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1

Aircraft Flight Instrumentation Integrated Data Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Requirements for aircraft integrated data systems--A survey of operational flight recording in the United Kingdom; Use of in-flight data recording for the air forces of Central Europe; Airline requirements regarding total system flexibility aids...

D. Bosman

1967-01-01

2

Alaskan flight trials of a synthetic vision system for instrument landings of a piston twin aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stanford University has developed a low-cost prototype synthetic vision system and flight tested it onboard general aviation aircraft. The display aids pilots by providing an 'out the window' view, making visualization of the desired flight path a simple task. Predictor symbology provides guidance on straight and curved paths presented in a 'tunnel- in-the-sky' format. Based on commodity PC hardware to achieve low cost, the Tunnel Display system uses differential GPS (typically from Stanford prototype Wide Area Augmentation System hardware) for positioning and GPS-aided inertial sensors for attitude determination. The display has been flown onboard Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft at several different locations. This paper describes the system, its development, and flight trials culminating with tests in Alaska during the summer of 1998. Operational experience demonstrated the Tunnel Display's ability to increase flight- path following accuracy and situational awareness while easing the task instrument flying.

Barrows, Andrew K.; Alter, Keith W.; Jennings, Chad W.; Powell, J. D.

1999-07-01

3

14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.338 Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors...

2013-01-01

4

14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.338 ...Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight...

2009-01-01

5

New capabilities for older aircraft: A study of pilot integration of retro-fit digital avionics to analog-instrumented flight decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether applying Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model to military tactical aviation organizations would foster effective user integration of retro-fit digital avionics in analog-instrumented flight decks. This study examined the relationship between the reported presence of environmental supports and personal repertory supports as defined by Gilbert, and the reported self-efficacy of users of retro-fit digital avionics to analog flight decks, and examined the efficacious behaviors of users as they attain mastery of the equipment and procedures, and user reported best practices and criteria for masterful performance in the use of retro-fit digital avionics and components. This study used a mixed methodology, using quantitative surveys to measure the perceived level of organizational supports that foster mastery of retro-fit digital avionic components, and qualitative interviews to ascertain the efficacious behaviors and best practices of masterful users of these devices. The results of this study indicate that there is some relationship between the reported presence of organizational supports and personal repertory supports and the reported self-mastery and perceived organizational mastery of retro-fit digital avionics applied to the operation of the research aircraft. The primary recommendation is that unit leadership decide exactly the capabilities desired from retro-fit equipment, publish these standards, ensure training in these standards is effective, and evaluate performance based on these standards. Conclusions indicate that sufficient time and resources are available to the individual within the study population, and the organization as a whole, to apply Gilbert's criteria toward the mastery of retro-fit digital avionics applied to the operation of the research aircraft.

Breuer, Glynn E.

6

Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances crui...

B. Sridhar H. K. Ng J. Li N. Y. Chen

2012-01-01

7

Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight  

MedlinePLUS

Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Judith Casley-Smith, Ph.D. [We found the following information invaluable ... to travel, especially by air. Though Dr. Casley-Smith speaks primarily to the Australian population, these guidelines ...

8

Vision-only aircraft flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building aircraft with navigation and control systems that can complete flight tasks is complex, and often involves integrating information from multiple sensors to estimate the state of the vehicle. This paper describes a method, in which a glider can fly from a starting point to a predetermined and location (target) precisely using vision only. Using vision to control an aircraft

Christophe De Wagter; A. A. Proctor; E. N. Johnson

2003-01-01

9

Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

10

Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state

Antonio Filippone

2008-01-01

11

Outsider's Look at Flight Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents ideas and speculations on possible diagnostic instrumentation for use in missile flight testing. A plea is made for increased instrumentation efforts. There is some discussion of telemetry methods. (ERA citation 06:029195)

A. S. Lundy

1981-01-01

12

Lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews models for calculating the lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise, in particular, the change in attenuation for different elevation angles varying from aircraft directly overhead (90 deg. elevation angle) to a zero elevation angle. Sets of noise spectrum-dependent lateral attenuation values derived from theory and from experimental flight measurements were applied to sets of different aircraft noise spectra to determine A-level differences with elevation angle. The lateral attenuation based on the experimental data showed appreciably greater attenuation, but still less attenuation than the SAE model currently incorporated in the Integrated Noise Model (INM) aircraft noise computer program. Based on the experimental curves, a new generalized transition model was developed and is recommended as a replacement for current NOISEMAP lateral transition algorithm.

Bishop, D. E.

1985-03-01

13

Flight flutter testing and aeroelastic stability of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To provide a general review of the flight flutter test techniques utilized in aeroelastic stability flight testing of aircraft, and to highlight the key items involved in flight flutter testing of aircraft, by emphasizing all the main information processed during the flutter stability verification based on flight test data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Flight flutter test requirements are first reviewed

Altan Kayran

2007-01-01

14

Flight flutter testing and aeroelastic stability of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper sets out to provide a general review of the flight flutter test techniques utilized in aeroelastic stability flight testing of aircraft, and to highlight the key items involved in flight flutter testing of aircraft, by emphasizing all the main information processed during the flutter stability verification based on flight test data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Flight flutter test

Altan Kayran

2007-01-01

15

Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

Haber, J. M.

2012-01-01

16

A fuzzy logic controller for aircraft flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of an autopilot controller based on fuzzy algorithms. The controller maneuvers an aircraft from level flight into a final-approach flight path and maintains the aircraft along the glide path until just before touchdown. To evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the model, the aircraft response to controller actions is simulated using flight simulation techniques. The

Lawrence I. Larkin

1984-01-01

17

Modeling Lateral Attenuation of Aircraft Flight Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airbase and/or airport noise prediction models such as the Air Force NOISEMAP computer program are used to forecast the long term noise exposure from aircraft flight and ground activity at a facility. Noise contour maps from these calculations are used to...

B. F. Berry J. D. Speakman

1991-01-01

18

Lateral attenuation of military aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of measurements on the noise propagated to the side of military aircraft during a series of controlled level flyovers. Data were acquired on attack/fighter aircraft (A-10A, F4D, F-5E, F-15, F-16, and F-18); bomber aircraft (B-52G and FB-111); cargo/tanker aircraft (C-18, C-141, KC-10A, KC-135A, and KC-135R); and special purpose aircraft (C-21 and E-3A). In addition to the normal attenuation provided by wave divergence (spherical spreading) and atmospheric absorption, noise propagated laterally to the ground from aircraft during flight is further reduced by the combination of several other frequency dependent phenomena such as ground, meteorological, forward flight, and engine/airplane installation effects. Airbase/airport noise models typically define this extra lateral attenuation for single event measures such as the Sound Exposure Level as a function of the elevation angle as viewed from a given location on the ground. Based on the results of these data, a new algorithm was developed and incorporated in the Air Force NOISEMAP model.

Speakman, Jerry D.

1989-07-01

19

Aircraft Integration and Flight Testing of 4STAR  

SciTech Connect

Under funding from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, in conjunction with a funded NASA 2008 ROSES proposal, with internal support from Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD), and in collaboration with NASA Ames Research Center, we successfully integrated the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Air) instrument for flight operation aboard Battelles G-1 aircraft and conducted a series of airborne and ground-based intensive measurement campaigns (hereafter referred to as intensives) for the purpose of maturing the initial 4STAR-Ground prototype to a flight-ready science-ready configuration.

Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, E; Russell, P; Redemann, J; Dunagan, S; Holben, B

2012-10-12

20

The flight evaluation of aircraft antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight evaluation of communication-navigation-identification antennas installed on new types of aircraft is required to confirm model measurements. The paper reviews the parameters involved in such an evaluation under both standard and nonstandard propagation conditions. The predicted signal level across the receiver terminals connected to an isotropic antenna is employed as the standard of comparison with the scale-model antenna patterns. The

G. Leopard

1960-01-01

21

Aircraft Characterization in Icing Using Flight Test Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Illinois, in conjunction with NASA Glenn, has conducted a flight test program to investigate aircraft icing effects and develop aircraft icing effects characterization techniques. Flights were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to collect data in clear air as well as in natural icing conditions. These data were used to identify the effects of icing on aircraft performance

Edward A. Whalen; James W. Melody; Michael B. Bragg

2004-01-01

22

Flight safety, aircraft vortex wake and airport operation capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems that challenge today's aeronautics is the problem of improving flight safety. A zone of increased hazard is the aerospace in the vicinity of an airport. Here, one of aircraft accidents' causes is wake turbulence generated by aircraft. The encountering of an aircraft on take-off or landing with the vortex wake of a preceding aircraft can

Victor V. Vyshinsky

2001-01-01

23

Aircraft icing research flights in embedded convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryResults from in-cloud measurements with an instrumented aircraft from an icing research campaign in Southern Germany in March\\u000a 1997 are presented. Measurements with conventional optical cloud probes and of the ice accretion on a cylinder exposed to\\u000a the flow show the existence of supercooled large drops (SLD) in the size range up to 300?m simultaneously with severe icing\\u000a with ice-accretion

T. Hauf; F. Schrder

2006-01-01

24

Automated Flight Training (AFT). Instrument Flight Maneuvers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the feasibility of applying automated adaptive training methods and techniques to operational flight trainers for basic flight training was conducted. The study explored the on-line restructuring of a computer controlled training cours...

J. P. Charles R. M. Johnson J. R. Swink

1973-01-01

25

Simulations and Reconstructions of Aircraft Flights and Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents exemplary results of numerical simulations focused on numerical simulations and reconstructions of aircraft flights and accidents. These works were carried out for both fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft during last seven years at the Institute of Aviation Technology. These investigations were mainly theoretical but some of them were verified on the basis of data recorded during flight tests.

Grzegorz Kowaleczko

26

FLIGHT REGIME MAPPING FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINE FAULT DIAGNOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the issues that impair the performance of aircraft engine fault diagnosis is the flight regime. When an aircraft travels from one point to another in flight regime, engine performance parameters that are used for fault diagnosing change and such changes mask the parameter changes caused by engine faults, thus make the engine fault diagnosis much more difficult. Properly

Weizhong Yan; C. James Li; Kai F. Goebel

27

Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety

C. Y. Kimura; G. M. Sandquist; D. M. Slaughter; D. L. Sanzo

1998-01-01

28

Practice and Incentive Effects on Learner Performance: Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To study the effects of practice and incentive on learner performance on the aircraft instrument comprehension task, 48 third-year Air Force cadets were chosen as subjects. The subjects were expected to be able to identify which one of four pictures of aircraft in flight most nearly corresponded to the position indicated on a panel of attitude

Tenpas, Barbara G.; Higgins, Norman C.

29

Low-Altitude-Flight Measurement Pod (Sanduster). Pod Measures and Records Changes in Aircraft Altitude, Attitude, Airspeed, and Vertical Acceleration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SANDUSTER program required a pod instrumented to measure changes in aircraft altitude, attitude, airspeed, and vertical acceleration with respect to time during low-altitude flight. The report describes the pod and its operation. Accuracies of the mea...

Z. H. Blankers

1965-01-01

30

Instrumentation and data acquisition electronics for free-flight drop model testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents instrumentation and data acquisition electronics techniques used in free-flight drop model testing at the NASA Langley Research Center. Free-flight drop model testing is a technique for conducting complex aircraft controls research using reduced scale models of experimental aircraft. An introduction to the Free-Flight Drop Model Program is presented first. This is followed by a description of the

Preston I. Carraway III

1988-01-01

31

Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

2011-10-01

32

Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From the comparison of interpolated fatigue life using CSI value and fatigue test results, it is obvious that proposed advanced IAT method via flight-by-flight load spectra is more reliable and accurate than current IAT method. Therefore, the advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra not only monitors the individual aircraft consumed fatigue life for inspection but also ensures the structural reliability of aging aircrafts throughout their service periods.

Lee, Hongchul

33

14 CFR 91.715 - Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft. 91.715 Section 91.715 Aeronautics...OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and...

2013-01-01

34

Highly accurate FTIR observations from the scanning HIS aircraft instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development in the mid 80s of the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) instrument for the high altitude NASA ER2 aircraft demonstrated the capability for advanced atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding and set the stage for new satellite instruments that are now becoming a reality [AIRS(2002), CrIS(2006), IASI(2006), GIFTS(200?), HES(2013)]. Follow-on developments at the University of Wisconsin that employ Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) for Earth observations include the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the new Scanning HIS aircraft instrument. The Scanning HIS is a smaller version of the original HIS that uses cross-track scanning to enhance spatial coverage. Scanning HIS and its close cousin, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed (NAST), are being used for satellite instrument validation and for atmospheric research. A novel detector configuration on Scanning HIS allows the incorporation of a single focal plane and cooler with three or four spectral bands that view the same spot on the ground. The calibration accuracy of the S-HIS and results from recent field campaigns are presented, including validation comparisons with the NASA EOS infrared observations (AIRS and MODIS). Aircraft comparisons of this type provide a mechanism for periodically testing the absolute calibration of spacecraft instruments with instrumentation for which the calibration can be carefully maintained on the ground. This capability is especially valuable for assuring the long-term consistency and accuracy of climate observations, including those from the NASA EOS spacecrafts (Terra, Aqua and Aura) and the new complement of NPOESS operational instruments. It is expected that aircraft flights of the S-HIS and the NAST will be used to check the long-term stability of AIRS and the NPOESS operational follow-on sounder, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), over the life of the mission.

Revercomb, Henry E.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L., Sr.; van Delst, Paul F. W.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark W.; Dedecker, Ralph G.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Howell, Hugh B.; Olson, Erik R.; Dutcher, Steven B.; Taylor, Joseph K.

2005-01-01

35

Flight Control Synthesis for Flexible Aircraft Using Eigenspace Assignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magni...

J. B. Davidson D. K. Schmidt

1986-01-01

36

Flight testing of small remotely piloted aircraft for system identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight testing of small unmanned aircraft (span 4-8ft, weight 5-15lbs, speed 30-100ft\\/s) in both the academic and small company fields is sparse at best. Most test programs consist of little more than attempting to perform a mission and then determining if objectives were met. Often, a flight test program may determine an aircraft drag polar at most. In order to

Aaron Wypyszynski

2009-01-01

37

Analysis of aircraft dynamics near the flight envelope boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-linear model and high resolution switching scheme are presented to approximate the highly complex and nonlinear behavior of aircraft operating near and within their upset region. The experimental NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) is utilized in conjunction with Matlab, Simulink, and FlightGear 3D flight simulator software to explore the nonlinear behavior of aircraft during fault scenarios and to create

Mishah Uzziel Salman; Borchin Chang

2011-01-01

38

Ideal free flight through multiple aircraft neighboring optimal control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general term for any air traffic management concept that minimizes restrictions on aircraft operations while maintaining or improving upon the current level of safety is free flight. This paper proposes an ideal free night concept and develops a practical algorithm based on neighboring optimal control. The mathematical development is carried out for a two-aircraft conflict resolution scenario, followed by

M. R. Jardin

2000-01-01

39

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

2013-04-01

40

Instrumentation of Sampling Aircraft for Measurement of Launch Vehicle Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obta...

D. E. Wornom D. C. Woods M. E. Thomas R. W. Tyson

1977-01-01

41

Research on Simulation Method of Flight Safety for Civil Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Flight safety evaluation technique will significantly guide the new-style aircraft preliminary design. Based on the principle\\u000a of Human-machine System Engineering, the dynamic characteristic and modeling method of both pilot and aircraft are investigated.\\u000a Pilot decision-making and Aircraft Failure model are proposed, and then a low-cost, convenient software evaluation system\\u000a for flight safety simulation is developed based on the object-oriented technique.

Wei Zhang; Hehe Yi; Zhi Ma

42

Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

1998-04-23

43

Study of Flight-Load Parameters of the Navy Flight Demonstration Team F-4J Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents 42.9 hours of valid flight loads data recorded on three F-4J aircraft assigned to the Navy Flight Demonstration Team (Blue Angels). The data includes both practice sessions and official flight demonstrations during the months of May an...

D. J. Rhoads R. J. McAvoy

1972-01-01

44

Compound aircraft transport study: Wingtip-docking compared to formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound Aircraft Transport (CAT) flight involves two or more aircraft using the resources of each other; a symbiotic relationship exists consisting of a host, the mothership aircraft and a parasite, the hitchhiker aircraft. Wingtip-docked flight is just as its name implies; the two aircraft are connected wingtip-to-wingtip. Formation flight describes multiple aircraft or flying objects that maintain a pattern or

Samantha A. Magill

2002-01-01

45

Instrumentation and data acquisition electronics for free-flight drop model testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents instrumentation and data acquisition electronics techniques used in free-flight drop model testing at the NASA Langley Research Center. Free-flight drop model testing is a technique for conducting complex aircraft controls research using reduced scale models of experimental aircraft. An introduction to the Free-Flight Drop Model Program is presented first. This is followed by a description of the recently upgraded airborne and ground based instrumentation and data acquisition electronics. Lastly current and future development efforts and opportunities are discussed.

Carraway, Preston I., III

1988-09-01

46

Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique 'Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive...

I. M. Gregory N. T. Nguyen S. M. Joshi

2008-01-01

47

Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C\\/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural

Hongchul Lee

2009-01-01

48

Aircraft configured for flight in an atmosphere having low density  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An aircraft is configured for flight in an atmosphere having a low density. The aircraft includes a fuselage, a pair of wings, and a rear stabilizer. The pair of wings extends from the fuselage in opposition to one another. The rear stabilizer extends from the fuselage in spaced relationship to the pair of wings. The fuselage, the wings, and the rear stabilizer each present an upper surface opposing a lower surface. The upper and lower surfaces have X, Y, and Z coordinates that are configured for flight in an atmosphere having low density.

Croom; Mark A. (Yorktown, VA); Smith; Stephen C. (Cupertino, CA); Gelhausen; Paul A. (Yorktown, VA); Guynn; Mark D. (Yorktown, VA); Hunter; Craig A. (Williamsburg, VA); Paddock; David A. (Toano, VA); Riddick; Steven E. (Hampton, VA); Teter, Jr.; John E. (Hampton, VA)

2012-06-12

49

Propeller aircraft noise-certification and flight testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specifications for controlling aircraft noise emission and emission as developed by the ICAO and presently entitled International Standards and Recommended Practices - Environmental Protection, ANNEX 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation/ Volume 1, Aircraft Noise are elaborated. Those portions dealing with the noise certification of heavy (commuter and transport) and light (sports and recreational) propeller driven aircraft are discussed. Some information on the practice of noise certification data acquisition and evaluation, based on several hundred measurements, are provided. Current ideas towards changing, consolidating, and improving the present schemes and procedures are described. Specific acoustic problem areas in flight testing and analysis are also covered.

Heller, H.

50

Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of

Elmer, James D.

51

Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The textbook provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of properties of the atmosphere. How different

Glascoff, W. G., III

52

Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve

R. A. Golub; J. S. Preisser

1984-01-01

53

14 CFR 135.97 - Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft and facilities for recent...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.97 Aircraft and facilities for...

2013-01-01

54

41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Acquiring Aircraft...

2013-01-01

55

Application of system identification to aircraft flight test data processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear aerodynamic model for the AV-8B aircraft in the post-stall and departure region was identified from flight test data. A Principal Components Regression algorithm was used to identify model parameters. The identification methodology is described, and the results are compared with wind tunnel derived models.

L. C. Anderson; J. H. Vincent

1985-01-01

56

In-flight interior sound field mapping in propeller aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interior noise in propeller aircraft is currently an important issue in the aerospace industry. Efficient noise control measures require a thorough understanding of the in-flight response of the vibro-acoustic system, formed by fuselage, trim panels and cabin cavity, to the propeller excitation. The cabin interior noise is dominated by the lower order blade pass tones of the propellers. It is

H. van der Auweraer; L. Gielen; D. Otte

1992-01-01

57

Research of programming about the level flight of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to carries on the plan and the control to aircraft level flight, the attitude and the route has been analyzed. First obtain that the factors control the level attitude are the roll angle and the yaw angle, and infers the computation algorithm of attitude; then obtain that the factors control the level route are the route position and

Li Jiang; Guo Lihong

2010-01-01

58

Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment. PMID:21487173

Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S

2011-04-12

59

Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and the results and lessons learned from the different campaigns.

Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

2005-02-01

60

Aircraft flight parameter estimation using acoustical Lloyd's mirror effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed for the acoustical Lloyd's mirror effect observed in the output time-frequency distribution of a microphone located near the ground during the transit of a jet aircraft. The feasibility of using this effect for flight parameter estimation is assessed by a simple Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis. The nonlinear least-squares method and the generalized Hough transform method are

KAM W. LO; STUART W. PERRY; BRIAN G. FERGUSON

2002-01-01

61

14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category...

2013-01-01

62

Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the LIULIN-3M instrument.  

PubMed

The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR spacestation during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used to determine the energy losses in the detector. The final data from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposure time and 256 channels of absorbed dose spectra based on the assumption that the particle flux is normal to the detector. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and had been used for radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. The calibration procedure and some flight results are presented in this paper. PMID:14727665

Dachev, Ts P; Stassinopoulous, E G; Tomov, B T; Dimitrov, Pl G; Matviichuk, Yu N; Shurshakov, V A; Petrov, V M

2003-01-01

63

Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

64

Application of human-machine modeling technique in the flight safety simulation of civil aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pilot error and aircraft failure on the safety of civil aircraft is investigated in this paper. Based on the human-machine system modeling technique, the modules in the pilot-aircraft system failure mode are built using objective- oriented technique, and the software system of civil aircraft safety evaluation is developed. A practical example of flight accident shows that the

Wei Zhang; Zhi Ma; Hui Li; DaPeng Guo

2011-01-01

65

Meteorological conditions during the summer 1986 Chemical Instrumentation Testing and Evaluation (CITE) 2 flight series  

SciTech Connect

An overview of meteorological conditions during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Testing and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 2) summer 1986 flight series is presented. Computer-generated isentropic trajectories are used to trace the history of air masses encountered along each aircraft flight path. The synoptic-scale wind fields are depicted based upon Montgomery stream function analysis. Time series of aircraft-measured temperature, dew point, ozone, and altitude are shown to depict air mass variability. Observed differences between maritime tropical and maritime polar air masses are discussed.

Shipham, M.C.; Cahoon, D.R. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Bachmeier, A.S. (PRC Kentron, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-06-20

66

Flight spectral response of the ACIS instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the flight calibration of the spectral response of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). The spectral resolution and sensitivity of the ACIS instrument have both been evolving over the course of the mission. The spectral resolution of the frontside-illuminated (FI) CCDs changed dramatically in the first month of the mission due to

Paul P. Plucinsky; Norbert S. Schulz; Herman L. Marshall; Catherine E. Grant; George Chartas; Divas Sanwal; Marcus Teter; Alexey A. Vikhlinin; Richard J. Edgar; Michael W. Wise; Glenn E. Allen; Shanil N. Virani; Joseph M. DePasquale; Michael T. Raley

2003-01-01

67

Flight Parameters Monitoring System for Tracking Structural Integrity of Rotary-Wing Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircra...

J. Mohammadi C. Olkiewicz

1994-01-01

68

Aircraft Trajectory: Prediction and Control in the Air Transport Flight Management Computer Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The declining cost of computing power and memory has enabled avionic manufacturers to develop sophisticated airborne computing systems. One of the most complex aircraft systems on modern air transport aircraft is the Flight Management Computer System (FMC...

P. J. Howells

1990-01-01

69

Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation of the framework. Gust responses of the Flying-Wing configuration subject to stall effects are investigated. A bilinear torsional stiffness model is introduced to study the skin wrinkling due to large bending curvature of the Flying-Wing. The numerical studies illustrate the improvements of the existing reduced-order formulation with new capabilities of both structural modeling and coupled aeroelastic and flight dynamic analysis of fully flexible aircraft.

Su, Weihua

70

Identifying the principal noise sources of fixed-wing combat aircraft in high-speed flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before considering means for alleviating the noise from modern military combat aircraft operating in high-speed low-level flight, it is important to identify the principal noise sources. To this end, a carefully-controlled flight test program has been carried out using a Tornado aircraft (in standard training configuration) operating at flight speeds from 0.5M to 0.8M. The major sources of the aircraft

W. D. Bryce; R. A. Pinker; P. J. R. Strange

1992-01-01

71

Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control: Digital Flight Control, Aircraft Model Identification, and Adaptive Engine Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Com...

J. L. Baer-riedhart R. J. Landy

1987-01-01

72

An improved aircraft underflight instrument for the derivation of band gains in satellite sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for improved in-flight calibration of visible and near-IR satellite sensors to gather reliable information on global climate mechanisms and climate change. Satellite instruments for the near future, such as MODIS and SeaWiFS, require accurate calibration throughout their lifetimes on orbit, and represent a challenging task. Flying a calibrated transfer spectroradiometer on a high altitude aircraft

P. Abel; B. Subramanya

1996-01-01

73

Cooperative problem-solving activities in flight planning and constraints for commercial aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to departure, each commercial aircraft must have a flight plan from its origin to its destination, This flight plan describes the route, the altitudes, and the speeds which the plane is expected to fly for the trip, and it affects fuel consumption, safety, speed, arrival time, and passenger comfort. While this flight plan describes parameters intended for the flight,

Philip J. Smith; Elaine McCoy; Judith Orasanu; Charles Billings; Rebecca Denning; Michelle Rodvold; Amy Van Horn; T. Gee

1995-01-01

74

Novel flight instrument display to minimize the risk of spatial disorientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This novel flight instrument display presents information to the pilot in a simple and easily comprehensible format by integrating the five orientational flight parameters. It allows the pilot to select specific orientation parameters and then follow a simple tracking task which ensures that these parameters are maintained or, if necessary, recovered. The pilot can at any time check any parameter he wishes, but is free from the requirement to continually sample and combine information from the traditional instruments to maintain stable flight. Cognitive workload to maintain orientation is thus reduced. Our assessment of the display in a UH-60 helicopter simulator showed that the novel display makes recovery from unusual aircraft attitudes and instrument flying easier than when using the standard instrument panel.

Braithwaite, Malcolm G.; Durnford, Simon J.

1997-06-01

75

Non-linear aircraft flight path reconstruction review and new advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft parameter identification techniques have become accepted as indispensable tools in the evaluation of prototype- and derivative aircraft in flight. Applications include estimation of stability- and control derivatives in the linearized equations of motion, synthesis of nonlinear aerodynamic and propulsion models in the context of performance certification and incorporation of information from dynamic flight test manoeuvres in a priori nonlinear

J. A. Mulder; Q. P. Chu; J. K. Sridhar; J. H. Breeman; M. Laban

1999-01-01

76

FLIGHT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF AN AIRCRAFT WITH SEGMENTED CONTROL SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight researchers are increasingly turning towards small, unmanned aircraft for achieving mission objectives. These aircraft are simple to operate and offer numerous advantages over larger manned vehicles. In addition to being light, inexpensive, and readily available, they are also more versatile in that they can be used for flight experiments that are either too risky or uncertain for a manned

Mujahid Abdulrahim

77

An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions. Consequently, a large part of the FCL design process involves extensive simulation analyses, hardware-in-the-loop testing,

G. H. N. Looye

2008-01-01

78

Integrated propulsion-based flight control system design for a civil transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe results of a study carried out at the University of Leicester in collaboration with Volvo Aero Corporation, on the design of integrated flight and propulsion control systems for a large civil transport aircraft. The use of the aircraft engines (via differential thrust and\\/or thrust vectoring) for the purposes of emergency flight control is examined in detail. An industry

M. Harefors; D. G. Bates

2002-01-01

79

Development and flight experience of the control laws in the Experimental Aircraft Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experimental Aircraft Programme aimed to demonstrate technologies applicable to a future combat aircraft. One of these technologies was active control technology, necessary for the flight control system of a highly unstable airframe. This paper outlines the development of the control laws utilized in this project and relates the very positive experience gained through the flight demonstration. Most significant of

A. McCUISH

1994-01-01

80

Development and flight testing of a surface pressure measurement installation on the EAP demonstrator aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project to develop and flight test a surface pressure measurement system on the UK Experimental Aircraft Program demonstrator aircraft. The paper begins with a brief description of the potential benefits of developing such a system. This is followed by the results and conclusions of development tests involving Wind Tunnel measurements and some preliminary Flight Trials. The

G. J. Watson

1992-01-01

81

Real-Time Identification of Aircraft Physical Models for Fault Tolerant Flight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The primary goal of aircraft fault tolerant flight control is to recover or maintain safe flight when failures have occurred.\\u000a Aircraft failures can be categorized into subsystem failures and airframe\\/structural failures. Modern aircraft subsystems\\u000a are equipped with redundancies and failure detection systems for maintaining and monitoring the health status of subsystems.\\u000a However, when failures such as engine separations, vertical tail

Ping Chu; Jan Mulder; Jan Breeman

82

Fly-by-light flight control system development for transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is developing and demonstrating dual use fly-by-light hardware for flight control systems on military and commercial aircraft. Under the transport aircraft portion of this program, we and our industry teammates are demonstrating two representative fly-by-light systems. These fly-by-light demonstrations include a ground demonstration of a partial primary flight control system and a flight

John R. Todd

1996-01-01

83

Fiber optics in flight test instrumentation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optics has applications in instrumentation, including the areas of components, cabling, links, and sensors. Several problems and solutions of applying optics in an airborne environment are presented, and tests to determine which components are airworthy and field applicable are discussed. The connector evaluation showed that there are no ideal fiber optic connectors presently on the market; those tested had a tolerable insertion loss, but were too large or had a termination procedure which did not lend itself to field use. Flight testing of an off-the-shelf link proved it had limited airborne use; it was suggested, however, that interface for systems and sensors be designed for special needs. Several fiber-optic cables were found airworthy and suitable for field use. A glass-on-glass cable gave highest data rates and low loss. Despite the little information available on fiber optic sensors, research is being conducted to develop sensors for temperature, acceleration, pressure, fuel flow, and strain.

Bleimeyer, M. C.

1981-11-01

84

Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft`s right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in-flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft`s right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft`s structural integrity are discussed.

Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). FAA Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center; Mihelic, J.E.; Barnes, J.D. [Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center, Elizabeth City, NC (United States)

1998-08-01

85

A Flight Instrumentation System for Acquisition of Atmospheric Turbulence Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flight instrumentation system for the acquisition of atmospheric turbulence data is described. Airflow direction transducers and an impact pressure transducer are the primary instruments for measuring vertical and lateral gust velocity, and a sensitive ...

C. W. Meissner

1976-01-01

86

Primate BioInstrumentation for Two Jupiter Ballistic Flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the bio-instrumentation phase of two related Army Jupiter ballistic missile flights involving squirrel monkey passengers, one of which was recovered alive and in good physical condition. These flights marked the initial entry into space, and successful return, of a primate under ballistic flight conditions comparable to those to be encountered by man. The paper describes

W. C. Hixson; C. T. Paludan; S. W. Downs

1960-01-01

87

Study and design of flight data recording systems for military aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of aircraft wreckage does not provide crash investigators with adequate information. Crash-protected flight recorder data is invaluable when determining accident cause factors. Inertial navigation systems provide an excellent source of highly accurate flight parameters. Nonvolatile solid state memory is available which can replace failure prone magnetic tape recording in flight recorder systems. Microprocessors are available with the capability of

L. N. Baetz

1976-01-01

88

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

89

Compound aircraft transport study: Wingtip-docking compared to formation flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound Aircraft Transport (CAT) flight involves two or more aircraft using the resources of each other; a symbiotic relationship exists consisting of a host, the mothership aircraft and a parasite, the hitchhiker aircraft. Wingtip-docked flight is just as its name implies; the two aircraft are connected wingtip-to-wingtip. Formation flight describes multiple aircraft or flying objects that maintain a pattern or shape in the air. There are large aerodynamic advantages in CAT flight. The aforementioned wingtip-docked flight increases total span of the aircraft, system, and formation flight utilizes the upwash from the trailing wingtip vortex of the lead aircraft (mothership) to reduce the energy necessary to achieve and/or maintain a specific flight, goal for the hitchhiker and the system. The Stability Wind Tunnel (6 x 6 x 24 foot test section) at Virginia Tech, computational aerodynamic analysis with the vortex lattice method (VLM), and a desktop aircraft model were used to answer questions of the best location for a hitchhiker aircraft and analyze stability of the CAT system. Three CAT flight configurations were highlighted: wingtip-docked, close formation, and towed formation. The wingtip-docked configuration had a 20--40% performance benefit for the hitchhiker compared to solo flight. The close formation configuration had performance benefits for the hitchhiker approximately 10 times that of solo flight, and the towed formation was approximately 8 times better than solo flight. The VLM analysis completed and reenforced the experimental wind tunnel data. A modified VLM program (VLM CAT) incorporated multiple aircraft in various locations as well as additional calculations for induced drag. VLM CAT results clearly followed the trends seen in the wind tunnel data, but since VLM did not model the fuselage, has assumptions like a flat wake, and is an inviscid computation it did not predict the large benefits or excursions as seen in the wind tunnel data. Increases in performance for the hitchhiker in VLM CAT were on the order of 3 to 4 times that of the hitchhiker in solo flight, while the wind tunnel study saw up to 10 times that of solo flight. VLM CAT is a valuable tool in supplying quick analysis of position and planform effects in CAT flight. The aerodynamic results presented in this study have determined some important parameters in the location of a hitchhiker with respect to a mothership. The largest aerodynamic benefits are seen when the hitchhiker wingtip is slightly aft, inboard and below the win-tip of the mothership. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Magill, Samantha A.

90

Development and characterization of an aircraft aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Vertical and horizontal profiles of atmospheric aerosols are necessary for understanding the impact of air pollution on regional and global climate. To gain further insight into the size-resolved chemistry of individual atmospheric particles, a smaller aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) with increased data acquisition capabilities was developed for aircraft-based studies. Compared to previous ATOFMS systems, the new instrument has a faster data acquisition rate with improved ion transmission and mass resolution, as well as reduced physical size and power consumption, all required advances for use in aircraft studies. In addition, real-time source apportionment software allows the immediate identification and classification of individual particles to guide sampling decisions while in the field. The aircraft (A)-ATOFMS was field-tested on the ground during the Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside, CA (SOAR) and aboard an aircraft during the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L). Initial results from ICE-L represent the first reported aircraft-based single-particle dual-polarity mass spectrometry measurements and provide an increased understanding of particle mixing state as a function of altitude. Improved ion transmission allows for the first single-particle detection of species out to approximately m/z 2000, an important mass range for the detection of biological aerosols and oligomeric species. In addition, high time resolution measurements of single-particle mixing state are demonstrated and shown to be important for airborne studies where particle concentrations and chemistry vary rapidly. PMID:19175329

Pratt, Kerri A; Mayer, Joseph E; Holecek, John C; Moffet, Ryan C; Sanchez, Rene O; Rebotier, Thomas P; Furutani, Hiroshi; Gonin, Marc; Fuhrer, Katrin; Su, Yongxuan; Guazzotti, Sergio; Prather, Kimberly A

2009-03-01

91

A review of in-flight detection and identification of aircraft icing and reconfigurable control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent improvements and research on aviation have focused on the subject of aircraft safe flight even in the severe weather conditions. As one type of such weather conditions, aircraft icing considerably has negative effects on the aircraft flight performance. The risks of the iced aerodynamic surfaces of the flying aircraft have been known since the beginning of the first flights. Until recent years, as a solution for this event, the icing conditions ahead flight route are estimated from radars or other environmental sensors, hence flight paths are changed, or, if it exists, anti-icing/de-icing systems are used.This work aims at the detection and identification of airframe icing based on statistical properties of aircraft dynamics and reconfigurable control protecting aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.In this review paper, aircraft icing identification based on neural network (NN), batch least-squares algorithm, Kalman filtering (KF), combined NN/KF, and H? parameter identification techniques are investigated, and compared with each other. Following icing identification, reconfigurable control is applied for protecting the aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.

Caliskan, Fikret; Hajiyev, Chingiz

2013-07-01

92

Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled

R. Janovsky; R. Behr

2005-01-01

93

Study and Design of Flight Data Recording Systems for Military Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation of aircraft wreckage does not provide crash investigators with adequate information. Crash-protected flight recorder data is invaluable when determining accident cause factors. Inertial navigation systems provide an excellent source of highl...

L. N. Baetz

1976-01-01

94

Evaluation of Rotorwash Characteristics for Tiltrotor and Tiltwing Aircraft in Hovering Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rotorwash characteristics of eleven different types of tiltrotor and tiltwing aircraft in hovering flight are presented for comparison purposes. Rotorwash characteristics that have been quantified included the mean and peak outwash velocity profiles o...

S. W. Ferguson

1990-01-01

95

Fly-by-light flight control system development for transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is developing and demonstrating dual use fly-by-light (FBL) hardware for flight control systems On military and commercial aircraft. Under the transport aircraft portion of this program, we and our industry team-mates are demonstrating two representative fly-by-light systems. These fly-by-light demonstrations include a ground demonstration of a partial primary flight control system and a

J. R. Todd

1996-01-01

96

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pressurization. (5) Ice and Rain protection. (6) Avionics, Communication, and Navigation. (7) Powerplants and...Aircraft. (i) Systems. (ii) Navigation instruments and avionics systems. (iii) Flight instruments. (iv)...

2013-01-01

97

Approximate solutions of range for constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate cruise range solutions are introduced for the constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of turbojet\\/fan transport aircraft with cambered wing design. The variation of the specific fuel consumption with Mach number is also considered in derivation of the approximate solutions. The method aims at estimation of the cruise range of aircraft during conceptual or preliminary design phase.

Aydan Cavcar; Mustafa Cavcar

2004-01-01

98

Automatic Stabilization for V/STOL Aircraft in the Vertical Flight Mode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Postulating a simple descriptive aircraft transfer function for non-aerodynamic, slow speed flight, a control method is presented for the automatic stabilization of large, lift-fan Vertical and Short Take-off and Landing (V/STOL) aircraft flying in the ve...

R. L. Buechler

1969-01-01

99

Surface weather features associated with freezing precipitation and severe in-flight aircraft icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface observations of freezing precipitation and pilot reports of severe in-flight aircraft icing for the continental United States are compared to the location of surface weather features, including airmasses of different origin and position relative to fronts, low-pressure centers and troughs. Statistics are calculated to determine where freezing precipitation and severe aircraft icing occur most often, and are produced most

Ben C Bernstein; Tiffany A Omeron; Marcia K Politovich; Frank McDonough

1998-01-01

100

Propeller aircraft interior noise model, part II: Scale-model and flight-test comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I [1] of this paper contains the theory used to create a basic propeller aircraft interior noise model. The model predicts tonal levels of blade passage harmonics in the cabin of a propeller driven aircraft. Part II presents the results of validation studies based on scale-model and flight comparisons.

L. D. Pope; C. M. Willis; W. H. Mayes

1987-01-01

101

NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2007-03-21

102

Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO2) and NOx using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NOx with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NOx with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NOx and CO2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

Lee, D. S.; Gonzalez, L. F.; Walker, R.; Periaux, J.; Onate, E.

2010-06-01

103

Operation greenhouse. Scientific director`s report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8.1. Blast effects on aircraft in flight. Nuclear explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this report is to present data concerning the structural and aerodynamic loads as measured on various types of aircraft, in flight, in the vicinity of an atomic explosion. A secondary objective is to describe the instrumentation (installation, calibration, and operation) in order to provide for the future planning and conduct of similar tests. The data presented

J. C. Wayne; J. C. Lehmkuhl

1951-01-01

104

Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer

Caro, Paul W.

105

The Application of Flight and Simulator Testing to VTOL Aircraft Handling Qualities Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several well defined handling qualities limitations were encountered during the flight tests of the X-14A research airplane and several other VTOL aircraft while hovering in visual flight conditions. The purpose of the paper is to describe some of these l...

F. J. Drinkwater L. S. Rolls

1969-01-01

106

Instrumentation for Propeller Blade Vibration Flight and Ground Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for in-flight propeller stress measurements has been evident for the last three decades. This report documents the various instrumentation systems, methods, and techniques particularly suited to this purpose. The stress measurement process, in ge...

A. J. Barile

1975-01-01

107

Survey of contemporary aircraft flight dynamics models for use in airspace simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the development of any computer simulation of procedures, equipment, or airspace, an appropriate model of aircraft must be selected. Due to the complexity and aviation safety-critical nature of these development efforts, a detailed survey of the current state-of-the-art in aircraft flight dynamic models is desired. Options include basic 3-D performance envelopes of various aircraft (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, turn rate, and climb rate), high-fidelity models (e.g., proprietary aircraft manufacturer models), commercial-off-the-shelf models (e.g., Laminar Research's X-Plane and Microsoft's Flight Simulator), Government models (e.g., NASA or FAA), and originally developed six degree-of-freedom mathematical models. Here, the simple kinematics model (using basic kinematic relationships without considering the impact of aerodynamics), the small perturbation theory model (which uses only the known, non-dimensional aerodynamic properties of the aircraft), the total forces and moments method (which solves the complete set of nonlinear differential equations and requiring large tables describing aircraft parameters in different flight regimes), and blade element theory (which makes use of the aircraft's physical structure to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments on thin strips of the aircraft) are reviewed.

McGovern, Seamus M.; Cohen, Seth B.

2007-05-01

108

In-Flight Instrument Calibration and Performance Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-flight calibrations are an essential component of any experiment plan for space-based instruments. These calibrations are necessary not only to verify instrument response and correct for instrument degradation, but also to identify unforeseen changes in response. Verifying proper operation after launch is necessary since the instrument has just experienced large stresses, both thermal and mechanical. In addition, post-launch is often

James P. McFadden; David S. Evans; Wayne T. Kasprzak; Larry H. Brace; Dennis J. Chornay; Andrew J. Coates; Ernest Holeman; Katherine Kadinsky-Cade; Justin C. Kasper; Dhiren Kataria; Lynn Kistler; Davin Larson; Toshifumi Mukai; Keith W. Ogilvie; Gtz Paschmann; Fred Rich; Yoshifumi Saito; Jack D. Sudder; John T. Steinberg; Martin Wuest; Peter Wurz

2007-01-01

109

Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aircraft is a large ship designed for passenger or cargo transportation. The structure includes a long cigar-shaped fuselage, a delta-shaped supportingcontrol structure aft of the flight cabin, delta-shaped wing structure and tail structure. Four engi...

A. E. Anderson W. L. Cook J. C. Daugherty J. L. Jones D. G. Koenig

1965-01-01

110

LandSafe precision flight instrumentation system: the DVE solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicopter hover, landing, and take-offs in dust, fog, rain, snow, and high winds is an integral part of military and commercial flight operations. OADS has developed and flight-tested an LDV-based optical sensor suite capable of measuring height above ground, groundspeed, and air data at a FCS capable data rate from a helicopter platform under all environmental and weather conditions. This paper presents capabilities and flight-test results of this high-resolution standalone Precision Flight Instrumentation System.

Mamidipudi, Priyavadan; Dakin, Elizabeth A.; Dakin, Daniel C.; Bienlien, Timothy; Vang, Donald; Rogers, Philip

2012-05-01

111

APOLLO Experience Report Flight Instrumentation Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three types of instrumentation-calibration data were used in the Apollo Program to provide the correct engineering data for tests and mission support. The command and service module instrumentation-component procurement specifications required individual-...

J. F. Demoss

1973-01-01

112

Flight simulation and testing of the FanWing experimental aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper aims to create an accurate computer-based flight simulation of the FanWing experimental aircraft. The model would then be used to record and document the aircraft's performance and handling qualities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The project consisted of three phases. The first was to simplify and convert existing aerodynamic data into a form that was compatible with the simulation

O. Ahad; J. M. R. Graham

2007-01-01

113

14 CFR 21.39 - Flight test instrument calibration and correction report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flight test instrument calibration and correction report. 21.39 ...§ 21.39 Flight test instrument calibration and correction report. (a...tests required in connection with the calibration of instruments used for test...

2013-01-01

114

Flight Test Avionics Data Acquisition System for Future Fokker Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the Avionics Data Acquisition System (ADAS) which is being used for the acquisition of ARINC-429 data for flight-test purposes. It is one of the subsystems of the Fokker/NLR flight-test system MRVS-90. MRVS-90 is the Dutch acronym for ...

C. J. M. Bogers P. J. H. M. Manders

1994-01-01

115

Flight control and handling research with the VAAC Harrier aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) concepts present unique design challenges. The flight control system designer must consider several issues including the control response type, the appropriate cockpit displays, and the control strategy for the flight and propulsion controls. Advanced STOVL concepts will have many force and moment generators. To be operationally effective such configurations need to have precise

G. T. SHANKS; C. FIELDING; S. J. ANDREWS; R. A. HYDE

1994-01-01

116

Development of Flight Simulator for Human-Powered Aircraft - The Road towards a World Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a preliminary report about our plan for a special-purpose flight simulator. The human-powered aircraft developed in Nihon University has achieved the Japanese flight distance record of 49.2 km in 2005. However, this Japanese record is still half the distance of the world record of 115.1 km that Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved in 1988. Thus, the present goal

Yasuhiro Inaba; Y. Shimada; K. Uchiyama; K. Abe; Y. Ishikawa; T. Sugimoto; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Koyama; S. Onishi; K. Matubara; C. Satoh; T. Minejima; K. Hirayanagi; M. Okano; M. Saitoh; A. Abe

2006-01-01

117

The Insulation of Houses against Noise from Aircraft in Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three groups of traditional houses were insulated against aircraft noise by double glazing and installing sound attenuating ventilator units. For upper floor rooms of two story houses, overall insulations of 35-40 dB were obtainable, providing transmission through the roofs and down flues were also reduced. The noise levels caused by ventilator

Scholes, W. E.; Parkin, P. H.

118

Vision-Only Aircraft Flight Control Methods and Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned aerial vehicle usually carries an array of sensors whose output is used to estimate the vehicle's attitude, velocity and position. This paper details the development of control strategies for a glider, which is capable of flying from a starting point to a ending location using only a single vision sensor. Using vision to control an aircraft presents a

Alison A. Proctor; Eric N. Johnsony

2004-01-01

119

Video Analysis of the Flight of a Model Aircraft  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the

Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio

2011-01-01

120

AIRCRAFT PARAMETER ESTIMATION FROM FLIGHT DATA USING FEED FORWARD NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thrust area is emerging in the area of aircraft modelling and parameter estimation: development of techniques using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for flight vehicle identification. In recent times, the most widely used parameter estimation method has been the output error method and its variants like the maximum likelihood method, the filter error method, etc. Applications of these methods

A. K. Ghosh

121

A Full Envelope Small Commercial Aircraft Flight Control Design Using Multivariable Proportional-Integral Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief deals with the application of linear parameter varying control concepts to the design of a full envelope flight control system for commercial aircrafts. The proposed controller is fixed to have a multivariable proportional-integral structure. A linear matrix inequalities-based technique is proposed to account for variations both in the reference model and in the plant. Some numerical simulations show

Massimiliano Mattei; Valerio Scordamaglia

2008-01-01

122

Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Firefighting Tactics and Equipment Evaluation Tests: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the crash of an EA-6B aircraft on the flight deck of the USS NIMITZ on May 26, 1981, an extensive research program was undertaken to address possible deficiencies in shipboard firefighting procedures and systems and to identify potential areas f...

H. W. Carhart J. T. Leonard R. L. Darwin R. E. Burns T. J. Hughes

1986-01-01

123

Measurement of the flow distribution over the flight deck of an aircraft carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the general configuration of the air flow over the flight deck of a Spanish aircraft carrier. The level was determined of fluctuations of the wind vector in certain points of the deck where operations of VSTOL planes and helicopters take place. It was decided to study the possibility of making wind tunnel testing over a

M. Mulero; F. Gomez Portabella

1991-01-01

124

Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

125

Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utiliz...

D. L. Simon T. Kobayashi

2006-01-01

126

Flight Test Results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle Human Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions o...

R. B. Sullivan S. H. Zerweckh

1988-01-01

127

Wind Tunnel Investigation to Determine Buffet Countermeasures for STOL Aircraft alpha-Sweep Flight Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During alpha-sweep flight testing of the short take-off and landing (STOL) experimental aircraft ASKA, a buffet occurred earlier than expected, as well as large airframe vibrations, both of which contributed to preventing the high angle of attack portion ...

H. Takahashi T. Nakaya Y. Hayashi S. Kayaba M. Noguchi

1991-01-01

128

Robust integrated flight and propulsion control (IFPC) of an experimental STOVL aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of ℋ? loop-shaping is used to design a robust integrated flight and propulsion controller for an experimental STOVL aircraft configuration, based on the Harrier T.Mk 10 airframe with a Rolls Royce Spey engine. Performance properties of the integrated controller are validated via nonlinear simulation

D. G. Bates; S. L. Gatley; I. Postlethwaite; L. Gillett; D. Littleboy

1998-01-01

129

Parabolic flight experiments on physiological data acquisition and processing technologies using small jet aircraft (MU300).  

PubMed

The parabolic aircraft flight provides a short low gravity environment for approximately 20 seconds, which may not be sufficient for a research on the physiological phenomenon induced by actual weightlessness in space. However, the method is still useful to reveal essential and characteristic feature of physiological signs, and is available for testing hardware and also training of crew member during altered gravity. This paper reports the summary of parabolic flight experiments recently conducted as a NASDA program (1990-1992). The program is providing opportunities in low gravity research with small jet aircraft for researchers and agencies. The flight experiments in the life science area have been conducted mostly focused on a physiological changes and basic methodology which may be effective under the altered gravity condition. In this study, the following research team, NASDA, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital, Torey Research Center and JSUP were involved and coordinated for the research. PMID:11538779

Watanabe, S; Nagaoka, S; Usui, S; Miyamoto, A; Suzuki, H; Hirata, T; Yoshimoto, S; Ueno, T; Kojima, T; Yamagata, M; Ishikura, S

1994-05-01

130

Intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst and cerebral gas embolism in an aircraft flight passenger.  

PubMed

Although it is estimated that > 1 billion passengers travel by air worldwide each year, the incidence of in-flight emergencies is low. However, due to nonstandardized reporting requirements for in-flight medical emergencies, the true incidence of pulmonary barotrauma in airplane passengers is unknown. We describe the case of a passenger with an asymptomatic intrapulmonary cyst in whom a severe case of cerebral gas embolism developed during an aircraft flight. The decrease in ambient pressure during the aircraft climb resulted in expansion of the cyst volume based on Boyle's law (pressure x volume = constant). Due to the cyst expansion, we believe tears in the wall led to the leakage of air into the surrounding vessels followed by brain gas emboli. Adult patients with intrapulmonary cysts should be strongly considered for cyst resection or should at least be advised to abstain from activities leading to considerable changes in ambient pressure. PMID:16899861

Almeida, Francisco Acio; Desouza, Bryan X; Meyer, Thomas; Gregory, Susan; Greenspon, Lee

2006-08-01

131

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph...The initial ground training for flight instructors...instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student performance...Improper and insufficient training; and (ii) Personal...teaching-learning process; (ii)...

2013-01-01

132

14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...simulator, or in a flight training device. (b...The initial ground training for flight instructors...instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student performance...Improper and insufficient training; and (ii) Personal...teaching-learning process; (ii)...

2013-01-01

133

Integrated Flight\\/Propulsion Control Design for a STOVL Aircraft using H-Infinity Control Design Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from an application of H control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight\\/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic Short TakeOff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The emphasis is on formulating the H control design problem such that the resulting controller provides robustness to modelling uncertainties and model parameter variations with flight

Sanjay Garg; Peter J. Ouzts

1991-01-01

134

Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation from Aircraft in Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an investigation of the effects of altitude, frequency and distance upon the strength of a received radio signal as transmitted from an airplane in flight and received at a point on the earth's surface. Frequencies between 475 kc. and 5,500 kc. are reported on for altitudes up to 6,000 feet and distances up to

Tom C. Rives; James C. Coe

1932-01-01

135

Ground and flight testing for aircraft guidance and control  

SciTech Connect

A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

Onken, R.; Rediess, H.A.

1984-12-01

136

48 CFR 252.228-7002 - Aircraft flight risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulation entitled Contractor's Flight and Ground Operations (Air Force Regulation 55-22, Army Regulation 95-20, NAVAIR Instruction 3710.1C, and Defense Logistics Agency Manual 8210.1), the Contractor shall not be (1) Relieved...

2009-10-01

137

Feasibility of flight experiments and instrumentation hardware for in-flight hypersonic boundary-layer measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the feasibility of implementing nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure the properties of the boundary layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle. Measurements of density, temperature, location of the shock front, and N, O, and NO concentrations are feasible using electron-beam fluorescence, for which instrumentation appropriate for flight experiments already exists. In particular, NO will be a key indicator of

R. J. Cattolica; R. L. Schmitt; R. E. Palmer

1989-01-01

138

Aircraft parameter identification for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parameter identification study was conducted to identify a detailed aircraft mathematical model for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system that aims to detect, identify, and accommodate for sensor and actuator failures. Specifically, a mathematical model was identified under nominal conditions for two aircraft platforms, and a model was developed for one platform under actuator failure conditions. These models are to be used in flight control law design and to account for actuator failures on the primary control surfaces for one of the research platforms. In order to accurately model the aircraft behavior following a control surface failure, the effects of an individual surface on the aircraft dynamics was estimated. Since an individual control surface deflection---for example in the event of a locked actuator---causes a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics, additional terms were identified in the state space and stability and control derivative mathematical models. These models were derived from measured flight data acquired from pilot and automated computer-injected maneuvers under both nominal and failure conditions. From this analysis, the stability and control derivatives were extracted to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments on each aircraft. These aerodynamics were next introduced into a simulation environment to validate the accuracy of the identified mathematical models. A Data Compendium (DATCOM) -- based analysis was conducted in order to provide a means of comparison of the models obtained through the parameter identification study and to provide constraints on parameter optimization. Finally, a confidence interval analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the estimated values. Several simulation studies were conducted to validate the accuracy of the models for each research platform, focusing on both nominal and primary control surface failure conditions where applicable. The model outputs were compared to the measured flight data from the two respective research platforms to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters.

Phillips, Kerri B.

139

Maritime acoustic detection of aircraft to increase flight safety and homeland security: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years ARL has studied acoustics to track vehicles, helicopters, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and others targets of interest. More recently these same acoustic sensors were placed on a "simulated" buoy in an attempt to detect and track aircraft over a large body of water. This report will investigate the advantages of using acoustic arrays to track air and water craft from a fixed floating platform as well as potential concerns associated with this technology. Continuous monitoring of aircraft overflight will increase situational awareness while persistent monitoring of commercial and military flight paths increases overall homeland security.

Solomon, Latasha; Sim, Leng; Tenney, Stephen

2008-05-01

140

Expanding a flutter envelope using data from accelerating flight: Application to the F-16 fighter aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the destructive nature of flutter, flutter testing is a mandatory requirement for certification of both civilian and military aircraft. However, along with the complexity of newer aircraft, the time and cost associated with flutter testing has increased dramatically. Considering that many of the test techniques and analysis methods used to perform flutter testing date back to the 1950s and 1960's it may be time to take a fresh look at how flutter testing can best be accomplished. This thesis revisits flutter testing techniques and proposes an alternative to traditional flutter testing. The alternative uses flight test data from an aircraft that is performing an acceleration to clear the flutter envelope of the aircraft. Four academic issues arise from this new test approach. (1) Are frequencies and dampings affected by the acceleration of the aircraft? (2) Can parameter identification algorithms extract frequency and damping values from the time varying data? (3) Can the vibration response at airspeeds (or Mach numbers) beyond which the aircraft has accelerated be anticipated? (4) What formal criteria can be used to determine when the aircraft needs to end the acceleration and terminate the test point? The academic contribution of this thesis is to address these issues. It is shown that although the frequencies and damping values do change the change is so small that it is irrelevant. It is also shown that by taking small windows of data, within which the change in parameters is small, it is possible to accurately identify parameters from the time varying data. Finally it is shown that at least in principal parameters can be predicted using data from sub-critical airspeeds, and that testing can be discontinued before an unstable flight condition is reached.

Harris, Charles A.

141

Collision avoidance in commercial aircraft Free Flight via neural networks and non-linear programming.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a great effort to convert the existing Air Traffic Control system into a novel system known as Free Flight. Free Flight is based on the concept that increasing international airspace capacity will grant more freedom to individual pilots during the enroute flight phase, thereby giving them the opportunity to alter flight paths in real time. Under the current system, pilots must request, then receive permission from air traffic controllers to alter flight paths. Understandably the new system allows pilots to gain the upper hand in air traffic. At the same time, however, this freedom increase pilot responsibility. Pilots face a new challenge in avoiding the traffic shares congested air space. In order to ensure safety, an accurate system, able to predict and prevent conflict among aircraft is essential. There are certain flight maneuvers that exist in order to prevent flight disturbances or collision and these are graded in the following categories: vertical, lateral and airspeed. This work focuses on airspeed maneuvers and tries to introduce a new idea for the control of Free Flight, in three dimensions, using neural networks trained with examples prepared through non-linear programming. PMID:18991361

Christodoulou, Manolis A; Kontogeorgou, Chrysa

2008-10-01

142

Salmonellosis outbreak on transatlantic flights; foodborne illness on aircraft: 1947-1984.  

PubMed

In March 1984, 186 cases of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enteritidis were reported after 29 flights to the United States on an international airline. An estimated 2,747 passengers on flights to the United States were affected. Illness was associated with flying supersonic or first class (odds ratio = 15, p less than 0.001). Eating food from the first-class menu was associated with illness (p = 0.09), and eating a tourist-class entree was protective (p less than 0.01). In 23 reported outbreaks of foodborne illness on aircraft, Salmonella has been the most common pathogen (seven outbreaks), followed by Staphylococcus (five outbreaks), and Vibrio species (five outbreaks). Outbreaks are most often the result of an improper temperature for preparation or for holding food in the flight kitchens. Serving the flight crew meals from one kitchen carries the risk that the entire crew will become ill. PMID:3788944

Tauxe, R V; Tormey, M P; Mascola, L; Hargrett-Bean, N T; Blake, P A

1987-01-01

143

Assessing the Navigation Data Input to Aircraft Flight Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives details of the failure rates and the failure modes experienced with SPS GPS receivers certificated for aviation use to the TSO-C129 specification. These failure rates are significant compared to those from other modern avionics and the rates are comparable to that currently experienced from un-scheduled failures in the GPS signals-in-space. To achieve certification, Flight Management System (FMS) design should consider the way in which the satellite navigation receivers fail. The paper also gives details concerning the 2-D errors that have been experienced with these receivers, and indicates further work that needs to be done with C 129a receivers.

Nisner, P. D.; Johannessen, R.

