the output power by...during the time the station is operated without the transmission line meter. (2) If conditions beyond the...

2011-10-01

465

47 CFR 73.688 - Indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that: (1) If the defective instrument is the transmission line meter used for determining the output power by...during the time the station is operated without the transmission line meter. (2) If conditions beyond the...

2012-10-01

466

Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer: Instrument Panel Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey is given of the multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer based on the work and advice of the instrument panel group, and the results of the industrial activities performed within the framework of the Earth Observation Preparatory Programme (EO...

R. Bernard M. Hallikainen Y. Kerr K. Kuenzi C. Maetzler

1990-01-01

467

Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions  

SciTech Connect

We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-09-15

468

New Instrument Aids Ion Chemistry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A team at the Naval Research Laboratory has designed, constructed, and evaluated a high-performance secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument, which promises...

1982-01-01

469

User Manual for LLNL's 24 Chamber Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 24 chamber instrument, called the PolyHanaa, is designed to perform rapid, real-time detection of biological agents using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process. Liquid samples are pipetted into small, disposable polypropylene inserts which are p...

J. Richards

2001-01-01

470

Balancing of Machines and Instruments (Selected Articles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology of synthesis of vibrating systems for balancing equipment is theoretically investigated. Since the problems of proper instrumentation and isolation of the balancing equipment from foundation disturbances are discussed elsewhere in this col...

G. N. Petrov K. S. Terekhova

1968-01-01

471

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOEpatents

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14

472

LINDA - the Astrid-2 Langmuir probe instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2, designed for studies in magnetosperic physics, was launched into orbit on 10 December 1998 from the Russian cosmodrome Plesetsk. It was injected into a circular orbit at 1000 km and at 83 degrees inclination. The satellite carried, among other instruments, a double Langmuir Probe instrument called LINDA (Langmuir INterferometer and Density instrument for Astrid-2). The scientific goals of this instrument, as well as the technical design and possible modes of operation, are described. LINDA consists of two lightweight deployable boom systems, each carrying a small spherical probe. With these probes, separated by 2.9 meters, and in combination with a high sampling rate, it was possible to discriminate temporal structures (waves) from spatial structures. An on-board memory made it possible to collect data also at times when there was no ground contact. Plasma density and electron temperature data from all magnetic latitudes and for all seasons have been collected.

Holback, B.; Jacksén, Å.; Åhlén, L.; Jansson, S.-E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Carozzi, T.; Bergman, J.

2001-06-01

473

Splinting for adaptation of musical instruments.  

PubMed

Classic instrument design does not always match the physical capacity of the musician, as instruments are often chosen because of the pleasing sound and not the ease of play. Devices that are commercially available to create a more ergonomic structure may not address the specific needs of a musician with a chronic condition. Through basic splinting of the musician with an injury, these physical stressors can be reduced, allowing the continuation of musical practice and performance. Appropriate design modification requires a solid understanding of upper extremity anatomy, splint design technique, and the biomechanic principles of playing the instrument. Through knowledge of music theory and appreciation, one may modify the instrument while protecting tonal flexibility, resonance, mechanical freedom, and sound quality. Two case studies present a range of splint design, from small to large, static to dynamic, and for congenital or chronic conditions. PMID:16131739

Boyette, Jennifer

2005-01-01

474

Management approach for Earth Venture instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

2013-09-01

475

14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...means to indicate the functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components. (d) For turbojet/turbofan engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this...

2009-01-01

476

SSCL RFQ-DTL Matching Section instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A description of the SSCL RFQ-DTL Matching Section instrumentation is presented with emphasis on design issues and early instrumentation commissioning results. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy through the RFQ-DTL matching section is 2.5 MeV, the beam current is 27 mA with a pulse width of 35 Its. The typical beam diameter is 3 mm. The instrumentation consists of three beam position monitors (BPM), a wire scanner, beam loss monitors (BLM), a slit and collector emittance measurement unit (EMU), a current toroid, and a Faraday cup. The instruments were designed to accommodate high current densities, have a large dynamic range with moderate bandwidths, and fit congested spaces.

Datte, P.; Aielo, R.; Hayworth, M. [and others

1993-11-01

477

Instrumentation for the Thirty Meter Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science Advisory Committee (SAC) of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project (TMT) is nearing completion in its deliberations on defining a set of instrumentation capabilities for the first decade of operation. These are encapsulated in the SAC\\

Keith Taylor

2004-01-01

478

LOFT Advanced Fuel Rod Instrumentation Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced fuel rod instrumentation for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is being developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This effort calls for development of sensors to measure fuel rod axial ...

T. R. Billeter R. L. Brown A. I. Y. Chan C. K. Day S. C. Meyers

1978-01-01

479

21 CFR 882.4560 - Stereotaxic instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...instrument is a device consisting of a rigid frame with a calibrated...other devices within a patient's brain, spinal cord, or other part of the nervous system. (b)...

2013-04-01

480

18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regional Engineer and may include, for example, instruments t