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1

Alaskan flight trials of a synthetic vision system for instrument landings of a piston twin aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stanford University has developed a low-cost prototype synthetic vision system and flight tested it onboard general aviation aircraft. The display aids pilots by providing an 'out the window' view, making visualization of the desired flight path a simple task. Predictor symbology provides guidance on straight and curved paths presented in a 'tunnel- in-the-sky' format. Based on commodity PC hardware to achieve low cost, the Tunnel Display system uses differential GPS (typically from Stanford prototype Wide Area Augmentation System hardware) for positioning and GPS-aided inertial sensors for attitude determination. The display has been flown onboard Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft at several different locations. This paper describes the system, its development, and flight trials culminating with tests in Alaska during the summer of 1998. Operational experience demonstrated the Tunnel Display's ability to increase flight- path following accuracy and situational awareness while easing the task instrument flying.

Barrows, Andrew K.; Alter, Keith W.; Jennings, Chad W.; Powell, J. D.

1999-07-01

2

Instrumentation of a light twin aircraft for flow energizer flight tests  

E-print Network

energizer configurations. Instrumentation and verification of the instrumentation comprised the majority of the initial Flight test work. The instrumentation had to measure: 1) angle of attack; 2) angle of sideslip; 3) wing surface pressures; 4) local... pressure measurements were repeatable even From different flights, although near the nacelles spanwise Flow produced up to 127 uncertainty in Cp at the leading edge pressure orifice. In addition, pressure measurements were compared to wind tunnel...

Binford, Robert Susumu

2012-06-07

3

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2010-01-01

4

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2011-01-01

5

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2014-01-01

6

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2012-01-01

7

14 CFR 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 25...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. (a...attitude instrument system useable through flight...following flight and navigation instruments are...

2013-01-01

8

GPS and INS flight test instrumentation of a fully aerobatic turbojet aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the work performed at Ohio University to instrument its AERO Vodochody L-29 jet trainer. Simultaneous collection of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) data will allow researchers to perform a variety of flight test experiments and develop new applications. For example, real-time display of three-dimensional position would be extremely useful in aerobatic flight training

Curtis A. Cutright; N. S. Braasch

2002-01-01

9

Pathfinder aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

10

Pathfinder aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

11

Pathfinder aircraft flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

12

Pathfinder aircraft checkout flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

13

Pathfinder aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

14

Pathfinder aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

15

Pathfinder aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1995-01-01

16

Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration.

1995-01-01

17

14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 23...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...required flight and navigation instruments: (a...electrical generating system; (ii)...

2013-01-01

18

14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 23...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...required flight and navigation instruments: (a...electrical generating system; (ii)...

2014-01-01

19

14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Flight and navigation instruments. ...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. ...electrical generating system; (ii) Continues...electrical generating system; (v) Is located...1303 Flight and navigation instruments....

2012-01-01

20

14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 23...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...required flight and navigation instruments: (a...electrical generating system; (ii)...

2010-01-01

21

14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 23...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...required flight and navigation instruments: (a...electrical generating system; (ii)...

2011-01-01

22

14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 29...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable...electrical generating system; (3)...

2012-01-01

23

14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 29...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable...electrical generating system; (3)...

2014-01-01

24

14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 29...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable...electrical generating system; (3)...

2013-01-01

25

14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 29...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable...electrical generating system; (3)...

2011-01-01

26

14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Flight and navigation instruments. 29...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The...attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable...electrical generating system; (3)...

2010-01-01

27

Aircraft flight test trajectory control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.

Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

1988-01-01

28

Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

2003-01-01

29

Aircraft flight test trajectory control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

1988-01-01

30

Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

31

Design and Development of the Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aircraft Instrument Comprehension (AIC) Program is a self-instructional program designed to teach undergraduate student pilots to read instruments that indicate the position of the aircraft in flight, based on sequential instructional stages of information, prompted practice, and unprompted practice. The program includes a 36-item multiple…

Higgins, Norman C.

32

Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit

1998-01-01

33

High altitude aircraft flight tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

1996-03-01

34

PIK-20 Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows NASA's PIK-20E motor-glider sailplane during a research flight from the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1991. The PIK-20E was a sailplane flown at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) beginning in 1981. The vehicle, bearing NASA tail number 803, was used as a research vehicle on projects calling for high lift-over-drag and low-speed performance. Later NASA used the PIK-20E to study the flow of fluids over the aircraft's surface at various speeds and angles of attack as part of a study of airflow efficiency over lifting surfaces. The single-seat aircraft was used to begin developing procedures for collecting sailplane glide performance data in a program carried out by Ames-Dryden. It was also used to study high-lift aerodynamics and laminar flow on high-lift airfoils. Built by Eiri-Avion in Finland, the PIK-20E is a sailplane with a two-cylinder 43-horsepower, retractable engine. It is made of carbon fiber with sandwich construction. In this unique configuration, it takes off and climbs to altitude on its own. After reaching the desired altitude, the engine is shut down and folded back into the fuselage and the aircraft is then operated as a conventional sailplane. Construction of the PIK-20E series was rather unusual. The factory used high-temperature epoxies cured in an autoclave, making the structure resistant to deformation with age. Unlike today's normal practice of laying glass over gelcoat in a mold, the PIK-20E was built without gelcoat. The finish is the result of smooth glass lay-up, a small amount of filler, and an acrylic enamel paint. The sailplane was 21.4 feet long and had a wingspan of 49.2 feet. It featured a wooden, fixed-pitch propeller, a roomy cockpit, wingtip wheels, and a steerable tailwheel.

1991-01-01

35

Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

Nelson, W. E., Jr.

1984-01-01

36

Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

Magnan, A.

1980-01-01

37

Development and evaluation of a prototype in-flight instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures trainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-flight instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures trainer capable of providing simulated indications of instrument flight in a typical general aviation aircraft independent of ground based navigation aids was developed. The IFR navaid related instruments and circuits from an ATC 610J table top simulator were installed in a Cessna 172 aircraft and connected to its electrical power and pitot static systems. The benefits expected from this hybridization concept include increased safety by reducing the number of general aviation aircraft conducting IFR training flights in congested terminal areas, and reduced fuel use and instruction costs by lessening the need to fly to and from navaid equipped airports and by increased efficiency of the required in-flight training. Technical feasibility was demonstrated and the operational feasibility of the concept was evaluated. Results indicated that the in-flight simulator is an effective training device for teaching IFR procedural skills.

Aaron, J. B., Jr.; Morris, G. G.

1981-01-01

38

Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

39

Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

1995-01-01

40

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2012-01-01

41

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and navigation instruments. (1...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2010-01-01

42

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and navigation instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2013-01-01

43

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2013-01-01

44

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and navigation instruments. (1...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2011-01-01

45

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and navigation instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2014-01-01

46

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and navigation instruments. (1...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2012-01-01

47

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2011-01-01

48

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2010-01-01

49

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight  

...time. Where multiple systems are installed, subsequent... VIII. Equipment, systems, and installation... (a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. ...be charged from the aircraft electrical system if adequate...

2014-01-01

50

Digital signal conditioning for flight test instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.

Bever, Glenn A.

1991-01-01

51

Eclipse program F-106 aircraft in flight, front view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shot of the QF-106 aircraft in flight with the landing gear deployed. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

52

Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.

Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.

2003-01-01

53

Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

54

Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight, view from tanker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of QF-106 airplane from a KC-135 tanker aircraft. The Eclipse aircraft was not refueling but simply flying below and behind the tanker for purposes of shooting the photograph from the air. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

55

Real Time Correction of Aircraft Flight Fonfiguration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for monitoring and analyzing, in real time, variation with time of an aircraft flight parameter. A time-dependent recovery band, defined by first and second recovery band boundaries that are spaced apart at at least one time point, is constructed for a selected flight parameter and for a selected time recovery time interval length .DELTA.t(FP;rec). A flight parameter, having a value FP(t=t.sub.p) at a time t=t.sub.p, is likely to be able to recover to a reference flight parameter value FP(t';ref), lying in a band of reference flight parameter values FP(t';ref;CB), within a time interval given by t.sub.p.ltoreq.t'.ltoreq.t.sub.p.DELTA.t(FP;rec), if (or only if) the flight parameter value lies between the first and second recovery band boundary traces.

Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

56

Flight flutter testing and aeroelastic stability of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a general review of the flight flutter test techniques utilized in aeroelastic stability flight testing of aircraft, and to highlight the key items involved in flight flutter testing of aircraft, by emphasizing all the main information processed during the flutter stability verification based on flight test data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Flight flutter test requirements are first reviewed

Altan Kayran

2007-01-01

57

Flight flutter testing and aeroelastic stability of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to provide a general review of the flight flutter test techniques utilized in aeroelastic stability flight testing of aircraft, and to highlight the key items involved in flight flutter testing of aircraft, by emphasizing all the main information processed during the flutter stability verification based on flight test data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Flight flutter test

Altan Kayran

2007-01-01

58

Pathfinder aircraft returning from a flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft settles in for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. The ultra-light craft flew a racetrack pattern at low altitudes over the flight test area for two hours while project engineers checked out various systems and sensors on the uninhabited aircraft. The Pathfinder was controlled by two pilots, one in a mobile control unit which followed the craft, the other in a stationary control station. Pathfinder, developed by AeroVironment, Inc., is one of several designs being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

59

Aircraft digital flight control technical review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

1993-01-01

60

High altitude aircraft flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development

Henry Helmken; Peter Emmons; David Homeyer

1996-01-01

61

Some flight data extraction techniques used on a general aviation spin research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some methods for obtaining flight data from a highly instrumented general aviation spin research aircraft are developed and illustrated. The required correction terms for the measurement of body accelerations, body velocities, and aircraft orientation are presented. In addition, the equations of motion are utilized to derive total aerodynamic coefficients for comparison with model tests and for analysis. Flight test experience is used to evaluate the utility of various instruments and calculation techniques for spin research.

Sliwa, S. M.

1979-01-01

62

B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet.

2001-01-01

63

F-15B transonic flight research testbed aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is using a modified McDonnell-Douglas F-15B aircraft as a testbed for a variety of transonic flight experiments. The twin-engine, twin-tail aircraft is shown carrying a Dryden-designed Flight Test Fixture (FTF) upon which aerodynamic experiments are mounted. The F-15B flew several flights recently in support of an experiment to determine the precise location of of sonic shock wave development as air passes over an airfoil. The F-15B is currently being prepared for the Boundary Layer Heat Experiment, which will explore potential aerodynamic drag reduction from heating the turbulent portion of the air flow that passes over the fuselage of a large aircraft. The experiment also will measure the amount of electrical power required to achieve the expected heat-induced reduction in aerodynamic drag. Six thin electric resistance heaters well be mounted in the FTF, and both unheated and heated temperatures as well as surface air pressures will be measured.

1996-01-01

64

NASA Shuttle Training Aircraft flight simulation overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) is a variable stability, variable control law flying simulator used by NASA/JSC to train astronauts in the final landing phase of a Space Shuttle Orbiter. A general outline is given for the STA flight simulation system. An overview is given of the software generation and verification process through the Advanced Validation System (AVAS). The flight test techniques for software verification will be reviewed and the process for releasing the software for flight training will be covered. The astronaut STA training syllabus is examined. Parameter matching with the Orbiter in the final approach phase of de-orbit and landing is briefly examined. Simulation performance will be assessed against flight data, performance measurement, and cue synchronization.

Justiz, Charles R.; Patel, Suresh M.

1988-01-01

65

Instrumentation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)  

E-print Network

Instrumentation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) David Delene Department of Atmospheric Sciences on at the University of North Dakota. · What are the prospects for UAS measurements? Right Wing of Citation Research Spectrometer Are some Instrument just to complex for UAS operations? #12;Airborne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

Delene, David J.

66

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.340 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors...

2012-01-01

67

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

...2014-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.340 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors...

2014-01-01

68

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.340 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors...

2011-01-01

69

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.340 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors...

2013-01-01

70

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

71

DESIGN OFA SUPERVISED FLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT RELATIVE GUIDANCE  

E-print Network

DESIGN OFA SUPERVISED FLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT RELATIVE GUIDANCE Thieny Miquel, CENA is relieved of providing instructions to the trailing aircraft for merging behind the leading aircraft.Thus, the expectedbenefit of suchnew capabilities onboard aircraft is an increase of air traffic controller availability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Aircraft Engine Performance Study Using Flight Data Recorder Archives  

E-print Network

Aircraft Engine Performance Study Using Flight Data Recorder Archives Yashovardhan S. Chati emissions are a significant source of pollution and are closely related to engine fuel burn. The onboard for different aircraft and engine types, given the trajectory of an aircraft. I. Introduction Aircraft emissions

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

73

Autonomous earth feature classification - Shuttle and aircraft flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on the Shuttle STS-2 mission November 12-14, 1981, tested a technique for autonomous real-time classification of selected earth features, i.e., water; bare land; vegetation; and clouds, snow, and ice. A second instrument, designed for aircraft flights, flew over regions of the west and east coasts of the United States and across the country. In each instrument, two bore-sighted CCD cameras image earth scenes in two spectral bands. Each camera includes a 100-element by 100-element detector array, and classification circuits. A simple algorithm and logic circuit provides classification decisions within a few microseconds. The experiment records the number of picture elements (pixels) representing each feature and the reflected solar radiation for each band. After flight, pixel-by-pixel classification images are constructed and compared with 70-mm color photographs taken simultaneously with the CCD-camera data.

Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.; Bullock, G. F.

1983-01-01

74

Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) has been undergoing ground and flight tests by Ames Research Center since late 1979, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope established by the Sikorsky Aircraft Company. This paper reviews the preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wing, configuration and discusses the results of that test.

Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

1984-01-01

75

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

Pestana, Mark

2010-01-01

76

Flight dynamics research for highly agile aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper highlights recent results of research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of a broad flight dynamics program aimed at developing technology that will enable future combat aircraft to achieve greatly enhanced agility capability at subsonic combat conditions. Studies of advanced control concepts encompassing both propulsive and aerodynamic approaches are reviewed. Dynamic stall phenomena and their potential impact on maneuvering performance and stability are summarized. Finally, issues of mathematical modeling of complex aerodynamics occurring during rapid, large amplitude maneuvers are discussed.

Nguyen, Luat T.

1989-01-01

77

14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

2010-01-01

78

14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

2011-01-01

79

14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

2012-01-01

80

14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

2013-01-01

81

Practice and Incentive Effects on Learner Performance: Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the effects of practice and incentive on learner performance on the aircraft instrument comprehension task, 48 third-year Air Force cadets were chosen as subjects. The subjects were expected to be able to identify which one of four pictures of aircraft in flight most nearly corresponded to the position indicated on a panel of attitude and…

Tenpas, Barbara G.; Higgins, Norman C.