1998-09-01

144

The SR71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments tosupersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described.This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane"flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection

Stephen Corda; Timothy R. Moes; Masashi Mizukami; Neal E. Hass; Daniel Jones; Richard C. Monaghan; Ronald J. Ray; Michele L. Jarvis; Nathan Palumbo

2000-01-01

145

Aeroelastic instability and response of advanced aircraft wings at subsonic flight speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified aeroelastic model developed towards investigating the flutter instability and subcritical aeroelastic response to a sharp-edged gust load in the compressible subsonic flight speed range is presented. The aircraft wing is modeled as an anisotropic composite thin-walled beam featuring circumferentially asymmetric stiffness lay-up which generates preferred elastic couplings. A number of non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping restraint,

Z. Qin; P. Marzocca; L. Librescu

2002-01-01

146

Denoising of impulse response using LS-SVM and SVD for aircraft flight flutter test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel method that applies least-square support vector machines (LS-SVM) to denoising of impulse response signal for aircraft flight flutter test. This method is based on time series prediction using LS-SVM. Since the signal to noise ratio (SNR) varies with amplitude for the decaying property of damped sinusoid, the beginning data points with high SNR is used for

Wei Tang; Zhongke Shi; Hongchao Li

2006-01-01

147

In-flight measurement of aircraft CO and nonmethane hydrocarbon emission indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission indices were derived from in-flight measurements of CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), H2O, and nonvolatile condensation nuclei in the exhaust plumes of the Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt VFW 614 (ATTAS) and NASA DC-8 experimental aircraft. CO emission indices, EIs(CO), of the ATTAS Rolls Royce M 45H Mk501 engines were determined concurrently by two independent techniques: monitoring of exhaust

F. Slemr; H. Giehl; M. Habram; J. Slemr; H. Schlager; P. Schulte; P. Haschberger; E. Lindermeir; A. Dpelheuer; M. Plohr

2001-01-01

148

In-flight measurement of aircraft non-methane hydrocarbon emission indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and CO were measured in exhaust plumes of the DLR experimental aircraft ATTAS equipped with Rolls Royce M 45H Mk50l engines. The emission indices (EI) of individual light NMHC were determined from ratios of NMHC and CO concentration enhancements measured in grab samples and the concurrent in-flight measurements of EI of CO by FTIR emission

F. Slemr; H. Giehl; J. Slemr; R. Busen; P. Schulte; P. Haschberger

1998-01-01

149

In-flight measurement of aircraft non-methane hydrocarbon emission indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and CO were measured in exhaust plumes of the DLR experimental aircraft ATTAS equipped with Rolls Royce M 45H Mk501 engines. The emission indices (EI) of individual light NMHC were determined from ratios of NMHC and CO concentration enhancements measured in grab samples and the concurrent in-flight measurements of EI of CO by FTIR emission

F. Slemr; H. Giehl; J. Slemr; R. Busen; P. Schulte; P. Haschberger

1998-01-01

150

Aircraft Fuel Savings in Jet Streams by Maximising Features of Flight Mechanics and Navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance enhancement and cost reduction are driving forces in today's airline industry. In a world of cost pressures and escalating charges, research was conducted into better use of jet streams as a means of reducing costs. When operating on international airline routes, specific features of flight mechanics were adapted and tailored to fit a B747-200 aircraft, major emphasis being placed on intercepting, or avoiding where necessary, the high energy jet stream winds of the global weather system, adjusting flight profiles and modifying route structures. Operations were conducted both into wind and down wind, over a period of five years. Techniques employed show fuel may be saved regardless of the wind being a tailwind or headwind. Both fuel and time have a significant bearing on airline direct operating costs: savings of more than 11 percent being made on fuel and 0786 percent on time. Limitations on using the techniques to gain maximum benefit are related to the high volume of aircraft blocking all major airways, and better quality, real time weather forecasts. The discussion looks at ways of improving the use of jet streams, as the world's airline traffic continues to grow. Forecasting upper winds, particularly in oceanic areas, needs to improve if airlines are to derive maximum benefits from these winds. There is need for further study utilising other aircraft types to ascertain what savings can result. Initial results were encouraging, using a Tristar L1011 aircraft.

Houghton, Ronald C. C.

1998-09-01

151

The lightning swept stroke along an aircraft in flight. Part I: thermodynamic and electric properties of lightning arc channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a lightning strike to an aircraft in flight, the lightning channel becomes deformed in the airflow and displaced along the aircraft, a so-called swept stroke. The deformation and the displacement are caused by the interaction between the aerodynamic flow and the plasma properties of the channel together with the properties of the surface. The main part of the lightning

Anders Larsson; Philippe Lalande; Anne Bondiou-Clergerie; Alain Delannoy

2000-01-01

152

Measurements of nitrogen oxides from aircraft in the northeast Atlantic flight corridor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the size and composition of exhaust plumes of commercial airliners in the northeast Atlantic flight corridor off the shores of Ireland and Scotland, an area with high air traffic density in the tropopause region. The primary objective was to measure the contribution of the NO and NOy emitted from aircraft to the nitrogen oxide background. We have made measurements in aircraft flight corridors by flying a research aircraft perpendicular to the routes of commercial transatlantic air traffic. Although previous studies had succeeded in identifying a few plumes, this study was the first systematic investigation of over 60 aircraft plumes through in situ NO and NOy measurements. These plumes were up to 1.5 km wide (along our flight paths) and showed NOy mixing ratios of up to 10 ppb above the background levels. The measurements showed that on larger scales the composition of NOy in the background air masses was very heterogeneous. On top of this natural variability of the NOy, we could not identify any influence of air traffic exhaust on air chemistry on scales larger than a few kilometers from our data. A secondary objective was to estimate the importance of the oxidation of NO? to NOy in the relatively fresh plumes. The measured NO/NOy ratios were near the NO/NO? ratios calculated from a simple photo-stationary state assumption. This result was also consistent with calculations made with an expanding box model that included gas-phase chemistry for the measured plume conditions. The model calculated NO/NOy and NC/NO? ratios were almost equal, and these were consistent with the measured NO/NOy, ratios. These calculations showed that oxidation of NO? to higher oxides played only a negligible role in our measured plumes of ages between 14 and 90 min.

Klemm, Otto; Stockwell, William R.; Schlager, Hans; Ziereis, Helmut

1998-12-01

153

Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft data and a global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine aircraft measurements (Second Texas Air Quality Study, Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations, Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: Phase B) over the United States, Mexico, and the Pacific with a 3-D model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate formaldehyde column (?HCHO) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and assess the information they provide on HCHO across local to regional scales and urban to background regimes. OMI ?HCHO correlates well with columns derived from aircraft measurements and GEOS-Chem (R = 0.80). For the full data ensemble, OMI's mean bias is -3% relative to aircraft-derived ?HCHO (-17% where ?HCHO > 5 1015 molecules cm-2) and -8% relative to GEOS-Chem, within expected uncertainty for the retrieval. Some negative bias is expected for the satellite and model, given the plume sampling of many flights and averaging over the satellite and model footprints. Major axis regression for OMI versus aircraft and model columns yields slopes (95% confidence intervals) of 0.80 (0.62-1.03) and 0.98 (0.73-1.35), respectively, with no significant intercept. Aircraft measurements indicate that the normalized vertical HCHO distribution, required by the satellite retrieval, is well captured by GEOS-Chem, except near Mexico City. Using measured HCHO profiles in the retrieval algorithm does not improve satellite-aircraft agreement, suggesting that use of a global model to specify shape factors does not substantially degrade retrievals over polluted areas. While the OMI measurements show that biogenic volatile organic compounds dominate intra-annual and regional ?HCHO variability across the United States, smaller anthropogenic ?HCHO gradients are detectable at finer spatial scales (20-200 km) near many urban areas.

Boeke, Nicholas L.; Marshall, Julian D.; Alvarez, Sergio; Chance, Kelly V.; Fried, Alan; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Rappenglck, Bernhard; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Millet, Dylan B.

2011-03-01

154

Flight Investigation of Various Longitudinal Short-Term Dynamics for STOL Landing Approach Using the X-22A Variable Stability Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first in-flight flying qualities experiment using the variable stability X-22A aircraft investigated longitudinal flying qualities requirements for STOL aircraft in terminal area operations. Emphasis was placed on defining minimum requirements for the...

R. E. Smith J. V. Lebacqz J. M. Schuler

1973-01-01

155

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines...OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft...

2009-04-01

156

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines...OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft...

2010-04-01

157

Flight qualified solid argon cooler for the BBXRT instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid argon cooler (SAC) for attached Shuttle payloads has been developed and qualified to meet the need for low cost cooling of flight instruments to the temperature range of 60-120 K. The SACs have been designed and tested with the intent of flying them up to five times. Two coolers, as part of the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) instrument on the ASTRO-1 payload, are awaiting launch on Space Shuttle mission STS-35. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the SAC and its vacuum maintenance system (VMS), used to maintain the argon as a solid during launch delays of up to 5 days. BBXRT cryogen system design features used to satisfy Shuttle safety requirements are discussed, along with SAC ground servicing equipment (GSE) and procedures used to fill, freeze and subcool the argon.

Cygnarowicz, Thomas A.; Schein, Michael E.; Lindauer, David A.; Scarlotti, Roger; Pederson, Robert

1990-11-01

158

The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two B707-type research aircraft of the 452nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base were deployed to study the Leonid meteor storm of 1999 over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered an international team of 35 researchers observing conditions free of clouds and low altitude extinction at

Peter Jenniskens; Steven J. Butow; Mark Fonda

1998-01-01

159

Performance testing of the primary flight instruments for the Boeing 777 airplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeywell provides both the primary flight instruments (EFIS and EICAS) and the FMS control and display unit (CDU) for the Boeing 777 all-glass flightdeck. In addition, the primary flight instruments are used on the new 737 scheduled to certify in 1997. These instruments feature high resolution, full color, active matrix, liquid crystal display panels. They also feature grayscale, very wide

Richard I. McCartney; Lee Haim; Curt Kucera

1996-01-01

160

Hazards to people and aircraft from flight test debris generated at high altitudes  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important aspects of preparing for a rocket-boosted flight test is conducting a mission hazards analysis to quantify the risks associated with the test. These results must be presented to the organization holding the flight safety responsibility for the test and must be of sufficient quantitative detail and thoroughness to show that the test can be conducted within the specified safety guidelines. One of the steps in the flight safety analysis methodology is the generation of statistical debris density data, which is then combined with demographic data to yield an upper bound on the casualty expectation. The most conservative approach to managing the hazards associated with flight-test debris is to contain all debris within a controlled area and keep all nonessential personnel out of that area. However, for many tests this approach is much too conservative. A more realistic approach, especially when large numbers of small fragments are generated, is to reduce the size of the hazard area by discarding those debris fragments that are non-hazardous. The quantification of the boundary between hazardous and non-hazardous debris fragments is the subject of this report. Two hazards of flight-test debris are address here: hazards to people exposed on the ground and hazards to aircraft in flight. A survey was conducted of the literature and of experts in the field of debris effects. The survey results are presented here and recommendations made regarding the minimum energy levels and minimum particle size that need be considered in a flight safety analysis.

Cole, J.K.; Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Flight Dynamics Dept.

1994-08-01

161

In-flight measurement of aircraft non-methane hydrocarbon emission indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and CO were measured in exhaust plumes of the DLR experimental aircraft ATTAS equipped with Rolls Royce M 45H Mk50l engines. The emission indices (EI) of individual light NMHC were determined from ratios of NMHC and CO concentration enhancements measured in grab samples and the concurrent in-flight measurements of EI of CO by FTIR emission spectroscopy. Alkenes and alkynes generated by cracking of larger NMHC molecules and aromatic compounds originating from unburnt fuel constituted a larger and a smaller fraction of the NMHC emissions, respectively.

Slemr, F.; Giehl, H.; Slemr, J.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Haschberger, P.

162

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide,

Gerald L. Gregory; Douglas D. Davis; Norbert Beltz; Alan R. Bandy; Ronald J. Ferek; Donald C. Thornton

1993-01-01

163

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl

Gerald L. Gregory; Douglas D. Davis; Nobert Beltz; Alan R. Bandy; Ronald J. Ferek; Donald C. Thornton

1993-01-01

164

Instrument for the in situ measurement of haze in aircraft windscreens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current instruments for the measurement of haze in aircraft windscreens generally require the removal, and possible destruction, of the windscreen to conduct the test. Most instruments available for haze measurement of samples taken from a windscreen cannot be used insitu. This is because the standard definition of haze requires measurement of light scattered in transmission through the sample so the

Frank W. Gallagher III; Fred V. Brock

1996-01-01

165

Instrumented personal exercise during long-duration space flights.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of instrumented personal exercise performed in flight by the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 crewmen. These data include physiological responses to maximum aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at the conclusion of an 84-d exposure to zero-G (Sklyab 4). The bioinstrumentation provided continuous vectorcardiograph heart rate and cycle ergometer work level; minute updates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, VO-2, V-CO-2, and VE. All Skylab 4 crewmen had higher V-O-2-max (cc/kg/min) at completion of the 84-d earth orbital mission than they had 4 d before launch. Two of these Skylab 4 crewmen, the scientist pilot and pilot, showed high levels of aerobic fitness with V-O-2-max of 54 and 51 cc/kg/min respectively at a heart rate of 185 beats/min and a workload of 286 w. PMID:1147874

Sawin, C F; Rummel, J A; Michel, E L

1975-04-01

166

A new bias partitioned square-root information filter and smoother for aircraft flight state and parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel bias partitioned square-root information filter (PSRIF) with an associated partitioned square-root information smoother (PSRIS) for aircraft flight state and parameter estimation is proposed. This algorithm not only can improve the numerical robustness and precision of flight state estimation but can also make the computation more efficient than the augmented extended Kalman filter or the conventional square-root information filter

Zhang Youmin; Zhang Hongcai; Dai Guanzhong

1992-01-01

167

INVESTIGATION OF RADM PERFORMANCE USING AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements using specially instrumented aircraft were obtained during August and September, 1988 as an integral part of the ACID MODES (Model Operational and Diagnostic Evaluation Study) field study. pecialized flights, each designed to diagnose different aspects of the perform...

168

Airborne prototype instrument suite test flight of a low-light high-dynamic range imager and visible spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Sensors Initiative (ASI) at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (BATC) specializes in airborne demonstration of internally-developed instrument concepts and innovative remote sensing technologies. In December 2006, ASI flew an environmental remote sensing suite consisting of the Low Light Imager (LLI) and Prototype Airborne Visible Imaging Spectrometer (PAVIS), both of which are operated using a pushbroom approach. LLI is designed for nighttime or high dynamic range imaging. It is capable of yielding 107 dynamic range and offers quality images amid illumination extending from a 1/4 moon to full sunlight and with autonomous operation. PAVIS is an imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson design and exhibits a 200 nm spectral bandwidth tunable within 400 - 850 nm. Developed internally to demonstrate promising remote sensing capabilities, these small, low-mass and low-power instruments are prepared for aircraft flight and are currently being used in the field to acquire scientific data. The LLI/PAVIS instrument suite has been utilized to collect airborne urban and rural imagery, as well as spectral information about the Great Salt Lake area, western Colorado, and ancient lava flows in southern Idaho. Highlights of the instrument design and ensuing data from previous flights are presented herein.

Kuester, Michele A.; Lasnik, James K.; Ramond, Tanya; Lin, Tony; Johnson, Brian; Kaptchen, Paul; Good, William

2007-10-01

169

Flight dynamics of a pterosaur-inspired aircraft utilizing a variable-placement vertical tail.  

PubMed

Mission performance for small aircraft is often dependent on the turn radius. Various biologically inspired concepts have demonstrated that performance can be improved by morphing the wings in a manner similar to birds and bats; however, the morphing of the vertical tail has received less attention since neither birds nor bats have an appreciable vertical tail. This paper investigates a design that incorporates the morphing of the vertical tail based on the cranial crest of a pterosaur. The aerodynamics demonstrate a reduction in the turn radius of 14% when placing the tail over the nose in comparison to a traditional aft-placed vertical tail. The flight dynamics associated with this configuration has unique characteristics such as a Dutch-roll mode with excessive roll motion and a skid divergence that replaces the roll convergence. PMID:21558603

Roberts, Brian; Lind, Rick; Chatterjee, Sankar

2011-05-11

170

Intensive Probing of a Clear Air Convective Field by Radar and Instrumented Drone Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m min1, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in

J. R. Rowland

1973-01-01

171

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which s...

1978-01-01

172

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which sh...

1978-01-01

173

Flight Test of an Ocean Color Measuring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WISP IV instrument has been successfully installed and flight tested in a light aircraft along with auxiliary instruments. Data acquired to date by the WISP and water color spectrometer (WCS) have substantiated the scientific merit and operational pot...

J. S. Bailey

1969-01-01

174

The residence times of aircraft emissions in the stratosphere using a mean emission inventory and emissions along actual flight tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flight routes of commercial aircraft are adjusted to the actual meteorological situation in order to benefit from tail winds and avoid head winds and dangerous flight conditions. This study investigates whether these adjustments have an impact on the partitioning and the residence times of aircraft emissions in the stratosphere and troposphere. A Lagrangian dispersion model is used in combination with a mean emission inventory and emissions along actual flight tracks. Both inventories are established from Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) aircraft position data in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) over a 1-year period. The results show that stratospheric emissions released in the NAFC are transported in a northeasterly direction towards polar regions on a timescale of a few days. The mean residence time of these emissions is about 23 days, which is shorter than documented in previous studies. The greatest fluxes from the stratosphere into the troposphere occur during the first 10 days and have their maxima over Europe and North Africa. About 62% and 67% of the emissions are directly deposited in the stratosphere in the mean emission inventory and in the inventory of the actual flight tracks, respectively. The deposition in the stratosphere was found to be sensitive to the definition of the tropopause height. However, the transport and partitioning of the emissions in the stratosphere and troposphere are only moderately affected if an inventory of the actual flight tracks is used instead of a mean emission inventory. Therefore, the systematic errors made in chemistry climate models, which use mean inventories, are small and can be tolerated for most applications.

Forster, Caroline; Stohl, Andreas; James, Paul; Thouret, ValRie

2003-06-01

175

Flying the North American Adirondack whitetail on instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare ecosystem-based wildlife management to instrument flight of aircraft. Airplanes cannot be controlled without visual ground reference, or if this is impossible to a cluster of flight instruments. Instrument pilots are trained to develop a rhythmic scan of the cluster to monitor and correct flight path and attitude. The untrained tendency is to fixate on a single gauge. Then,

Richard W. Sage; Bernard C. Patten; Paulette A. Salmon

2003-01-01

176

Flight research on natural laminar flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five decades of flight experiences with natural laminar flow (NLF) have provided a basis of understanding how this technology can be used for reduction of viscous drag on modern practical aircraft. The effects of cruise unit Reynolds number on NLF achievability and maintainability; compressibility effects on Tollmein-Schlichting growth; flight experiment on the Cessna Citation III business jet; flight instrumentation on

B. J. Holmes; C. C. Croom; E. C. Hastings Jr.; C. J. Obara; C. P. Vandam

1986-01-01

177

Resonance Fluorescence Instrument for the in Situ Detection of BrO in the Atmosphere: Instrument Description, Calibration, and Flight Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Losses of ozone over midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere are well documented in both the scientific literature and the public policy arena. Accurately defining secular trends in the distribution of ozone and establishing the mechanisms responsible for the observed losses are two dominant and enduring issues. The latest WMO report, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, states: ``The vertical, latitudinal, and seasonal characteristics of changes in midlatitude ozone are broadly consistent with the understanding that halogens are the primary cause of these changes, in line with similar conclusions from the 1998 Assessment.'' Other studies, however, have indicated alternative explanations to midlatitude ozone loss. Therefore, given the continued uncertainty, it is prudent to examine the full complement of halogen radical families in the lower stratosphere from the tropics to midlatitudes. Accurate BrO measurements, in particular, are critical due to the high efficiency of bromine compounds at ozone destruction. However, efforts to test the abundance and speciation of bromine in the stratosphere have been particularly hampered by low atmospheric concentrations. Here we present details of our redesigned resonance fluorescence axis for in situ BrO detection, which is incorporated into the Harvard Halogen flight instrument. These modifications provide the capability to detect BrO with greater sensitivity, precision, and spatial resolution than in any previous in situ aircraft measurement. Instrument calibrations have been ongoing, and details of this work, along with analysis of the BrO data from twelve flights of the SOLVE mission to Kiruna, Sweden, are presented. We estimate an accuracy of BrO measurements from the Harvard Halogen flight instrument of \\pm20% (1? ) with a detection limit of 3 pptv in 5 minutes.

Wilmouth, D. M.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Anderson, J. G.

2004-12-01

178

A novel airborne technique for free-field measurements of aircraft noise above the flight path with application to noise-shielding studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-shielding effects for a TriStar airliner are deduced from a comparison of engine noise measured simultaneously above and below the flight path. Noise radiated upward is monitored by flying the aircraft beneath a large instrumented fiberglass sphere suspended from a hovering helicopter, while flyover noise at ground level is recorded conventionally. Predicted acoustic diffraction by the sphere results in good directivity and frequency response characteristics, allowing reliable free-field noise data to be readily derived from the fly-under. Experimental checks on this behavior at model and full-scale are reported, including the results of diffraction studies on a half-scale sphere in an anechoic room. Basic considerations regarding application of the technique to noise-shielding studies in flight are outlined and corrections to free-field conditions are evaluated for a range of typical frequencies and sound incidence angles. Most corrections are -6 dB and independent of the source distance, and efficient shielding by the sphere leads to a substantial reduction in helicopter background noise, which improves reliability of the aircraft noise measurements.

Holbeche, T. A.; Hazell, A. F.

1981-10-01

179

A Rotor-Mounted Digital Instrumentation System for Helicopter Blade Flight Research Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rotor mounted flight instrumentation system developed for helicopter rotor blade research is described. The system utilizes high speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are f...

V. H. Knight W. S. Haywood M. L. Williams

1978-01-01

180

Analysis of the cyclotron facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the liulin-3M instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR space station during the 19881994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique

Ts. P. Dachev; E. G. Stassinopoulos; B. T. Tomov; Pl. G. Dimitrov; Yu. N. Matviichuk; V. A. Shurshakov; V. M. Petrov

2003-01-01

181

Analysis of the cyclotron facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the liulin-3M instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR space station during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique

Ts. P. Dachev; E. G. Stassinopoulos; B. T. Tomov; Pl. G. Dimitrov; Yu. N. Matviichuk; V. A. Shurshakov; V. M. Petrov

2003-01-01

182

Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

Hibbs, Bart D. (1732 N. Grand Oaks, Altadena, CA 91001); Lissaman, Peter B. S. (3276 Rubio Canyon Rd., Altadena, CA 91001); Morgan, Walter R. (3217 Amarillo Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063); Radkey, Robert L. (70 Eddystone Ct., Redwood City, CA 94065)

1998-01-01

183

Behavioural Adaptation to diminished Gravity in Fish - a Parabolic Aircraft Flight Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the micro gravity phases in the course of parabolic aircraft flights PFs some fish of a given batch were frequently shown to exhibit sensorimotor disorders in terms of revealing so-called looping responses LR or spinning movements SM both forms of motion sickness a kinetosis In order to gain some insights into the time-course of the behavioural adaptation towards diminished gravity in total 272 larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were subjected to PFs and their respective behaviour was monitored With the onset of the first parabola P1 15 9 of the animals revealed a kinetotic behaviour whereas kinetoses were shown in 6 5 1 5 and 1 of the animals in P5 P10 and P15 With P20 the animals had adapted completely 0 swimming kinetotically Since the relative decrease of kinetotic animals was especially prominent from P5 to P10 a detailed analysis of the behaviour was undertaken Regarding SM a ratio of 2 9 in P5 decreased to 0 5 in P10 Virtually all individuals showing a SM in P5 had regained a normal behaviour with P10 The SM animals in P10 had all exhibited a normal swimming behaviour in P5 The ratio of LR-fish also decreased from P5 3 6 to P10 1 0 In contrast to the findings regarding SM numerous LM specimens did not regain a normal postural control and only very few animals behaving normally in P5 began to sport a LM behaviour by P10 Summarizing most kinetotic animals rapidly adapted to diminished gravity but few individual fish who swam normally at the beginning of the flights may loose sensorimotor control

Forster, A.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

184

Observations of small cumuli with an airborne radar and instrumented aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have been made in 6 small cumulus clouds using three instrumented aircraft, a ground-based radar, and an 95 GHz airborne Doppler radar. The clouds occurred on two days during the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study in east-central Florida, summer 1995. Cloud tops were below 3 km and in-cloud temperatures were warmer than 10C. Droplet spectra in these clouds were generally

Jeffrey Russell French

1998-01-01

185

Precision ocean salinity measurements using the Passive Active L\\/S-band aircraft instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean salinity measurements using the Passive Active L\\/S-band instrument flying on the NCAR C-130 aircraft were made in July 2002 near Monterey, CA. When the radiometer data were corrected for the SST using the Klein and Swift salinity model and surface roughness effects using the L-band scatterometer, the retrieved salinity measurements had an RMS difference of 0.2-0.3 psu when compared

William J. Wilson; Simon H. Yueh; Steve Dinardo; Yi Chao; Fuk Li

2003-01-01

186

Application of nonlinear inverse methods to the control of powered-lift aircraft over the low-speed flight envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of experience in the design of velocity vector control systems for operation of short take-off and landing (STOL) and short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft over their low-speed flight envelopes. A nonlinear inverse control method developed at NASA Ames Research Center was employed to deal with the highly nonlinear, multi-dimensional aerodynamic and propulsion system

JAMES A. FRANKLIN

1994-01-01

187

Ratios of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active nitrogen observed during aircraft flights over the eastern Pacific Oceans and continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During August and September 1986, 11 aircraft flights were made over the eastern Pacific Ocean and continental United States. The suite of observations included simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and active nitrogen (NO = NO + NO). At altitudes of 4.5-6.1 km in the middle free troposphere, PAN was usually 5-6 times NO in maritime air masses and 2-4

B. A. Ridley; J. D. Shetter; B. W. Gandrud; L. J. Salas; H. B. Singh; E. P. Condon; M. A. Carroll; D. L. Albritton; G. Huebler; D. R. Hastie; H. I. Schiff; G. I. Mackay; D. R. Karechi; D. D. Davis; J. D. Bradshaw; M. O. Rodgers; S. T. Sandholm; A. L. Torres; G. L. Gregory; S. M. Beck

1990-01-01

188

Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for

Daniel W. Seal; Thomas L. Weaver; Bradley L. Kessler; Carlos A. Bedoya; Robert E. Mattes

1994-01-01

189

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA-2012-0115-3186, July 2013. Exposures to Lead and Other Metals at an Aircraft Repair and Flight School Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HHE Program evaluated concerns about lead exposure at an aircraft repair and flight school facility. Single-engine aircraft at the facility use leaded aviation fuel which generates lead-containing particulates as a combustion byproduct. No one at the ...

J. Eisenberg L. Chen

2001-01-01

190

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Study. Volume 5: A Mathematical Model for Real Time Flight Simulation of the Bell Model 301 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of...

P. B. Harendra M. J. Joglekar T. M. Gaffey R. L. Marr

1973-01-01

191

Efficiency of the Regulation of Otolith Mineralisation and Susceptibility to kinetotic Behaviour in Parabolic Aircraft Flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under diminished gravity e g during the respective phase in the course of parabolic aircraft flight PF humans often suffer from motion sickness a kinetsosis due to sensorimotor disorders Using fish as a model system we previously provided ample evidence that an individually differently pronounced asymmetric mineralisation calcification of inner ear stones otoliths leads to the individually different susceptibility to such disorders Depending on the disposition of an individual fish the mineralisation of otoliths is more or less strictly regulated by the central nervous system via a gravity-dependent feedback loop Long-term hypergravity centrifuge e g slows down otolith mineralisation whereas simulated microgravity clinostat yields opposite results Such long-term experiments under altered gravity moreover affect otolith asymmetry According to our working hypothesis the efficiency of the respective regulatory mechanism differs among individual animals This efficiency is postulated to be high in animals who behave normally under microgravity conditions whereas it is assumed to be low in such individuals who reveal a kinetotic behaviour at diminished G-forces In order to test this hypothesis two groups of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were kept under long-term hypergravity centrifuge and simulated microgravity clinostat respectively in order to manipulate the efficiency of the aforementioned regulatory mechanism Subsequently the animals were subjected to diminished gravity in the course of PFs and it was analysed

Knie, M.; Weigele, J.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

192

Size and Cell Number of the Utricle in kinetotically swimming Fish: A parabolic Aircraft Flight Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness (SMS, a kinetosis). Since it has been repeatedly shown earlier that some fish of a given batch also reveal a kinetotic behaviour during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses), and due to the homology of the vestibular apparatus among all vertebrates, fish can be used as model systems to investigate the origin of susceptibility to motion sickness. Therefore, we examined the utricular maculae (they are responsible for the internalisation of gravity in teleosteans) of fish swimming kinetotically during the ?g-phases in the course of PAFs in comparison with animals from the same batch who swam normally. On the light microscopical level, it was found that the total number of both sensory and supporting cells of the utricular maculae did not differ between kinetotic animals as compared to normally swimming fish. Cell density (sensory and supporting cells/100?m -?m), however, was reduced in kinetotic animals (p<0.0001), which seemed to be due to malformed epithelial cells (increase in cell size) of the kinetotic specimens. Susceptibility to kinetoses may therefore originate in asymmetric inner ear otoliths as has been suggested earlier, but also in genetically predispositioned, malformed sensory epithelia. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

Baeuerle, A.; Anken, R.; Baumhauer, N.; Hilbig, R.; Rahmann, H.

193

Size and cell number of the utricle in kinetotically swimming fish: a parabolic aircraft flight study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness (SMS, a kinetosis). Since it has been repeatedly shown earlier that some fish of a given batch also reveal a kinetotic behavior during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses) and due to the homology of the vestibular apparatus among all vertebrates, fish can be used as model systems to investigate the origin of susceptibility to motion sickness. Therefore, we examined the utricular maculae (they are responsible for the internalization of gravity in teleosteans) of fish swimming kinetotically at microgravity in comparison with animals from the same batch who swam normally. On the histological level, it was found that the total number of both sensory and supporting cells of the utricular maculae did not differ between kinetotic animals as compared to normally swimming fish. Cell density (sensory and supporting cells/100 ?m 2), however, was reduced in kinetotic animals ( p < 0.0001), which seemed to be due to malformed epithelial cells (increase in cell size) of the kinetotic specimens. Susceptibility to kinetoses may therefore originate in malformed sensory epithelia.

Buerle, A.; Anken, R. H.; Hilbig, R.; Baumhauer, N.; Rahmann, H.

2004-01-01

194

Use of predictive lidar measurements in alleviating turbulence-induced disturbances of aircraft in flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clear air turbulence (CAT) encounters have been identified as having been caused by aircraft flying through discrete vortices such as those generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that if an aircraft's autopilot can be forewarned of an impending hazard, by means of atmospheric measurements ahead, it can control the aircraft in such

Paul A. Robinson

1996-01-01

195

Automatic commercial aircraft-collision avoidance in free flight: the three-dimensional problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, optimal resolution of air-traffic (AT) conflicts were considered. Aircraft are assumed to cruise within a free altitude layer and are modeled in three dimensions with variable velocity and proximity bounds. Aircraft cannot get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. The problem of solving conflicts arising among several aircraft that are assumed to move in

Manolis A. Christodoulou; Sifis G. Kodaxakis

2006-01-01

196

An Automatic System for Aircraft Collision Avoidance in Free Flight: The 3-D Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider optimal resolution of air traffic (AT) conflicts. Aircrafts are assumed to cruise within a free altitude layer and are modeled in 3-D dimensions with variable velocity and proximity bounds. Aircrafts cannot get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. We consider the problem of solving conflicts arising among several aircrafts that are assumed

Manolis A. Christodoulou; Sifis K. Kodaxakis; Yiannis S. Boutalis

197

75 FR 67450 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

2010-11-02

198

76 FR 38741 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Tenth...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

2011-07-01

199

75 FR 29810 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixth...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

2010-05-27

200

75 FR 52591 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Seventh...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

2010-08-26

201

76 FR 22163 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

2011-04-20

202

Investigation of Pattern Recognition of Aircraft Attitudes Indicator Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatial disorientation accident statistics are reviewed, along with unsuccessful attempts to prevent these aircraft accidents. The lack of a theoretical basis for flight instrument design is noted. A systems approach to the problem is proposed, which requ...

R. P. Bateman

1973-01-01

203

A Proposal for a Self-Contained Instrumentation System for Flight Research on Stability and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept and possible realization of a self-contained instrumentation system for the measurement of stability and control characteristics of an aircraft are described. The recommended accuracy of the system is based on its relation to the accuracy of a...

V. Klein R. Gregory

1974-01-01

204

Cockpit Instruments [A century of powered flight:1903-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since nearly the beginning airplanes were flown using only the stick or control column, rudder pedals, dials, and switches. There were as many control arrangements (sticks, wheels, and levers) as there were pioneer airmen. The 1903 Wright Flyer was far from conventional in many ways. Their only instruments were a stopwatch and prop revolution counter. Instruments were of little interest

R. Schroer

2003-01-01

205

Self-organizing radial basis function networks for adaptive flight control and aircraft engine state estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of nonlinear control algorithms such as feedback linearization and dynamic inversion is heavily dependent on the fidelity of the dynamic model being inverted. Incomplete or incorrect knowledge of the dynamics results in reduced performance and may lead to instability. Augmenting the baseline controller with approximators which utilize a parametrization structure that is adapted online reduces the effect of this error between the design model and actual dynamics. However, currently existing parameterizations employ a fixed set of basis functions that do not guarantee arbitrary tracking error performance. To address this problem, we develop a self-organizing parametrization structure that is proven to be stable and can guarantee arbitrary tracking error performance. The training algorithm to grow the network and adapt the parameters is derived from Lyapunov theory. In addition to growing the network of basis functions, a pruning strategy is incorporated to keep the size of the network as small as possible. This algorithm is implemented on a high performance flight vehicle such as F-15 military aircraft. The baseline dynamic inversion controller is augmented with a Self-Organizing Radial Basis Function Network (SORBFN) to minimize the effect of the inversion error which may occur due to imperfect modeling, approximate inversion or sudden changes in aircraft dynamics. The dynamic inversion controller is simulated for different situations including control surface failures, modeling errors and external disturbances with and without the adaptive network. A performance measure of maximum tracking error is specified for both the controllers a priori. Excellent tracking error minimization to a pre-specified level using the adaptive approximation based controller was achieved while the baseline dynamic inversion controller failed to meet this performance specification. The performance of the SORBFN based controller is also compared to a fixed RBF network based adaptive controller. While the fixed RBF network based controller which is tuned to compensate for control surface failures fails to achieve the same performance under modeling uncertainty and disturbances, the SORBFN is able to achieve good tracking convergence under all error conditions.

Shankar, Praveen

206

Flight and attitude dynamics measurements of an instrumented Frisbee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-flight measurements are made of the translational accelerations and attitude motion of a hand-thrown flying disc using miniaturized accelerometers and other sensors and a microcontroller data acquisition system. The experiments explore the capabilities and limitations of sensors on a rapidly rotating platform moving in air, and illustrate several of the complex gyrodynamic aspects of Frisbee flight. The data give insight into the biomechanics of Frisbee launch, and indicate lift, drag and pitch moment coefficients consistent with previous wind-tunnel measurements. The experiments constitute an instructive exercise in aerospace vehicle systems integration and in attitude reconstruction, and open the way to guided disc wings using control surfaces actuated during specific spin phases determined by onboard sensors.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2005-03-01

207

Field results of a high-reliability electromechanical display for the F-15 aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromechanical flight instruments in military aircraft are being replaced by flat panels. One of the reasons often stated is to improve reliability. This paper discusses a project initiated several years ago to design, develop, qualify, manufacture and flight test an electromechanical Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) designed for high reliability for the F-15 aircraft. This indicator was to have a guaranteed

Robert D. Seinfeld; Robert Herman

1999-01-01

208

In-Flight Lift-Drag Characteristics for a Forward-Swept Wing Aircraft and Comparisons with Contemporary Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lift (L) and drag (D) characteristics have been obtained in flight for the X-29A airplane (a forward swept-wing demonstrator) for Mach numbers (M) from 0.4 to 1.3. Most of the data were obtained near an altitude of 30,000 ft. A representative Reynolds num...

E. J. Saltzman J. W. Hicks S. Luke

1994-01-01

209

In-flight measurement of acoustic background noise for the development of impact detection algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fighter aircraft has been instrumented with piezo sensors on a carbon fibre reinforced plastic main landing gear door. During ground handling and standard test flights, the piezo sensor output was recorded on a flight test instrumentation tape recorder with a frequency range from 30 kHz to 250 kHz. Parallel to the flight test, a number of laboratory impact tests

Kay W. Dittrich; Guenther Mueller

2003-01-01

210

What happens to the human heart in space? - Parabolic flights provide some answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft parabolic flights provide up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity repeatedly during ballistic flight manoeuvres. They are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in the physical- and life-sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts for forthcoming space flights. The real value of parabolic flights lies, however, in the verification tests that can be conducted prior to taking experiments

Andr E. Aubert; Frank Beckers; Bart Verheyden; Vladimir Plester

2004-01-01

211

Tracking control of air-breathing hypersonic aircrafts in cruising flight based on sliding mode method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to nonlinear coupling and complex fight dynamics, the control of hypersonic aircrafts is usually challenging. In this paper, taking the longitudinal motion of a general air-breathing hypersonic aircraft as the controlled object, we designed a sliding mode controller to control velocity and altitude tracking based on input-output linearization. The velocity and altitude subsystems can be obtained by linearization and

Chaoxu Mu; Bin Wang; Changyin Sun; Xinghuo Yu

2011-01-01

212

Weapon IMU transfer alignment using aircraft position from actual flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a study of weapon inertial measurement unit (IMU) transfer alignment using the aircraft's navigation system position data. The alignment process consists of first establishing a navigation solution (position, velocity and attitude) using the raw IMU outputs, then via a Kalman filter algorithm estimate errors in the weapon navigation data using aircraft navigation system data as

Robert M. Rogers

1996-01-01

213

Solving the Steady Flight State of Aircraft Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady flat flight is widely used in the flight simulator training as an ideal initial state. To ensure the accurate solving of the steady flat flight state a hybrid genetic algorithm is put forward. The algorithm based on the new concept of ldquoindividual learning potentialityrdquo make the Lamarckian learning and Baldwinina learning genetic algorithm combination together organically according to the

Luan Zhibo; Huang Qitao; Jiang Hongzhou; Li Hongren

2009-01-01

214

In Flight Research with Instrumented Main and Tail Rotor Blades Using the DRA Bedford Aeromechanics Research Lynx Helicopter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper serves to inform the reader about in-flight research at DRA Bedford on the DRA's Aeromechanics Lynx Control and Agility Testbed (ALYCAT) using instrumented main and tail rotor blades. The paper describes the instrumentation, data analysis techn...

P. C. Tarttelin A. W. Martyn

1995-01-01

215

A lidar instrument to measure H2O and aerosol profiles from the NASA ER-2 aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to develop the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) instrument to conduct scientific experiments aboard a NASA U-2 (ER-2) aircraft are described. The LASE measurement objectives are listed, and the design of the LASE instrument is discussed, including performance criteria for the laser transmitter, wavemeter, telescope, optical receiver, and associated electronics. The instrument function is depicted with a block diagram, and layouts of various components are presented.

Vaughan, W. R.; Browell, E. V.; Hall, W. M.; Averill, R. D.; Wells, J. G.; Hinton, D. E.; Goad, J. H.; Degnan, J. J.

1986-01-01

216

NASA's Operation IceBridge: using instrumented aircraft to bridge the observational gap between ICESat and ICESat-2 laser altimeter measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the NASA satellite laser altimeter mission ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite), which was launched in 2003, ceased to operate. To bridge the gap in polar laser observations between ICESat and its replacement ICESat-2, scheduled for launch in 2016, Operation IceBridge was initiated in 2009. From a series of yearly polar flights, Operation IceBridge uses airborne instruments to map rapidly changing areas in the Arctic and Antarctic, building on two decades of repeat airborne and satellite measurements. Combined with previous aircraft observations, as well as ICESat, CryoSat-2 and the forthcoming ICESat-2 observations, Operation IceBridge will produce a cross-calibrated 17-year time series of ice sheet and sea-ice elevation data over Antarctica, as well as a 27-year time series over Greenland. These time series will be a critical resource for predictive models of sea ice and ice sheet behavior. In addition to laser altimetry, Operation IceBridge is using a comprehensive suite of instruments to produce a three-dimensional view of the Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and the sea ice. The suite includes two NASA laser altimeters, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS); four radar systems from the University of Kansas' Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a Ku-band radar altimeter, accumulation radar, snow radar and the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS); a Sander Geophysics airborne gravimeter (AIRGrav), a magnetometer and a high-resolution stereographic camera (DMS). Since its start in 2009, Operation IceBridge has deployed 5 geophysical survey aircraft, 16 science instruments, and has flown 1,613 hours during 181 science missions covering over 760,000 flight kilometer. All IceBridge data is freely available from NSIDC (http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge) 6 months after completion of a campaign.

Studinger, M.; IceBridge Science Team; IceBridge Instrument Teams

2011-12-01

217

Predictor Development and Pilot Testing of a Prototype Selection Instrument for Army Flight Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a project by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Rotary Wing Aviation Research Unit (AR RWARU) to produce a selection instrument for Army flight training, several viable, existing predictor measures were iden...

C. Paullin G. O'Shea J. Houston K. T. Bruskiewicz L. C. Katz

2007-01-01

218

Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability...

S. C. Jensen G. D. Jenney B. Raymond D. Dawson

2000-01-01

219

Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability...

S. C. Jensen G. D. Jenney B. Raymond D. Dawson

2000-01-01

220

Motion Relationships in Aircraft Attitude and Guidance Displays: A Flight Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen nonpilot Naval ROTC students were tested on tasks involving conflicting visual and vestibular cues while flying with each of four basic aircraft attitude presentations (moving horizon, moving airplane, frequency-separated, and kinalog) in a Beechc...

S. N. Roscoe R. C. Williges

1972-01-01

221

Stability and Control of the Gossamer Human Powered Aircraft by Analysis and Flight Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar cell electric-powered aircraft was investigated in relation to performance, stability and control. The performance properties, such as lift to drag, power required, propeller efficiency, and trim speed effects were studied. The dynamic response pr...

H. R. Jex

1982-01-01

222

Unmanned Aircraft Flights and Research at the United States Air Force Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force Academy is actively involved in unmanned aircraft research across numerous departments involving\\u000a many projects, aircraft, government agencies, and experimental programs. The importance of these research projects to the\\u000a Academy, the faculty, the cadets, the Air Force, and to the defense of the nation cannot be understated. In an effort to be\\u000a proactive in cooperating with

Dean E. Bushey

223

Unmanned Aircraft Flights and Research at the United States Air Force Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force Academy is actively involved in unmanned aircraft research across numerous departments involving\\u000a many projects, aircraft, government agencies, and experimental programs. The importance of these research projects to the\\u000a Academy, the faculty, the cadets, the Air Force, and to the defense of the nation cannot be understated. In an effort to be\\u000a proactive in cooperating with

Dean E. Bushey

2009-01-01

224

An image processing approach for aircraft flight parameter estimation using the acoustical Lloyd's mirror effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-frequency analysis of the output of an acoustic sensor located above the ground during the transit of an aircraft shows an interference (or fringe) pattern on the time-frequency plane. This interference pattern, referred to as the Lloyd's mirror effect, is caused by the temporal variations of the constructive\\/destructive interference frequencies of the direct and ground-reflected aircraft sound fields at

Kam W. Lo; Stuart W. Perry; Brian G. Ferguson

1999-01-01

225

Flight Test Experience and Controlled Impact of a Remotely Piloted Jet Transport Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dryden Flight Research Center Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the FAA conducted the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four-engine, remotely piloted jet transport airplane. Closed-loop primary flight w...

T. W. Horton R. W. Kempel

1988-01-01

226

A High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Multiple Doppler Analysis of a Microburst and Its Application to Aircraft Flight Simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple Doppler radar data collected during the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project is used to synthesize the three-dimensional wind in the region of a microburst. The particular microburst used in this study is the strongest one to date for which three-dimensional winds have been recovered. As a diagnostic tool, a six-degree-of-freedom numerical aircraft model having characteristics similar to Boeing 727 series aircraft is used to investigate jet transport aircraft response to observed microburst winds during simulated approaches and departures. Simple pilot control laws are used to adjust thrust, pitch, roll and yaw so as to maintain given approach or departure parameters. Generally, when horizontal wind shear along the approach or departure path is 10103 s1 or greater, the model is unable to maintain the desired approach path and suffers a significant reduction in climb performance during a go-around or departure. Although the mean wind shear along a path gives a good qualitative measure of the wind shear threat to a jet transport, different paths with similar mean shears can yield markedly different results, as do the same paths through the microburst at different times. These findings are a direct consequence of the fine temporal and spatial scale of microburst winds. During any given modeled aircraft traverse through the region of highest horizontal shear, time variations in the microburst wind field are shown to have an insignificant effect on the modeled flight path. This is because the traverse period is short (30 s) compared to the lifetime of a microburst (300-600 s).

Elmore, K. L.; McCarthy, J.; Frost, W.; Chang, H. P.

1986-10-01

227

Mechanics of Flight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes applications of mechanical principles based on the theory of flight. Includes a discussion of aerofoils and lift, aircraft structures, aircraft performance, and laboratory experiments. (GS)|

Fletcher, N. H.

1975-01-01

228

In-flight calibration and verification of the Planck-LFI instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the Planck-LFI in-flight calibration campaign. After a brief overview of the ground test campaigns, we describe in detail the calibration and performance verification (CPV) phase, carried out in space during and just after the cool-down of LFI. We discuss in detail the functionality verification, the tuning of the front-end and warm electronics, the preliminary performance assessment and the thermal susceptibility tests. The logic, sequence, goals and results of the in-flight tests are discussed. All the calibration activities were successfully carried out and the instrument response was comparable to the one observed on ground. For some channels the in-flight tuning activity allowed us to improve significantly the noise performance.

Gregorio, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Villa, F.; Frailis, M.; Morgante, G.; Pearson, D.; Zacchei, A.; Battaglia, P.; Butler, R. C.; Davis, R.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S.; Mandolesi, N.; Melot, F.; Mendes, L.; Stassi, P.; Stringhetti, L.; Tavagnacco, D.; Zonca, A.; Wilkinson, A.; Wilson, P.; Charra, M.; Maciaszek, T.; Foley, S.; Watson, C. J.; Casale, M.; Laureijs, R.; Tauber, J.; Texier, D.; Baker, M.; Perez Cuevas, L.; Krassenburg, M.; Rihet, P.

2013-07-01

229

Phototype Specification for the Preparation of Flight Manuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Aircraft indoctrination, Aircraft description, Indoctrination program, Systems descriptions, Flight operations, Flight characteristics, Flight procedures, Operating limitations, Performance data, Standardization evaluation.

T. J. Post J. F. Parker L. T. Bonner

1966-01-01

230

Interleaved Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Simple Method to Improve the Instrument Duty Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based, spatially dispersive MS technique in which ions are detected simultaneously along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In DOFMS, ions fly though the instrument and mass separate over a set period of time. The single flight time at which all ions are measured defines the specific m/z values that are detectable; the range of m/z values is dictated by the length of the spatially selective detector. However, because each packet of ions is detected at a single flight time, multiple groups of ions can fly through the instrument concurrently and be detected at a single detector. In this way, DOFMS experiments can be interleaved to perform several mass separation experiments within a single DOF repetition period. Interleaved operation allows the orthogonal acceleration region to be operated at a repetition rate higher than the reciprocal of the flight time, which improves the duty factor of the technique. In this paper, we consider the fundamental parameters of interleaved DOFMS and report first results.

Gundlach-Graham, Alexander; Dennis, Elise A.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

2013-11-01

231

Interleaved Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Simple Method to Improve the Instrument Duty Factor.  

PubMed

Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based, spatially dispersive MS technique in which ions are detected simultaneously along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In DOFMS, ions fly though the instrument and mass separate over a set period of time. The single flight time at which all ions are measured defines the specific m/z values that are detectable; the range of m/z values is dictated by the length of the spatially selective detector. However, because each packet of ions is detected at a single flight time, multiple groups of ions can fly through the instrument concurrently and be detected at a single detector. In this way, DOFMS experiments can be interleaved to perform several mass separation experiments within a single DOF repetition period. Interleaved operation allows the orthogonal acceleration region to be operated at a repetition rate higher than the reciprocal of the flight time, which improves the duty factor of the technique. In this paper, we consider the fundamental parameters of interleaved DOFMS and report first results. PMID:23982936

Gundlach-Graham, Alexander; Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

2013-08-28

232

Stability and Control of the Gossamer Human Powered Aircraft by Analysis and Flight Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The slow flight speed, very light wing loading, and neutral stability of the Gossamer Condor and the Gossamer Albatross emphasized apparent-mass aerodynamic effects and unusual modes of motion response. These are analyzed, approximated, and discussed, and...

H. R. Jex D. G. Mitchell

1982-01-01

233

An experimental study of pilots' control characteristics for flight of an STOL aircraft in backside of drag curve at approach and landing.  

PubMed

In general, most vehicles can be modelled by a multi-variable system which has interactive variables. It can be clearly shown that there is an interactive response in an aircraft's velocity and altitude obtained by stick control and/or throttle control. In particular, if the flight conditions fall to backside of drag curve in the flight of an STOL aircraft at approach and landing then the ratio of drag variation to velocity change has a negative value (delta D/delta u less than 0) and the system of motion presents a non-minimum phase. Therefore, the interaction between velocity and altitude response becomes so complicated that it affects to pilot's control actions and it may be difficult to control the STOL aircraft at approach and landing. In this paper, experimental results of a pilot's ability to control the STOL aircraft are presented for a multi-variable manual control system using a fixed ground base simulator and the pilot's control ability is discussed for the flight of an STOL aircraft at backside of drag curve at approach and landing. PMID:1612055

Ema, T

234

Flight Propulsion Control Integration for V/STOL (Vertical and Short Takeoff and Landing) Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the propulsion community is to have the enabling propulsion technologies in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack fighter aircraft in the mid-1990's. This technology will effectively...

J. R. Mihaloew

1987-01-01

235

STOVL (Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing) Aircraft Simulation for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies...

J. R. Mihaloew C. K. Drummond

1989-01-01

236

Reliable H? aircraft flight controller design against faults with state\\/output feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel H? formulation to design a reliable tracking controller for a discrete LTI aircraft system against actuator outage faults and control surface impairment modelled as polytopic uncertainties. Both the style-feedback and output-feedback cases are considered. The approach is based on multiobjective optimization using several parameter dependent Lyapunov functions, each corresponding to a vertex of the uncertainty

Le Feng; Jianliang Wang; Engkee Poh; Fang Liao

2005-01-01

237

Computer-Based System to Analyze and Assess Flight Safety of Military Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present principles describing the operation of a complex system that assesses flying safety of military aircraft. The computer-based system TURAWA has been developed in the Air Force Institute of Technology and at present i...

M. Zieja R. Kaleta

2009-01-01

238

EVALUATION OF A FORMAL METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING AIRCRAFT VERTICAL FLIGHT GUIDANCE TRAINING MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft automation, particularly the automation surrounding vertical navigation, has been cited as an area of training difficulty and a source of confusion during operation. A number of incidents have been attributed to a lack of crew understanding of what the automation is doing. This paper describes the translation of information from a formal methodology used in design of an automated

Michael Fear; Lance Sherry; Everett Palmer; Peter Polson

239

First Distance-of-Flight Instrument: Opening a New Paradigm in Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrumental concept, distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS), is demonstrated experimentally. In DOFMS the mass-to-charge\\u000a ratio of ions is determined by the distance each ion travels during a fixed time period; the mass spectrum is then recorded\\u000a with a position-sensitive detector. The DOF approach provides a new way to separate and quantify components of complex samples.\\u000a Initial results are demonstrated

Alexander W. G. Graham; Steven J. Ray; Christie G. Enke; Charles J. Barinaga; David W. Koppenaal; Gary M. Hieftje

2011-01-01

240

The stochastic control of the F-8C aircraft using a multiple model adaptive control (MMAC) method--Part I: Equilibrium flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize some results obtained for the adaptive control of the F-8C aircraft using the so-called MMAC method. The discussion includes the selection of the performance criteria for both the lateral and the longitudinal dynamics, the design of the Kalman filters for different flight conditions, the \\

MICHAEL ATHANS; D. Castanon; K. Dunn; C. Greene; Wing Lee; A. Willsky

1977-01-01

241

Development and flight test of a multi-function controller for automated cruise flaps on an aircraft wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cruise flaps are trailing-edge flaps which minimize the profile drag of a wing by moving the low-drag-region (or bucket) of a drag polar such that it spans the current coefficient of lift. Previous research has explored the use of a pressure-based technique for automating cruise flaps. Data obtained using this technique can be presented in a number of different formats, and different presentations of the same data tend to lead to the development of different types of automating controllers. The presentation used by previous researchers led to the development of a drag-minimizing controller that required a low-pass filter to prevent instability. This prevented the controller from being used for purposes which required a fast-acting flap. The presentation of pressure data used in this research led to the development of a multi-function controller that includes both slow-acting functionality (drag reduction) and fast-acting functionality (gust alleviation). The pressure-based technique developed by previous researchers using natural-laminar-flow (NLF) airfoils must be modified somewhat for the low Reynolds number SD7037 airfoil used in this research. Drag polars for low Reynolds number airfoils do not behave as predictably as those for NLF airfoils at much higher Reynolds numbers. A series of rigid-aircraft simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of the multi-function controller, which was able to simultaneously reduce drag and alleviate the effects of vertical gusts. A flight controller was developed using low-cost microcontrollers and pressure transducers. The controller implemented a slow-acting drag-reduction function and a fast-acting function to handle pilot-commanded elevator inputs. Gust alleviation was not implemented due to limitations of the available hardware and flight test conditions. The controller was tested on an radio-controlled sailplane with a wingspan of 100 inches. Although direct measurement of the drag of an aircraft this size is difficult and was not attempted, analysis of flight data indicated that the controller was successful in dynamically deflecting the flap to desired angles without adversely affecting flight stability and controllability.

Cox, Craig Allen

242

Description of a Computer Program Written for Approach and Approach and Landing Test Post Flight Data Extraction of Proximity Separation Aerodynamic Coefficients and Aerodynamic Data Base Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program written to calculate the proximity aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of the Orbiter/Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) vehicles based on flight instrumentation is described. The ground reduced aerodynamic coefficients and instrument...

D. J. Homan

1977-01-01

243

The Development of a Tool for the Air Data System Calibration Flight Tests Campaign Using Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Flight Test Campaign (FTC) carried out for an experimental aircraft is the calibration of its Air Data System (ADS). In this case, the altitude and airspeed measurements of the aircraft are provided by both anemometric along with the Flight Tests Instrumentation (FTI) systems that are corrupted by installation errors. Therefore, a tool was developed using techniques such as

Luiz Eduardo Vasconcelos; Nelson Leite; Carlos Pinheiro; Otvio Carpinteiro

2011-01-01

244

Flight research on natural laminar flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five decades of flight experiences with natural laminar flow (NLF) have provided a basis of understanding how this technology can be used for reduction of viscous drag on modern practical aircraft. The effects of cruise unit Reynolds number on NLF achievability and maintainability; compressibility effects on Tollmein-Schlichting growth; flight experiment on the Cessna Citation III business jet; flight instrumentation on Lear 28/29; OV-I NLF engine nacelle experiments; and viscous drag reduction are examined.

Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Obara, C. J.; Vandam, C. P.

1986-12-01

245

Early trends on the CERES FM5 instrument performance using in-flight calibration sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure the solar radiation reflected by the earth and thermal radiation emitted by the earth. Four CERES instruments are already in service; two aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999; and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. A fifth instrument, flight model 5 (FM5), launched in October 2011 aboard the NPP satellite, began taking radiance measurements on January 27th, 2012. The CERES FM5 instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - <100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The calibration sources are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In order to better understand the sensors adaptation to the space environment, daily internal calibrations were conducted on all three channels for the first week after opening the instrument's main covers. Over the next month, the frequency of internal calibrations was reduced to the standard mission schedule of three total and window channel calibrations per week and one shortwave channel calibration per week. This paper presents the results of FM5 on-orbit internal calibrations, discusses any ground to flight changes, and describes trends in the calibration data.

Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Timcoe, Mark G.; Hess, Phillip C.; Priestley, Kory J.

2013-09-01

246

In-flight measurements of cruise altitude nitric oxide emission indices of commercial jet aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous in-situ NO and CO2 measurements on board the DLR Falcon research aircraft in the exhaust plumes of commercial short to medium range jet aircraft are used to determine lower limits for the NOx emission indices EI(NOx) for cruising conditions. Concentration enhancements for NO and CO2 of 9 to 33 ppbv and 4 to 14 ppmv, respectively, relative to ambient background concentrations were observed in the exhaust trails 40 s to 130 s after emission. The derived EI(NOx)-limits range between 6.4 to 11.7 g/kg. Though the NO2 fraction in the exhaust plumes has not been measured during these pilot investigations, arguments are given that the derived lower limits represent a close approximation to the EI(NOx) values. Within the present uncertainties they are in agreement with predictions based on ground-based engine test data.

Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.

247

Aeroelastic vibration feedback control of smart aircraft wings in subsonic flight speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimax control design aimed at augmenting the flutter envelope and enhancing the dynamic aeroelastic response of a smart aircraft wing subject to gust/blast loads is presented. The smart aircraft wing is modeled as an anisotropic thin-walled beam featuring circumferentially asymmetric stiffness lay-up and a number of non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping restraint and 3-D strain effects. Adaptive materials technology is used for implementing the active control via the boundary bending moment feedback mechanism. The unsteady aerodynamic loads in subsonic compressible flows are based on 2-D indicial functions considered in conjunction with aerodynamic strip theory extended to 3-D wing model. The capability of control on flutter suppression and dynamic response enhancement are investigated, the corresponding applied voltage requirement and power consumption are addressed.

Qin, Zhanming; Librescu, Liviu I.

2002-07-01

248

Flight test experience with an electromechanical actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation

S. C. Jensen; G. D. Jenney; D. Dawson

2000-01-01

249

Robust Flutter Margins of an F\\/A-18 Aircraft from Aeroelastic Flight Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to determine ight conditions at which aeroelastic instabilities occur. Flight-test methods can be dangerous and costly, whereas analytical methods may not accurately predict the utter boundary. An approach to computing utter boundaries based on the structured singular value is presented. The aeroelastic system is for- mulated inarobust stabilityframework byparameterizingaround dynamicpressure and introducinguncertainty operators to account for modelingerrors.

Rick Lindand; Marty Brenner

1997-01-01

250

Comments Relative to the Application of PCM to Aircraft Flight Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pending widespread use planned for PCM telemetry has caused some confusion in the area of PCM or digital standards. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss proposed PCM standards on a realistic basis and to show by example the organization of an integrated digital flight test system using these standards. Consideration is given to the variety of

Robert S. Djorup

1959-01-01

251

Development and Calibration of Space Flight Instruments at the University of Bern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 40 years the Physical Institute of the University of Bern is active in space flight instrumentation. What started in the late 60ies with foil experiments to collect solar wind particles on Apollo missions grew quickly into development of mass spectrometers for different space missions, such as GEOS (1976), GIOTTO (1985), and more. Nowadays, the division for Space Research and Planetary Sciences of the Physical Institute develops in addition to mass spectrometers as well other instruments, such as pressure gauges, laser altimeters, etc. All these instruments need to be tested and eventually calibrated. Over the years different facilities have been set up at the Physical Institute to do such work. This report will present these facilities with special respect to their unique properties and previous, current and future use.

Scheer, Jrgen; Wurz, Peter

2013-04-01

252

Access to Space: Hands on flight instrument experience for sophomores at UW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students at the college sophomore level, with no science or technical prerequisites, form teams to design and fabricate sounding balloon payloads. This 200 level class promotes interest in research and involves a mixture of lectures about the upper atmosphere and space environment coupled with an intense laboratory experience. Students are taught rudimentary electronics and fabrication techniques, culminating after just 4 weeks of the flight of a CricketSat instrument (single, thermistor-controlled tone telemetry modulation; kit by Bob Twiggs at Stanford) on a sounding balloon. Following this appetite whetting, student teams design, test, calibrate and interface an instrument of their own choosing to a telemetry system for sounding balloon flight. During Spring 2003 student built payloads included devices to measure direct and reflected solar radiation, magnetic field variations, temperature and pressure, and even a small 'biosphere' with crickets which actually survived flight to near 30km altitude! Students go on a one day field trip to launch the sounding balloons and attempt recovery. This is followed by the last two weeks of data analysis and final report writing.

Holzworth, R. H.; Harnett, E. M.; Winglee, R. M.; Chinowsky, T. M.; McCarthy, M. P.