82

Highly accurate FTIR observations from the scanning HIS aircraft instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development in the mid 80s of the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) instrument for the high altitude NASA ER2 aircraft demonstrated the capability for advanced atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding and set the stage for new satellite instruments that are now becoming a reality [AIRS(2002), CrIS(2006), IASI(2006), GIFTS(200?), HES(2013)]. Follow-on developments at the University of Wisconsin that employ Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) for Earth observations include the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the new Scanning HIS aircraft instrument. The Scanning HIS is a smaller version of the original HIS that uses cross-track scanning to enhance spatial coverage. Scanning HIS and its close cousin, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed (NAST), are being used for satellite instrument validation and for atmospheric research. A novel detector configuration on Scanning HIS allows the incorporation of a single focal plane and cooler with three or four spectral bands that view the same spot on the ground. The calibration accuracy of the S-HIS and results from recent field campaigns are presented, including validation comparisons with the NASA EOS infrared observations (AIRS and MODIS). Aircraft comparisons of this type provide a mechanism for periodically testing the absolute calibration of spacecraft instruments with instrumentation for which the calibration can be carefully maintained on the ground. This capability is especially valuable for assuring the long-term consistency and accuracy of climate observations, including those from the NASA EOS spacecrafts (Terra, Aqua and Aura) and the new complement of NPOESS operational instruments. It is expected that aircraft flights of the S-HIS and the NAST will be used to check the long-term stability of AIRS and the NPOESS operational follow-on sounder, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), over the life of the mission.

Revercomb, Henry E.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L., Sr.; van Delst, Paul F. W.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark W.; Dedecker, Ralph G.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Howell, Hugh B.; Olson, Erik R.; Dutcher, Steven B.; Taylor, Joseph K.

2005-01-01

83

Rapid Automated Aircraft Simulation Model Updating from Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques to identify aircraft aerodynamic characteristics from flight measurements and compute corrections to an existing simulation model of a research aircraft were investigated. The purpose of the research was to develop a process enabling rapid automated updating of aircraft simulation models using flight data and apply this capability to all flight regimes, including flight envelope extremes. The process presented has the potential to improve the efficiency of envelope expansion flight testing, revision of control system properties, and the development of high-fidelity simulators for pilot training.

Brian, Geoff; Morelli, Eugene A.

2011-01-01

84

Development of flying qualities criteria for single pilot instrument flight operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying qualities criteria for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations were investigated. The ARA aircraft was modified and adapted for SPIFR operations. Aircraft configurations to be flight-tested were chosen and matched on the ARA in-flight simulator, implementing modern control theory algorithms. Mission planning and experimental matrix design were completed. Microprocessor software for the onboard data acquisition system was debugged and flight-tested. Flight-path reconstruction procedure and the associated FORTRAN program were developed. Algorithms associated with the statistical analysis of flight test results and the SPIFR flying qualities criteria deduction are discussed.

Bar-Gill, A.; Nixon, W. B.; Miller, G. E.

1982-01-01

85

Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (˜40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

2011-10-01

86

Optimal input design for aircraft instrumentation systematic error estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique for designing optimal flight test inputs for accurate estimation of instrumentation systematic errors was developed and demonstrated. A simulation model of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the optimal input compared to input recorded during flight test. Instrumentation systematic error parameter estimates and their standard errors were compared. It was found that the optimal input design improved error parameter estimates and their accuracies for a fixed time input design. Pilot acceptability of the optimal input design was demonstrated using a six degree-of-freedom fixed base piloted simulation of the F-18 HARV. The technique described in this work provides a practical, optimal procedure for designing inputs for data compatibility experiments.

Morelli, Eugene A.

1991-01-01

87

Formalising Process Scheduling Requirements for an Aircraft Operational Flight Program  

E-print Network

Formalising Process Scheduling Requirements for an Aircraft Operational Flight Program Jin Song is not only to formalise the scheduling requirements for a particular aircraft, but more importantly to demon to specify other aircraft OFP scheduling requirements. Keywords: formal object modelling, real­time speci

Dong, Jin Song

88

A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.

Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.

1971-01-01

89

HiMAT highly maneuverable aircraft technology, flight report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight verification of a primary flight control system, designed to control the unstable HiMAT aircraft is presented. The initial flight demonstration of a maneuver autopilot in the level cruise mode and the gathering of a limited amount of airspeed calibration data.

1982-01-01

90

An Innovative Instrument Flight Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration are described. The program involves use of a commercially available training device in a twin-engine transition and instrument training course. Principal features of the training include redefinition of the flight instructor's role, and incentive award system,…

Caro, Paul W.

91

State estimation applications in aircraft flight-data analysis: A user's manual for SMACK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution in the use of state estimation is traced for the analysis of aircraft flight data. A unifying mathematical framework for state estimation is reviewed, and several examples are presented that illustrate a general approach for checking instrument accuracy and data consistency, and for estimating variables that are difficult to measure. Recent applications associated with research aircraft flight tests and airline turbulence upsets are described. A computer program for aircraft state estimation is discussed in some detail. This document is intended to serve as a user's manual for the program called SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics). The diversity of the applications described emphasizes the potential advantages in using SMACK for flight-data analysis.

Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

1991-01-01

92

Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From the comparison of interpolated fatigue life using CSI value and fatigue test results, it is obvious that proposed advanced IAT method via flight-by-flight load spectra is more reliable and accurate than current IAT method. Therefore, the advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra not only monitors the individual aircraft consumed fatigue life for inspection but also ensures the structural reliability of aging aircrafts throughout their service periods.

Lee, Hongchul

93

Investigations of simulated aircraft flight through thunderstorm outflows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of wind shear on aircraft flying through thunderstorm gust fronts were investigated. A computer program was developed to solve the two dimensional, nonlinear equations of aircraft motion, including wind shear. The procedure described and documented accounts for spatial and temporal variations of the aircraft within the flow regime. Analysis of flight paths and control inputs necessary to maintain specified trajectories for aircraft having characteristics of DC-8, B-747, augmentor wing STOL, and DHC-6 aircraft was recorded. From the analysis an attempt was made to find criteria for reduction of the hazards associated with landing through thunderstorm gust fronts.

Frost, W.; Crosby, B.

1978-01-01

94

The design of a joined wing flight demonstrator aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joined-wing flight demonstrator aircraft has been developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in collaboration with ACA Industries. The aircraft is designed to utilize the fuselage, engines, and undercarriage of the existing NASA AD-1 flight demonstrator aircraft. The design objectives, methods, constraints, and the resulting aircraft design, called the JW-1, are presented. A wind-tunnel model of the JW-1 was tested in the NASA Ames 12-foot wind tunnel. The test results indicate that the JW-1 has satisfactory flying qualities for a flight demonstrator aircraft. Good agreement of test results with design predictions confirmed the validity of the design methods used for application to joined-wing configurations.

Smith, S. C.; Cliff, S. E.; Kroo, I. M.

1987-01-01

95

Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances cruise at the altitudes where contrails are more likely to form. The concept of the contrail frequency index is used to quantify contrail impacts. The strategy for reducing the persistent contrail formation is to minimize the contrail frequency index by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. A user-defined factor is used to trade off between contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. Results show that contrail reduction strategies using various tradeo factors behave differently from short-range flights to long-range ights. Analysis shows that short-distance flights (less than 500 miles) are the most frequent flights but contribute least to contrail reduction. Therefore these aircraft have the lowest priority when applying contrail reduction strategies. Medium-distance flights (500 to 1000 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction in total; long-distance flights (1000 to 1500 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction per flight. The characteristics of transcontinental flights (greater than 1500 miles) vary with different weather days so the priority of applying contrail reduction strategies to the group needs to be evaluated based on the locations of the contrail areas during any given day. For the days tested, medium-distance ights contribute up to 42.6% of the reduction among the groups during a day. The contrail frequency index per 1,000 miles for medium-distance, long-distance, and transcontinental flights can be reduced by an average of 75%. The results provide a starting point for developing operational policies to reduce the impact of aviation on climate based on aircraft flight distances.

Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Li, Jinhua; Ng, Hok Kwan

2012-01-01

96

Flight test techniques for aircraft parameter estimation in ground effect  

E-print Network

, and noise. Since the Texas A & M University Flight Mechanics Laboratory is currently installing a data acquisition system in a twin-engine light piston aircraft (Grumman GA-7 Cougar), the maneuver analysis procedure simulates a Beech B99 commuter airliner..., and noise. Since the Texas A & M University Flight Mechanics Laboratory is currently installing a data acquisition system in a twin-engine light piston aircraft (Grumman GA-7 Cougar), the maneuver analysis procedure simulates a Beech B99 commuter airliner...

Clark, James Matthew

2012-06-07

97

Flight instrumentation specification for parameter identification: Program user's guide. [instrument errors/error analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of four digital computer programs is presented which can be used to investigate the effects of instrumentation errors on the accuracy of aircraft and helicopter stability-and-control derivatives identified from flight test data. The programs assume that the differential equations of motion are linear and consist of small perturbations about a quasi-steady flight condition. It is also assumed that a Newton-Raphson optimization technique is used for identifying the estimates of the parameters. Flow charts and printouts are included.

Mohr, R. L.

1975-01-01

98

Pesticide illness among flight attendants due to aircraft disinsection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Aircraft ''disinsection'' is the application of pesticides inside an aircraft to kill insects that may be on board. Over a 1-year period, California's tracking system received 17 reports of illness involving flight attendants exposed to pesticides following disinsection. Methods Interviews, work process observations, and a records review were conducted. Illness reports were evaluated according to the case definition established

Patrice M. Sutton; Ximena Vergara; John Beckman; Mark Nicas; Rupali Das

2007-01-01

99

Flight Test Safety Considerations for Airborne Science Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the scientific community that require scientific data or scientific measurements from aircraft do not understand the full implications of putting certain equipment on board high performance aircraft. It is the duty of the NASA Flight Operations personnel to ensure that all Principal Investigators who are given space on NASA flight research aircraft, comply with stringent safety requirements. The attitude of the experienced Flight operations personnel given this duty has been and remains one of insuring that the PI's experiment is allowed to be placed on the aircraft (facility) and can be operated in a manner that will obtain the expected data. This is sometimes a challenge. The success that NASA has in this regard is due to the fact that it is its own authority under public law, to certify its aircraft as airworthy. Airworthiness, fitness for flight, is a complex issue which pulls together all aspects of configuration management, engineering, quality, and flight safety. It is often the case at each NASA Center that is conducting airborne research, that unique solutions to some challenging safety issues are required. These solutions permit NASA to do things that would not be permitted by the Department of Transportation. This paper will use examples of various flight research configurations to show the necessity of a disciplined process leading up to flight test and mission implementation. All new configurations required engineering flight test but many, as noted in this paper, require that the modifications be flight tested to insure that they do not negatively impact on any part of the aircraft operational profiles. The success of these processes has been demonstrated over many years and NASA has accommodated experimental packages that cannot be flown on any other aircraft.

Reynolds, Randolph S.

1997-01-01

100

14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard...

2012-01-01

101

14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard...

2011-01-01

102

14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard...

2013-01-01

103

Survey of aircraft subcritical flight flutter testing methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of U. S., British and French subcritical aircraft flight flutter testing methods are presented and evaluation of the applicability of these methods to the testing of the space shuttle are discussed. Ten U. S. aircraft programs covering the large civil transport aircraft and a variety of military aircraft are reviewed. In addition, three major French and British programs are covered by the survey. The significant differences between the U. S., French and British practices in the areas of methods of excitation, data acquisition, transmission and analysis are reviewed. The effect of integrating the digital computer into the flight flutter test program is discussed. Significant saving in analysis and flight test time are shown to result from the use of special digital computer routines and digital filters.

Rosenbaum, R.

1974-01-01

104

Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

Bosworth, John T.

2009-01-01

105

Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.

Keulegan, G H

1929-01-01

106

NASA Ames Active Control Aircraft flight experiments (ACA) program. [for short haul aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Ames ACA program are to develop the active control technology (ACT) for short-haul aircraft, to evaluate existing methods, to develop new techniques, and to demonstrate the readiness of the technology in operational environment. Two concepts are basic to ACT: integrated aircraft design and integrated flight-control-system design.

Meyer, G.; Wehrend, W. R.

1975-01-01

107

Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and the results and lessons learned from the different campaigns.

Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

2005-02-01

108

Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

1991-01-01

109

Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

1990-01-01

110

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

111

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

112

Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

Talay, T. A.

1975-01-01

113

Pathfinder aircraft prepared for flight at dawn on lakebed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted by the morning sun on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake as technicians prepare it for flight. The unique remotely piloted flying wing flew for two hours under control of a ground-based pilot on Nov. 19, 1996, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, while engineers checked out various aircraft systems. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

114

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

115

Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

1977-01-01

116

Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

Haines, Richard F.

1987-01-01

117

41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts... Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...

2012-01-01

118

41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts... Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...

2010-07-01

119

41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts... Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...

2011-01-01

120

Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight over Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's venerable B-52 mothership flies over the main building at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and has also been both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

1996-01-01

121

First direct sulfuric acid detection in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid (SA) was for the first time directly detected in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. The measurements were made by a novel aircraft-based VACA (Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer) instrument of MPI-K Heidelberg while the research aircraft Falcon was chasing another research aircraft ATTAS. The VACA measures the total SA in the gas and in volatile submicron aerosol particles. During the chase the engines of the ATTAS alternatively burned sulfur-poor and sulfur-rich fuel. In the sulfur-rich plume very marked enhancements of total SA were observed of up to 1300 pptv which were closely correlated with ?CO2 and ?T and were far above the local ambient atmospheric background-level of typically 15-50 pptv. Our observations indicate a lower limit for the efficiency ? for fuel-sulfur conversion to SA of 0.34 %.

Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.

122

System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

Tischler, Mark B.

1995-01-01

123

Remote sounding technique of cirrus cloud and aircraft flight experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerations on channel selection and the design of Cirrus Cloud Sounder (CCS) are presented. The aircraft flight experiment for CCS was made in May 1997 along two airlines.Processing and analysis of the measurements were made and a primary algorithm for detecting cirrus and other kinds of clouds was summarized.

Zhaoxian Zhang; Mochang Wang; Xingan Jiang; Peigang Wang; Longfu Ling; Lirong Yang; Xuehu Rong

1998-01-01

124

Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to develop algorithms and architectures for embedding artificial intelligence in aircraft guidance and control systems. With the approach adopted, AI-computing is used to create an outer guidance loop for driving the usual aircraft autopilot. That is, a symbolic processor monitors the operation and performance of the aircraft. Then, based on rules and other stored knowledge, commands are automatically formulated for driving the autopilot so as to accomplish desired flight operations. The focus is on developing a software system which can respond to linguistic instructions, input in a standard format, so as to formulate a sequence of simple commands to the autopilot. The instructions might be a fairly complex flight clearance, input either manually or by data-link. Emphasis is on a software system which responds much like a pilot would, employing not only precise computations, but, also, knowledge which is less precise, but more like common-sense. The approach is based on prior work to develop a generic 'shell' architecture for an AI-processor, which may be tailored to many applications by describing the application in appropriate processor data bases (libraries). Such descriptions include numerical models of the aircraft and flight control system, as well as symbolic (linguistic) descriptions of flight operations, rules, and tactics.

Painter, John H.

1991-01-01

125

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft; and (2) They are...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft and meet the...

2012-04-01

126

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft; and (2) They are...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft and meet the...

2013-04-01

127

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft; and (2) They are...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft and meet the...

2010-04-01

128

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft; and (2) They are...replacement equipment in the design, development, testing...modification, or conversion of aircraft and meet the...