2003-12-01

253

Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist Career Ladder: AFSCs 32531, 32551, 31571, and 32591. Occupational Survey Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Avionics Instrument Systems career ladder (AFSC 325X1) provides flight line and shop maintenance training on aircraft instrument systems, electromechancial instruments, components, and test equipment. Duties involve inspecting, removing, installing, repairing, operating, troubleshooting, overhauling, and modifying systems such as flight and

Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

254

Experiments on aircraft flight parameter detection by on-skin sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air speed and flight attitude angles are fundamental parameters for manual of automatic control of flying bodies. Conventional measurement methods rely on probes (e.g. Pitot tubes or vanes) having a one-to-one correspondence with the physical quantities of interest and requiring specific placements. Here, a novel measurement approach is proposed, relying on indirect measurement and on a plurality of pressure readings

S. Callegari; M. Zagnoni; A. Golfarelli; M. Tartagni; A. Talamelli; P. Proli; A. Rossetti

2006-01-01

255

Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been

James H. Mabe; Frederick T. Calkins; Robert T. Ruggeri

2007-01-01

256

Diode laser-based cavity ring-down instrument for NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2 and O3 from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a diode laser-based, cavity ring-down spectrometer for simultaneous in situ measurements of four nitrogen oxide species, NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2, as well as O3, designed for deployment on aircraft. The instrument measures NO3 and NO2 by optical extinction at 662 nm and 405 nm, respectively; N2O5 is measured by thermal conversion to NO3, while NO and O3 are measured by chemical conversion to NO2. The instrument has several advantages over previous instruments developed by our group for measurement of NO2, NO3 and N2O5 alone, based on a pulsed Nd:YAG and dye laser. First, the use of continuous wave diode lasers reduces the requirements for power and weight and eliminates hazardous materials. Second, detection of NO2 at 405 nm is more sensitive than our previously reported 532 nm instrument, and does not have a measurable interference from O3. Third, the instrument includes chemical conversion of NO and O3 to NO2 to provide measurements of total NOx (= NO + NO2) and Ox (= NO2 + O3) on two separate channels; mixing ratios of NO and O3 are determined by subtraction of NO2. Finally, all five species are calibrated against a single standard based on 254 nm O3 absorption to provide high accuracy. Disadvantages include an increased sensitivity to water vapor on the 662 nm NO3 and N2O5 channels and a modest reduction in sensitivity for these species compared to the pulsed laser instrument. The in-flight detection limit for both NO3 and N2O5 is 3 pptv (2 ?, 1 s) and for NO, NO2 and O3 is 140, 90, and 120 pptv (2 ?, 1 s) respectively. Demonstrated performance of the instrument in a laboratory/ground based environment is better by approximately a factor of 2-3. The NO and NO2 measurements are less precise than research-grade chemiluminescence instruments. However, the combination of these five species in a single instrument, calibrated to a single analytical standard, provides a complete and accurate picture of nighttime nitrogen oxide chemistry. The instrument performance is demonstrated using data acquired during a recent field campaign in California.

Wagner, N. L.; Dub, W. P.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Young, C. J.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Brown, S. S.

2011-06-01

257

Measurements of total odd nitrogen (NOy) aboard MOZAIC in-service aircraft: instrument design, operation and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small system for the unattended measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy, i.e., the sum of NO and its atmospheric oxidation products) aboard civil in-service aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC is described. The instrument employs the detection of NO by its chemiluminescence with O3 in combination with catalytic conversion of the other NOy compounds to NO at 300C on

A. Volz-Thomas; M. Berg; T. Heil; N. Houben; A. Lerner; W. Petrick; D. Raak; H.-W. Ptz

2005-01-01

258

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

259

A Comparative Study of Real-Time Aircraft Parameter Identification Schemes Applied to NASA F\\/A-18 HARV Flight Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two recently introduced parameter identification (PID) methods are applied to the real-time estimation of aerodynamic coefficients from the flight data of the NASA F\\/A-18 HARV aircraft. The study specifically addresses the computational effort for each PID technique, which can be a decisive factor for on-line real-time application purposes. The results are also compared with off-line parameter identification

Yongkyu Song; Marcello Napolitano

2005-01-01

260

In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation

Richard P. Woodward; Irvin J. Loeffler

1993-01-01

261

Preliminary results from the first aircraft flight of the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global scale observations of carbon dioxide mixing ratios are desired to define spatial gradients of carbon dioxide, from which sources and sinks can be derived and quantified and separated from the seasonal fluctuation component. There is currently no available remote sensing instrumentation that is capable of providing the high-accuracy carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements with the vertical and horizontal spatial

G. D. Spiers; S. Geier; R. T. Menzies

2006-01-01

262

Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

2009-05-01

263

Turboprop and rotary-wing aircraft flight parameter estimation using both narrow-band and broadband passive acoustic signal-processing methods.  

PubMed

Flight parameter estimation methods for an airborne acoustic source can be divided into two categories, depending on whether the narrow-band lines or the broadband component of the received signal spectrum is processed to estimate the flight parameters. This paper provides a common framework for the formulation and test of two flight parameter estimation methods: one narrow band, the other broadband. The performances of the two methods are evaluated by applying them to the same acoustic data set, which is recorded by a planar array of passive acoustic sensors during multiple transits of a turboprop fixed-wing aircraft and two types of rotary-wing aircraft. The narrow-band method, which is based on a kinematic model that assumes the source travels in a straight line at constant speed and altitude, requires time-frequency analysis of the acoustic signal received by a single sensor during each aircraft transit. The broadband method is based on the same kinematic model, but requires observing the temporal variation of the differential time of arrival of the acoustic signal at each pair of sensors that comprises the planar array. Generalized cross correlation of each pair of sensor outputs using a cross-spectral phase transform prefilter provides instantaneous estimates of the differential times of arrival of the signal as the acoustic wavefront traverses the array. PMID:11051503

Ferguson, B G; Lo, K W

2000-10-01

264

IFR Aircraft Handled Forecast by Air Route Traffic Control Center, Fiscal Years 1990-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides forecasts of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft handled by Federal Aviation Administration Air Route Traffic Control Centers. The current study is an update to FAA-AVP 80-4, IFR AIRCRAFT HANDLED Forecast by Air Route Traffic Contro...

1990-01-01

265

CARIBIC aircraft measurements of Eyjafjallajkull volcanic plumes in April\\/May 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project investigates physical and chemical processes in the Earth's atmosphere using a Lufthansa Airbus long-distance passenger aircraft. After the beginning of the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajkull volcano on Iceland on 14 April 2010, the first CARIBIC volcano-specific measurement flight was carried out over

A. Rauthe-Schch; A. Weigelt; M. Hermann; B. G. Martinsson; A. K. Baker; K.-P. Heue; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. Zahn; D. Scharffe; S. Eckhardt; A. Stohl; P. F. J. van Velthoven

2011-01-01

266

Electric Fuzing Instrumentation System Test Program on the F/A-18A aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NAVAIRSYSCOM is currently conducting an Electric Fuzing Dud Investigation Systems Engineering Analysis of the F/A-18 Fighter Aircraft. To support that effort, NAWCAD Air Vehicle Stores Compatibility Division was tasked by PMA-201 to develop a quick instal...

T. A. Brown

1997-01-01

267

Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and

Raymond S. Calloway; Vernie H. Knight Jr.

1986-01-01

268

Flight Tests of a 3-D Perspective-View Glass-Cockpit Display for General Aviation Using GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A display that takes advantage of the three- dimensional positioning data available from differential GPS has been flight tested on a general aviation aircraft. This glass-cockpit instrument provides a natural, \\

Andrew K. Barrows; Per Enge; Bradford W. Parkinson; J. David Powell

269

Research on compiling fatigue load spectrum of individual aircraft and analysis of fatigue life based on flight data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiling fatigue load spectrum is the precondition and basement of fatigue life prediction, simulation experiments and fatigue strength analysis of aircraft. The method of air fleet life is used on management of homotype aircraft life for a long term, that is the process of achievement on safe life index by fatigue experiment of aircraft overall dimension on condition of standard

Yan Li; Zhao Wang; YueLiang Chen; Yong Zhang; WengSheng Sun

2012-01-01

270

Detector performances of the BESS-Polar II instrument during the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

USA The new balloon-borne instrument was developed for the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica (BESS-Polar II) on the basis of the feed back from the results from the first flight in 2004 (BESS-Polar I). Most of the detector components had been redesigned and upgraded to improve their performances and to increase the data taking period and capacity. The BESS-Polar II flight was successfully carried out in December 2007-January 2008. We performed 24.5 days scientific observation just at the solar minimum and recorded about 4.7 billion cosmic-ray enents in the harddisk drives onboard. During the flight, the instrument worked well except for minor problems in some detector components. We have made careful post-flight calibration for all detectors by using cosmic-ray event and house-keeping data. Stable and better performance was obtained for the entire flight. In this presentatation, detector performances for the BESS-Polar II instrument will be presented.

Yoshimura, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, T. Kumazawa1, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

271

Design of a new time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering instrument at CPHS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffractometer is to be built at the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) of Tsinghua University, China. This SANS project strives to serve two purposes: its instrumental design, fabrication and optimization will help glean valuable scientific and engineering experiences; and its utilization will help promote fruitful domestic user programs on research of large structures in advanced materials using neutrons.The design draws experiences from other TOF SANS instruments, particularly that of the long-pulse LENS of Indiana University and also considers the source features at CPHS. The design team enjoyed the guidance and assistance from experts through international collaborations. For simultaneous collection of scattering data in the Q-range (710-3instrument is designed to use large area detector (11 m2) and broad wavelength bandwidth (1-10 ) within the first frame. It also pays attention to possible use of optical devices such as neutron guides, focusing lenses and novel detectors.

Huang, T. C.; Gong, H.; Shao, B. B.; Wang, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, K.; Wei, J.; Wang, X. W.; Guan, X. L.; Loong, C.-K.; Tao, J. Z.; Zhou, L.; Ke, Y. B.

2012-03-01

272

Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship operations using decentralized control techniques for large-scale systems.

Frye, Michael Takaichi

273

Observations of small cumuli with an airborne radar and instrumented aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations have been made in 6 small cumulus clouds using three instrumented aircraft, a ground-based radar, and an 95 GHz airborne Doppler radar. The clouds occurred on two days during the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study in east-central Florida, summer 1995. Cloud tops were below 3 km and in-cloud temperatures were warmer than 10C. Droplet spectra in these clouds were generally bi-modal. Droplets within the larger mode resulted from growth through condensation. It remains unclear how droplets within the small mode formed as current hypotheses are unable to explain the constancy in size of the diameter of the small mode. Drizzle drops (drops with diameters greater than 50 ?m) were found at all levels in cloud. The penetration-averaged concentration of such drops was normally less than 15 L-1, except for the upper-most levels in clouds on one of the days where drop concentrations exceeded 100 L-1. The formation of drizzle at low and mid-levels is attributed to collection by ultra-giant aerosols which act as coalescence nuclei. The development of drizzle at higher levels is consistent with models of droplet growth through condensation and stochastic collection. The evolution of the kinematic structure of the observed clouds was tracked using measurements from both radars. High resolution cross-sections of reflectivity and vertical Doppler velocity from the airborne radar appear remarkably similar to fine-scale models of convection reported in the literature. In general, each cloud resembled a collection of individual bubbles ascending through the boundary layer. During the growth phase of a bubble, a positive correlation existed between vertical velocity and reflectivity. As bubbles penetrated further into the inversion, entrainment/detrainment led to a weakening or, in some cases, a reversal of this correlation. Growth of subsequent bubbles ascending through remnants of earlier bubbles were aided by an increase in the amount of moisture in the environment resulting from earlier detrainment of cloudy air, and thus were able to achieve higher altitudes than their predecessors.

French, Jeffrey Russell

274

THE EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON THE ACCURACY OF CHECKLIST COMPLETION DURING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether pilots completed airplane checklists more accurately when they receive postflight graphic and verbal feedback. Participants were 8 college students who are pilots with an instrument rating. The task consisted of flying a designated flight pattern using a personal computer aviation training device (PCATD). The dependent variables were the number of checklist items completed correctly. A multiple baseline design across pairs of participants with withdrawal of treatment was employed in this study. During baseline, participants were given postflight technical feedback. During intervention, participants were given postflight graphic feedback on checklist use and praise for improvements along with technical feedback. The intervention produced near perfect checklist performance, which was maintained following a return to the baseline conditions.

Rantz, William G; Dickinson, Alyce M; Sinclair, Gilbert A; Van Houten, Ron

2009-01-01

275

A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than +/-0.1 mrad (~0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S.; Vasu, R. M.; Asokan, S.

2012-12-01

276

U.S. Jet Contrail Frequency Changes: Influences of Jet Aircraft Flight Activity, Atmospheric Conditions, and Resultant Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions where jet air traffic is most abundant, condensation trails (contrails) may substantially increase the high cloud coverage, potentially affecting climate. This is particularly so when atmospheric conditions support prolonged persistence of contrails, which results in their occurrence in clusters, or ``outbreaks'', thus, allowing them to represent a substantial percentage of the overall high cloud amount. In the U.S., jet kilometers flown have increased dramatically during the past three decades leading to speculation that contrail coverage also has increased. However, contrail occurrence depends heavily upon the meteorological conditions near aircraft cruising altitudes (i.e., near the tropopause, 10-12 km altitude). Moreover, the tropopause figures prominently in projecting future climate changes. This study reports a contrail mid-season climatology for the coterminous U.S. (2000-02), and compares the frequencies with those previously reported for an earlier (1977-79) period, to determine the contrail frequency increase (CFI). For the 2000-02 period, we also report the seasonal frequency and areal coverage of contrail outbreaks as a means to assess the typical size of contrail susceptible regions on a seasonal and daily basis. Contrail frequency for both periods, and occurrence of outbreaks for 2000-02, is derived from analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery. Data on jet aircraft flight activity (JFA) over the U.S. were obtained to assess their relationship to CFI, as were NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data to determine changes in tropopause-level conditions. For 2000-02, contrails comprise distinct high (low) frequencies in the East (West) U.S. Seasonally, there is a contrail association with the latitudinal migration of the jet stream. The inter-monthly variations in contrail frequency are statistically significant but show no association with JFA, indicating a greater role for meteorological conditions. Contrail outbreaks occur most frequently during the transition seasons with greatest overall coverage during the spring (April). The mean daily coverage of contrail outbreaks for the coterminous U.S. is 229,238.9 km2, which is roughly the size of the U.S. state of Montana. The mean areal size of contrail outbreaks is 316,811.8 km2, which is similar in size to that of typical Mesoscale Convective Complexes, areas regularly avoided by aircraft. To reduce potential climate impacts of contrails, aviation policy decision-makers should consider implementing similar guidance whereby pilots avoid contrail susceptible regions. Between 1977-79 and 2000-02, a U.S.-wide average CFI of just over 100% occurred, similar to the percentage increase in JFA, but there are strong spatial and seasonal asymmetries to the CFI not reflected in the JFA. The most (least) positive CFI are associated with a cooling (warming) of the tropopause. The spatial pattern of tropopause temperature change generally matches that which occurs when the Arctic Oscillation index switches from negative to positive, suggesting a hemispheric-scale teleconnection to CFI. The role of upper-tropospheric conditions, their potential future changes, and links to hemispheric-scale teleconnections, should be considered when projecting CFI and its possible climate impacts.

Travis, D. J.; Carleton, A. M.

2005-12-01

277

Ratios of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active nitrogen observed during aircraft flights over the eastern Pacific Oceans and continental United States  

SciTech Connect

During August and September 1986, 11 aircraft flights were made over the eastern Pacific Ocean and continental United States. The suite of observations included simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and active nitrogen (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}). At altitudes of 4.5-6.1 km in the middle free troposphere, PAN was usually 5-6 times NO{sub x} in maritime air masses and 2-4 times NO{sub x} in continental air masses. In air masses of tropical origin, or in the marine boundary layer, both PAN and NO{sub x} were typically less than 20-30 parts per trillion by volume, and the PAN to NO{sub x} ratio was less than one. The observations show that PAN can be a major component of the odd nitrogen budget in the middle free troposphere, and strongly reinforce earlier views that the abundance is mainly governed by long-range transport processes including formation during transport and continental boundary layer to free tropospheric exchange of PAN and its precursors. Unlike reservoir HNO{sub 3}, PAN can be transformed to active nitrogen and peroxy radicals by a variety of physical atmospheric processes that lead to air mass warming. Since NO{sub x} plays a critical role in determining photochemical O{sub 3} production, which in turn determines the oxidative power of the atmosphere, the observed large ratios of reservoir PAN to active NO{sub x} imply an important photochemical and dynamical role for PAN in the eastern Pacific remote free troposphere.

Ridley, B.A.; Shetter, J.D.; Gandrud, B.W. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA)); Salas, L.J. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Singh, H.B.; Condon, E.P. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA)); Carroll, M.A.; Albritton, D.L. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA)); Huebler, G. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA)); Hastie, D.R. (York Univ., Downsview, Ontario (Canada)); Schiff, H.I. (York Univ., Downsview, Ontario (Canada) Unisearch Associates, Inc., Concord, Ontario (Canada)); Mackay, G.I.; Karechi, D.R. (Unisearch Associates, Inc., Concord, Ontario (Canada)); Davis, D.D.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Rodgers, M.O.; Sandholm, S.T. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (USA)); Torres, A.L. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (USA)); Gregory, G.L.; Beck, S.M. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-06-20

278

Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a flight with a young student and a pilot as you learn about the 4 aerodynamic forces which are present when air is moving past an object such as an airplane.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-22

279

Flight Evaluation - J-TEC Airspeed System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airspeed calibration tests were conducted on the J-TEC Associates, Inc. Model VA-210 true airspeed sensor to determine its suitability for operational and flight test use as a helicopter and V/STOL aircraft airspeed instrument. The J-TEC system operates o...

B. H. Boirun F. Dominick J. S. Kishi R. P. Jefferis

1974-01-01

280

A Historical Overview of Flight Flutter Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the test techniques developed overthe last several decades for flight flutter testing of aircraft.Structural excitation systems, instrumentation systems,digital data preprocessing, and parameter identificationalgorithms (for frequency and damping estimates from theresponse data) are described. Practical experiences andexample test programs illustrate the combined, integratedeffectiveness of the various approaches used. Finally, commentsregarding the direction of...

Michael W. Kehoe

1995-01-01

281

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Intelligent Flight Control System  

NASA Website

The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) flight research project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was established to exploit a revolutionary technological breakthrough in aircraft flight controls that can effi-ciently optimize aircraft ...

282

CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION EXPERIENCE FOR FLIGHT CONTROL LAW AND FLYING QUALITIES EVALUATION OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE FIGHTER AIRCRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental

Patrick C. Murphy

283

FLIGHTS ACROSS RADIOACTIVE CLOUDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danger to personnel and equipment arising from radioactive contamination ; of aircraft after flying across radioactive clouds is discussed. Flights ; performed 20-30 minutes after an atomic bomb explosion are no longer dangerous. ; Radioactive dust penetrating into the aircraft constitutes a serious danger. ; Formation of nitrate in the aircraft decreases the radioactivity. Immediate ; decontamination of the aircraft

Chabowski

1960-01-01

284

National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Report: Controlled Flight into Terrain, Korean Air Flight 801, Boeing 747-300, HL746, Nimitz Hill, Guam on August 6, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report explains the accident involving Korean Air flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, which crashed into high terrain at Nimitz Hill, Guam, on August 6, 1997. Safety issues in the report focus on flight crew performance, approach procedures, and pilot trai...

2000-01-01

285

The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 ?m, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 ?m (447-1550 GHz). The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 0.3 K. The photometer has a field of view of 4 8, observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired. The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 2.6. The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 1.2 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror. Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data. For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view. The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling. Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products. The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 1.5-2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Griffin, M. J.; Abergel, A.; Abreu, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Andr, P.; Augueres, J.-L.; Babbedge, T.; Bae, Y.; Baillie, T.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Barlow, M. J.; Bendo, G.; Benielli, D.; Bock, J. J.; Bonhomme, P.; Brisbin, D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Caldwell, M.; Cara, C.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cerulli, R.; Chanial, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, E.; Clements, D. L.; Clerc, L.; Coker, J.; Communal, D.; Conversi, L.; Cox, P.; Crumb, D.; Cunningham, C.; Daly, F.; Davis, G. R.; de Antoni, P.; Delderfield, J.; Devin, N.; di Giorgio, A.; Didschuns, I.; Dohlen, K.; Donati, M.; Dowell, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Dumaye, L.; Emery, R. J.; Ferlet, M.; Ferrand, D.; Fontignie, J.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Frerking, M.; Fulton, T.; Garcia, J.; Gastaud, R.; Gear, W. K.; Glenn, J.; Goizel, A.; Griffin, D. K.; Grundy, T.; Guest, S.; Guillemet, L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Harwit, M.; Hastings, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Herman, M.; Hinde, B.; Hristov, V.; Huang, M.; Imhof, P.; Isaak, K. J.; Israelsson, U.; Ivison, R. J.; Jennings, D.; Kiernan, B.; King, K. J.; Lange, A. E.; Latter, W.; Laurent, G.; Laurent, P.; Leeks, S. J.; Lellouch, E.; Levenson, L.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Lilienthal, J.; Lim, T.; Liu, S. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Mainetti, G.; Marliani, P.; McKay, D.; Mercier, K.; Molinari, S.; Morris, H.; Moseley, H.; Mulder, J.; Mur, M.; Naylor, D. A.; Nguyen, H.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S.; Olofsson, G.; Olofsson, H.-G.; Orfei, R.; Page, M. J.; Pain, I.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parks, G.; Parr-Burman, P.; Pearce, A.; Pearson, C.; Prez-Fournon, I.; Pinsard, F.; Pisano, G.; Podosek, J.; Pohlen, M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Pouliquen, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Roussel, H.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rownd, B.; Saraceno, P.; Sauvage, M.; Savage, R.; Savini, G.; Sawyer, E.; Scharmberg, C.; Schmitt, D.; Schneider, N.; Schulz, B.; Schwartz, A.; Shafer, R.; Shupe, D. L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Sidher, S.; Smith, A.; Smith, A. J.; Smith, D.; Spencer, L.; Stobie, B.; Sudiwala, R.; Sukhatme, K.; Surace, C.; Stevens, J. A.; Swinyard, B. M.; Trichas, M.; Tourette, T.; Triou, H.; Tseng, S.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Virique, E.; Voellmer, G.; Walker, H.; Ward, R.; Waskett, T.; Weilert, M.; Wesson, R.; White, G. J.; Whitehouse, N.; Wilson, C. D.; Winter, B.; Woodcraft, A. L.; Wright, G. S.; Xu, C. K.; Zavagno, A.; Zemcov, M.; Zhang, L.; Zonca, E.

2010-07-01

286

Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

Bettanini, C.

287

The Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer: instrumentation and in-flight performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) had been developed as a part of the science payload for the first Japanese lunar explorer, Kaguya. The Kaguya was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center on September 14, 2007 and was injected into an orbit around the Moon and the mission ended on June 11, 2009. The Kaguya GRS (hereafter KGRS) has a large-volume Ge semiconductor detector of 252 cc as the main detector and bismuth-germanate and plastic scintillators as an active shielding. The Ge detector achieved an energy resolution of 3.0 keV (FWHM) for 1332 keV gamma ray in ground test despite the use of a mechanical cryocooler and observed gamma rays in energies ranging 0.2 to 12 MeV in lunar orbit. It was the first use of a Ge detector for lunar exploration. During the mission, KGRS participated in geochemical survey and investigated the elemental compositions of subsurface materials of the Moon. In this paper, we summarize the overview of the KGRS describing the design and in-flight performance of the instrument. This paper provides basic information required for reading science articles regarding the KGRS's observation data.

Kobayashi, M.; Hasebe, N.; Miyachi, T.; Fujii, M.; Shibamura, E.; Okudaira, O.; Karouji, Y.; Hareyama, M.; Takashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Yamashita, N.; Reedy, Robert C.

2013-04-01

288

14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security....

2013-01-01

289

14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification. (a...subpart must show that his aircraft is identified as prescribed...flight permit. (2) An experimental certificate for an aircraft not issued for the...

2013-01-01

290

Flight experience with the Novacor LVAS.  

PubMed

As Novacor LVAS recipients continue to be discharged from the hospital to await cardiac transplantation, an increasing number of patients either need or desire to use air transportation. To date, two test experiences have been reported with the Novacor LVAS operating in a mock circulatory loop during air travel. One involved the transport of a mock loop on a medical helicopter, and another preceded an international flight of an LVAS recipient from Japan to the United States. In each situation, the LVAS, connected to a water-filled mock circulatory loop, was placed on the aircraft and instrumentation was checked to verify that there was no adverse effect on the Novacor equipment, or on aircraft systems, during flight. Novacor LVAS recipients have also been reported to have flown more than 37 commercial air transports throughout Europe, in both rotary and fixed wing aircraft, without incident. Laboratory testing of electromagnetic emissions were also conducted to include specific frequencies utilized by aircraft instrumentation. These tests show that the Novacor LVAS is well below the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR 11) emissions limits; these data can be provided to an air carrier anticipating transport of a Novacor recipient. Details of the results from the mock loop field testing, as well as the laboratory testing of electromagnetic emissions pertinent to air travel, are presented. This experience suggests that that there has been no impact on aircraft electronics from the LVAS, nor has the aircraft instrumentation generated any interference with the components of the Novacor LVAS. PMID:11374771

Pristas, J M; Lee, J; Wheeldon, D R; Portner, P M

291

Integrated Flight/Structural Mode Control for Very Flexible Aircraft Using L1 Adaptive Output Feedback Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores application of adaptive control architecture to a light, high-aspect ratio, flexible aircraft configuration that exhibits strong rigid body/flexible mode coupling. Specifically, an L(sub 1) adaptive output feedback controller is develo...

C. Cao I. M. Gregory J. Che

2012-01-01

292

Large 15-in. flat-panel display glass cockpit for general aviation aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large format Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) brings new possibilities to the aircraft cockpit environment. Broad-based format flexibility, enhanced situational awareness, sharp contrast and brilliant chromaticity are all features inherent in this product. This paper reviews cockpit instrument design, traces the evolution of electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and describes an optimized format of a large format cockpit

Lyle H. Schaefer

2002-01-01

293

Apis dorsata drone flights, collectionof semen from everted endophalliand instrumental insemination of queens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed drone flights of 16 colonies of Apis dorsata in Chitwan, Nepal. At the end of February drone flights occurred between 18:15 and 18:35 h. By April, as day length increased, drones flew gradually later. Within 2 months the start of drone flights was delayed by 42 min. High corre- lation (r = 0.99) was found between the sunset

Jerzy Woyke; Jerzy Wilde; Maria Wilde

2001-01-01

294

Radar Techniques for Air Force Applications in Avoidance of Bird-Aircraft Collisions and Improvement of Flight Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a study using United States Weather Bureau WSR-57 radar on the density and timing of migratory flights of birds in and through the southern United States, the orientation of migratory flights and the effects of various ...

S. A. Gauthreaux

1970-01-01

295

The development of a closed-loop flight controller with panel method integration for gust alleviation using biomimetic feathers on aircraft wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a biomimetic closed-loop flight controller that integrates gust alleviation and flight control into a single distributed system. Modern flight controllers predominantly rely on and respond to perturbations in the global states, resulting in rotation or displacement of the entire aircraft prior to the response. This bio-inspired gust alleviation system (GAS) employs active deflection of electromechanical feathers that react to changes in the airflow, i.e. the local states. The GAS design is a skeletal wing structure with a network of featherlike panels installed on the wing's surfaces, creating the airfoil profile and replacing the trailing-edge flaps. In this study, a dynamic model of the GAS-integrated wing is simulated to compute gust-induced disturbances. The system implements continuous adjustment to flap orientation to perform corrective responses to inbound gusts. MATLAB simulations, using a closed-loop LQR integrated with a 2D adaptive panel method, allow analysis of the morphing structure's aerodynamic data. Non-linear and linear dynamic models of the GAS are compared to a traditional single control surface baseline wing. The feedback loops synthesized rely on inertial changes in the global states; however, variations in number and location of feather actuation are compared. The bio-inspired system's distributed control effort allows the flight controller to interchange between the single and dual trailing edge flap profiles, thereby offering an improved efficiency to gust response in comparison to the traditional wing configuration. The introduction of aero-braking during continuous gusting flows offers a 25% reduction in x-velocity deviation; other flight parameters can be reduced in magnitude and deviation through control weighting optimization. Consequently, the GAS demonstrates enhancements to maneuverability and stability in turbulent intensive environments.

Blower, Christopher J.; Lee, Woody; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

2012-03-01

296

Aircraft instrument for comprehensive characterisation of aerosol optical properties, part I: wavelength dependent optical extinction and its relative humidity dependence measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality in situ observations of aerosol particle optical properties, namely extinction, scattering and absorption, provide important information needed to constrain the role of aerosols in the climate system. This paper outlines the design and performance of an aircraft instrument utilising cavity ringdown spectroscopy for the measurement of aerosol extinction. The 8?channel cavity ringdown spectrometer measures extinction at multiple wavelengths

Justin M. Langridge; Mathews S. Richardson; Daniel Lack; Daniel Law; Daniel M. Murphy

2011-01-01

297

Optical Properties of Arctic Mixed Phase Boundary Layer Clouds Observed from a Tethered Balloon Instrument Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-lived thin stratus clouds in Arctic play an important role in the radiation budget of the Polar Regions. Thus, it is very important to validate the radiometric measurements and microphysical properties of the clouds taken remotely via satellites and in situ by instruments deployed on aircrafts. Since aircrafts are limited by the time of flight and satellite observations are hampered

M. V. Sikand; K. Stamnes; J. P. Koskulics; J. Stamnes; H. Borge; P. Lawson

2009-01-01

298

Flight Path Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft display technology has advanced to the state where the flight path display, an integrated format on which both the vertical and horizontal path are graphically represented, is feasible. This report researches efforts made to design flight paths f...