2011-04-01

129

LFC leading edge glove flight: Aircraft modification design, test article development and systems integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reduction of skin friction drag by suction of boundary layer air to maintain laminar flow has been known since Prandtl's published work in 1904. The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments in designing and fabricating a leading-edge flight test article incorporating boundary layer suction slots to be flown by NASA on their modified JetStar aircraft. Lockheed-Georgia Company performed as the integration contractor to design the JetStar aircraft modification to accept both a Lockheed and a McDonnell Douglas flight test article. McDonnell Douglas uses a porous skin concept. The report describes aerodynamic analyses, fabrication techniques, JetStar modifications, instrumentation requirements, and structural analyses and testing for the Lockheed test article. NASA will flight test the two LFC leading-edge test articles in a simulated commercial environment over a 6 to 8 month period in 1984. The objective of the flight test program is to evaluate the effectiveness of LFC leading-edge systems in reducing skin friction drag and consequently improving fuel efficiency.

Etchberger, F. R.

1983-01-01

130

Flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the propulsion community is to have the enabling propulsion technologies in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack fighter aircraft in the mid-1990's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL, and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. The rationale, methods, and criteria used in developing a joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program to develop the technology element for integrated flight propulsion control through integrated methodologies is presented. This program, the Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight Propulsion Controls Program, is part of the overall NASA Lewis Supersonic STOVL integrated approach to an integrated program to achieve integrated flight propulsion control technology.

Mihaloew, James R.

1987-01-01

131

Flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the propulsion community is to have the enabling propulsion technologies in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack fighter aircraft in the mid-1990's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL, and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. The rationale, methods, and criteria used in developing a joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program to develop the technology element for integrated flight propulsion control through integrated methodologies is presented. This program, the Supersonic STOVL integrated Flight Propulsion Controls Program, is part of the overall NASA Lewis Supersonic STOVL integrated approach to an integrated program to achieve integrated flight propulsion control technology.

Mihaloew, James R.

1988-01-01

132

Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

133

Advanced Instrumentation for Aircraft Icing Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA...

W. Bachalo, J. Smith, R. Rudoff

1990-01-01

134

X-29A aircraft structural loads flight testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-29A research and technology demonstrator aircraft has completed a highly successful multiphase flight test program. The primary research objective was to safely explore, evaluate, and validate a number of aerodynamic, structural, and flight control technologies, all highly integrated into the vehicle design. Most of these advanced technologies, particularly the forward-swept-wing platform, had a major impact on the structural design. Throughout the flight test program, structural loads clearance was an ongoing activity to provide a safe maneuvering envelope sufficient to accomplish the research objectives. An overview is presented of the technologies, flight test approach, key results, and lessons learned from the structural flight loads perspective. The overall design methodology was considered validated, but a number of structural load characteristics were either not adequately predicted or totally unanticipated prior to flight test. While conventional flight testing techniques were adequate to insure flight safety, advanced analysis tools played a key role in understanding some of the structural load characteristics, and in maximizing flight test productivity.

Sims, Robert; Mccrosson, Paul; Ryan, Robert; Rivera, Joe

1989-01-01

135

Longitudinal flying qualities criteria for single-pilot instrument flight operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern estimation and control theory, flight testing, and statistical analysis were used to deduce flying qualities criteria for General Aviation Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations. The principal concern is that unsatisfactory aircraft dynamic response combined with high navigation/communication workload can produce problems of safety and efficiency. To alleviate these problems. The relative importance of these factors must be determined. This objective was achieved by flying SPIFR tasks with different aircraft dynamic configurations and assessing the effects of such variations under these conditions. The experimental results yielded quantitative indicators of pilot's performance and workload, and for each of them, multivariate regression was applied to evaluate several candidate flying qualities criteria.

Stengel, R. F.; Bar-Gill, A.

1983-01-01

136

STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

1989-01-01

137

An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

Gorn, Michael H.

2003-01-01

138

Information for Lateral Aircraft Spacing Enabling Closely-Spaced Runway Operations During Instrument-Weather Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to increase airport capacity, the U.S. plans on investing nearly $6 billion a year to properly maintain and improve the nation's major airports. Current FAA standards however, require a reduction in terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions at many airports, causing delays and reducing airport capacity. NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, has developed the Terminal Area Productivity Program to achieve clear-weather capacity in instrument- weather conditions for all phases of flight. This paper describes a series of experiments planned to investigate the conceptual design of different systems that provide information to flight crews regarding nearby traffic during the approach phase of flight. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate different display and auditory interfaces to the crew for use in closely-spaced parallel runway operations. Three separate experiments are planned for the investigation. The first two experiments will be conducted using part-task flight simulators located at the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory and at NASA Ames. The third experiment will be conducted in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator, a generic "glass-cockpit" simulator at NASA Ames. Subjects for each experiment will be current glass-cockpit pilots from major U.S. air carriers. Subject crews will fly several experimental scenarios in which pseudo-aircraft are "blundered" into the subject aircraft simulation. Runway spacing, longitudinal aircraft separation, aircraft performance and traffic information will be varied. Analyses of the subject reaction times in evading the blundering aircraft and the resulting closest points of approach will be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the data recorded during the part-task experiments. The impact of traffic information on closely-spaced parallel runway operations is discussed, cockpit displays to aid these operations are examined, and topics for future research are suggested.

Thrush, Trent; Pritchett, Amy; Johnson, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

139

An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

2000-01-01

140

Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

2006-01-01

141

Flight evaluation of advanced flight control systems and cockpit displays for powered-lift STOL Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight research program was conducted to assess the improvements, in longitudinal path control during a STOL approach and landing, that can be achieved with manual and automatic control system concepts and cockpit displays with various degrees of complexity. NASA-Ames powered-lift Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft was used in the research program. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrated for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. The ability of the pilot to perform precise landings at low touchdown sink rates with a gentle flare maneuver was also achieved. The path-control improvement is considered to be applicable to other powered-lift aircraft configurations.

Franklin, J. A.; Smith, D. W.; Watson, D. M.; Warner, D. N., Jr.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

1976-01-01

142

In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This "Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

1984-01-01

143

In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A acoustic research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in-flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This 'Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying, position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

1983-01-01

144

Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

Simpson, James C.

2005-01-01

145

14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...  

...is appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating...representative of the aircraft for which the course...to the instrument-aircraft category and class rating...instruments; (7) Navigation systems; (8)...

2014-01-01

146

Flight/propulsion control integration for V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-defined technology program investigating integrated flight/propulsion control system design for vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft is outlined, and initial fixed-base simulation experiments for two V/STOL aircraft are covered. It is shown that transition performance can be characterized by the minimum climb or level-flight acceleration that can be achieved. Level-1 flying qualities can be achieved for deceleration to hover in instrument conditions, and for shore-based and shipboard landing when attitude and velocity stabilization and command augmentation modes are provided. Level-1 and Level-2 flying qualities can be expected when only attitude command is provided. During vertical landing aboard a destroyer in heavy seas, substantial bleed flow rates are reported for a control arrangement employing reaction control for the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Peak bleed flows can be reduced for a control arrangement using lateral-thrust transfer for roll control.

Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.

1989-01-01

147

Adaptive Backstepping Flight Control for Modern Fighter Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of the nonlinear adaptive backstepping control technique in combination with online model identification for the design of a reconfigurable flight control system for a modern fighter aircraft.\\u000a\\u000aAdaptive backstepping is a recursive, Lyapunov-based, nonlinear design method, that makes use of dynamic parameter update laws to deal with parametric uncertainties.

L. Sonneveldt

2010-01-01

148

Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated

Weihua Su

2008-01-01

149

Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Emphasis on Aircraft Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate modeling of flexible space structures is an important field that is currently under investigation. Parameter estimation, using methods such as maximum likelihood, is one of the ways that the model can be improved. The maximum likelihood estimator has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. Most of the literature on aircraft estimation concentrates on new developments and applications, assuming familiarity with basic estimation concepts. Some of these basic concepts are presented. The maximum likelihood estimator and the aircraft equations of motion that the estimator uses are briefly discussed. The basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple computed aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to help illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Specific examples of estimation of structural dynamics are included. Some of the major conclusions for the computed example are also developed for the analysis of flight data.

Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

1985-01-01

150

Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

2008-01-01

151

Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

1990-01-01

152

Flight-test evaluation of STOL control and flight director concepts in a powered-lift aircraft flying curved decelerating approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were carried out to assess the feasibility of piloted steep curved, and decelerating approach profiles in powered lift STOL aircraft. Several STOL control concepts representative of a variety of aircraft were evaluated in conjunction with suitably designed flight directions. The tests were carried out in a real navigation environment, employed special electronic cockpit displays, and included the development of the performance achieved and the control utilization involved in flying 180 deg turning, descending, and decelerating approach profiles to landing. The results suggest that such moderately complex piloted instrument approaches may indeed be feasible from a pilot acceptance point of view, given an acceptable navigation environment. Systems with the capability of those used in this experiment can provide the potential of achieving instrument operations on curved, descending, and decelerating landing approaches to weather minima corresponding to CTOL Category 2 criteria, while also providing a means of realizing more efficient operations during visual flight conditions.

Hindson, W. S.; Hardy, G. H.; Innis, R. C.

1981-01-01

153

Results from a GPS Shuttle Training Aircraft flight test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of Global Positioning System (GPS) flight tests were performed on a National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA). The objective of the tests was to evaluate the performance of GPS-based navigation during simulated Shuttle approach and landings for possible replacement of the current Shuttle landing navigation aid, the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS). In particular, varying levels of sensor data integration would be evaluated to determine the minimum amount of integration required to meet the navigation accuracy requirements for a Shuttle landing. Four flight tests consisting of 8 to 9 simulation runs per flight test were performed at White Sands Space Harbor in April 1991. Three different GPS receivers were tested. The STA inertial navigation, tactical air navigation, and MSBLS sensor data were also recorded during each run. C-band radar aided laser trackers were utilized to provide the STA 'truth' trajectory.

Saunders, Penny E.; Montez, Moises N.; Robel, Michael C.; Feuerstein, David N.; Aerni, Mike E.; Sangchat, S.; Rater, Lon M.; Cryan, Scott P.; Salazar, Lydia R.; Leach, Mark P.

1991-01-01

154

14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember. 61.58 Section 61... AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember. (a) Except as...

2010-01-01

155

14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember. 61.58 Section 61... AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember. (a) Except as...

2011-01-01

156

14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category...

2010-01-01

157

Flight-Path Tracking Control of a Transportation Aircraft: Comparison of Two Nonlinear Design Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

For transport aircraft, the primary control objective for an autopilot system engaged during approach and landing is relative to the flight-path tracking on the basis of highly simplified linear models of flight dynamics. The dynamics governing the flight-path of an aircraft are in general highly nonlinear and involve complex physics for which no accurate models are available. In the past

L. Duan; W. Lu; F. Mora-Camino; T. Miguel

2006-01-01

158

Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

1995-01-01

159

Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord, or about 11.5 inches, with no taper or sweep. Solar arrays that will cover most of the upper wing surface will provide up to 31 kilowatts of power at high noon on a summer day to power the aircraft's 14 electric motors, avionics, communications and other electronic systems. Centurion also has a backup lithium battery system that can provide power for between two and five hours to allow limited-duration flight after dark. Initial low-altitude test flights at Dryden in 1998 were conducted on battery power alone, prior to installation of the solar cell arrays. Centurion flies at an airspeed of only 17 to 21 mph, or about 15 to 18 knots. Although pitch control is maintained by the use of a full-span 60-segment elevator on the trailing edge of the wing, turns and yaw control are accomplished by applying differential power -- slowing down or speeding up the motors -- on the outboard sections of the wing. The video clip depicts the aircraft on the lakebed prior to and during its first low-altitude check flight under battery power on November 10, 1998.

1998-01-01

160

The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

2000-01-01

161

Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by jet transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of intercepting wing tip vortices generated by large jet transports, including jumbo jets, over separation distances from 1 nautical mile to 15 nautical miles is evaluated on the basis of the response of a vortex probe airplane in the roil mode. The vortex probe test aircraft included a representative general aviation airplane, an executive jet, a fighter, and light and medium weight jet transports. The test conditions and airplane configurations were comparable to those normally used during takeoff, landing, or holding pattern operations. For flight safety the tests were performed at altitudes from 9500 feet to 12,500 feet. In addition to an evaluation of the probe airplane response, a flight test technique is suggested for determining minimum separation distance, using as variable the ratio of vortex-induced roll acceleration to maximum lateral control acceleration and the gross weight of the generating aircraft.

Andrews, W. H.; Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

1972-01-01

162

Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation of the framework. Gust responses of the Flying-Wing configuration subject to stall effects are investigated. A bilinear torsional stiffness model is introduced to study the skin wrinkling due to large bending curvature of the Flying-Wing. The numerical studies illustrate the improvements of the existing reduced-order formulation with new capabilities of both structural modeling and coupled aeroelastic and flight dynamic analysis of fully flexible aircraft.

Su, Weihua

163

48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.228-70 Aircraft ground...Operation” means operations and tests, other than on any production line, of aircraft not in flight, whether or not the...

2010-10-01

164

Altus I aircraft in flight, retracting landing gear after takeoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The landing gear of the remotely piloted Altus I aircraft retracts into the fuselage after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, was designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology project, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet.

1997-01-01

165

Scaling Methods for Simulating Aircraft In-Flight Icing Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses scaling methods which permit the use of subscale models in icing wind tunnels to simulate natural flight in icing. Natural icing conditions exist when air temperatures are below freezing but cloud water droplets are super-cooled liquid. Aircraft flying through such clouds are susceptible to the accretion of ice on the leading edges of unprotected components such as wings, tailplane and engine inlets. To establish the aerodynamic penalties of such ice accretion and to determine what parts need to be protected from ice accretion (by heating, for example), extensive flight and wind-tunnel testing is necessary for new aircraft and components. Testing in icing tunnels is less expensive than flight testing, is safer, and permits better control of the test conditions. However, because of limitations on both model size and operating conditions in wind tunnels, it is often necessary to perform tests with either size or test conditions scaled. This paper describes the theoretical background to the development of icing scaling methods, discusses four methods, and presents results of tests to validate them.

Anderson, David N.; Ruff, Gary A.

1997-01-01

166

Flight Test of ASAC Aircraft Interior Noise Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test is described in which an active structural/acoustic control system reduces turboprop induced interior noise on a Raytheon Aircraft Company 1900D airliner. Control inputs to 21 inertial force actuators were computed adaptively using a transform domain version of the multichannel filtered-X LMS algorithm to minimize the mean square response of 32 microphones. A combinatorial search algorithm was employed to optimize placement of the force actuators on the aircraft frame. Both single frequency and multi-frequency results are presented. Reductions of up to 15 dB were obtained at the blade passage frequency (BPF) during single frequency control tests. Simultaneous reductions of the BPF and next 2 harmonics of 10 dB, 2.5 dB and 3.0 dB, were obtained in a multi-frequency test.

Palumbo, Dan; Cabell, Ran; Cline, John; Sullivan, Brenda

1999-01-01

167

Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of a stall/spin research program, an emergency in-flight egress system is being installed in a light general aviation airplane. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add-on 11.2 kg pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The airplane skin will be explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel will be jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mock-ups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics.

Bement, L. J.