D. A. Warner

1979-01-01

299

The focusing optics x-ray solar imager (FOXSI): instrument and first flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares accelerate particles up to high energies (MeV and GeV scales for electrons and ions, respectively) through efficient acceleration processes that are not currently understood. Hard X-rays (HXRs) are the most direct diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. However, past and current solar HXR observers lack the necessary sensitivity and imaging dynamic range to make detailed studies of faint HXR sources in the solar corona (where particle acceleration is thought to occur); these limitations are mainly due to the indirect Fourier imaging techniques used by these observers. With greater sensitivity and dynamic range, electron acceleration sites could be systematically studied in detail. Both these capabilities can be advanced by the use of direct focusing optics. The recently own Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload demonstrates the unique diagnostic power of focusing optics for observations of solar HXRs. FOXSI features grazing-incidence replicated nickel optics with 5 arcsecond resolution and fine-pitch silicon strip detectors with a 7.7 arcsecond strip pitch. FOXSI flew successfully on 2012 November 2, producing images and spectra of a microflare and performing a search for non-thermal emission (4{15 keV) from nanoflares occurring outside active regions in the quiet Sun. A future spacecraft version of FOXSI, featuring similar optics and detectors, could make detailed observations of HXRs from flare-accelerated electrons, identifying and characterizing particle acceleration sites and mapping out paths of energetic electrons as they leave these sites and propagate throughout the solar corona. This paper will describe the FOXSI instrument and present images from the first flight.

Krucker, Sm.; Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Saito, Shinya; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Turin, Paul; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert P.

2013-09-01

300

14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135...certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or...

2013-01-01

301

Survival of insects in the wheel bays of a Boeing 747B aircraft on flights between tropical and temperate airports  

PubMed Central

Mosquitos (Culex quinquefasciatus), house flies (Musca domestica), and flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) located in cages within the wheel bays of a Boeing 747B aircraft, survived travel on the following normal commercial routes: SydneyMelbourne; MelbourneSingapore; SingaporeBangkok; BangkokSingapore; and SingaporeMelbourne. Survival of all three species was high, averaging 84% for mosquitos and higher for flies (93%) and beetles (>99%). Although external temperatures were -42 C to -54 C for aircraft cruising at 10 700-11 900 m, minimum temperatures within the wheel bays ranged from +8 C to +25 C.

Russell, R. C.

1987-01-01

302

Flight Service Evaluation of an Advanced Composite Empennage Component on Commercial Transport Aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to a...

A. Ary A. Jackson A. James C. Axtell L. Fogg

1976-01-01

303

Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research...

M. E. Ogburn J. V. Foster K. D. Hoffler

2005-01-01

304

Flight Trials and Drag Analysis of a Scale Model Floatplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the flight trials performed to support the development of the Tigerfish retractable float system. A 1\\/6th scale model of a Cessna 208 has been built, instrumented and flight tested using conventional fixed floats, to estimate the zero-lift drag coefficient of a scale model aircraft with a conventional fixed float system. This drag coefficient is then compared

M. R. Tetlow; A. Smith

2007-01-01

305

Aircraft crew radiation workplaces: comparison of measured and calculated ambient dose equivalent rate data using the EURADOS in-flight radiation data base.  

PubMed

In May 2000, the chairman of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) invited a number of experts with experience of cosmic radiation dosimetry to form a working group (WG 5) on aircraft crew dosimetry. Three observers from the Article 31 Group of Experts as well as one observer from the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) were also appointed. The European Commission funded the meetings. Full meetings were organised in January 2001 and in November 2001. An editorial group, who are the authors of this publication, started late in 2002 to finalise a draft report, which was submitted to the Article 31 Group of Experts in June 2003. The methods and data reported are the product of the work of 26 research institutes from the EU, USA and Canada. Some of the work was supported by contracts with the European Commission, Directorate General XII, Science, Research and Development. A first overview of the EC report was published late in 2004. In this publication we focus on a comparison of measured and calculated ambient dose rate data using the EURADOS In-Flight Data Base. The evaluation of results obtained by different methods and groups, and comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations were performed in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). Aspects of measurement uncertainty are reported also. The paper discusses the estimation of annual doses for given flight hours and gives an outline of further research needed in the field of aircraft crew dosimetry, such as the influence of solar particle events. PMID:16581920

Beck, Peter; Bartlett, David; Lindborg, Lennart; McAulay, Ian; Schnuer, Klaus; Schraube, Hans; Spurny, Frantisek

2006-03-31

306

Society of Flight Test Engineers, Annual Symposium, 16th, Seattle, WA, July 29-August 2, 1985, Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The present conference on advancements in flight testing methods encompasses topics in test technology development, noteworthy flight test results, the management of test flight programs, the current status of numerous flight test programs, and the state-of-the-art in data-gathering and test instrumentation systems. Attention is given to flight testing of the Tornado terrain-following radar system in bad weather, of high bypass turbofan engines, and of the ground effect behavior of a powered lift STOL aircraft during landing approach. Also noted are the management of software-intensive systems testing, the merits of customer vs. contractor flight testing, precise control surface position measurements for hysteresis and twist bending, an avionics digital data acquisition system, a portable airborne digital data system, inflight loads in existing transport aircraft, flight simulator testing, and flight flutter testing.

Not Available

1985-01-01

307

Aircraft instrument for simultaneous, in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5 via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CaRDS) specifically designed and constructed for installation on the NOAA WP-3D Orion (P-3) aircraft for sensitive, rapid in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5. While similar to our previously described CaRDS instrument, this instrument has significant improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio, the time resolution, and in overall size and weight. Additionally, the instrument utilizes a custom-built, automated filter changer that was designed and constructed to meet the requirement for removal of particulate matter in the airflow while allowing fully autonomous instrument operation. The CaRDS instrument has a laboratory detection sensitivity of 410-11 cm-1 in absorbance or 0.1 pptv (pptv denotes parts per trillion volume) of NO3 in a 1 s average, although the typical detection sensitivities encountered in the field were 0.5 pptv for NO3 and 1 pptv for N2O5. The instrument accuracy is 25% for NO3 and 20%-40% for N2O5, limited mainly by the uncertainty in the inlet transmission. The instrument has been deployed on the P-3 aircraft as part of a major field campaign in the summer of 2004 and during several ground and tower deployments near Boulder, CO.

Dub, William P.; Brown, Steven S.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Nunley, Maya R.; Ciciora, Steven J.; Paris, Mark W.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2006-03-01

308

Design and Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Intelligent Flight Controls System program is a collaborative effort between Boeing, NASA, small business and academia\\u000a to implement and flight demonstrate neural-adaptive flight controls technology. IFCS employs neural networks to provide augmentation\\u000a to the nominal aircraft flight controls in the case of failure conditions to the aircraft. The presence of the neural-adaptive\\u000a elements in the flight control software presents

Tim Smith; Jim Barhorst; James M. Urnes

2010-01-01

309

An Automatic Flight Control System to Simulate Sub-Earth Gravity Environments in the KC-135 Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper was to design an automatic flight control system capable of simulating zero-, Moon-, or Mars-gravity environments (=0.005g) in the 'zero-g', KC-135. The problem analysis consists of a mathematical investigation of the simulation o...

R. W. Kennedy

1964-01-01

310

Flight of Flexible Aircraft in Turbulence. State-of-the-Art in the Description and Modelling of Atmospheric Turbulence. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-scale use of flight recorders by commercial airlines, coupled with the enhanced quality of results offered by modern computer-based reduction processes makes it possible to broaden knowledge of the phenomenon of atmospheric turbulence. At the same t...

1988-01-01

311

Flight trials: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight trials were conducted by Smiths Aerospace with Scandinavian Airlines in the spring of 2001 evaluating the use of the Four-Dimensional Flight Management System (4-D FMS) and it's Required-Time-of-Arrival (RTA) function for a future Air Traffic Management (ATM) environment. 4-D FMS, along with air-ground datalink capability, is central to the ATM operational environment established by the European Commission's AFAS (Aircraft

Keith D. Wichman; G. Carlsson; L. G. V. Lindberg

2001-01-01

312

Altair Unmanned Aircraft System Achieves Demonstration Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early morning of 15 November 2005, the unmanned Altair aircraft returned to Gray Butte Airfield, north of Los Angeles, Calif., after completing an 18.4-hour mission over the eastern Pacific Ocean. The flight was the last in a series undertaken by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in its Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Demonstration Project. The successful flight series has helped start the era of unmanned flights in service of environmental goals. Altair cruised at altitudes in the lower stratosphere (13 kilometers; ~43,000 feet), collecting atmospheric data with a 140-kilogram payload of both remote and in situ instruments. NOAA has recognized that UAS technology will improve its ability to meet scientific and operational objectives in the coming years. Operating sensor payloads on a UAS fleet could play a crucial role in the detection and attribution of climate change, improvement of weather predictions, management of water resources, monitoring and evaluation of ecosystems and sanctuaries, and atmospheric and oceanic research. UAS platforms have the potential to carry instrument payloads to remote locations in a manner that could not otherwise be achieved with conventionally piloted aircraft.

Fahey, David W.; Churnside, James H.; Elkins, James W.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Summers, Sara; Aslaksen, Michael; Jacobs, Todd A.; Sellars, Jon D.; Jennison, Christopher D.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cooper, Michael

2006-05-01

313

Instrumentation and recording scheme for cardiovascular studies in chronically instrumented human surrogates and non-invasively instrumented humans during parabolic flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory for Aerospace Cardiovascular Research (LACR) performs Investigative studies into the cardiovascular effects of altered-Gz environments on chronically instrumented human surrogates and non-invasive instrumented humans. This paper describes the instrumentation and recording scheme for a recent transitory (30 S) micro-Gz experiment consisting of 210 parabolas on NASA's KC-135 platform. The experimental stations consisted of two upright\\/supine conscious hemodynamic chronically

Steven C. Koenig; Curtis D. White; Ron E. Mendenhall; Gary Minuza; Tim Ferguson

1992-01-01

314

Development of dedicated target tracking capability for the CERES instruments through flight software: enhancing radiometric validation and on-orbit calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five CERES scanning radiometers have been flown to date. The Proto-Flight Model flew aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission spacecraft in November 1997. Two CERES instruments, Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2, are aboard the Terra spacecraft, which was launched in December 1999. Two more CERES instruments, FM-3 and FM-4, are on the Aqua spacecraft, which was placed in orbit in May 2002. These instruments continue to operate after providing over a decade of Earth Radiation Budget data. The CERES FM-5 instrument, onboard the Suomi-NPP spacecraft, launched in October 2011. The CERES FM- 6 instrument is manifested on the JPPS-1 spacecraft to be launched in December 2016. A successor to these instruments is presently in the definition stage. This paper describes the evolving role of flight software in the operation of these instruments to meet the Science objectives of the mission and also the ability to execute supplemental tasks as they evolve. In order to obtain and maintain high accuracy in the data products from these instruments, a number of operational activities have been developed and implemented since the instruments were originally designed and placed in orbit. These new activities are possible because of the ability to exploit and modify the flight software, which operates the instruments. The CERES Flight Software interface was designed to allow for on-orbit modification, and as such, constantly evolves to meet changing needs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of modifications which have been developed to allow dedicated targeting of specific geographic locations as the CERES sensor flies overhead on its host spacecraft. This new observing strategy greatly increases the temporal and angular sampling for specific targets of high scientific interest.

Teague, Kelly K.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory; Lukashin, Constantine; Roithmayr, Carlos

2012-09-01

315

Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the

Doellner

1986-01-01

316

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument...to Part 29Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument...chapter unless it meets the design and installation requirements...of weight, altitude, and temperature for which approval is...

2013-01-01

317

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument...to Part 27Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument...chapter unless it meets the design and installation requirements...of weight, altitude, and temperature for which approval is...

2013-01-01

318

Three Dimensional Formation Flight Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automating the control of an aircraft flying in formation necessitates the extension of the theory of formation flight control to allow for three dimensional maneuvers. The formation was modeled as a two-aircraft, leader and wingspan, formation. Both airc...

J. K. Hall

2000-01-01

319

Aircraft imaging DOAS measurements of anthropogenic nitrogen dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft based observations of NO2 columns have been conducted using an imaging spectrometer. NO2 column amounts below the aircraft are retrieved from scattered light measurements by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). These imaging DOAS observations provide information about abundances and emissions of trace gases on a fine spatial scale of around 100m, which is suitable for investigations of anthropogenic point sources. With its wide angle entrance optics, the instrument is designed to yield simultaneous observations for all viewing angles within a broad swath below the aircraft across flight direction. In addition, the specific detector design allows gap free measurements along flight direction. These instrument characteristics provide best conditions for trace gas mapping. Source strengths and source distributions can be derived from the measurements. In addition, such NO2 observational data is useful for model input, model comparisons, satellite validation, and the investigation of sub-pixel variability. Instrumental performance has been analysed as well as the influences of aircraft positioning angles, viewing geometry and ground surface albedo on the retrieval results. Results and investigations from aircraft measurements above several anthropogenic source regions are presented.

Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Altube, Patricia; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Burrows, John P.

2013-04-01

320

Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model

W. H. J. J. Van Staveren

2003-01-01

321

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

322

Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

2006-12-01

323

Inductive Learning Approaches for Improving Pilot Awareness of Aircraft Faults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neural network flight controllers are able to accommodate a variety of aircraft control surface faults without detectable degradation of aircraft handling qualities. Under some faults, however, the effective flight envelope is reduced; this can lead to un...

L. Spikovska D. L. Iverson S. Poll Pryor

2005-01-01

324

Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

325

Formal Analysis of the Operational Concept for the Small Aircraft Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is a NASA project aimed at increasing access to small non-towered non-radar airports in the US. SATS is a radical new approach to air traffic management where pilots flying instrument flight rules are responsible for separation without air traffic control services. In this paper, the SATS project serves as a case study of an

Csar Muoz; Victor Carreo; Gilles Dowek

2006-01-01

326

14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aircraft or set forth in the provisional aircraft flight manual or other appropriate document...supplemental type certification of the aircraft, that person shall operate under the experimental aircraft limitations of § 21.191 of this...

2013-01-01

327

Results of Sonic Boom Intensity Calculations Near Lateral Extinction for Two Concorde Supersonic Aircraft Flights Above the Landes Area (14TH and 15TH June 1973) Resultats des Calculs d'Intensite du Bang au Voisinage de l'Extinction Laterale, Concernant les Deux Vols du Supersonique Concorde dans les Landes (14 et 15 Juin 1973).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sonic boom intensities near lateral extinction are reported for two series of stabilized supersonic Concorde aircraft flights. Calculation of the sound intensity at M=2 was performed by extrapolation and numerical computation of the Whitham function from ...

M. Schaffar B. Masure

1974-01-01

328

Real-time aircraft turnaround operations manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft turnaround operations are the activities conducted to prepare an inbound aircraft at an airport for a following outbound flight that is scheduled for the same aircraft. The activities of aircraft turnaround operations include both the inbound and outbound exchanges of passengers, crew, catering services, cargo and baggage handling. Hence, appears the importance of following up on all activities done

M. Abd Allah Makhloof; M. Elsayed Waheed; Usama A. El-Raouf Badawi

2012-01-01

329

Simultaneous measurements of clear air turbulence at the tropopause by high-power radar and instrumented aircraft.  

PubMed

Large amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz billows observed by radar at a height of almost 11 km are shown to have been associated with clear air turbulence which produced a vertical aircraft acceleration of 0.65g. PMID:16058781

Browning, K A; Watkins, C D; Starr, J R; McPherson, A

1970-12-12

330

Simultaneous Measurements of Clear Air Turbulence at the Tropopause by High-power Radar and Instrumented Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz billows observed by radar at a height of almost 11 km are shown to have been associated with clear air turbulence which produced a vertical aircraft acceleration of 0.65g.

K. A. Browning; C. D. Watkins; J. R. Starr

1970-01-01

331

Tropospheric sampling with aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

1991-03-01

332

Flight Load Research at ARL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to establish valid flight load statistics for fatigue life estimation was obtained. The flight aircraft was reviewed. Progress in the two activities was not uniform, with significant advances being closely related to technological developments.

A. K. Patterson C. K. Rider

1976-01-01

333

Dynamics of Cables Towed from Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a 'lumped mass' computer simulation of a trailing wire system towed by an orbiting aircraft. The USAF U-10 aircraft flight conditions were used as applied to three flightpaths: constant altitude circular, constant altitude elliptical,...

J. G. R. Hansen S. A. Crist

1972-01-01

334

47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews, licenses and inspection fees, washing, repainting, and minor accessories. (b) Credits...

2011-10-01

335

47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews, licenses and inspection fees, washing, repainting, and minor accessories. (b) Credits...

2012-10-01

336

An automated approach to identifying sine-on-random content from short duration aircraft flight operating data.  

SciTech Connect

One challenge faced by engineers today is replicating an operating environment such as transportation in a test lab. This paper focuses on the process of identifying sine-on-random content in an aircraft transportation environment, although the methodology can be applied to other events. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an automated way to identify significant peaks in the PSDs of the operating data, catalog the peaks, and determine whether each peak was sinusoidal or random in nature. This information helps design a test environment that accurately reflects the operating environment. A series of Matlab functions have been developed to achieve this goal with a relatively high degree of accuracy. The software is able to distinguish between sine-on-random and random-on-random peaks in most cases. This paper describes the approach taken for converting the time history segments to the frequency domain, identifying peaks from the resulting PSD, and filtering the time histories to determine the peak amplitude and characteristics. This approach is validated through some contrived data, and then applied to actual test data. Observations and conclusions, including limitations of this process, are also presented.

Hensley, Daniel P. (ATA Engineering, Inc., San Diego, CA); Cap, Jerome Scot

2004-09-01

337

An automated approach to identifying sine-on-random content from short duration aircraft flight operating data.  

SciTech Connect

One challenge faced by engineers today is replicating an operating environment such as transportation in a test lab. This paper focuses on the process of identifying sine-on-random content in an aircraft transportation environment, although the methodology can be applied to other events. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an automated way to identify significant peaks in the PSDs of the operating data, catalog the peaks, and determine whether each peak was sinusoidal or random in nature. This information helps design a test environment that accurately reflects the operating environment. A series of Matlab functions have been developed to achieve this goal with a relatively high degree of accuracy. The software is able to distinguish between sine-on-random and random-on-random peaks in most cases. This paper describes the approach taken for converting the time history segments to the frequency domain, identifying peaks from the resulting PSD, and filtering the time histories to determine the peak amplitude and characteristics. This approach is validated through some contrived data, and then applied to actual test data. Observations and conclusions, including limitations of this process, are also presented.

Cap, Jerome Scot; Hensley, Daniel P.

2004-06-01

338

Formation flying radio frequency instrument: First flight results from the PRISMA mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satellite formation flying mission consists in a set of satellites flying in close configuration whose geometry is accurately measured and controlled. Ultimately this allows making space science using a so called distributed instrument on several spacecrafts. Several science missions are envisioned, for example PROBA-3 or Darwin from ESA. These missions require very accurate relative positioning and control of the

T. Grelier; P.-Y. Guidotti; M. Delpech; J. Harr; J.-B. Thevenet; X. Leyre

2010-01-01

339

Redesign of 5 mm Wavelength Radiometric Measurement Instrument for Flight Aboard OV1-86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 5mm Radiometric Instrument was designed to insure component reliability and to provide compatibility with the OV1-86 Satellite. This radiometer was designed to measure temporal and geographic variations in the 60 GHz emission from the earth's atmopheric...

W. M. Caton

1967-01-01

340

Evaluation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument's pre-launch radiometric calibration using in-flight data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launched on 15 July 2004 aboard the EOS AURA satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is intended as the successor to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). OMI's improved horizontal spatial resolution and extended wavelength range (264-504nm) will provide total column ozone, surface reflectance, aerosol index, and ultraviolet (UV) surface flux as well as ozone profiles and tropospheric column ozone,

M. G. Kowalewski; G. Jaross; R. P. Cebula; S. L. Taylor

341

Evaluation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument's pre-launch radiometric calibration using in-flight data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launched on 15 July 2004 aboard the EOS AURA satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is intended as the successor to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). OMI's improved horizontal spatial resolution and extended wavelength range (264-504nm) will provide total column ozone, surface reflectance, aerosol index, and ultraviolet (UV) surface flux as well as ozone profiles and tropospheric column ozone,

M. G. Kowalewski; G. Jaross; R. P. Cebula; S. L. Taylor; M. R. Dobber; R. Dirksen

2005-01-01

342

Multi-Incident Beam Compact Time-Of-Flight SANS Instrument with 1 Millimeter Diameter beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although scanning small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) instruments are available, almost no attempt has been made to realize scanning small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instruments because of rather low flux available in the case of neutron scattering. We propose the use of a multi-pinhole collimator-pinhole combination to reduce the beam size to about 1-2-mm diameter immediately in front of a sample. With such small pinholes, we can produce a rather short instrument, on the order of 1-2 m, to have access to conventional minimum Q of about 0.03 nm-1. Because multiple beams hit the same detector at different parts of the detector, the obtained SANS patterns mutually overlap. However, using a wavelength-dependent SANS pattern, we were able to resolve the overlap in theory. We conducted a proof-of-principle type of experiment at the Hokkaido University electron linear accelerator based pulsed cold neutron source (HUNS) facility. We made several multi-pinhole plates with thin beam holes arranged in hexagonal patterns. By changing the moderator and detector pixel size and the instrument overall size, we can optimize the pinhole size and their layout. We conducted experiments using welded steel samples and seek the difference in SANS pattern in the welded and non-welded parts, as well as the heat-affected zone between them. We demonstrated the principle of resolving overlapped SANS patterns from the adjacent beams using wavelength-dependent scattering.

Furusaka, M.; Takeda, S.; Homma, A.; Fujita, F.; Miyata, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ohnuma, M.

2012-02-01

343

Present Design of the Flight Instrumentations Pyrex, Phlux and Respect for the Capsule Expert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

/RESUME Miniaturized flight experiments being developed at IRS for the European capsule program EXPERT are presented. The following paragraphs provide a brief survey on these sensor systems: PYREX, a pyrometric entry experiment, measures rear side temperatures and heat fluxes on ceramic TPS. It has already been flown twice (EXPRESS, MIRKA). PYREX-KAT38 is a fully qualified six-channel measurement system and was intended to be operated aboard the X-38. A similar design is being further developed for temperature and heat flux measurements in the nose structure of the EXPERT capsule. PHLUX (Sensor system for catalytic experiments) is based on the experiences with PYREX. It is a pyrometric sensor for catalytic heat flux measurements developed for the EXPERT capsule. Here, a probe with two sensors opposite each other has already been developed for ground tests by means of plasma wind tunnel experiments to qualify the sensor functionally and to investigate the catalytic behavior of surfaces. The flight experiment aims to estimate the dissociation degree during the entry using measured heat fluxes on different catalytic sur-faces. This information is important to understand the thermo-chemical interactions between plasma and TPS wall. RESPECT is a spectrometer to be used to gain spectral data in the flow field around EXPERT during its entry. The main goal is to obtain more detailed information about the plasma state in the post shock regime of EXPERT by measuring the spectrally resolved radiation onto the surface. The measured data will provide a database consisting of radiation of multiple species. These data will be used for the comparison with results of numerical simulations using e.g. the IRS URANUS code for validation of aerothermodynamic models.

Herdrich, G.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Fertig, M.; Lhle, S.; Pidan, S.; Winter, M.

2005-02-01

344

Pre-launch sensor characterization of the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to measure broadband radiances in reflected shortwave and emitted outgoing longwave energy. The 3-sensor CERES instrument measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to >100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. Flight Model 5 (FM5), the sixth of the CERES instruments is scheduled to launch aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems' (NGAS) Radiometric Calibration Facility (RCF). The longwave calibration of the total and window sensors are achieved using the Narrow Field-of-View Blackbody (NFBB) source which is tied to International Scale of 1990 (ITS '90). A Shortwave Reference Source (SWRS) along with the Transfer Active Cavity radiometer (TACR) which acts as the transfer standard of NFBB source, is used to determine the radiometric responsivity and spectral response estimates of the SW sensor and shortwave portion of the Total sensor. The spectral responsivity in longwave region is determined using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) system. CERES instrument also perform calibrations using on-board sources during pre-launch testing which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. This paper covers the calibration philosophy and the results from ground calibration testing of FM5 sensors conducted in 2008. The sensor radiometric gain responses calculated using primary sources and performance of the sensors using on-board sources will be discussed.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. P.; Timcoe, M. G.

2011-09-01

345

In-flight calibration and performance of the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (MER\\/Pancam) instruments have acquired more than 60,000 high-resolution, multispectral, stereoscopic images of soil, rocks, and sky at the Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum landing sites since January 2004. These images, combined with other MER data sets, have enabled new discoveries about the composition, mineralogy, and geologic\\/geochemical evolution of both sites. One key to the

J. F. Bell; J. Joseph III; J. N. Sohl-Dickstein; H. M. Arneson; M. J. Johnson; M. T. Lemmon; D. Savransky

2006-01-01

346

Gamma-ray burst and spectroscopy instrumentation development at the Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the activities that are specifically related to the development of instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy. Three programs are described: (1) the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS), a balloon-borne array of seven germanium detectors for high-resolution spectrographic studies of persistent gamma-ray sources; (2) the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS), a single radiatively-cooled germanium detector for the spectrographic study of gamma-ray bursts,

B. J. Teegarden

1986-01-01

347

Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benot, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Brelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dsert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Dor, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Hraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Grski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versill, S.; Hernndez-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macas-Prez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschnes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nrgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Przeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

2011-12-01

348

Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument  

SciTech Connect

Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

NONE

1998-12-01

349

Physician Flight Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of physician flight accidents during the period 1964-1965 is presented. More than thirty physicians sustained fatal injuries while piloting light aircraft: a fatality record four times the ratio of physician pilots in the general aviation pilo...

S. R. Mohler S. F. Freud J. E. Veregge E. L. Umberger

1966-01-01

350

Flight Control Systems Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedbac...

H. P. Whitaker Y. Baram Y. Cheng

1973-01-01

351

Large 15-in. flat-panel display glass cockpit for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large format Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) brings new possibilities to the aircraft cockpit environment. Broad-based format flexibility, enhanced situational awareness, sharp contrast and brilliant chromaticity are all features inherent in this product. This paper reviews cockpit instrument design, traces the evolution of electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and describes an optimized format of a large format cockpit display from an engineering test pilot's perspective. Additional potential uses for the large format display are described.

Schaefer, Lyle H.

2002-08-01

352

First gaseous ion composition measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for gaseous sulfuric acid, aerosols, and chemiions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometric composition measurements of gaseous negative ions have been made in the exhaust plume of a commercial jet aircraft (Airbus A310) in flight at altitudes around 10.4 km and at two plume ages around 3.0 and 3.6 s. Negative ions observed inside the exhaust plume are mostly NO3-(HNO3)m and HSO4-(HNO3)m with m ?2. Outside the plume in the background atmosphere the same negative ion species with the same R = (HSO4-(HNO3)m)/(NO3-(HNO3)m) were observed. This indicates that the ions observed in the plume were entrained ambient atmospheric ions. By contrast no indications for negative chemiions (with masses ?1100 amu) produced by the airbus engines were found in the plume. Furthermore our measurements indicate a modest decrease of the total concentration of entrained negative ions in the plume compared to the ambient atmosphere outside the plume. This decrease may be due to ion-removal by ion-attachment to aerosol-particles and/or ion-recombination with positive chemiions. We propose that the observed entrained ions can serve as probes for important plume components including gaseous sulfuric acid, aerosol particles and chemiions. Making use of this analytical potential we infer upper limits for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration, total aerosol surface area density, and positive chemiion concentration. We conclude that initially formed gaseous sulfuric acid must have experienced rapid gas-to-particle conversion already in the very early plume at plume ages < 1.6 s.

Arnold, F.; Wohlfrom, K.-H.; Klemm, M. W.; Schneider, J.; Gollinger, K.; Schumann, U.; Busen, R.

353

Adaption of commercial glass panels to upgrade the cockpit of the P-3 aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that commercial glass panels have an extremely wide range of applications. Previous papers have shown commercial glass panel applications as diverse as a city bus, an army howitzer and a commercial airliner. This paper shows how an aircraft such as the Navy developed P-3, as used by the US Customs Service, will eliminate its traditional electromechanical flight instruments and employ 6 X 8 commercial glass panels to totally modify its cockpit. These displays will perform all flight instrument functions; provide navigation and radar information for both pilot and copilot. This paper discusses the challenges of using commercial glass in such an application. The aircraft environment and the cockpit geometry are discussed as well as the requirements of optical performance that are placed upon the commercial glass. These requirements are then compared to the glass manufacturer's original specifications. Expected results from flight-testing are then provided.

Seinfeld, Robert D.; Herman, Robert P.

2000-08-01

354

Autonomous formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and

F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti

2000-01-01

355

Ground Aircraft Deicing Technology Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a review and update of operational, procedural, and system information regarding on-ground deicing of aircraft prior to flight. It reflects current practices of the different segments of aviation with the preponderance of information ...

D. Mayer J. Michitsch R. Yu

1986-01-01

356

Aircraft Noise Study in Norway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled fl...

T. T. Gjestland K. H. Liasjo H. E. Bohn

1990-01-01

357

Inflight characterization of aircraft icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis advances the development of the Ice Management System (IMS), which has been previously proposed as an additional layer of safety against aircraft icing accidents, by presenting and validating a conceptual design for the icing characterization function of the IMS. This icing characterization function seeks to provide a near real-time estimate of the degradation of the aircraft flight dynamics

James William Melody

2004-01-01

358

Robotic assistants for aircraft inspectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft flight pressurization\\/depressurization cycling causes the skin to inflate and deflate, stressing it around the rivets that fasten it to the airframe. The resulting strain, exacerbated by corrosion, drives the growth of initially microscopic cracks. To avoid catastrophe, aircraft are inspected periodically for cracks and corrosion. The inspection technology employed is ?90 percent naked-eye vision. We have developed and demonstrated

Mel Siegel; Priyan Gunatilake; Gregg Podnar

1998-01-01

359

Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations

Howoong Namgoong

2005-01-01

360

INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on instrumentation developments during the period 1960-; 61. Discussion is given on various instruments such as supersonic and ; electrolytic machines, spectrometers, coated filters, multiplier phototube, ; balances, photoelectric refractometers, and others. lt is felt that a milestone ; in instrumentation and metrology was established when a new international ; standard of length was adopted to

1962-01-01

361

An aircraft noise study in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled flights with intermediate and large size aircraft, the bulk being DC9 and Boeing 737. The total traffic during the summer of 1989

Truls T. Gjestland; Kare H. Liasjo; Hans Einar Bohn

1990-01-01

362

X-3 Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

X-3 preflight calibration, test flight and landing circa 1954. The slender, jet-powered X-3, built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, tested such new materials as titanium and collected data on stability and control, pressure distribution, and flight loads.