1980-01-01

168

Flight Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of a Damaged Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to establish, demonstrate, and apply methodology for modeling and implementing the aerodynamic effects of MANPADS damage to a transport aircraft into real-time flight simulation, and to demonstrate a preliminary capability of using such a simulation to conduct an assessment of aircraft survivability. Key findings from this study include: superpositioning of incremental aerodynamic characteristics to the baseline simulation aerodynamic model proved to be a simple and effective way of modeling damage effects; the primary effect of wing damage rolling moment asymmetry may limit minimum airspeed for adequate controllability, but this can be mitigated by the use of sideslip; combined effects of aerodynamics, control degradation, and thrust loss can result in significantly degraded controllability for a safe landing; and high landing speeds may be required to maintain adequate control if large excursions from the nominal approach path are allowed, but high-gain pilot control during landing can mitigate this risk.

Shah, Gautam H.; Hill, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

169

NOAA WP-3D instrumentation and flight operations on AGASP-II. [Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One component of the second Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program conducted in March and April 1986 was supported with an instrumented NOAA WP-3D atmospheric research aircraft, which was used to conduct measurements of wind, temperature, ozone, water vapor, the concentration of condensation nuclei, and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient in order to determine the locations and properties of haze layers. The WP-3D flights consisted of three missions north of Alaska and three in the Canadian Arctic near Alert. This paper describes the NOAA WP-3D aircraft; the meteorological, gas, and aerosol sampling systems utilized; and the flight operations of the six WP-3D flights.

Schnell, R. C.; Watson, T. B.; Bodhaine, B. A.

1989-01-01

170

An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

1990-01-01

171

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

1993-01-01

172

Stability derivative extraction from flight test data for a general aviation aircraft  

E-print Network

The Gulfstream Commander 700 (N700AE) aircraft owned by the Texas A&M Flight Mechanics Laboratory (FML) is currently being modeled on the Engineering Flight Simulator (EFS) for testing of an integrated cockpit system for general aviation (GA...

Randall, Brian Edward

2012-06-07

173

Flight testing of a remotely piloted vehicle for aircraft parameter estimation purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of this research effort was to show that a reliable RPV could be built, tested, and successfully used for flight testing and parameter estimation purposes, in an academic setting. This was a fundamental step towards the creation of an automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This research project was divided into four phases. Phase one involved the construction, development, and initial flight of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV), the West Virginia University (WVU) Boeing 777 (B777) aircraft. This phase included the creation of an onboard instrumentation system to provide aircraft flight data. The objective of the second phase was to estimate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives from actual flight data for the B777 model. This involved performing and recording flight test maneuvers used for analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates. Flight maneuvers included control surface doublets produced by the elevator, aileron, and rudder controls. A parameter estimation program known as pEst, developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), was used to compute the off-line estimates of parameters from collected flight data. This estimation software uses the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with a Newton-Raphson (NR) minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used a traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Phase three focused on comparing a linear model obtained from the phase two ML estimates, with linear models obtained from a (i) Batch Least Squares Technique (BLS) and (ii) a technique from the Matlab system identification toolbox. Historically, aircraft parameter estimation has been performed off-line using recorded flight data from specifically designed maneuvers. In recent years, several on-line parameter identification techniques have been evaluated for real-time on-line applications. Along this research line, a novel contribution of this work was to compare the off-line estimation results with results obtained using a recently introduced frequency based on-line estimation method. Specifically, phase four focused on comparing the ML results with a frequency domain based on-line estimation technique. The RPV vehicle and payload was designed and constructed with the combined efforts of WVU researchers, graduate and undergraduate students of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, and a private sub-contractor, Craig Aviation.

Seanor, Brad A.

2002-01-01

174

A wide field-of-view imaging DOAS instrument for continuous trace gas mapping from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping, the Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed, characterised and successfully operated from aircraft. From the observations with the AirMAP instrument nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved. A major benefit of the pushbroom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a frame-transfer detector. With a wide-angle entrance objective, a broad field-of-view across track of around 48° is achieved, leading to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m. From a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 single fibres, the number of viewing directions is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Exploitation of all the viewing directions yields observations at 30 m spatial resolution, making the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small scale variability. For accurate spatial mapping the position and aircraft attitude are taken into account using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken. In June 2011, AirMAP has been operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium sized coal-fired power plant in North-West Germany, AirMAP clearly detects the emission plume downwind from the exhaust stack, with NO2 vertical columns around 2 × 1016 molecules cm-2 in the plume center. The emission estimates are consistent with reports in the pollutant transfer register. Strong spatial gradients and variability in NO2 amounts across and along flight direction are observed, and small-scale enhancements of NO2 above a motorway are detected. The present study reports on the experimental setup and characteristics of AirMAP, and the first measurements at high spatial resolution and wide spatial coverage are presented which meet the requirements for NO2 mapping to observe and account for the intrinsic variability of tropospheric NO2.

Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Hartmann, J.; Meier, A. C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

2014-04-01

175

Aircraft equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex of functionally interconnected instruments and devices for controlling flight, engine operations, electrical systems, communications, and vital systems for passengers and crew is described. The aggregates of the aircraft automatic equipment are also discussed.

1977-01-01

176

Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

1980-01-01

177

Modeling Aircraft Wing Loads from Flight Data Using Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks were used to model wing bending-moment loads, torsion loads, and control surface hinge-moments of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft. Accurate loads models are required for the development of control laws designed to increase roll performance through wing twist while not exceeding load limits. Inputs to the model include aircraft rates, accelerations, and control surface positions. Neural networks were chosen to model aircraft loads because they can account for uncharacterized nonlinear effects while retaining the capability to generalize. The accuracy of the neural network models was improved by first developing linear loads models to use as starting points for network training. Neural networks were then trained with flight data for rolls, loaded reversals, wind-up-turns, and individual control surface doublets for load excitation. Generalization was improved by using gain weighting and early stopping. Results are presented for neural network loads models of four wing loads and four control surface hinge moments at Mach 0.90 and an altitude of 15,000 ft. An average model prediction error reduction of 18.6 percent was calculated for the neural network models when compared to the linear models. This paper documents the input data conditioning, input parameter selection, structure, training, and validation of the neural network models.

Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.

2003-01-01

178

Emergency in-flight egress for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA program for development of an inflight egress system for the left (pilot) door of general aviation aircraft is described. The pyrotechnic release door was felt to be necessary because of pilot difficulty in reaching the right door when subjected to spin/stall centrifugal effects. A flexible, linear shaped charged of hexanitrostibene II and a lanyard actuated detonator are discussed, along with mock-up tests and instrumentation. The egress system was designed for minimum structural impact, mimimum pilot initiation procedures, low weight, and no egress interference, and to provide sufficient force to blow off the door, have low required maintenance, and high reliability. Results of 68 tests are reviewed, noting the inclusion of a screen to keep glass fragments from spraying the cabin. Certification was achieved, and uses in the F-111 and B-1 aircraft are noted.

Bement, L. J.

1981-01-01

179

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis, Flight Dynamics, and Control of a Complete Aircraft  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis, Flight Dynamics, and Control of a Complete Aircraft A THESIS by Mayuresh Patil #12;Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis, Flight Dynamics, and Control of a Complete Aircraft the Nobleman that he is he helped me through my fight to put control into my thesis! I am also grateful to Joe

Patil, Mayuresh

180

Development and flight experience of the control laws in the Experimental Aircraft Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experimental Aircraft Programme aimed to demonstrate technologies applicable to a future combat aircraft. One of these technologies was active control technology, necessary for the flight control system of a highly unstable airframe. This paper outlines the development of the control laws utilized in this project and relates the very positive experience gained through the flight demonstration. Most significant of

A. McCUISH

1994-01-01

181

Flight evaluation of a precision landing task for a powered-lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight research experiment was conducted with the NASA-Ames Research Center's Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft to determine the factors which influence the touchdown distribution for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The pilots were given two tasks for each of a series of precision approaches flown using a microwave landing system (MLS) in simulated instrument meteorological conditions. They flew the aircraft, with forward vision obscured by a screen, to a 100-ft decision height using a flightpath-oriented, color electronic display and one of four levels of control augmentation. Approaches were flown along a nominal 6 deg glidepath, as well as to calibrated offsets at the decision height to establish a variety of initial conditions for the landing task. The screen was removed at the decision height and the pilot was briefed to land in a 200 foot touchdown zone of the STOLport with a sink rate less than 5 ft/sec. Statistical performance envelopes and pilot ratings are used to describe the results of this experiment. The data generated are expected to be useful for establishing STOL aircraft operating requirements and STOL MLS approach criteria.

Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.; Innis, R. C.; Martin, J. L.

1986-01-01

182

One of NASA's Two Modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier (SCA) Aircraft in Flight over NASA Dryden Flig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center main building at Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California, in May 1999. NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are: o Three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached o Two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability o Removal of all interior furnishings and equipment aft of the forward No. 1 doors o Instrumentation used by SCA flight crews and engineers to monitor orbiter electrical loads during the ferry flights and also during pre- and post-ferry flight operations. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex. NASA 905 NASA 905 was the first SCA. It was obtained from American Airlines in 1974. Shortly after it was accepted by NASA it was flown in a series of wake vortex research flights at the Dryden Flight Research Center in a study to seek ways of reducing turbulence produced by large aircraft. Pilots flying as much as several miles behind large aircraft have encountered wake turbulence that have caused control problems. The NASA study helped the Federal Aviation Administration modify flight procedures for commercial aircraft during airport approaches and departures. Following the wake vortex studies, NASA 905 was modified by Boeing to its present SCA configuration and the aircraft was returned to Dryden for its role in the 1977 Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT). This series of eight captive and five free flights with the orbiter prototype Enterprise, in addition to ground taxi tests, validated the aircraft's performance as an SCA, in addition to verifying the glide and landing characteristics of the orbiter configuration -- paving the way for orbital flights. A flight crew escape system, consisting of an exit tunnel extending from the flight deck to a hatch in the bottom of the fuselage, was installed during the modifications. The system also included a pyrotechnic system to activate the hatch release and cabin window release mechanisms. The flight crew escape system was removed from the NASA 905 following the successful completion of the ALT program. NASA 905 was the only SCA used by the space shuttle program until November 1990, when NASA 911 was delivered as an SCA. Along with ferrying Enterprise and the flight-rated orbiters between the launch and landing sites and other locations, NASA 905 also ferried Enterprise to Europe for display in England and at the Paris Air Show. NASA 911 The second SCA is designated NASA 911. It was obtained by NASA from Japan Airlines (JAL) in 1989. It was also modified by Boeing Corporation. It was delivered to NASA 20 November 1990.

1999-01-01

183

Instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved instrumentation suitable for measuring aircraft noise and sonic booms is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable and amplified by a zero drive amplifier. The converter consists of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor mixer, and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. The improvements include automatic tuning compensation against changes in static microphone capacitance and means for providing a remote electrical calibration capability.

Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

1976-01-01

184

Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

1998-01-01

185

41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...

2010-07-01

186

41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts...

2011-01-01

187

A flight evaluation of methods for predicting vortex wake effects on trailing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of four current analytical methods for predicting wing vortex strength and decay rate are compared with the results of a flight investigation of the wake characteristics of several large jet transport aircraft. An empirical expression defining the strength and decay rate of wake vortices is developed that best represents most of the flight-test data. However, the expression is not applicable to small aircraft that would be immersed in the vortex wake of large aircraft.

Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

1972-01-01

188

Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

Caro, Paul W.

189

Modeled Impact of Cirrus Cloud Increases Along Aircraft Flight Paths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential impact of contrails and alterations in the lifetime of background cirrus due to subsonic airplane water and aerosol emissions has been investigated in a set of experiments using the GISS GCM connected to a q-flux ocean. Cirrus clouds at a height of 12-15km, with an optical thickness of 0.33, were input to the model "x" percentage of clear-sky occasions along subsonic aircraft flight paths, where x is varied from .05% to 6%. Two types of experiments were performed: one with the percentage cirrus cloud increase independent of flight density, as long as a certain minimum density was exceeded; the other with the percentage related to the density of fuel expenditure. The overall climate impact was similar with the two approaches, due to the feedbacks of the climate system. Fifty years were run for eight such experiments, with the following conclusions based on the stable results from years 30-50 for each. The experiments show that adding cirrus to the upper troposphere results in a stabilization of the atmosphere, which leads to some decrease in cloud cover at levels below the insertion altitude. Considering then the total effect on upper level cloud cover (above 5 km altitude), the equilibrium global mean temperature response shows that altering high level clouds by 1% changes the global mean temperature by 0.43C. The response is highly linear (linear correlation coefficient of 0.996) for high cloud cover changes between 0. 1% and 5%. The effect is amplified in the Northern Hemisphere, more so with greater cloud cover change. The temperature effect maximizes around 10 km (at greater than 40C warming with a 4.8% increase in upper level clouds), again more so with greater warming. The high cloud cover change shows the flight path influence most clearly with the smallest warming magnitudes; with greater warming, the model feedbacks introduce a strong tropical response. Similarly, the surface temperature response is dominated by the feedbacks, and shows little geographical relationship to the high cloud input. Considering whether these effects would be observable, changing upper level cloud cover by as little as 0.4% produces warming greater than 2 standard deviations in the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channels 4, 2 and 2r, in flight path regions and in the subtropics. Despite the simplified nature of these experiments, the results emphasize the sensitivity of the modeled climate to high level cloud cover changes, and thus the potential ability of aircraft to influence climate by altering clouds in the upper troposphere.

Rind, David; Lonergan, P.; Shah, K.

1999-01-01

190

Dynamics of tilting proprotor aircraft in cruise flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nine degree-of-freedom theoretical model is developed for investigations of the dynamics of a proprotor operating in high inflow axial flight on a cantilever wing. The basic characteristics of the rotor high inflow aerodynamics and the resulting rotor aeroelastic behavior are discussed. The problems of classical whirl flutter, the two-bladed rotor, and the influence of the proprotor on the stability derivatives of the aircraft are treated briefly. The influence of various elements of the theoretical model is discussed, including the modeling used for the blade and wing aerodynamics, and the influence of the rotor lag degree of freedom. The results from tests of two full-scale proprotors - a gimballed, stiff-inplane rotor and a hingeless, soft-inplane rotor - are presented; comparisons with the theoretical results show good correlation.

Johnson, W.

1974-01-01

191

Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

Poppel, Gary L.

1994-01-01

192

41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disposal Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May...excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? ...all available historical and maintenance records accompany the part...

2013-07-01

193

41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Disposal Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May...excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? ...all available historical and maintenance records accompany the part...

2012-01-01

194

SR-71A in Flight with Test Fixture Mounted Atop the Aft Section of the Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up, head-on view of NASA's SR-71A Blackbird in flight shows the aircraft with an experimental test fixture mounted on the back of the airplane. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA 831 (B model), military serial 61-7956. From 1990 through 1994, Dryden also had another 'A' model, NASA 832, military serial 61-7971. This aircraft was returned to the USAF inventory and was the first aircraft reactivated for USAF reconnaissance purposes in 1995. It has since returned to Dryden along with SR-71A 61-79

1999-01-01

195

Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired eigenvector elements effects the synthesis results.

Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

1986-01-01

196

Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.

Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.

2012-11-01

197

SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA 831 (B model), military serial 61-7956. From 1990

1996-01-01

198

Flight control system development and flight test experience with the F-111 mission adaptive wing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wing on the NASA F-111 transonic aircraft technology airplane was modified to provide flexible leading and trailing edge flaps. This wing is known as the mission adaptive wing (MAW) because aerodynamic efficiency can be maintained at all speeds. Unlike a conventional wing, the MAW has no spoilers, external flap hinges, or fairings to break the smooth contour. The leading edge flaps and three-segment trailing edge flaps are controlled by a redundant fly-by-wire control system that features a dual digital primary system architecture providing roll and symmetric commands to the MAW control surfaces. A segregated analog backup system is provided in the event of a primary system failure. This paper discusses the design, development, testing, qualification, and flight test experience of the MAW primary and backup flight control systems.