Marty Curry

2010-05-12

363

Diode laser-based cavity ring-down instrument for NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2 and O3 from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a diode laser based, cavity ring-down spectrometer for simultaneous in situ measurements of four nitrogen oxide species, NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2, as well as O3, designed for deployment on aircraft. The instrument measures NO3 and NO2 by optical extinction at 662 nm and 405 nm, respectively; N2O5 is measured by thermal conversion to NO3, while NO and O3 are measured by chemical conversion to NO2. The instrument has several advantages over previous instruments developed by our group for measurement of NO2, NO3 and N2O5 alone, based on a pulsed Nd:YAG and dye laser. First, the use of continuous wave diode lasers reduces the requirements for power and weight and eliminates hazardous materials. Second, detection of NO2 at 405 nm is more sensitive than our previously reported 532 nm instrument, and does not have a measurable interference from O3. Third, the instrument includes chemical conversion of NO and O3 to NO2 to provide measurements of total NOx (= NO + NO2) and Ox (= NO2 + O3) on two separate channels; mixing ratios of NO and O3 are determined by subtraction of NO2. Finally, all five species are calibrated against a single standard based on 254 nm O3 absorption to provide high accuracy. Disadvantages include an increased sensitivity to water vapor on the 662 nm NO3 and N2O5 channels and a modest reduction in sensitivity for these species compared to the pulsed laser instrument. The measurement precision for both NO3 and N2O5 is below 1 pptv (2?, 1 s) and for NO, NO2 and O3 is 170, 46, and 56 pptv (2?, 1 s) respectively. The NO and NO2 measurements are less precise than research-grade chemiluminescence instruments. However, the combination of these five species in a single instrument, calibrated to a single analytical standard, provides a complete and accurate picture of nighttime nitrogen oxide chemistry. The instrument performance is demonstrated using data acquired during a recent field campaign in California.

Wagner, N. L.; Dub, W. P.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Young, C. J.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Brown, S. S.

2011-03-01

364

COMBAT AIRCRAFT AGILITY METRICS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

With changing combat environments, traditional measures of merit for fighter aircraft per- formance have largely proved insufficient to analyze combat capability. Combat experience has shown that the upper hand lies with an aircraft that has superior maneuverability across a large part of the flight regime. Agility metrics have come to provide a tool that would be capable of evaluating aircraft

Aditya A. Paranjape; N. Ananthkrishnan

365

41 CFR 102-33.180 - What standards must we establish or require (contractually, where applicable) for flight program...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...where applicable) for flight program safety? 102-33.180 Section 102-33...Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Safety § 102-33.180 What standards...where applicable) for flight program safety? For flight program safety, you...

2013-01-01

366

QFT applied to fault tolerant flight control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses flight control system synthesis and the accommodation of controlled plant variation in an aircraft design envelope by using the frequency domain based quantitative feedback theory robust control system design method. The plant variations considered include varying flight conditions in the flight envelope and damage to aerodynamic control surfaces. A digital flight controller for the aircraft's longitudinal channel

M. S. Keating; M. Pachter; C. H. Houpis

1995-01-01

367

New integrated backup flight data display in Gripen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saab-BAe multi-role fighter aircraft Gripen has a continuous development program to incorporate new technology. Current important cockpit changes are the replacement of the three 5' X 6' monochrome CRT displays by three 6' X 8' Color Multi-Function Displays (CMFD), and the removal of the traditional and dedicated standby flight instruments. The CMFDs are equipped with built-in graphics generators. The display surfaces are supplied with flight data from two parallel and independent flight data systems, one primary (normal) and one secondary (back-up). All CMFDs have the ability to be switched over to display of back-up flight data. The importance of flight data calls for careful design of functional monitoring. The removal of the old standby instruments and the introduction of the new integrated back-up system also raises a need to define new principles for pilot monitoring of flight data. This is being dealt with in two ways. First, a special display mode is created to make it possible for the pilot to visually perform traditional cross monitoring between independent sources. Second, in order to make maximal tactical use of the CMFDs' surfaces, automated (hidden) integrity cross monitoring is being developed. Flight safety is achieved by designing a system where (a) the primary and the secondary system are totally independent except for the display surfaces which however are triple redundant; (b) the monitoring functionality is distributed both locally and centrally to ensure that no misleading flight data is displayed to the pilot.

Santesson, Rolf; Kral, Robert

2000-08-01

368

NASA Dryden Fact Sheets - X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft Project Summary The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft successfully completed a 31-flight research program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in November 1997.

369

Dichlorvos vapour disinsection of aircraft  

PubMed Central

The authors describe the testing of an automatic aircraft disinsection system permanently installed on a commercial DC-6B passenger aircraft. An air-compressor forces ambient cabin air, partially saturated with dichlorvos vapour at a set concentration, through the cabin, cockpit and baggage compartments of the aircraft for 30 minutes. Insecticide concentrations and insect mortality were observed in post-overhaul check flights, and insect mortality and passenger reactions were observed on scheduled flights between Miami, Florida, and Nassau, Bahamas. The results showed satisfactory biological efficiency. The passengers were unaware of the disinsection process and showed no signs of discomfort. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3

Jensen, Jens A.; Flury, Vincent P.; Schoof, Herbert F.

1965-01-01

370

Scaling in model aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic principles of flight are described from the point of view of the way they scale from the largest full-size aircraft to the smallest flying models. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties encountered by small, slow flying machines.

Chris Waltham

1997-01-01

371

Manual on the Flight of Flexible Aircraft in Turbulence (Manuel sur le Vol des Avions Non-rigides en Milieu Turbulent).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of atmospheric turbulence and its influence on aircraft operation and design has been of concern almost continuously since the inception of AGARD. The past few years have seen a heightened interest in the turbulence or gust problem, particularly...

J. C. Houbolt

1991-01-01

372

Investigation of Fighter Aircraft Agility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory...

J. Valasek D. R. Downing

1993-01-01

373

14 CFR 91.711 - Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special rules for foreign civil aircraft. 91.711 Section 91.711 Aeronautics...GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and...

2013-01-01

374

14 CFR 65.63 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Application, duration, and other general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Application...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.63 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses:...

2013-01-01

375

Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor instrument is an airborne coherent Doppler laser radar (Lidar) capable of measuring atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. Since the first demonstration flights onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in September 1995, two additional science flights have been completed. Several system upgrades have also bee implemented. In this paper we discuss the system upgrades and present several case studies which demonstrate the various capabilities of the system.

Howell, James N.; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Tratt, David M.; Cutten, Dean; Darby, Lisa S.; Hardesty, R. Michael

1999-10-01

376

Trace gas observations of the CRISTA-NF experiment during the SCOUT-O3 Tropical Aircraft Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere -- New Frontiers CRISTA-NF experiment onboard the Russian research aircraft Geophysica measures about 10 trace gases in the Upper Troposphere -- Lower Stratosphere UTLS region with unprecedented spatial resolution for a remote sensing instrument The first scientific flights of this newly developed instrument took place during the SCOUT-O3 Tropical Aircraft Campaign EU FP 6 in November and December 2005 This paper presents first results of trace gas observations during SCOUT-O3 e g CFCs water vapour with emphasis on dynamical structures in the vicinity of the tropical and extra-tropical tropopause

Riese, M.; Kullmann, A.; Hoffmann, L.; Weigel, K.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.

377

Noise characteristics of the Japan's experimental powered lift STOL aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive flight noise data available for the Quiet Short Take Off and Landing Experimental Aircraft (QSTOL), ASKA, are summarized. Flight test results, compared with prior subscale model\\/theoretical data, have been used to provide and refine the powered-lift aircraft noise prediction method, which was extended to generate noise exposure level (footprints) and predict noise abatement flight operation. It is argued

Masataka Maita; Katsumi Takeda; Masaki Saitoh; Ken Ohsumi

1990-01-01

378

Neural control of the LoFLYTER aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) has built a waverider shaped subsonic aircraft under the LoFLYTETM program, which is presently being flight tested at Edwards AFB. Upon completion of this initial series of flight tests, designed to check out the aircraft and characterize its aerodynamics, LoFLYTETM will be used as a testbed for a neural flight control system employing variants of AAC's

R. Saeks; J. Neidhoefer; C. Cox; R. Rap

1998-01-01

379

Flight and ground calibrations: TRMM and EOS-AM1 clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument zero radiance offsets determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument has scanning thermistor bolometers that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave, total and 8-12 micron water vapor window regions. On November 27, 1997, the CERES Protoflight model (PFM) instrument was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission spacecraft. In December 1998, the CERES FLight models I and II instruments are scheduled for launch on the Earth Observing System-AM1 platform. The instrument generally operates in three scan modes; crosstrack normal, rotating azimuth normal and rotating azimuth short modes, while measuring the earth reflected and emitted radiances. The sensor measurements have shown a dependency on observation geometry during each of these scan modes of operation. At each elevation observation angle, the zero radiance offsets of the sensors were measured on the ground using end caps and a constant radiance reference source, consisting of a curved strip blackbody. On-orbit, offsets were determined from observations of cold space. This paper describes the procedures and facilities used to determine the zero radiance offsets. The offset values calculated from ground and in-flight data for TRMM sensors, as well as the ground measurements for the FM1 and FM2 sensors are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Thornhill, K. L.; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-10-01

380

Simulation and Flight Test Assessment of Safety Benefits and Certification Aspects of Advanced Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adaptive inverse controller for customized fight control systems for general aviation aircraft is presented. The purpose of the system is to render a general aviation aircraft easier to fly via decoupling its flight control system. Artificial neural ne...

J. E. Steck K. Rokhsaz U. J. Pesonen S. Bruner N. Duerksen

2003-01-01

381

World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

382

14 CFR 135.337 - Qualifications: Check airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator). 135.337 Section 135.337...airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section...flight checks in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

2009-01-01

383

14 CFR 135.337 - Qualifications: Check airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator). 135.337 Section 135.337...airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section...flight checks in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

2010-01-01

384

14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089...pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section...flight checks in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

2010-01-01

385

14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089...pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section...flight checks in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

2009-01-01

386

Human-Centered Aircraft Automation: A Concept and Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cock...

C. E. Billings

1991-01-01

387

Fractal Aircraft Trajectories, Scaling Stratification, Nonclassical Turbulent Exponents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimension (D) of aircraft trajectories is fundamental in interpretating airborne data. To estimate D, we studied data from 18 trajectories of stratospheric aircraft flights 1600km long taken during a \\

S. Lovejoy; D. Schertzer; A. Tuck

2004-01-01

388

The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2012-09-01

389

The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission, conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1) validating the data, (2) improving constraints on retrievals, (3) making correlated observations, and (4) characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A) sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B) focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB). The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1) improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H. B.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

2009-12-01

390

The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1) validating the data, (2) improving constraints on retrievals, (3) making correlated observations, and (4) characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A) sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B) focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB). The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1) improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

2009-08-01

391

MODULAR SOFT COMPUTING APPROACH FOR AIRCRAFT CARRIER LANDING TRAJECTORY PREDICTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular learning design for classifying aircraft flight data in time-series prediction is proposed in this paper. This is part of the decision support system to assist landing signal officers in guiding aircraft to land on aircraft carriers. NeuroFuzzy systems are used to emulate the flight patterns for future real-time flight prediction. To improve the learning efficiency, a two stage

CHRIS TSENG; ARKADY EPSHTEYN

2009-01-01

392

Flight Test Investigation of Rotorcraft Wake Vortices in Forward Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of helicopter flight tests and wake vortex measurements which were designed to provide data necessary for the assessment of hazards to following aircraft. The tests described in this report were conducted using small probe...

S. A. Teager K. J. Biehl L. J. Garodz J. J. Tymczyszym D. C. Burnham

1996-01-01

393

Some far-field acoustics characteristics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Far-field acoustics tests have been conducted on an instrumented XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft. The purpose of these acoustic measurements was to create an encompassing, high confidence (90 percent), and accurate (-1.4\\/ +1\\/8 dB theoretical confidence interval) far-field acousitcs data base to validate ROTONET and other current rotorcraft noise prediction computer codes. This paper describes the flight techniques used, with emphasis on

Robert A. Golub; David A. Conner; Lawrence E. Becker; C. Kendall Rutledge; Rita A. Smith

1990-01-01

394

Women employed in male-dominated industries: lessons learned from female aircraft pilots, pilots-in-training and mixed-gender flight instructors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, women who work in traditionally male-typed fields and occupations continue to face gender barriers. This paper reviews the literature on the topic then identifies and examines barriers presented during aviation training based on data from 296 female pilots-in-training, pilots, and flight instructors. Results show that the lack of acceptance, self-efficacy, lack of social support from organizations, flight instructors

Marie-Line Germain; Mary Jean Ronan Herzog; Penny Rafferty Hamilton

2012-01-01

395

Aircraft Environmental System Mechanic, 2-9. Block IV--Utility Systems and Flight Line Maintenance. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a teaching guide and student instructional materials for conducting a high school or adult vocational education course to train persons to perform duties as an aircraft environmental systems mechanic. The instructional design for this course is self-paced and/or small group-paced. Instructor materials contained in the

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

396

Aircraft Environmental System Mechanic, 2-9. Block IV--Utility Systems and Flight Line Maintenance. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains a teaching guide and student instructional materials for conducting a high school or adult vocational education course to train persons to perform duties as an aircraft environmental systems mechanic. The instructional design for this course is self-paced and/or small group-paced. Instructor materials contained in the

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

397

SSMIR (Solid State Memory Instrumentation Recorder): A new approach to acquiring data during an aircraft seat/sled ejection sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of ejection seat/sled testing employs an Aydin/Vector Co., pulse code modulation/telemetry instrumentation package. While this system meets all channel/data rate requirements and has proven itself in field testing, some major deficiencies exist. Data turnaround is one drawback; up to several weeks are normally required to process and print out the results from any sled shot. A second major deficiency is the amount of data dropout that can occur. In an ejection seat test, orientation of the skull antenna or misalignment of sending and receiving antennas can result in loss of data. Current technology in data storage media and high speed controllers provides backup mode for data integrity and also permits faster data reduction. This paper summarizes an electrical/mechanical packaging design of a software controlled, nonvolatile data recording system which uses 8 megabits of bubble memory to provide 24 sec of data storage in parallel to the PCM/TM transmission. Preliminary laboratory bench testing of the Solid State Memory Instrumentation (SSMI) Recorder indicates that the bubble memory can withstand the high vibration g loads (20 Gs up to 2000 Hz) and environmental temperatures (85 C) encountered in ejection seat testing. Laboratory shock testing (ejection seat trainer) to 5 Gs has also been successful along with tower testing at the Naval Air Development Center to 25 Gs.

Watters, D. M.

1985-04-01

398

USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook: Volume 49. T-34A In-flight Crew Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The T-43A is a USAF subsonic navigational trainer aircraft. This report provides measured data defining the bioacoustic environments at flight crew/passenger locations inside this aircraft during normal flight operations. Data are reported for 26 location...

N. A. Farinacci D. Eilerman J. N. Cole H. Mohlman

1975-01-01

399

FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DOCKS (BUILDINGS 2741 AND 2766)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

400

Preprocessing of Flight Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the data processing station of the Fokker F29 aircraft flight test data acquisition, recording and processing system is outlined. Data transcription, transformation, computation and presentation are described, along with the relevant data stru...

H. A. Tuinenberg

1982-01-01

401

An experimental and analytical study of the stability of counter-rotating vortex pairs with applications for aircraft wake turbulence control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft trailing vortex wakes are commonly referred to as `wake turbulence' and may pose a flight safety hazard to other aircraft that may encounter the wake. This hazard is of critical interest during the take-off and landing stages of flight, where aircraft are in the closest proximity to one another. During these flight stages, it is common for transport aircraft

Brian Matthew Babie

2008-01-01

402

Optimization of Flight Test Maneuvers for Aerodynamic Derivatives Inverse Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract This work deals with the application of optimization techniques to the determination of aircraft light test input maneuvers for aircraft model identification and aerodynamic parameter estimation. The optimum flight test maneuvers are necessary to increase the efficiency of aircraft identification and parameter estimation algorithms, respecting operational restrictions related to flight safety and limits of the assumed mathematical models.

Nei Salis; Brasil Neto; Luiz Carlos; S. Ges; Benedito Carlos; O. Maciel; Elder Moreira Hemerly

403

Optimal Strategies for Free Flight Air Traffic Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in navigation and data communication technologies make it feasible for individual aircraft to plan and fly their trajectories in the presence of other aircraft in the airspace. This way, individual aircraft can take advantage of the atmospheric and traffic conditions to optimally plan their paths. This capability is termed as the free flight concept. While the free flight

P. K. Menon; G. D. Sweriduk; B. Sridhar

1997-01-01

404

Validation of the Harvard Lyman-? in situ water vapor instrument: Implications for the mechanisms that control stratospheric water vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on previously published details of the laboratory calibrations of the Harvard Lyman-? photofragment fluorescence hygrometer (HWV) on the NASA ER-2 and WB-57 aircraft, we describe here the validation process for HWV, which includes laboratory calibrations and intercomparisons with other Harvard water vapor instruments at water vapor mixing ratios from 0 to 10 ppmv, followed by in-flight intercomparisons with the

E. M. Weinstock; J. B. Smith; D. S. Sayres; J. V. Pittman; J. R. Spackman; E. J. Hintsa; T. F. Hanisco; E. J. Moyer; J. M. St. Clair; M. R. Sargent; J. G. Anderson

2009-01-01

405

Space shuttle based global CO measurements during April and October 1994, MAPS instrument, data reduction, and data validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellites (MAPS) experiment flew as a payload aboard the space shuttle during April and October 1994. The instrument and the data reduction procedure were modified from earlier flights in 1981 and 1984. The modifications to both are described, and selected portions of the data are compared to concurrent aircraft borne direct measurements that had

Henry G. Reichle; Bruce E. Anderson; Vickie S. Connors; Todd C. Denkins; David A. Forbes; Barbara B. Gormsen; Ray L. Langenfelds; Doreen O. Neil; Scott R. Nolf; Paul C. Novelli; Nikita S. Pougatchev; Marilee M. Roell; L. Paul Steele

1999-01-01

406

Aurora Flight Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aurora Flight Sciences most recently made headlines with a test of its MarsFlyer, a prototype aircraft that, in its final version, will be used by NASA to gather information about the Red Planet's atmosphere. The company's Web site has information about this and many other specialized aircraft, as well as a video from the tail of the MarsFlyer as it was dropped from 100,000 feet. Specific information about composite structures and metal fabrication is presented for both Aurora products and products from other companies. Aurora Flight Sciences is also, incidentally, one of the first to use the dot-aero domain name.

407

Human factors issues of flight deck automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely acknowledged that commercial transport aircraft automation has improved the economy of airliners, and that accident rates for advanced technology commercial aircraft are lower than those of comparable conventional technology aircraft. Nevertheless, criticism of the human factors of modern flight deck automation is common among pilots and other aviation professionals (e.g., Billings, 1997). Until recently, though, there was

Ken Funk; Beth Lyall

1998-01-01

408

Modular flight control reconfiguration design and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a reconfiguring flight control algorithm for damaged aircraft based upon a modular approach. This approach combines real time physical model identification with adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). The sensitivity of NDI to modeling errors is eliminated here by making use of a real time identified model of the aircraft. In failure situations, the damaged aircraft model is

T. J. J. Lombaerts; Q. P. Chu; J. A. Mulder; D. A. Joosten

2011-01-01

409

Distributed Formation Flight Control Using Constraint Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for formation flight control of multiple aircraft is presented. Constraint forces are used to derive the dynamics of a constrained, multibody system. A stable, distributed control algorithm is designed based on the information flow graph for a group of aircraft. The aircraft will achieve a particular formation while ensuring an arbitrarily small bounded navigation tracking error with

Yunfei Zou; Prabhakar R. Pagilla; Ryan T. Ratliff

2009-01-01

410

Design Definition Study of a Lift/Cruise Fan Technology V/STOL Aircraft. Volume 2: Technology Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology flight vehicles were defined for three different approaches which demonstrate the concept and characteristics of the multipurpose aircraft established for Navy missions. The propulsion system used for the various technology flight vehicles was ...

1975-01-01

411

Design of a distal teacher recursive estimator for airplane flight controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft controllers in general have particular flight limitations in which the aircraft is controllable. It may be difficult, if not impossible to control an aircraft using a classical controller if the dynamics of the aircraft were to change or if the flight limitations are exceeded. This is because classical controllers for airplanes are designed according to specific dynamics of the

Terriance D. Moody; Saleh Zein-Sabatto

1998-01-01

412

14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135...passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface,...

2013-01-01

413

Hypersonic flight testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The options available in the area of small-scale flight testing are examined, and the relationship between the results obtained by flight testing, ground testing, and simulation is discussed. Attention is given to instrumentation currently available for flight testing, and it is shown how flight tests can be used to validate or improve models. Some results are presented to indicate areas where ground testing and modeling alone are not sufficient for the accurate prediction of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics in the hypersonic environment.

Williamson, W. E.

1992-07-01

414

Suboptimal adaptive control system for flight quality improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the suboptimal algorithm of adaptive control system is presented, which is specially adjusted for automatic flight control systems of general aviation and commuter aircraft, and unmanned aircraft (UMA) that conduct flights in atmospheric turbulence. At first, the method could be applied for correcting these changes in flight dynamics parameters, which cannot be compensated with the aid of

Andrzej Tomczyk

2004-01-01

415

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2012-10-01

416

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2011-10-01

417

GPS 3-D cockpit displays: Sensors, algorithms, and flight testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunnel-in-the-Sky 3-D flight displays have been investigated for several decades as a means of enhancing aircraft safety and utility. However, high costs have prevented commercial development and seriously hindered research into their operational benefits. The rapid development of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS), inexpensive computing power, and ruggedized displays is now changing this situation. A low-cost prototype system was built and flight tested to investigate implementation and operational issues. The display provided an "out the window" 3-D perspective view of the world, letting the pilot see the horizon, runway, and desired flight path even in instrument flight conditions. The flight path was depicted as a tunnel through which the pilot flew the airplane, while predictor symbology provided guidance to minimize path-following errors. Positioning data was supplied, by various DGPS sources including the Stanford Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) testbed. A combination of GPS and low-cost inertial sensors provided vehicle heading, pitch, and roll information. Architectural and sensor fusion tradeoffs made during system implementation are discussed. Computational algorithms used to provide guidance on curved paths over the earth geoid are outlined along with display system design issues. It was found that current technology enables low-cost Tunnel-in-the-Sky display systems with a target cost of $20,000 for large-scale commercialization. Extensive testing on Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft demonstrated enhanced accuracy and operational flexibility on a variety of complex flight trajectories. These included curved and segmented approaches, traffic patterns flown on instruments, and skywriting by instrument reference. Overlays to existing instrument approaches at airports in California and Alaska were flown and compared with current instrument procedures. These overlays demonstrated improved utility and situational awareness for nonprecision procedures, operations to closely spaced parallel runways, and noise abatement. A database of inflight path-following errors on straight and curved segments of varying radius was developed to aid Tunnel-in-the-Sky instrument approach procedure design. The aggregate results demonstrate that low-cost Tunnel-in-the-Sky primary flight displays can provide intuitive landing guidance, precision navigation on complex flight paths, and increased safety through improved situational awareness.

Barrows, Andrew Kevin

418

Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

Neese, W.A.

1991-12-31

419

The Waypoint Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth science research utilizes both spaceborne and airborne real time observations in the planning and operations of its field campaigns. The coordination of air and space components is critical to achieve the goals and objectives and ensure the success of an experiment. Spaceborne imagery provides regular and continual coverage of the Earth and it is a significant component in all NASA field experiments. Real time visible and infrared geostationary images from GOES satellites and multi-spectral data from the many elements of the NASA suite of instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, Aqua, Aura, and other NASA satellites have become norm. Similarly, the NASA Airborne Science Program draws upon a rich pool of instrumented aircraft. The NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8, Lockheed P3 Orion, DeHavilland Twin Otter, King Air B200, Gulfstream-III are all staples of a NASAs well-stocked, versatile hangar. A key component in many field campaigns is coordinating the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions. Given the variables involved, developing a good flight plan that meets the objectives of the field experiment can be a challenging and time consuming task. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is complex task because it is much more than flying from point A to B. Flight plans typically consist of flying a series of transects or involve dynamic path changes when chasing a hurricane or forest fire. These aircraft flight plans are typically designed by the mission scientists then verified and implemented by the navigator or pilot. Flight planning can be an arduous task requiring frequent sanity checks by the flight crew. This requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool, that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point-and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map draped with real time satellite imagery. The Waypoint Planning Tool has further advanced to include satellite orbit predictions and seamlessly interfaces with the Real Time Mission Monitor which tracks the aircrafts position when the planes are flying. This presentation will describe the capabilities and features of the Waypoint Planning Tool highlighting the real time aspect, interactive nature and the resultant benefits to the airborne science community.

He, M.; Goodman, H. M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hall, J. M.

2010-12-01

420

Prediction Methodology for Propulsive Induced Force and Moments of V/STOL Aircraft in Transition/STOL Flight. Volume 1. Technical Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized prediction method for propulsive induced forces and moments in transition and short takeoff and landing (STOL) flight has been developed for the Naval Air Development Center (NADC). The method developed was based on the Vought V/STOL aircra...

T. D. Beatty S. S. Kress

1979-01-01

421

Aircraft Accident Report - Aloha Islandair, Inc., Flight 1712 De Havilland Twin Otter, DHC-6-300, N707PV Halawa Point, Molokai, Hawaii October 28, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explains the crash of Aloha Island Air flight 1712, a de Havilland Twin Otter DHC-6-300 near Halawa Bay, Molokai, Hawaii, on October 28, 1989. The safety issues discussed in the report are surveillance of 14 CFR Part 135 operators by the Federa...

1990-01-01

422

Enroute Performance Assurance from User Aircraft Tracks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of using the NAS Enroute Stage A equipment to assure enroute navigation facility alignment is described. Frequent and continued updating of the alignment is accomplished by this technique without the use of special aircraft or flights, distractio...

J. Lovell F. Perz

1973-01-01

423

C-20A Environmental Science Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center operates a C-20A, a military version of the Gulfstream III business jet, as an environmental science research aircraft for a variety of geophysical research missions.

424

C-29A Aircraft Altimeter Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of a study initiated to solve problems with pressure altimeter errors (differences between indicated and true altitude) aboard Air Force C-29A flight inspection aircraft. A basic review of altimetry is provided, along wit...

W. R. Schaub

1991-01-01

425

Implications of Space Shuttle Flight on the Calibration of Instruments Observing Atmospheric Ozone and the Solar Irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate calibration of remote-sensing instruments has become increasingly more important for studying long-term changes in our environment. Changes in atmospheric ozone are of great concern and have been observed from satellites for over a decade. Despite this record, long-term trends in ozone remain uncertain, primarily due to uncertainties in satellite instrument calibration after launch. In order to overcome this problem

E. Hilsenrath; R. P. Cebula; R. Caffrey; S. Hynes

1991-01-01

426

SAGE III test model: ground-based coincident measurements with the SAGE III flight instruments and field characterization measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five functional UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer\\/telescopes were built for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) satellite instrument project. Three will be on satellite platforms in the early part of the decade, and a fourth, the SAGE III Test Model (TM) is functioning as a ground-based instrument. The fifth is used as a software test-bed to support Mission Operations for

Robert E. Veiga; Brian N. Wenny; Gary M. Hansen; Patricia L. Lucker; William P. Chu

2002-01-01

427

Design of integrated aircraft inflight safety monitoring and early warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses integrated safety monitoring system design of in-flight aircraft. During a flight mission, the aircraft, the operation of crew members and the dynamic change of flight environments interacts as a system. The change of safety situation of an aircraft should be attributed to the behavior of those human-machine-environment factors, which established the basis of the in-flight safety monitor

Xiaoyun Wang; Tingdi Zhao

2010-01-01

428

Aircraft measurements of pollutants and meteorological parameters during the sulfate regional experiment (SURE) program: Research Triangle Institute, Inc  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) was to obtain air quality and meteorological data for development and verification of models describing the nature and dispersion of atmospheric sulfur compounds emitted from industrial sources such as power plants. Airborne data from several instrumented aircraft were acquired to support ground-based data from a network of monitoring stations and to provide additional information about transport phenomena not available from ground station data alone. A twin-engine aircraft was equipped with instrumentation for monitoring SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO, NO/sub x/, b/sub scat/, condensation nuclei, temperature, dew point, and turbulence. This aircraft was operated for approximately 40 hours of ambient air quality data-sampling during each of six two-week intensive monitoring periods spread over a one and one-half year period. Flights performed usually consisted of three spiral flights from near ground level to 3060 meters (10,000 feet). In addition, cross-country flights were conducted during later intensives under episode conditions. Data from all flights were processed by computer, and stored on magnetic tape. The flights performed during this program, the aircraft instrumentation system used and conclusions reached during preliminary analysis of the data are described. SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/ were mostly confined between the surface and the top of the mixed layer and their measured concentrations correlated with those measured at nearby ground-level monitoring stations. Ozone was not confined to the mixed layer with 0/sub 3/ concentrations generally increasing above the mixed layer. Cross-country profiles of SO/sub 4//sup =/ showed marked variability over distances of less than 300km even though the gases (SO/sub 2/ and NO/NO/sub x/) were relatively uniformly distributed over these distances.

Tommerdahl, J.B.; White, J.H.; Strong, R.B.; Sickles, J.E.; Saeger, M.L.; Worth, J.J.B.

1981-04-01

429

Development of Morphing Aircraft Structure Using SMP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Air Force needs new aircraft which provide longer flight time, less fuel consumption, better aerodynamics in order to perform Air Force missions successfully as the mission environment changes rapidly. A morphing wing aircraft is considered as a ...

S. Jee

2010-01-01

430

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of

Gregory Franklin Zehner

2000-01-01

431

Tug-TOW Arrangement for Nuclear Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operationally-integrated combination of aircraft is disclosed. It includes a rug airplane powered by a radiation-emitting power source, a tow aircraft adapted to carry a crew, a coupling between the airplanes to permit unpowered flight of the tow aircr...

S. Bernstein

1965-01-01

432

Development of an Experimental Aircraft Hygrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental aircraft hygrometers using dry-ice heat sinks were designed and constructed, both units recorded frost points below -80C when flight tested at altitudes to 65,000 feet aboard a U-2 aircraft. A third hygrometer which requires no chemical h...

L. Koehler J. G. Ballinger

1967-01-01

433

Aircraft landing control based on adaptive CMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent control scheme that uses an adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) in aircraft automatic landing system. The proposed intelligent controller can act as an experienced pilot and guide the aircraft to a safe landing in severe turbulence environment. Current flight control law is adopted in the intelligent design. Lyapunov theory is applied to obtain adaptive

Teng-Chieh Yang; Jih-Gau Juang

2009-01-01

434

Standardization of Gustiness Values from Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal turbulence standardization technique is described which is based quantitatively on the atmospheric turbulence itself rather than on the effects it products on an aircraft. It provides a single turbulence intensity number which may be measured continuously in flight in a variety of ways, and, with knowledge of the aircraft type and speed, can be linearly related to the

Paul B. Maccready Jr.

1964-01-01

435

A composite model of aircraft noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present method for reducing the amount of computation needed to determine the aircraft noise levels affecting communities, it is assumed that each aircraft can be assigned to one of several known flight paths. The invoked concept of 'energy addition' raises the possibility, for the purposes of simulation, of replacing a number of aircraft moving along a specified trajectory with a single 'equivalent source' that delivers the same weighted average power distribution to points on the ground.

Melton, R. G.

1985-05-01

436

The on-board software of the HERSCHEL/PACS instrument: three successful years of in-flight operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PACS is one of the three instruments of the ESA space mission Herschel. Its warm electronics consists of 4 computers connected through 1355 links. Each computer is equipped with a DSP-21020 microprocessor, each running its own software. In this poster we describe the main features of the dierent software with some emphasis on the FDIR (Failure Detection Isolation and Recovery) procedures implemented on-board: we describe the FDIR design and we show how the few anomalies that occurred since the Herschel launch three years ago, have been succesfully handled autonomously by the instrument.

Pezzuto, Stefano; Ottensamer, Roland; Mazy, Alain; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Vandenbussche, Bart; Benedettini, Milena; Liu, Scige John; Molinari, Sergio; Schito, Daniele

2012-09-01

437

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

438

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

K. Ashley

2006-12-08

439

Re-examined structural design procedures for very flexible aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the applicability of some conventional structural design practices to the analysis and design of very flexible aircraft. The effect of large structural deformations and the coupling between aeroelasticity and flight dynamics is investigated in different aspects of the aircraft structural design process, including aeroelastic stability, loads, and flight dynamics and control. This is illustrated with a numerical

Rafael Palacios; Carlos E. S. Cesnik; Eric Y. Reichenbach

2007-01-01

440

Characterizations of Aircraft Icing Environments that Include Supercooled Large Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aircraft icing environments that include supercooled large drops (SLD) greater than 50 mm in diameter have been made during 38 research flights. These flights were conducted during the First and Third Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiments. A primary objective of each project was the collection of in situ microphysics data in order to characterize aircraft icing environments associated with

Stewart G. Cober; George A. Isaac; J. Walter Strapp

2001-01-01

441

Procedures for providing robust gate assignments for arriving aircrafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assigning commercial service aircrafts to the available gates at an airport depends on flights scheduled, their actual behavior relative to those schedules, aircraft servicing requirements and capacities of ramp facilities. Flight delays, severe weather, or equipment failures can disrupt the planned schedules, and compound the difficulty of maintaining smooth station operations. A mixed-binary mathematical model with a quadratic function for

Ahmet Bolat

2000-01-01

442

Signal processing for aircraft flyover noise synthesis and propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective assessments of low noise aircraft flight operations require time histories of acoustic pressure at listener positions. Synthesized sound has an advantage over recordings by allowing the examination of proposed aircraft, flight procedures, and other conditions or configurations for which recordings are unavailable. A two-stage process for synthesizing flyover noise at listener positions on the ground is presented. The first

Stephen A. Rizzi; Brenda M. Sullivan; Bryan A. Cook

2003-01-01

443

Optimal dive recovery maneuvers of a supermaneuvering jet fighter aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of dive recovery maneuvers of a jet fighter aircraft capable of flying at angles of attack in the post-stall region. In a dive recovery maneuver, the pilot attempts to return the aircraft to level flight at an airspeed such that level flight can be maintained afterward. This maneuver is needed after either an intentional dive

A. Miele; J. B. Dabney

2001-01-01

444

Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from aircraft measurements in southwest France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the CarboEurope-IP Regional Component organised the second edition of the CERES measurement campaign in the southwest of France. This was a follow-up of the initial campaign in 2005. CERES'07 consisted of two intensive observational periods (IOPs), of which one in spring and the other one in summer. During both IOPs, ground stations, tall towers, radiosondes and a number of aircrafts were used, including our own environmental research aircraft (ERA). The ERA is a small aircraft flying at low altitudes and low air speeds, equipped to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat and sensible heat using the eddy-correlation technique. In addition, instruments are on board for measuring ground temperature, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Flux data obtained with the ERA during CERES'07 have been analyzed and will be presented here. In the data analysis, we present regional fluxes of carbon dioxide focussing at seasonal trends in relation to landscape elements. To achieve this, flight tracks were split into homogeneous segments based on land cover, topography and soil type. During both IOPs, weather conditions were constant. This gives us the possibility to average data in each segment across all flights, though the issue of diurnal variation in surface fluxes and radiation still remains. In short, the analysis strategy on our airborne flux data from CERES'07 will be addressed in this presentation together with its results focussing at drivers for these fluxes at landscape scale.

Vellinga, O. S.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Elbers, J. A.

2009-04-01

445

Aerothermodynamic Reentry Flight Experiments - EXPERT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper addresses the ESA in flight Aerothermodynamic (ATD) research programme referred to as EXPERT: the European EXPerimental Re-entry Testbed. The objective of this in-flight research programme is to design and instrument generic configurations, for ...

F. Cipollini H. Ottens J. Muylaert L. Walpot

2005-01-01

446

Airborne prototype instrument suite test flight of a low-light high-dynamic range imager and visible spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Airborne Sensors Initiative (ASI) at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (BATC) specializes in airborne demonstration of internally-developed instrument concepts and innovative remote sensing technologies. In December 2006, ASI flew an environmental remote sensing suite consisting of the Low Light Imager (LLI) and Prototype Airborne Visible Imaging Spectrometer (PAVIS), both of which are operated using a pushbroom approach. LLI is

Michele A. Kuester; James K. Lasnik; Tanya Ramond; Tony Lin; Brian Johnson; Paul Kaptchen; William Good

2007-01-01

447

Free flight safety risk modeling and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic notion of free flight is that aircrews ob tain the freedom to select their trajectory including th e responsibility of resolving conflicts with other aircraft. Under l ow en-route traffic loads there is general agreement that free flight can be safely applied. Under increasing traffic loads, how ever, the answer to this question becomes unknown. Free flight would

Henk A. P. Blom; Bart Klein Obbink; Margriet B. Klompstra

448

Hydrophobic coating study for anti-icing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-icing or deicing of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Mechanical processes, such as heating and deicer boot, are widely used. Deicing fluids, such as ethylene glycol type, are used to coat the aircraft. However, these should be coated every time before the take-off, since the fluids come off from the aircraft while cruising. We study a

Katsuaki Morita; Akihito Aoki; Akihisa Konno; Hirotaka Sakaue

2010-01-01

449

Operator directed common conceptual models for advanced aircraft automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of advanced flight automation systems into modern aircraft has resulted in an increase in errors in interaction with aircraft automation. A prior study identified the lack of a simple, consistent model of the automation as a contributing component and found pilots creating their own ad-hoc models of aircraft automation. The design of new, complex automation system requires a

Sanjay S. Vakil; R. John Hansman

1998-01-01

450

49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TSA security threat assessment. (4) May, if...flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR...registration number of the aircraft. (iii) The flight...name-based security threat assessment for each passenger and...If TSA notifies the aircraft operator that a...

2010-10-01

451

Time of Flight, Delay Line Position, Energy, and Random Valid Event Foreground Background Logic, ASICs Based Microtechnologies and Methods for Space Particle Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space particle instruments fall in the general category of nuclear instrumentation and have a history parallel to the start of the space age. The accumulated knowledge on space particle distributions cover earth's and planetary environments from the ionosphere, plasma sphere, radiation belts, magnetosphere and magnetotail, sheaths, shocks and the solar wind. Some general properties of the particle distributions are: (a) huge energy dynamic range from few eV in the plasma spheres and solar wind to hundreds of MeVs in radiation belts and solar events, (b) huge flux dynamic ranges, (c ) quasi Maxwellian distributions in the low energies up to ~10KeV and dynamic power laws in the tails, (d) quasi uniform 4-pi distributions or very directional beam like (electrons), (e) strong proton dominated, (f) fine ion composition requirements in the strong proton-electron presence such as He, CNO, Fe and in some cases isotopes. Standard instrument types covering these general distributional are: Plasma instruments with ESA/TOF sensors from eV up to ~40KeV, energetic particle with TOF/SSDs in the energy range 10KeV to 10MeV, Energetic Neutral Atoms with TOF/SSD/2D position, and stacked SSDs in the energy range up to hundreds of MeV. All the above instrument categories have to deal with huge energy and flux dynamic range, directionality and composition of Pericles in the presence of strong energetic particle backgrounds. This work presents a set of advanced ASICs based micro technologies that deal in an integral way with the fundamental measurements of time of flight in the range of 0-1?s with resolutions <50ps using the TOF chip, energy with few KeV resolution in the range 1KeV to 100MeV with the multi-channel SSD Energy chip, delay line 1D/2D position with discrete LC delay lines and the TOF chip, valid event logic for random distributions and optional single/double/triple coincidence. The technologies have and inherent selectable trade off between power dissipation, resolution and counting rates and finally mass reduction. The presentation is in the context of energetic particle instruments, ENA imagers and plasma instruments flown or baselined on several NASA missions withJHU/APL leadership or participation, such as CASSINI, IMAGE, MESSENGER, NH/PLUTO, RBSP, MMS, JUNO

Paschalidis, N. P.

2008-12-01

452

Applied computational fluid dynamics (ACFD) in support of aircraft-store compatibility and weapons integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force SEEK EAGLE Office (AFSEO) at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL, performs test and evaluation for aircraft\\/stores compatibility certification. The AFSEO uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in support of the aircraft and store certification process. The AFSEO performs engineering analyses, develops flight test profiles, and directs real-time flight tests in support of the aircraft and store certification

John D. Martel; Eglin AFB

2003-01-01

453

Box and Gaussian plume models of the exhaust composition evolution of subsonic transport aircraft in- and out of the flight corridor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A box and a Gaussian plume model including gas-phase photochemistry and with plume dispersion parameters estimated from the few available plume observations are proposed and used for evaluation of photochemical transformations of exhausts from a single subsonic transport aircraft. The effects of concentration inhomogeneities in the plume cross section on the photochemical sources and sinks in the plume are analyzed for various groups of compounds. The influence of these inhomogeneities on the rate and on the mass of ambient air entrainment into the plume are studied also by comparing the box and the Gaussian plume model simulations during the first hours of their life''. Due to the enterance of HOx and NOx from ambient air into the plume with rates varying from the wind shear and turbulence conditions, the rate of emitted NOx oxidation in the plume is dependent on these and also on the background concentration levels of HOx and NOx.

Karol, I. L.; Ozolin, Y. E.; Rozanov, E. V.

1997-01-01

454

Intercomparison results for FIFE flux aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. The authors present analysis results from intercomparison flights of the three different aircraft which participated in the FIFE data collection program. These craft provided measurements of heat momentum, carbon dioxide, and water vapor fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer, but each was instrumented differently. Fourteen wing-to-wing formation intercomparison runs were conducted during FIFE. They showed good agreement of most parameters even though the craft were flown at not normal airspeeds for this intercomparison. There was good correspondence between the NCAR King Air and NRC Twin Otter over the full wavelength range of 10m to 50km. This data showed that the 15km flight legs of FIFE could give reliable flux data using unfiltered, detrended data. Disagreements in correlated data products were shown to often be the result of analysis techniques, not instrumentation.

MacPherson, J.I. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Grossman, R.L. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kelly, R.D. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1992-11-30

455

14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All...BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements:...

2013-01-01

456

A New Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (TOF-AMS)Instrument Description and First Field Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development and first field deployment of a new version of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which is capable of measuring non-refractory aerosol mass concentrations, chemically speciated mass distributions and single particle information. The instrument was constructed by interfacing the well-characterized Aerodyne AMS vacuum system, particle focusing, sizing, and evaporation\\/ionization components, with a compact TOFWERK orthogonal acceleration reflectron

Frank Drewnick; Silke S. Hings; Peter DeCarlo; John T. Jayne; Marc Gonin; Katrin Fuhrer; Silke Weimer; Jose L. Jimenez; Kenneth L. Demerjian; Stephan Borrmann; Douglas R. Worsnop

2005-01-01

457

14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules. (a)...

2013-01-01

458

14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.529 Flight engineer...

2013-01-01

459

Aircraft landing control in wind shear condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most aircraft accidents occurred during final approach or landing. This study proposes cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) to improve the performance of automatic landing system (ALS). The atmospheric disturbances affect not only flying qualities of an airplane but also flight safety. If the flight conditions are beyond the preset envelope, the automatic landing system (ALS) is disabled and the pilot

Chia-Lin Lee; Jih-Gau Juang

2011-01-01

460

Aircraft Meteorological and Turbulence Measurements at 20S, 72W during VOCALS-REx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study -Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), the NPS/CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft flew 19 research flights off of the coast of northwestern Chile over the 16 October - 13 November 2008 period. In order to obtain a robust characterization of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer that is prevalent in this part of the southeastern Pacific and determine its temporal evolution, all flights were carried out over the same location (20S, 72W). On each flight, the same basic pattern was flown, which consisted of straight and level flux runs at 30-m altitude, below cloud, at cloud-base, in cloud, at cloud-top, and above cloud, as well as up to 4 soundings. Results of latent and sensible heat and momentum air-sea fluxes obtained from the turbulence instrumentation suite will be presented. These results are compared to those obtained by the R/V Ron H. Brown during the dedicated intercomparison flight of November 10, 2008. We will discuss boundary layer structure similarities and differences between VOCALS-REx and POST (Physics Of Stratocumulus Top, an experiment carried out off of Monterey Bay in July-August 2008 using the same aircraft and instrumentation).

Khelif, D.; Jonsson, H.

2009-12-01

461

Incorporating data link messaging into a multi-function display to support the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) and the self-separation of general aviation aircraft.  

PubMed

One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots' subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness (SA) over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures. PMID:17512491

Adams, Catherine A; Murdoch, Jennifer L; Consiglio, Maria C; Williams, Daniel M

2007-05-18

462

In-situ comparison of the NOy instruments flown in MOZAIC and SPURT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two aircraft instruments for the measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy) were compared side by side aboard a Learjet A35 in April 2003 during a campaign of the AFO2000 project SPURT (Spurengastransport in der Tropopausenregion). The instruments albeit employing the same measurement principle (gold converter and chemiluminescence) had different inlet configurations. The ECO-Physics instrument operated by ETH-Zrich in SPURT had the gold converter mounted outside the aircraft, whereas the instrument operated by FZ-Jlich in the European project MOZAIC III (Measurements of ozone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides aboard Airbus A340 in-service aircraft) employed a Rosemount probe with 80 cm of FEP-tubing connecting the inlet to the gold converter. The NOy concentrations during the flight ranged between 0.3 and 3 ppb. The two data sets were compared in a blind fashion and each team followed its normal operating procedures. On average, the measurements agreed within 6%, i.e. within the combined uncertainty of the two instruments. This puts an upper limit on potential losses of HNO3 in the Rosemount inlet of the MOZAIC instrument. Larger transient deviations were observed during periods after calibrations and when the aircraft entered the stratosphere. The time lag of the MOZAIC instrument observed in these instances is in accordance with the time constant of the MOZAIC inlet line determined in the laboratory for HNO3.

Ptz, H.-W.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Schmidt, U.

2006-01-01

463

In-situ comparison of the NO>sub>y instruments flown in MOZAIC and SPURT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two aircraft instruments for the measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy) were compared side by side aboard a Learjet A35 in April 2003 during a campaign of the AFO2000 project SPURT (Spurengastransport in der Tropopausenregion). The instruments albeit employing the same measurement principle (gold converter and chemiluminescence) had different inlet configurations. The ECO-Physics instrument operated by ETH-Zrich in SPURT had the gold converter mounted outside the aircraft, whereas the instrument operated by FZ-Jlich in the European project MOZAIC III (Measurements of ozone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides aboard Airbus A340 in-service aircraft) employed a Rosemount probe with 80 cm of FEP-tubing connecting the inlet to the gold converter. The NOy concentrations during the flight ranged between 0.3 and 3 ppb. The two data sets were compared in a blind fashion and each team followed its normal operating procedures. On average, the measurements agreed within 7%, i.e. within the combined uncertainty of the two instruments. This puts an upper limit on potential losses of HNO3 in the Rosemount inlet of the MOZAIC instrument. Larger transient deviations were observed during periods after calibrations and when the aircraft entered the stratosphere. The time lag of the MOZAIC instrument observed in these instances is in accordance with the time constant of the MOZAIC inlet line determined in the laboratory for HNO3.

Ptz, H.-W.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Schmidt, U.

2006-06-01

464

Fly-by-light aircraft closed loop test program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fly-by-Light Aircraft Closed-Loop Test (FACT) program is a flight test program sponsored by NASA-Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the FACT program are to demonstrate optical closed-loop control of flight critical and non-flight critical control surfaces and to demonstrate installation and maintenance aspects of fiber optics for application to commercial aircraft. This paper summarizes the FACT program optical maintenance,

Don J. Halski; Bradley L. Kessler; Robert E. Mattes; Michael F. Wanamaker; Robert J. Baumbick

1995-01-01

465

Aircraft parameter estimation A tool for development of aerodynamic databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance\\u000a of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly\\u000a in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not only for pilot training but also for other\\u000a applications such as flight planning, envelope expansion, design

R. V. Jategaonkar; F. Thielecke

2000-01-01

466

NASA Dryden Fact Sheets - F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Project Update The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is using an F/A-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its Systems Research Aircraft (SRA). The aircraft is on loan from the U.S.

467

Modeling of the electromagnetic interference map generated by 3G systems inside small aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial increase in customer demand for office-like communication services during flights is pushing aircraft manufactures to implement wireless solutions inside aircraft. Nevertheless, aircraft safety is a paramount criterion for operators, thus the potential risks posed by such communication systems on aircraft equipment must be carefully assessed and respective countermeasures taken. In this work, we adopt a three-dimensional ray tracing

Clifford De Raffaele; Carl James Debono

2010-01-01

468

Wind tunnel study of wake downwash behind A 6% scale model B1B aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parachute system performance issues such a turnover and wake recontact may be strongly influenced by velocities induced by the wake of the delivering aircraft, especially if the aircraft is maneuvering at the time of parachute deployment. The effect of the aircraft on the parachute system is a function of the aircraft size, weight, and flight path. In order to provide

J. H. Strickland; E. L. Tadios; D. A. Powers

1990-01-01

469

Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity. PMID:10439555

Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

1999-09-01

470

The Aeroassist Flight Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key design drivers for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment are discussed and a description is given of the flight test vehicle, its flight conditions, and instrumentation. The aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) operates at higher velocities than the Space Shuttle and at higher altitudes than Apollo. Issues such as the effect of shock-layer nonequilibrium on the levels of radiative and convective heating and of viscous and real-gas effects on vehicle aerodynamic characteristics are mentioned.

Walberg, G. D.; Siemers, P. M., III; Calloway, R. L.; Jones, J. J.

1987-10-01

471

The Project CAATER (Co-ordinated Access to Aircraft for Transnational Environmental Research)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four European Research Aircraft (DLR, Germany; MRF, U.K.; Meteo France and INSU, France), well established in the field of airborne environmental research, have been made available for trans-national access to European scientists within the fifth Framework program of the European Commission (\\underline {I}mprovement of the \\underline {H}uman \\underline {P}otential-\\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {I}nfrastructures-IHP-ARI). Scientists without similar or suitable facilities in their home countries, or those interested but inexperienced in meteorological, chemical or remote sensing data from aircraft measurements could ask for aircraft access. Once selected through a peer review process by an Allocation Committee of international experts, they get the opportunity to perform an experiment onboard one of the four aircraft. A facilitator at each infrastructure attends to the CAATER users throughout the whole project. The scientists are instructed in all terms related to an aircraft campaign spanning from the planning of flight patterns through the preparation of instrument integration, subsequent test- / familiarization flights, to the research flights themselves and to subsequent data processing , data analysis and publication of results. They get a deep insight into the flight facilities operating the aircraft and into the correspondent infrastructure of those large scale European research establishments. During this access the CAATER users are integrated into various scientific groups well experienced in airborne research. CAATER is the successor program to a similar one established in the 4th framework program of EC "Training and Mobility of Researchers" under the acronym STAAARTE (\\underline {S}cientific \\underline {T}raining and \\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {A}ircraft for \\underline {A}tmospheric \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {T}hroughout \\underline {E}urope). Since then, training and access for many young European scientists from many European countries has significantly contributed to the EC objectives of increasing research over a wider European area . Due to the success of STAAARTE and CAATER it is planned to apply for a continuation of these access activities within the sixth framework program of the EC. The access program should be then integrated into the existing and still expanding network of European research aircraft operators in order to complement each other and enlarge the choice for European scientists looking for access to these rare and unique infrastructure installations.

Krautstrunk, M.

2003-04-01

472

In-flight comparison of MOZAIC and POLINAT water vapor measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intercomparison of airborne in situ water vapor measurements by two European research projects Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) and Pollution From Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (POLINAT) was performed from aboard the Airbus (MOZAIC) and Falcon (POLINAT) aircraft, respectively. The intercomparison took place southwest of Ireland on September 24, 1997, at 239 hPa flight level. MOZAIC uses individually calibrated capacitive humidity sensors for the humidity measurement. POLINAT employs a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer developed for such measurements. For conversion between humidity and mixing ratio, ambient temperature and pressure measurements on board the respective aircraft are used. The Falcon followed the Airbus at a distance of 7-35 km with a time lag increasing from 30 to 160 s. The water vapor volume mixing ratio measurements in the range of 80-120 ppmv of both instruments are in excellent agreement, differing by <5%, where the trajectories of both aircraft are very close. However, the relative humidity (RH) calculated from POLINAT frost-point measurements and the Falcon PT500 temperature sensor is up to 15% higher relative to the RH of MOZAIC. The agreement improved to within 5% when using the temperature measurement of the PT100 sensor instead of the temperature measurement of the PT500 sensor for RH determination of POLINAT.

Helten, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Kley, D.; Ovarlez, J.; Schlager, H.; Baumann, R.; Schumann, U.; Nedelec, P.; Marenco, A.

1999-11-01

473

The Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument aboard the Earth-orbiting ARGOS spacecraft: II-results from the first 16 months of flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper (Tuzzolino et al., Planet. Space Sci., 2001, to appear) hereafter called Part I, we present a detailed description of the Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument being carried aboard the Earth-orbiting Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite ( ARGOS). In this paper, we focus on examples of the flight data obtained by SPADUS during the first 16 months of the ARGOS mission. We present results obtained from the SPADUS polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust trajectory system, which measures dust particle flux, mass distribution, velocity and trajectory, as well as results obtained from the SPADUS Ancillary Diagnostic Sensor (ADS) subsystem, which measures energetic charged particles. Included are both raw data and reduced data for the time period from ARGOS launch (February 23, 1999) to June 8, 2000. The PVDF dust trajectory system detected a total of 258 dust impacts over this interval of approximately 470 days. Of these, 24 were D1-D2 type events - where particles impacted and penetrated a D1 sensor, then impacted a D2 rear array sensor - allowing for time-of-flight measurements. Of the 24 D1-D2 impacts on SPADUS, we identified 11 orbital debris particles, 7 interplanetary impactors, and 6 ambiguous impacts. Examples of particle orbits for both debris particles and interplanetary particles are detailed, and the results obtained for orbital debris flux and mass distribution are compared with predictions from an orbital debris model. We also describe transient particle streams detected by the SPADUS trajectory system resulting from the passage of ARGOS through streams of debris particles in Earth orbit.

Tuzzolino, A. J.; McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.

2001-06-01

474

Aircraft Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

475

Aircraft Icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-scale icing experiments and, therefore, certification time and cost can be significantly reduced by developing calculation methods to evaluate the aircraft and system performance for a wide range of icing conditions. This article summarizes calculation methods for icing that include ice accretion, ice system performance, and icing effects on aircraft.

Tuncer Cebeci; Fassi Kafyeke

2003-01-01

476

Motorless Flight Research, 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of a symposium on motorless flight research are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) glider aerodynamic and design, (2) instrumentation, (3) structural concepts and materials, (4) soaring meteorology, (5) self-launching and ultraligh...

J. L. Nash-webber

1973-01-01

477

41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aircraft, such as engines, electronics. (3) Whether or not...Aircraft was previously used for non-flight purposes (i.e., ground training or...re-assembly procedures for ground training, or repeated burning for fire-fighting...

2013-01-01

478

Project report: Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baughcum, S. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Commercial Airplane Group; Metwally, M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA (United States); Seals, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.

1994-04-01

479

CRISTA-NF measurements with unprecedented vertical resolution during the RECONCILE aircraft campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF), an airborne infrared limb-sounder, was operated aboard the high-flying Russian research aircraft M55-Geophysica during the Arctic RECONCILE campaign from January to March 2010. This paper describes the calibration process of the instrument and the retrieval algorithm employed and then proceeds to present retrieved trace gas volume mixing ratio cross-sections for one specific flight in this campaign. We are able to resolve the uppermost troposphere/lower stratosphere for several trace gas species for several kilometres below the flight altitude (16 to 19 km) with an unprecedented vertical resolution of 400 to 500 m for the limb-sounding technique. The instrument points sideways with respect to the flight direction. Therefore, the observations are also characterised by a rather high horizontal sampling along the flight track, which provides a full vertical profile every ?15 km. Assembling the vertical trace gas profiles derived from CRISTA-NF measurements to cross-sections shows filaments of vortex and extra-vortex air masses in the vicinity of the polar vortex. During this campaign, the M55-Geophysica carried further instruments enabling trace gas volume mixing ratios derived from CRISTA-NF to be validated by comparing them with measurements by the in situ instruments HAGAR and FOZAN and observations by MIPAS-STR. This validation suggests that the retrieved trace gas volume mixing ratios are both qualitatively and quantitatively reliable.

Ungermann, J.; Kalicinsky, C.; Olschewski, F.; Knieling, P.; Hoffmann, L.; Blank, J.; Woiwode, W.; Oelhaf, H.; Hsen, E.; Volk, C. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Weigel, K.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-05-01

480

Wake Penetration Effects on Dynamic Loads and Structural Design of Military and Civil Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The effects on the structural design of military and civil aircraft caused by dynamic loads resulting from the flight through\\u000a high wake velocities which are generated by different types of aircraft have not been sufficiently investigated in the past.\\u000a Military aircraft might experience this impact during formation or squadron flight or during combat manoeuvres. Civil aircraft\\u000a could be affected during

Wolfgang Luber

481

A new direction in energy conversion - The all-electric aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft

C. R. Spitzer

1985-01-01

482

Flight: A Recurrent Theme for Advanced Civilizations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient evidence for flying machines is widespread, suggesting that ancient aircraft may have existed. Thus, flight may be a recurring theme for humankind, and possibly for intelligent species that may have developed elsewhere in our universe.

Reiswig, B.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

2010-04-01

483

14 CFR 135.179 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.179 ...a) No person may take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments...

2013-01-01

484

The Biodynamic Aspects of Low Altitude, High Speed Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical forces encountered by an aircraft in low altitude, high speed flight can be particularly stressful to the aviator. The gross physical elements which make up this envelope are the dynamic profile of the aircraft, the flight pattern, and the dynamic profile of the atmospheric environment. The specific dynamic factors, whose application results in a physiological response in the

C. F. GELL; G. MOELLER

1972-01-01

485

Web-based flight test training & mishap investigation support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work is ongoing to develop a web-based capability to support flight testing and mishap investigations. Fewer new aircraft are being procured today compared to aircraft procurement a couple decades ago. As the older members of the test force retire or change jobs, more pressure is placed on the more junior engineers to conduct the testing. Flight test training is accomplished

D. Carico; Chengjian He; P. Blemel

2001-01-01

486

Adaptive control laws for F-8 flight test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design and performance details for a set of adaptive flight control laws to be flight-tested in NASA's F-8 digital fly-by-wire research aircraft. These control laws implement an explicit maximum likelihood identification algorithm to estimate key aircraft parameters. The parameter estimates are then used to compute gains in a quadraticoptimal command augmentation control law.

G. Stein; G. L. Hartmann; R. C. Hendrick

1975-01-01

487