Larson, R. R.

1986-01-01

199

Automatic Code Generation for Instrument Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic code generation can be used to convert software state diagrams into executable code, enabling a model- based approach to software design and development. The primary benefits of this process are reduced development time and continuous consistency between the system design (statechart) and its implementation. We used model-based design and code generation to produce software for the Electra UHF radios that is functionally equivalent to software that will be used by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Mars Science Laboratory to communicate with each other. The resulting software passed all of the relevant MRO flight software tests, and the project provides a useful case study for future work in model-based software development for flight software systems.

Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Benowitz, Edward; Byrne, D. J.; Peters, Ken; Watney, Garth

2008-01-01

200

Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

1976-01-01

201

Basic principles of flight test instrumentation engineering, volume 1, issue 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 1 of the AG 300 series on 'Flight Test Instrumentation' gives a general introduction to the basic principles of flight test instrumentation. The other volumes in the series provide more detailed treatments of selected topics on flight test instrumentation. Volume 1, first published in 1974, has been used extensively as an introduction for instrumentation courses and symposia, as well as being a reference work on the desk of most flight test and instrumentation engineers. It is hoped that this second edition, fully revised, will be used with as much enthusiasm as the first edition. In this edition a flight test system is considered to include both the data collection and data processing systems. In order to obtain an optimal data flow, the overall design of these two subsystems must be carefully matched; the detail development and the operation may have to be done by separate groups of specialists. The main emphasis is on the large automated instrumentation systems used for the initial flight testing of modern military and civil aircraft. This is done because there, many of the problems, which are discussed here, are more critical. It does not imply, however, that smaller systems with manual data processing are no longer used. In general, the systems should be designed to provide the required results at the lowest possible cost. For many tests which require only a few parameters, relatively simple systems are justified, especially if no complex equipment is available to the user. Although many of the aspects discussed in this volume apply to both small and large systems, aspects of the smaller systems are mentioned only when they are of special interest. The volume has been divided into three main parts. Part 1 defines the main starting points for the design of a flight test instrumentation system, as seen from the points of view of the flight test engineer and the instrumentation engineer. In Part 2 the discussion is concentrated on those aspects which apply to each individual measuring channel, and in Part 3 the main emphasis is on the integration of the individual data channels into one data collection system and on those aspects of the data processing which apply to the complete system.

Borek, Robert W., Sr. (editor); Pool, A. (editor)

1994-01-01

202

Biosignal alterations generated by parabolic flights of small aerobatic aircrafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering works of Prof. Strughold in 1948, the aerospace medicine aimed to characterize the modifications induced in the human body by changes in the gravity level. In this respect, it is nowadays well known that one of the most serious problems of these kind of environments is the fluid shift. If this effect is enough severe and persistent, serious changes in the hemodynamic of the brain (cerebral blood flow and blood oxigenation level) appear which could be detected as alterations in the electroencephalogram, EEG [1]. Also, this fluid redistribution, together with the relocation of the heart in the thorax, induces detectable changes in the electrocardiogram, ECG [2]. Other kind of important problems are related with vestibular instability, kinetosis and illusory sensations. In particular since the seventies [3,4] it is known that in parabolic flights and due to eye movements triggered by the changing input from the otholith system, fixed real targets appeared to have moved downward while visual afterimages appeared to have moved upward (oculogravic illusions). In order to cover all the above-mentioned potential alterations, the present work, together with the gravity level, continuously monitors the electroencephalogram, EEG, the electrocardiogram, ECG and the electrooculogram, EOG of a normal subject trying to detect correlations between the different alterations observed in these signals and the changes of gravity during parabolic flights. The small aerobatic aircraft used is a CAP10B and during the flight the subject is located near the pilot. To properly cover all the range of accelerations we have used two sensitive triaxial accelerometers covering the high and low ranges of acceleration. Biosignals have been gathered using a Biopac data unit together with the Acknowledge software package (from BionicÔ). It is important to finally remark that, due to the obvious difference between the power of the different engines, the accelerometric characteristics of the aerobatic parabolic flights are different from the ones corresponding to the big Airbus-300 of Novespace-CNES-ESA aircraft. In this case, the two episodes of hypergravity reach 1.8g for 3 seconds with 20-25 seconds of low gravity in between whereas the small aerobatic plane reaches 3g level during roughly 2.5 seconds and 8 seconds period of low gravity. This means that the present potential alterations of the human body are more aggressive but also faster. [1] Y. Kawai, M. Doi, A. Setogawa, R. Shimoyama, K. Ueda, Y. Asai, K. Tatebayashi, Effects of Microgravity on Cerebral Hemodynamics, Yonago Acta Medica, 46 (2003) 1-8. [2] E.A.I. Aidu, V.G. Trunov, L.I. Titomir, A. Capderou, P. Vaïda, Transformation of Vectorcardiogram Due to Gravitation Alteration, Measurement, Science Review, 3 (2003) 29-32. [3] R.J. Von Baumgarten, G. Baldrighi, G.L. Schillinger, O. Harth, R. Thuemler, Vestibular function in the space environment, Acta Astronautica, 2 (1975) 49-58. [4] http://reversiblefigures.blogspot.com.es/p/outreach.html

Simon, M. Jose; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Ruiz, Xavier; Gavalda, Fina; Saez, Nuria

203

The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

204

Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

2012-01-01

205

Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.

Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.

1980-01-01

206

Use of eternal flight unmanned aircraft in military operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), are planned to use solar energy, are being more common and interesting gradually. Today, these systems are very promising while fossil fuels are diminishing rapidly. Academic research is still being conducted to develop unmanned aerial systems which will store energy during day time and use it during night time. Development of unmanned aerial systems, which have eternal flight or very long loiter periods, could be possible by such an energy management. A UAV, which can fly very long time, could provide many advantages that cannot be obtained by conventional aircrafts and satellites. Such systems can be operated as fixed satellites on missions with very low cost in circumstances that require continuous intelligence. By improving automation systems these vehicles could be settled on operation area autonomously and can be grounded easily in case of necessities and maintenance. In this article, the effect of solar powered UAV on operation area has been done a literature review, to be used in surveillance and reconnaissance missions.

Kök, Zafer

2014-06-01

207

Modeling of Selected Aircraft Flight Phases Using Data from Flight Data Recorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While observing the dynamic air traffic increase, the issue of continuous controlling and monitoring every individual phase of flights becomes an essential matter. One of the phase of flight that has been studied is landing. At the commercial airports, landings take place every several dozen seconds up to few minutes. The correctness of carrying out required procedures has a crucial impact on the runway throughput, number of operations performed in the aerodrome vicinity and, above all, safety of the passengers. For obvious reasons the research and analysis of these processes cannot be done on objects in real conditions. Therefore, there is a tendency to use IT tools and other methods for the purpose of the analysis of the operations which take place in the aerodrome vicinity. In order to make use of the computer simulation it is essential to have mathematical models of these operations. The purpose of this article is to present methodology and defined a model that is based on parameters recorded by the flight data recorder. Models developed in that way map reality with high accuracy. Such models map the real aircraft operations in the aerodrome vicinity and can be applied in practice.

Stelmach, Anna

2012-02-01

208

Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

1994-01-01

209

Application of the calculus of variations in determining optimum flight profiles for commercial short haul aircraft  

E-print Network

The method of steepest descent of the calculus of variations is used to determine the optimal flight profile of a hypothetical tilt wing aircraft travelling a distance of 50 miles. Direct operating cost, (as derived from ...

Gallant, Robert Alfred

1966-01-01

210

Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

Mccutcheon, E. P.

1977-01-01

211

Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

Patt, R. F.

1980-01-01

212

A low-complexity flight controller for Unmanned Aircraft Systems with constrained control allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a framework for joint allocation and constrained control design of flight controllers for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The actuator configuration is used to map actuator constraint set into the space of the aircraft generalised forces. By constraining the demanded generalised forces, we ensure that the allocation problem is always feasible; and therefore, it can be

Pierre de Lamberterie; Tristan Perez; Alejandro Donaire

2011-01-01

213

Prepared by: Shawn Coyle, Aircraft Certification, Flight Test. Transport Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  

E-print Network

. ph 613 954 1390, fax 613 996 9178, e-mail CoyleS@tc.gc.ca Aircraft On-Board Navigation Data Integrity as a supplementary means of navigation. Data used in these systems lacks a regulatory oversight through the lastPrepared by: Shawn Coyle, Aircraft Certification, Flight Test. Transport Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

Ladkin, Peter B.

214

An optical technique for examining aircraft shock wave structures in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed properties of sonic booms have to be better understood before commercial, next generation, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft can be properly developed. Experimental tests and measurements are needed to help sort the physical details of the flows at realistic test conditions. Some of these tests can be made in wind tunnels, but the need for full flight conditions simulation, the problem of tunnel wall interference, and the short distance the shocks can be examined from the aircraft, limit the usefulness of wind tunnel tests. Previous measurement techniques for examining the flow field of aircraft in flight have included pressure measurements on the aircraft, ground based pressure measurements, and flow field measurements made with chase aircraft. Obtaining data with chase planes is a slow and difficult process, and is limited in how close it can be obtained to the test aircraft. A need clearly existed for a better technique to examine the shock structure from the plane to large distances from the plane. A new technique has been recently developed to obtain schlieren photographs of aircraft in flight (SAF). Preliminary results have been obtained, and the technique holds promise as a tool to study the shape and approximate strength of the shock wave structure around the test aircraft, and examine shock wave details all the way from the aircraft to near the ground. The current paper describes this approach, and gives some preliminary test results.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

215

Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

1992-01-01

216

A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

2009-01-01

217

Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

1985-01-01

218

Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

219

Tunable diode laser in-situ CH4 measurements aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft: instrument performance assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft is presented. The instrument is based on a commercial Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA, Los Gatos Res.), which was adapted to meet the requirements imposed by unattended airborne employment. The modified instrument is described. A laboratory characterization was performed to determine the instrument stability, precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy. For airborne operation a calibration strategy is described, that utilizes CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. The precision of airborne measurements is 2 ppbv for 10 s averages. The accuracy at aircraft cruising altitude is 3.85 ppbv. During aircraft ascent and descent, where no flask samples were obtained, instrumental drifts can be less accurately considered and the uncertainty is estimated to be 12.4 ppbv. A linear humidity bias correction was applied to the CH4 measurements, which was most important in the lower troposphere. On average, the correction bias was around 6.5 ppbv at an altitude of 2 km, and negligible at cruising flight level. Observations from 103 long-distance flights are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS), with occasional crossing of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. These accurate data mark the largest UT/LMS in-situ CH4 dataset worldwide. An example of a tracer-tracer correlation study with ozone is given, highlighting the possibility for accurate cross-tropopause transport analyses.

Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.

2013-10-01

220

Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

2003-01-01

221

Volume-imaging lidar observations of the convective structure surrounding the flight path of a flux-measuring aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Wisconsin volume imaging lidar has been used to portray images of the three-dimensional structure of clear air convective plumes in the atmosphere surrounding the flight path of the instrumented Twin Otter aircraft operated by the National Aeronautical Establishment (NAE) of Canada. Lidar images provide a context for interpretation of the aircraft measurements. The position of data points within a convective element can be determined and the temporal development of the plume can be observed to time the observation with respect to the life cycle of the plume. Plots of the vertical flux of water vapor, q'w', superimposed on lidar images clearly demonstrate the well-known sampling difficulties encountered when attempting to measure fluxes near the top of the convective layer. When Loran was used to determine average aircraft velocity, flight-leg-averaged horizontal winds measured by the aircraft and area-averaged winds measured by lidar agree to within 0.2 m s-1 in speed and 1° in direction.

Eloranta, Edwin W.; Forrest, Daniel K.

1992-11-01

222

Utilization of satellite imagery by in-flight aircraft. [for weather information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present and future utilization of satellite weather data by commercial aircraft while in flight was assessed. Weather information of interest to aviation that is available or will become available with future geostationary satellites includes the following: severe weather areas, jet stream location, weather observation at destination airport, fog areas, and vertical temperature profiles. Utilization of this information by in-flight aircraft is especially beneficial for flights over the oceans or over remote land areas where surface-based observations and communications are sparse and inadequate.

Luers, J. K.

1976-01-01

223

A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

1991-01-01

224

Dynamic ground effects flight test of the NASA F-15 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft may significantly differ when flying close to the ground rather than when flying up and away. Recent research has also determined that dynamic effects (i.e., sink rate) influence ground effects (GE). A ground effects flight test program of the F-15 aircraft was conducted to support the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Flight data was collected for 24 landings on seven test flights. Dynamic ground effects data were obtained for low- and high-sink rates, between 0.8 and 6.5 ft/sec, at two approach speed and flap combinations. These combinations consisted of 150 kt with the flaps down (30 deg deflection) and 170 kt with the flaps up (0 deg deflection), both with the inlet ramps in the full-up position. The aerodynamic coefficients caused by ground effects were estimated from the flight data. These ground effects data were correlated with the aircraft speed, flap setting, and sink rate. Results are compared to previous flight test and wind-tunnel ground effects data for various wings and for complete aircraft.

Corda, Stephen

1995-01-01

225

A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in-trail approaches. This research was performed under contract to NASA and in cooperation with the FAA's Safety Division (ASY).

Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

226

Beyond the cockpit: The visual world as a flight instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of cockpit instruments to guide flight control is not always an option (e.g., low level rotorcraft flight). Under such circumstances the pilot must use out-the-window information for control and navigation. Thus it is important to determine the basis of visually guided flight for several reasons: (1) to guide the design and construction of the visual displays used in training simulators; (2) to allow modeling of visibility restrictions brought about by weather, cockpit constraints, or distortions introduced by sensor systems; and (3) to aid in the development of displays that augment the cockpit window scene and are compatible with the pilot's visual extraction of information from the visual scene. The authors are actively pursuing these questions. We have on-going studies using both low-cost, lower fidelity flight simulators, and state-of-the-art helicopter simulation research facilities. Research results will be presented on: (1) the important visual scene information used in altitude and speed control; (2) the utility of monocular, stereo, and hyperstereo cues for the control of flight; (3) perceptual effects due to the differences between normal unaided daylight vision, and that made available by various night vision devices (e.g., light intensifying goggles and infra-red sensor displays); and (4) the utility of advanced contact displays in which instrument information is made part of the visual scene, as on a 'scene linked' head-up display (e.g., displaying altimeter information on a virtual billboard located on the ground).

Johnson, W. W.; Kaiser, M. K.; Foyle, D. C.

1992-01-01

227

Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this article is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. This article will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. It also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

1994-01-01

228

Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs is reported. The data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems are described. How the systems were used is described and the challenges encountered to make them work are covered. Examples of raw data and derived results are shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems are discussed. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

1993-01-01

229

Instrumented personal exercise during long-duration space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work reports the results of instrumented personal exercise performed in flight by Skylab 3 and 4 crewmen. Inflight cycle ergometer data provide conclusive evidence that man can perform earthbound equivalent maximum levels of physical work while in the zero-G environment. Moreover, SL4 crewmen were able to improve their physical condition during 84 days of space flight relative to launch condition, due to rigorous personal exercise regimens. Biological data measured included oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute volume, and heart rate.

Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

230

5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wage schedules for aircraft, electronic...work related to aircraft, electronic equipment...Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes...Search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical system and instrument manufacturing...titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3...

2010-01-01

231

5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wage schedules for aircraft, electronic...work related to aircraft, electronic equipment...Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes...Search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical system and instrument manufacturing...titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3...

2011-01-01

232

5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wage schedules for aircraft, electronic...work related to aircraft, electronic equipment...Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes...Search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical system and instrument manufacturing...titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3...

2012-01-01

233

5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wage schedules for aircraft, electronic...work related to aircraft, electronic equipment...Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes...Search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical system and instrument manufacturing...titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3...

2013-01-01

234

5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...  

...wage schedules for aircraft, electronic...work related to aircraft, electronic equipment...Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes...Search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical system and instrument manufacturing...titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3...

2014-01-01

235

Tunable diode laser in-situ CH4 measurements aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft: instrument performance assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft is presented. The instrument is based on a commercial Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Los Gatos Res.), which was adapted to meet the requirements imposed by unattended airborne operation. It was characterised in the laboratory with respect to instrument stability, precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy. For airborne operation, a calibration strategy is described that utilises CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. The precision of airborne measurements is 2 ppb for 10 s averages. The accuracy at aircraft cruising altitude is 3.85 ppb. During aircraft ascent and descent, where no flask samples were obtained, instrumental drifts can be less accurately determined and the uncertainty is estimated to be 12.4 ppb. A linear humidity bias correction was applied to the CH4 measurements, which was most important in the lower troposphere. On average, the correction bias was around 6.5 ppb at an altitude of 2 km, and negligible at cruising flight level. Observations from 103 long-distance flights are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS), with occasional crossing of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. These accurate data mark the largest UT/LMS in-situ CH4 dataset worldwide. An example of a tracer-tracer correlation study with ozone is given, highlighting the possibility for accurate cross-tropopause transport analyses.

Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.

2014-03-01

236

Results of the recent precipitation static flight test program on the Navy P-3B antisubmarine aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Severe precipitation static problems affecting the communication equipment onboard the P-3B aircraft were recently studied. The study was conducted after precipitation static created potential safety-of-flight problems on Naval Reserve aircraft. A specially designed flight test program was conducted in order to measure, record, analyze, and characterize potential precipitation static problem areas. The test program successfully characterized the precipitation static interference problems while the P-3B was flown in moderate to extreme precipitation conditions. Data up to 400 MHz were collected on the effects of engine charging, precipitation static, and extreme cross fields. These data were collected using a computer controlled acquisition system consisting of a signal generator, RF spectrum and audio analyzers, data recorders, and instrumented static dischargers. The test program is outlined and the computer controlled data acquisition system is described in detail which was used during flight and ground testing. The correlation of test results is also discussed which were recorded during the flight test program and those measured during ground testing.

Whitaker, Mike

1991-01-01

237

Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

2009-01-01

238

Shuttle flight pressure instrumentation: Experience and lessons for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight data obtained from the Space Transportation System orbiter entries are processed and analyzed to assess the accuracy and performance of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure measurement system. Selected pressure measurements are compared with available wind tunnel and computational data and are further used to perform air data analyses using the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) computation technique. The results are compared to air data from other sources. These comparisons isolate and demonstrate the effects of the various limitations of the DFI pressure measurement system. The effects of these limitations on orbiter performance analyses are addressed, and instrumentation modifications are recommended to improve the accuracy of similar fight data systems in the future.

Siemers, P. M., III; Bradley, P. F.; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.; Weilmuenster, K. J.; Kern, F. A.

1983-01-01

239

Design of an intelligent flight instrumentation unit using embedded RTOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV) must calculate its spatial position to control the flight dynamics, which is done by Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). MEMS Inertial sensors have made possible to reduce the size and power consumption of such units. Commonly the flight instrumentation operates independently of the main processor. This work presents an instrumentation block design, which reduces size and power consumption of the complete system of a MUAV. This is done by coupling the inertial sensors to the main processor without considering any intermediate level of processing aside. Using Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) reduces the number of intermediate components, increasing MUAV reliability. One advantage is the possibility to control several different sensors with a single communication bus. This feature of the MEMS sensors makes a smaller and less complex MUAV design possible.

Estrada-Marmolejo, R.; García-Torales, G.; Torres-Ortega, H. H.; Flores, J. L.

2011-09-01

240

A Simplified Instrument for Recording and Indicating Frequency and Intensity of Icing Conditions Encountered in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument for recording and indicating the frequency and intensity of aircraft icing conditions encountered in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis Laboratory to obtain statistical icing data over world-wide air routes during routine airline operations. The operation of the instrument is based on the creation of a differential pressure between an ice-free total-pressure system and a total-pressure system in which small total-pressure holes vented to static pressure are allowed to plug with ice accretion. The simplicity of this operating principle permits automatic operation, and provides relative freedom from maintenance and operating problems. The complete unit weighing only 18 pounds records icing rate, airspeed, and altitude on photographic film and provides visual indications of icing intensity to the pilot.

Perkins, Porter J; Mccullough, Stuart; Lewis, Ralph D

1951-01-01

241

A flight test system for the determination of the stability and control derivatives of a general aviation aircraft  

E-print Network

This volume documents the research effort which provided a flight test system and flight data to determine the stability and control derivatives for the Rockwell Commander N700AE aircraft. The presented research was conducted from June 1994 to May...

Oehl, David Christopher

2012-06-07

242

Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing  

SciTech Connect

One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.

Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.

1999-03-01

243

Pathfinder aircraft liftoff on altitude record setting flight of 71,500 feet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pathfinder aircraft has set a new unofficial world record for high-altitude flight of over 71,500 feet for solar-powered aircraft at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. Pathfinder was designed and manufactured by AeroVironment, Inc, of Simi Valley, California, and was operated by the firm under a jointly sponsored research agreement with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder's record-breaking flight occurred July 7, 1997. The aircraft took off at 11:34 a.m. PDT, passed its previous record altitude of 67,350 feet at about 5:45 p.m. and then reached its new record altitude at 7 p.m. The mission ended with a perfect nighttime landing at 2:05 a.m. PDT July 8. The new record is the highest altitude ever attained by a propellor-driven aircraft. Before Pathfinder, the altitude record for propellor-driven aircraft was 67,028 feet, set by the experimental Boeing Condor remotely piloted aircraft. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1997-01-01

244

Modeling and parameter uncertainties for aircraft flight control system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Values of plant dynamic uncertainties for some recent aircraft design and development programs are given. Histories of pertinent aerodynamic, inertial, and structural parameter variations are given for a period of time from program initiation to aircraft certification. These data can be used as typical of future vehicles so that control system design concepts are evaluated with due consideration to their sensitivity to uncertainties in plant dynamics.

Mcdonnell, J. D.; Berg, R. A.; Heimbaugh, R. M.; Felton, C. A.

1977-01-01

245

14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...  

...communication and navigation equipment suitable...the following aircraft: (i) Airplanes...attitude instrument system usable through...attitude instrument system usable through... If VOR navigation equipment is...registered civil aircraft within the 50...suitable RNAV system. When the...

2014-01-01

246

14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...communication and navigation equipment suitable...the following aircraft: (i) Airplanes...attitude instrument system usable through...attitude instrument system usable through... If VOR navigation equipment is...registered civil aircraft within the 50...suitable RNAV system. When the...

2013-01-01

247

14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...communication and navigation equipment suitable...the following aircraft: (i) Airplanes...attitude instrument system usable through...attitude instrument system usable through... If VOR navigation equipment is...registered civil aircraft within the 50...suitable RNAV system. When the...

2012-01-01

248

14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...communication and navigation equipment suitable...the following aircraft: (i) Airplanes...attitude instrument system usable through...attitude instrument system usable through... If VOR navigation equipment is...registered civil aircraft within the 50...suitable RNAV system. When the...

2011-01-01

249

14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...communication and navigation equipment suitable...the following aircraft: (i) Airplanes...attitude instrument system usable through...attitude instrument system usable through... If VOR navigation equipment is...registered civil aircraft within the 50...suitable RNAV system. When the...

2010-01-01

250

Flight Validation of a Handling Qualities Metric for a Damaged Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: a) Develop an asymmetric handling qualities metric to predict cross coupling effects of a damaged aircraft: 1) Initial use of U.S Army Aeronautical Design Specification ADS-33; 2) Modification as required based on flight test results. b) Simulation and Flight Validation of proposed metric: 1) F-16 VISTA (March 2010); 2) F-18 Full Scale Test bed (Potential Early Experiment); and 3) Flight Simulators (GTM, ACFS, F-18 HILS). c) Provide flight validated metric and tool box to control law designers.

Cogan, Bruce R.

2009-01-01

251

Design criteria for integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the US/UK STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

Franklin, James A.

1993-01-01

252

Comparison of model and flight test data for an augmented jet flap STOL research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic design data for the Augmented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft or commonly known as the Augmentor-Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft was based on results of tests carried out on a large scale research model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Since the model differs in some respects from the aircraft, precise correlation between tunnel and flight test is not expected, however the major areas of confidence derived from the wind tunnel tests are delineated, and for the most part, tunnel results compare favorably with flight experience. In some areas the model tests were known to be nonrepresentative so that a degree of uncertainty remained: these areas of greater uncertainty are identified, and discussed in the light of subsequent flight tests.

Cook, W. L.; Whittley, D. C.

1975-01-01

253

Flight service evaluation of advanced composite ailerons on the L-1011 transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight service evaluation of composite inboard ailerons on the L-1011 are covered. Four shipsets of graphite/epoxy composite inboard ailerons were installed on L-1011 aircraft for this maintenance evaluation program. These include two Delta aircraft and two TWA aircraft. A fifth shipset of composite ailerons were installed in 1980 on Lockheed's flight test L-1011. A visual inspection was also conducted on these components. No visible damage was observed on any of the composite ailerons, and no maintenance action has occurred on any of the parts except for repainting of areas with paint loss. Flight hours on the airline components at the time of inspection ranged from 2886 to 4190 hours, after approximately 1 year of service.

Stone, R. H.

1983-01-01

254

Flight service evaluation of advanced composite ailerons on the L-1011 transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight service evaluation of composite inboard ailerons on the L-1011 is discussed. This is the second annual report of the maintenance evaluation program, and covers the period from July 1983 when the first yearly inspections were completed, through July 1984. Four shipsets of graphite/epoxy composite ailerons were installed on L-1011 aircraft for this maintenance evaluation program. These include two Delta aircraft and two TWA aircraft. A fifth shipset of composite ailerons were installed in 1980 on Lockheed's flight test L-1011. A visual inspection was also conducted on these components. No visible damage was observed on any of the composite ailerons, and no maintenance action has occurred on any of the composite parts except for repainting of areas with paint loss. Flight hours on the airline components at the time of inspection ranged from 6318 to 6989 hours, after approximately 2 years of service.

Stone, R. H.

1984-01-01

255

14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and emergency maneuvers to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required...and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required...training devices, or both, to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction...

2010-01-01

256

14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and emergency maneuvers to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required...and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required...training devices, or both, to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction...

2010-01-01

257

Towards an Improved Pilot-Vehicle Interface for Highly Automated Aircraft: Evaluation of the Haptic Flight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control automation and interaction paradigm (e.g., manual, autopilot, flight management system) used on virtually all large highly automated aircraft has long been an exemplar of breakdowns in human factors and human-centered design. An alternative paradigm is the Haptic Flight Control System (HFCS) that is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Naturalistic Flight Deck Concept. The HFCS uses only stick and throttle for easily and intuitively controlling the actual flight of the aircraft without losing any of the efficiency and operational benefits of the current paradigm. Initial prototypes of the HFCS are being evaluated and this paper describes one such evaluation. In this evaluation we examined claims regarding improved situation awareness, appropriate workload, graceful degradation, and improved pilot acceptance. Twenty-four instrument-rated pilots were instructed to plan and fly four different flights in a fictitious airspace using a moderate fidelity desktop simulation. Three different flight control paradigms were tested: Manual control, Full Automation control, and a simplified version of the HFCS. Dependent variables included both subjective (questionnaire) and objective (SAGAT) measures of situation awareness, workload (NASA-TLX), secondary task performance, time to recognize automation failures, and pilot preference (questionnaire). The results showed a statistically significant advantage for the HFCS in a number of measures. Results that were not statistically significant still favored the HFCS. The results suggest that the HFCS does offer an attractive and viable alternative to the tactical components of today s FMS/autopilot control system. The paper describes further studies that are planned to continue to evaluate the HFCS.

Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

2012-01-01

258

The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two B707-type research aircraft of the 452^nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base were deployed to study the Leonid meteor storm of 1999 over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered an international team of 35 researchers observing conditions free of clouds and low altitude extinction at a prime location for viewing the storm. This 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign followed a similar effort in 1998, improving upon mission strategy and scope. As before, spectroscopic and imaging experiments targeted meteors and persistent trains, but also airglow, aurora, elves and sprites. The research aimed to address outstanding questions in astrobiology, planetary science, astronomy, and upper atmospheric research. In addition, USAF co-sponsored the mission to provide near real-time flux measurements for space weather awareness. First results are presented in these issues of Earth, Moon, and Planets in preparation for future missions that will target the exceptional Leonid returns of 2001 and 2002. An early review of the scientific achievements in the context of campaign objectives is given.

Jenniskens, Peter; Butow, Steven J.; Fonda, Mark

259

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Model Validation Using On-Board Sensing and Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight dynamics model has been developed to predict the stability and flying characteristics of small UAVs. Extreme flight environments can be created in the simulation for autopilot testing. Another important application of the UAV flight dynamics model is dead reckoning, a process of estimating the aircraft's motions from the last known state during the interval

D. R. Wong; Q. Ou; M. Sinclair; Y. J. Li; X. Q. Chen; A. Marburg

2008-01-01

260

Analysis and Simulation for a Spotlight-Mode Aircraft SAR in Circular Flight Path  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spotlight aircraft SAR in a circular flight path can efficiently obtain an image with very high azimuth resolution or a wider azimuth viewing angle. An analysis on the spotlight SAR is made regarding the required PRF, the predicted resolution, and the computation complexity as a function of the aircraft altitude and the distance between a target and the center of the flight path projection. An efficient processing algorithm based on the exact wide beam spectrum is presented. The results of simulation indicate that the impulse responses meet the predicted resolution performance.

Jin, M.; Chen, M.

1993-01-01

261

Aircraft ground vibration testing at NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards Air Force Base, California, a variety of ground vibration test techniques has been applied to an assortment of new or modified aerospace research vehicles. This paper presents a summary of these techniques and the experience gained from various applications. The role of ground vibration testing in the qualification of new and modified aircraft for flight is discussed. Data are presented for a wide variety of aircraft and component tests, including comparisons of sine-dwell, single-input random, and multiple-input random excitation methods on a JetStar airplane.

Kehoe, Michael W.

1987-01-01

262

Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

2012-01-01

263

Some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that impacted the advancement of aeronautics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the three aerodynamic pillars of aeronautics; namely, theory/CFD, wind-tunnel experiments and flight tests, and notes that at any given time these three are not necessarily at the same level of maturity. After an initial history of these three pillars, the focus narrows to a brief history of some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that have impacted the advancement of aeronautics in recent decades. They include the F-106, Concorde, SR-71, light-weight fighters (F-16, F/A-18), and F-16XL. These aircraft share in common the utilization of vortical flow and have flown at transonic speeds during a part of the flight envelope. Due to the vast amount of information from flight and CFD that has recently become available for the F-16XL, this aircraft is highlighted and its results detailed. Lastly, it is interesting to note that, though complicated, vortical flows over the F-16XL aircraft at subsonic speeds can be reliably and generally well-predicted with the current CFD flow solvers. However, these solvers still have some problems in matching flight pressure data at transonic speeds. That this problem has been highlighted is both an advancement in aeronautics and a tempting prize to those who would seek its solution.

Lamar, John E.

2009-08-01

264

Low order equivalent models of highly augmented aircraft determined from flight data using maximum likelihood estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of a study of the feasibility of using low order equivalent mathematical models of a highly augmented aircraft, the F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW), for flying qualities research. Increasingly complex models were formulated and evaluated using flight data and maximum likelihood estimation techniques. The aircraft actuator was modeled alone first. Next the equivalent derivatives were used to model the longitudinal unaugmented F-8 DFBW aircraft dynamics. The most complex model incorporated a pure time shift of the pilot input, a first order lag, and the basic longitudinal airframe model. This same model was then implemented for the F-8 DFBW aircraft in a highly augmented mode. Excellent matching of the dynamics resulted for this model, indicating that low order equivalent models which are good representations of the highly augmented F-8 DFBW aircraft can be formulated with these methods.

Shafer, M. F.

1980-01-01

265

Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

2005-01-01

266

Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

Carter, John F.

1997-01-01

267

Flight experiments using the front-side control technique during piloted approach and landing in a powered lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential features of using pitch attitude for glidepath control in conjunction with longitudinal thrust modulation for speed control are described, using a simple linearized model for a powered-lift STOL aircraft operating on the backside of the drag curve and at a fixed setting of propulsive lift. It is shown that an automatic speed-hold system incorporating heave-damping augmentation can allow use of the front-side control technique with satisfactory handling qualities, and the results of previous flight investigations are reviewed. Manual control considerations, as they might be involved following failure of the automatic system, are emphasized. The influence of alternative cockpit controller configurations and flight-director display features were assessed for their effect on the control task, which consisted of a straight-in steep approach flown at constant speed in simulated instrument conditions.

Hindson, W. S.; Hardy, G. H.; Innis, R. C.

1982-01-01

268

Stratospheric Flight of Three Mars Surface Instrument Prototypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Analog Site Testbed for Readiness Advancement (ASTRA) is a high-altitude balloon platform for the testing of Mars surface instrument systems. In September 2012 three prototype instruments, a mass spectrometer and two anemometers, were taken to the 6 mbar pressure level of Earth's stratosphere (~34.5 km) above New Mexico to demonstrate their current capabilities and identify the critical path-to-flight steps for future advancement. Each of the instrument systems deployed on ASTRA were rated at TRL 4 at the start of the project. Through laboratory development, environmental testing, and the ASTRA balloon flight, each has advanced to an overall system TRL of 5, with specific subsystems reaching TRL 6. The results from the Rapid Acquisition Mass Spectrometer (RAMS), the Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA), and the Single-Axis Sonic Anemometer (SASA) from the mid-September flight are presented, with focus given to both scientific results of the terrestrial atmospheric investigations, and the engineering and technical performance of the individual instrument systems and the balloon platform. The RAMS instrument has unique ion-imaging optics which permit the acquisition of a complete mass spectrum in a single CCD frame (~50 ms minimum). This allows RAMS to see rapid fluctuations in atmospheric constituents (necessary for the study of, for instance, vapor fluxes to and from the Mars surface) and has potential applications for laser ablation mass spectroscopy. The HWA is the latest generation of hot-wire anemometer, with heritage from the Mars Pathfinder MET instrument, and the ATMIS sensors developed for the Mars Polar Lander and the NetLander project. In addition to wind speed, a thermocouple cage around the hot filament detects heat plume direction, thus permitting 2-D wind vectors to be established. The SASA is a proof-of-capability device for an eventual three-axis sonic anemometer design. Developed under PIDDP funding by Dr. Don Banfield of Cornell (thus a contributed instrument to ASTRA), the SASA uses novel ultrasonic transducers capable of acoustic coupling to the thin Mars atmosphere. Rapid resolution of wind vectors (order 20 Hz), eventual 3-D capability, an open sensing volume, and high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision (order 2 cm/s) make this technique attractive for the measurement of turbulent eddies in the planetary boundary layer.

Hudson, T. L.; Neidholdt, E.; Banfield, D. J.; Kokorowski, M.; Kobie, B.; Diaz, E.; Gordon, S.; Doan, D.; Salami, M.

2012-12-01

269

Some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that impacted the advancement of aeronautics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the three aerodynamic pillars of aeronautics; namely, theory\\/CFD, wind-tunnel experiments and flight tests, and notes that at any given time these three are not necessarily at the same level of maturity. After an initial history of these three pillars, the focus narrows to a brief history of some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that have impacted

John E. Lamar

2009-01-01

270

Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The airborne software then calculates a speed adjustment to null that difference over the remaining flight trajectory. Follow-on phases still under development will expand the concept to all types of aircraft, arriving from any direction, merging at different fixes and altitudes, and to any airport. This paper describes the implementation phases of the Merging and Spacing Concept, and provides high-level results of research conducted to date.

Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

2006-01-01

271

Celebrating 100 Years of Flight: Testing Wing Designs in Aircraft  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an investigation involving several designs of airplane wings in trial flight simulations based on a NASA CONNECT program. Students' experiences with data collection and interpretation are highlighted. (Contains 5 figures.)

Pugalee, David K.; Nusinov, Chuck; Giersch, Chris; Royster, David; Pinelli, Thomas E.

2005-01-01

272

Agile flight control techniques for a fixed-wing aircraft  

E-print Network

As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) become more involved in challenging mission objectives, the need for agility controlled flight becomes more of a necessity. The ability to navigate through constrained environments as ...

Sobolic, Frantisek Michal

2009-01-01

273

The flight test program for the hydrogen powered NASP/X-30 research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASP/X-30 will be the first U.S. manned aircraft to be powered with hydrogen. Flight testing the X-30 powered with liquid and/or slush hydrogen along with its high speed capability will present unique challenges to the flight test community. The paper describes the overall X-30 flight research program along with some of the key technology challenges. A flight test envelope expansion concept is described along with typical mission profiles. Flight test problems unique to this class of vehicle will be outlined as well as some preliminary thoughts as to solutions to those problems. The X-30 ground operations with hydrogen must be compatible with the normal operations at the flight test site. A concept for the ground support system will be introduced.

Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Armstrong, Johnny G.

1991-01-01

274

Ground Vibration and Flight Flutter Tests of the Single-Seat F-16XL Aircraft with a Modified Wing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA single-seat F-16XL aircraft was modified by the addition of a glove to the left wing. Vibration tests were conducted on the ground to assess the changes to the aircraft caused by the glove. Flight Luther testing was conducted on the aircraft with...

D. F. Voracek

1993-01-01

275

Real-time flight test analysis and display techniques for the X-29A aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator flight envelope expansion program and the subsequent flight research phase gave impetus to the development of several innovative real-time analysis and display techniques. These new techniques produced significant improvements in flight test productivity, flight research capabilities, and flight safety. These techniques include real-time measurement and display of in-flight structural loads, dynamic structural mode frequency and damping, flight control system dynamic stability and control response, aeroperformance drag polars, and aircraft specific excess power. Several of these analysis techniques also provided for direct comparisons of flight-measured results with analytical predictions. The aeroperformance technique was made possible by the concurrent development of a new simplified in-flight net thrust computation method. To achieve these levels of on-line flight test analysis, integration of ground and airborne systems was required. The capability of NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility's Western Aeronautical Test Range was a key factor in enabling implementation of these methods.

Hicks, John W.; Petersen, Kevin L.

1988-01-01

276

Real-time flight test analysis and display techniques for the X-29A aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator flight envelope expansion program and the subsequent flight research phase gave impetus to the development of several innovative real-time analysis and display techniques. These new techniques produced significant improvements in flight test productivity, flight research capabilities, and flight safety. These techniques include real-time measurement and display of in-flight structural loads, dynamic structural mode frequency and damping, flight control system dynamic stability and control response, aeroperformance drag polars, and aircraft specific excess power. Several of these analysis techniques also provided for direct comparisons of flight-measured results with analytical predictions. The aeroperformance technique was made possible by the concurrent development of a new simplified in-flight net thrust computation method. To achieve these levels of on-line flight test analysis, integration of ground and airborne systems was required. The capability of NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility's Western Aeronautical Test Range was a key factor to enable implementation of these methods.

Hicks, John W.; Petersen, Kevin L.

1989-01-01

277

Evaluation of a high time resolution aircraft instrument for elemental and oxidized mercury.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved aircraft instrumentation and more extensive observations are clearly needed to help understand the global mercury cycle. Our previous research at the Mt. Bachelor observatory has shown that high levels of oxidized mercury (or reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) can be present in the remote free troposphere (Swartzendruber et al., 2006) At this point we have little understanding of the source of this RGM. In order to further investigate the extent and sources of oxidized mercury species in the free troposphere, we developed a high time resolution Hg speciation platform for an aircraft. The high time resolution (2.5 minute) measurement is accomplished by taking the difference between total Hg and elemental Hg. The high time resolution measurements are complimented by a direct, integrated measurement (typically 30-60 minutes) of the RGM by collection on an annular denuder. The instrument was tested in the laboratory using spikes of an RGM proxy (HgCl2) and then on five flights in Washington State in the summer of 2008. Initial results show the technique is successful at identifying high concentrations of RGM with a 2.5 minute time resolution. The data support observations at MBO of intermittent enhancements of RGM in free tropospheric air. They also show that while descending, ozone rich, upper tropospheric air masses can contain enhanced RGM, RGM can also be present in some air masses which appear to have a marine boundary layer influence. Submicron particulate mercury concentrations were below the detection limit and were negligible in comparison to the RGM concentrations.

Swartzendruber, P. C.; Jaffe, D.; Finley, B.

2008-12-01

278

Research Aircraft - Controlling Instruments from the Ground in a Secure and Authenticated Fashion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At NCAR's Research Aviation Facility (RAF) we're finding a number of factors motivating the desire to be able to control instruments fielded on the aircraft we operate for the NSF. Investigators are increasingly interested in fielding greater numbers of research instruments for projects, instruments are becoming increasingly complicated, and adjustment of instrument behavior to adapt to changing conditions around the aircraft and to meet project goals are just a few of these factors. Usually there are not enough seats on the aircraft to accommodate all the instrument PIs and crew members who do occupy the seats are being asked to monitor and control increasing numbers of instruments about which they have limited knowledge. We use Satellite Communications (SatCom) to allow researchers to communicate with colleagues/crew on the aircraft and so that some of the real-time data can be sent to the ground for helping to optimize the research. Historically, challenges of authentication, security and the disruptive SatCom system have motivated us to avoid providing for remote instrument control. Now we have now reached an era where remote instrument control is a necessity. This poster will discuss the approach we are implementing to provide this capability for our instrument investigators. Particular attention is paid to how we assure authentication and security so that only the instrument investigators are capable of communicating with their instruments.;

Baltzer, T.; Martin, C.; Fawaz, S.; Webster, C.

2012-12-01

279

A hybrid frequency response technique and its application to aircraft flight flutter testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large aircraft, such as the Lockheed C-5A, can be forced to resonate on the ground in a large number of closely coupled vibration modes which involve the combined motion of lifting and control surfaces, fuselage and engines. During flight, atmospheric disturbances can also excite these vibrational resonances, though, under normal conditions, they are damped to a safe level because the

J. M. Simmons; J. W. Benson; J. P. Fiedler

1969-01-01

280

Numerical simulation of flutter validated by flight-test data for TU204 aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive multidisciplinary aircraft design code was used for numerical simulation of Tupolev-204 airplane in-flight flutter tests. Dynamic structure loading is generated by symmetric and antisymmetric harmonic excitation of spoilers with smooth frequency sweep from 1 to 5 Hz. Major features of theoretical approach are described. Calculated and experimental results are compared. The influence of unsteady aerodynamic forces and onboard

V. D. Chuban; V. I. Ivanteyev; B. J. Chudayev; E. P. Avdeyev; V. A. Shvilkin

2002-01-01

281

Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

282

A Full Envelope Small Commercial Aircraft Flight Control Design Using Multivariable Proportional-Integral Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief deals with the application of linear parameter varying control concepts to the design of a full envelope flight control system for commercial aircrafts. The proposed controller is fixed to have a multivariable proportional-integral structure. A linear matrix inequalities-based technique is proposed to account for variations both in the reference model and in the plant. Some numerical simulations show

Massimiliano Mattei; Valerio Scordamaglia

2008-01-01

283

Enhanced QAR Flight Data Encoding and Decoding Algorithm for Civil Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft recording device is aimed at investigating the accident factor and preventing the accident due to the pilot's bad habit, poor maintenance and so on. This paper describes the algorithm concerning the data recording & decoding of QAR (quick access recorder) which is the target of FOQA (flight operation quality assurance), and also illustrates the overall process of data conversion,

Jae-Hyung Kim; Joon Lyou

2006-01-01

284

Estimation of Aircraft Taxi-out Fuel Burn using Flight Data Recorder Archives  

E-print Network

of Aeronautics and Astronautics #12;by engine manufacturers.3 Recently published studies4,5 have shown of a flight accounts for a significant fraction of total fuel burn for aircraft. In addition, surface fuel provided by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Our analysis shows that in addition to the total

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

285

Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

1979-01-01

286

Correlation of low speed wind tunnel and flight test data for V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of wind tunnel test data for correlation purposes of the same V/STOL aircraft tested in flight is very limited. This is due in a large part to size limitations of wind tunnels and the number of wind tunnels available for testing of full-scale aircraft. Wind tunnel tests are described for two research aircraft - the XV-5B fan-in-wing aircraft and the YOV-10 RCF (rotating cylinder flap) aircraft - in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The tests were conducted specifically to provide for correlation between wind tunnel and in-flight aerodynamics and noise test data. Correlation between aerodynamic and noise data are presented and testing techniques that are related to the accuracy of the data, or that might affect the correlations, are discussed. The correlation of noise measurements made with a J-85 engine mounted on a F-106 aircraft during low altitude flyovers with the same J-85 engine mounted on a model and tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel are also reported.

Cook, W. L.; Hickey, D. H.

1976-01-01

287

14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; (5) Use...efficient operation of aircraft under instrument...instructor in an aircraft, or in a flight...instruments; (5) Navigation systems; (6)...

2012-01-01

288

14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.  

... (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; (5) Use...efficient operation of aircraft under instrument...instructor in an aircraft, or in a flight...instruments; (5) Navigation systems; (6)...

2014-01-01

289

14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; (5) Use...efficient operation of aircraft under instrument...instructor in an aircraft, or in a flight...instruments; (5) Navigation systems; (6)...

2010-01-01

290

14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; (5) Use...efficient operation of aircraft under instrument...instructor in an aircraft, or in a flight...instruments; (5) Navigation systems; (6)...

2013-01-01

291

14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; (5) Use...efficient operation of aircraft under instrument...instructor in an aircraft, or in a flight...instruments; (5) Navigation systems; (6)...

2011-01-01

292

A study for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study and preliminary design for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft are documented. Active control functions which can be demonstrated on the TIFS aircraft and the cost of preparing, equipping, and operating the TIFS aircraft for active control technology development are determined. It is shown that the TIFS aircraft is as a suitable test bed for inflight research and validation of many ACT concepts.

Chen, R. T. N.; Daughaday, H.; Andrisani, D., II; Till, R. D.; Weingarten, N. C.

1975-01-01

293

Induced Moment Effects of Formation Flight Using Two F/A-18 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous investigations into formation flight have shown the possibility for significant fuel savings through drag reduction. Using two F/A-18 aircraft, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has investigated flying aircraft in autonomous formation. Positioning the trailing airplane for best drag reduction requires investigation of the wingtip vortex effects induced by the leading airplane. A full accounting of the vortex effect on the trailing airplane is desired to validate vortex-effect prediction methods and provide a database for the design of a formation flight autopilot. A recent flight phase has mapped the complete wingtip vortex effects at two flight conditions with the trailing airplane at varying distances behind the leading one. Force and moment data at Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft and Mach 0.86 and an altitude of 36,000 ft have been obtained with 20, 55, 110, and 190 ft of longitudinal distance between the aircraft. The moments induced by the vortex on the trailing airplane were well within the pilot's ability to control. This report discusses the data analysis methods and vortex-induced effects on moments and side force. An assessment of the impact of the nonlinear vortex effects on the design of a formation autopilot is offered.

Hansen, Jennifer L.; Cobleigh, Brent R.

2002-01-01

294

The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

2007-04-01

295

Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

1999-01-01

296

Parameter estimation techniques and application in aircraft flight testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical papers presented at the symposium by selected representatives from industry, universities, and various Air Force, Navy, and NASA installations are given. The topics covered include the newest developments in identification techniques, the most recent flight-test experience, and the projected potential for the near future.

1974-01-01

297

Instrument Pilot: Airplane. Flight Test Guide, Part 61 Revised 1973, AC 61-56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This flight test guide is designed to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for Instrument Pilot Airplane Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information concerning pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test required for the Instrument Rating.…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

298

Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1988-01-01

299

Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

Seal, D. W.

1989-01-01

300

Intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst and cerebral gas embolism in an aircraft flight passenger.  

PubMed

Although it is estimated that > 1 billion passengers travel by air worldwide each year, the incidence of in-flight emergencies is low. However, due to nonstandardized reporting requirements for in-flight medical emergencies, the true incidence of pulmonary barotrauma in airplane passengers is unknown. We describe the case of a passenger with an asymptomatic intrapulmonary cyst in whom a severe case of cerebral gas embolism developed during an aircraft flight. The decrease in ambient pressure during the aircraft climb resulted in expansion of the cyst volume based on Boyle's law (pressure x volume = constant). Due to the cyst expansion, we believe tears in the wall led to the leakage of air into the surrounding vessels followed by brain gas emboli. Adult patients with intrapulmonary cysts should be strongly considered for cyst resection or should at least be advised to abstain from activities leading to considerable changes in ambient pressure. PMID:16899861

Almeida, Francisco Aécio; Desouza, Bryan X; Meyer, Thomas; Gregory, Susan; Greenspon, Lee

2006-08-01

301

Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter

1994-01-01

302

A USA Commercial Flight Track Database for Upper Tropospheric Aircraft Emission Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new air traffic database over the contiguous United States of America (USA) has been developed from a commercially available real-time product for 2001-2003 for all non-military flights above 25,000 ft. Both individual flight tracks and gridded spatially integrated flight legs are available. On average, approximately 24,000 high-altitude flights were recorded each day. The diurnal cycle of air traffic over the USA is characterized by a broad daytime maximum with a 0130-LT minimum and a mean day-night air traffic ratio of 2.4. Each week, the air traffic typically peaks on Thursday and drops to a low Saturday with a range of 18%. Flight density is greatest during late summer and least during winter. The database records the disruption of air traffic after the air traffic shutdown during September 2001. The dataset should be valuable for realistically simulating the atmospheric effects of aircraft in the upper troposphere.

Garber, Donald P.; Minnis, Patrick; Costulis, Kay P.

2003-01-01

303

Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

1986-01-01

304

A discussion of some proposed measurement techniques for hypersonic flight and instrumentation research experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors, instrumentation, and test techniques proposed for the Hypersonic Flight Instrumentation and Research Experiment are discussed. The project is concerned with Mach 4 to 16 flight at pressure altitudes of 50,000 to 150,000 feet. The developmental instrumentation for the program includes angle-of-attack sensors, transition sensors, skin-friction sensors, particle sensors, species-concentration sensors, and temperature and heat flux sensors. Support instrumentation (required to monitor basic flight parameters and to supply data from which the performance of the developmental instruments may be evaluated) considered include surface pressure sensors, inertial instrumentation, magnetic attitude sensors, and signal conditioning and data transmission instrumentation.

Hellbaum, R. F.; Garner, H. Douglas

1988-01-01

305

In-Flight Assessment of a Pursuit Guidance Display Format for Manually Flown Precision Instrument Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight evaluations of a pursuit guidance display system for manually flown precision instrument approaches were performed. The guidance system was integrated into the RASCAL JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The applicability of the pursuit guidance disp1aFs to the operation of Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) is made evident because the displays allow the pilot to fly a complex, multi-segment, descending, decelerating approach trajectory. The complex trajectory chosen for this in-flight assessment began from a downwind abeam position at 110 knots and was hand-flown to a 50 ft decision altitude at 40 knots using a rate-command/attitude-hold plus turn-coordination control system. The elements of the pursuit guidance format displayed on a 10-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel consisted of a flightpath vector and a "leader" aircraft as the pursuit guidance element. Approach guidance was based primarily on carrier-phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and secondarily on both medium accuracy inertial navigation unit states and air data computer states. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts were applied to the construction of display elements such as lateral/vertical deviation indicators and a tunnel that indicated to the pilot, in real-time, the performance with respect to RNP error bounds. The results of the flight evaluations of the guidance display show that precise path control for operating within tight RNP boundaries (RNP 0.007NM/24ft for initial approach, RNP 0.008NM/19ft for intermediate approach, and RNP 0.002NM/9ft for final approach) is attainable with minimal to moderate pilot workload.

Moralez, Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Hindson, William S.; Frost, Chad R.; Hardy, Gordon H.

2004-01-01

306

Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

307

Monitoring Disasters by Use of Instrumented Robotic Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are under way to develop data-acquisition, data-processing, and data-communication systems for monitoring disasters over large geographic areas by use of uninhabited aerial systems (UAS) robotic aircraft that are typically piloted by remote control. As integral parts of advanced, comprehensive disaster- management programs, these systems would provide (1) real-time data that would be used to coordinate responses to current disasters and (2) recorded data that would be used to model disasters for the purpose of mitigating the effects of future disasters and planning responses to them. The basic idea is to equip UAS with sensors (e.g., conventional video cameras and/or multispectral imaging instruments) and to fly them over disaster areas, where they could transmit data by radio to command centers. Transmission could occur along direct line-of-sight paths and/or along over-the-horizon paths by relay via spacecraft in orbit around the Earth. The initial focus is on demonstrating systems for monitoring wildfires; other disasters to which these developments are expected to be applicable include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, leaks of toxic chemicals, and military attacks. The figure depicts a typical system for monitoring a wildfire. In this case, instruments aboard a UAS would generate calibrated thermal-infrared digital image data of terrain affected by a wildfire. The data would be sent by radio via satellite to a data-archive server and image-processing computers. In the image-processing computers, the data would be rapidly geo-rectified for processing by one or more of a large variety of geographic-information- system (GIS) and/or image-analysis software packages. After processing by this software, the data would be both stored in the archive and distributed through standard Internet connections to a disaster-mitigation center, an investigator, and/or command center at the scene of the fire. Ground assets (in this case, firefighters and/or firefighting equipment) would also be monitored in real time by use of Global Positioning System (GPS) units and radio communication links between the assets and the UAS. In this scenario, the UAS would serve as a data-relay station in the sky, sending packets of information concerning the locations of assets to the image-processing computer, wherein this information would be incorporated into the geo-rectified images and maps. Hence, the images and maps would enable command-center personnel to monitor locations of assets in real time and in relation to locations affected by the disaster. Optionally, in case of a disaster that disrupted communications, the UAS could be used as an airborne communication relay station to partly restore communications to the affected area. A prototype of a system of this type was demonstrated in a project denoted the First Response Experiment (Project FiRE). In this project, a controlled outdoor fire was observed by use of a thermal multispectral scanning imager on a UAS that delivered image data to a ground station via a satellite uplink/ downlink telemetry system. At the ground station, the image data were geo-rectified in nearly real time for distribution via the Internet to firefighting managers. Project FiRE was deemed a success in demonstrating several advances essential to the eventual success of the continuing development effort.

Wegener, Steven S.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Dunagan, Steven E.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Buechel, Sally W.; Stoneburner, Jay; Schoenung, Susan M.

2009-01-01

308

EUV Solar Instrument Development at the Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three sounding rocket instrument programs currently underway at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center represent major advances in solar observations, made possible by improvements in EUV optics and detector technology. The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Instrument (SUMI) is an EUV spectropolarimeter designed to measure the Zeeman splitting of two chromospheric EUV lines, the 280 nm MgII and 155 nm CIV lines. SUMI directly observes the magnetic field in the low-beta region where most energetic phenomena are though to originate. In conjunction with visible-light magnetographs, this observation allows us to track the evolution of the magnetic field as it evolves from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. SUMI incorporates a normal incidence Cassegrain telescope, a MgF2 double-Wollaston polarizing beam splitter and two TVLS (toroidal varied line space) gratings, and is capable of observing two orthogonal polarizations in two wavelength bands simultaneously. SUMI has been fully assembled and tested, and currently scheduled for launch in summer of 2010. The High-resolution Coronal Imager is a normal-incidence EUV imaging telescope designed to achieve 0.2 arcsecond resolution, with a pixel size of 0.1 arcsecond. This is a factor of 25 improvement in aerial resolution over the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE). Images obtained by TRACE indicate presence of unresolved structures; higher resolution images will reveal the scale and topology of structures that make up the corona. The telescope mirrors are currently being fabricated, and the instrument has been funded for flight. In addition, a Lyman alpha spectropolarimeter is under development in collaboration with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This aims to detect the linear polarization in the chromosphere caused by the Hanle effect. Horizontal magnetic fields in the chromosphere are expected to be detectable as polarization near disk center, and off-limb observations will reveal the magnetic field structure of filaments and prominences. Laboratory tests of candidate optical components are currently underway.

Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J. W.; Davis, J. M.; West, E.; Golub, L.; Korreck, K. E.; Tsuneta, S.; Bando, T.

2009-12-01

309

Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

2009-01-01

310

Aircraft parameter identification for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parameter identification study was conducted to identify a detailed aircraft mathematical model for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system that aims to detect, identify, and accommodate for sensor and actuator failures. Specifically, a mathematical model was identified under nominal conditions for two aircraft platforms, and a model was developed for one platform under actuator failure conditions. These models are to be used in flight control law design and to account for actuator failures on the primary control surfaces for one of the research platforms. In order to accurately model the aircraft behavior following a control surface failure, the effects of an individual surface on the aircraft dynamics was estimated. Since an individual control surface deflection---for example in the event of a locked actuator---causes a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics, additional terms were identified in the state space and stability and control derivative mathematical models. These models were derived from measured flight data acquired from pilot and automated computer-injected maneuvers under both nominal and failure conditions. From this analysis, the stability and control derivatives were extracted to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments on each aircraft. These aerodynamics were next introduced into a simulation environment to validate the accuracy of the identified mathematical models. A Data Compendium (DATCOM) -- based analysis was conducted in order to provide a means of comparison of the models obtained through the parameter identification study and to provide constraints on parameter optimization. Finally, a confidence interval analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the estimated values. Several simulation studies were conducted to validate the accuracy of the models for each research platform, focusing on both nominal and primary control surface failure conditions where applicable. The model outputs were compared to the measured flight data from the two respective research platforms to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters.

Phillips, Kerri B.

311

Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

2000-01-01

312

Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

313

Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

Deckert, J. C.

1983-01-01

314

Flight test results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are examined critically, especially with respect to future applications. Maneuvers that allow the observation of stability derivatives for flexible aircraft are detailed. Considerations for the design of autopilots for future human power aircraft and high-altitude RPV's are discussed. Techniques useful in estimating the power required to fly aircraft of very high lift to drag ratio are described.

Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.

1988-01-01

315

What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

1995-01-01

316

Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS 1A) - Instrumentation and flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS 1A) instrument, launched on the Shuttle Discovery (STS-39) on 28 April 1991, was developed to characterize the phenomenology and dynamics of ionospheric processes. The primary objective of the CIRRIS 1A mission was to obtain spectral and spatial measurements of infrared atmospheric emissions in the spectral region between 2.5 and 25 microns over altitudes ranging from the Earth's surface to 260 km. The primary sensors are a Michelson interferometer/spectrometer and a multi-spectral radiometer, which share a common high off-axis rejection telescope. The sensor/telescope complex is enclosed in a cyogenic dewar. Excellent data were obtained from this mission, and preliminary analysis shows that all sensors performed well. This paper describes the experiment hardware, summarizes instrument performance during flight, and presents examples of significant results.

Bartschi, Brent; Steed, Allan; Blakeley, Jeffery; Ahmadjian, Mark; Griffin, Jack; Nadile, Richard

1993-01-01

317

Pathfinder aircraft prepared for flight showing solar cell arrays on wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar cell arrays, which cover about 75 percent of its upper wing surface, are clearly evident in this view of the Pathfinder solar-electric aircraft. The solar arrays are capable not only of absorbing direct sunlight, but can also absorb light reflected from the ground through the transparent lower surface of the 98-foot-long wing. Engineers and technicians from Pathfinder's developer, AeroVironment, Inc., conducted a successful two-hour check-out flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on Nov. 19, 1996. The craft then underwent preperations at AeroVironment's Simi Valley, California, facility for a new series of flight tests in Hawaii, during summer, 1997. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

1996-01-01

318

Expanding a flutter envelope using data from accelerating flight: Application to the F-16 fighter aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the destructive nature of flutter, flutter testing is a mandatory requirement for certification of both civilian and military aircraft. However, along with the complexity of newer aircraft, the time and cost associated with flutter testing has increased dramatically. Considering that many of the test techniques and analysis methods used to perform flutter testing date back to the 1950s and 1960's it may be time to take a fresh look at how flutter testing can best be accomplished. This thesis revisits flutter testing techniques and proposes an alternative to traditional flutter testing. The alternative uses flight test data from an aircraft that is performing an acceleration to clear the flutter envelope of the aircraft. Four academic issues arise from this new test approach. (1) Are frequencies and dampings affected by the acceleration of the aircraft? (2) Can parameter identification algorithms extract frequency and damping values from the time varying data? (3) Can the vibration response at airspeeds (or Mach numbers) beyond which the aircraft has accelerated be anticipated? (4) What formal criteria can be used to determine when the aircraft needs to end the acceleration and terminate the test point? The academic contribution of this thesis is to address these issues. It is shown that although the frequencies and damping values do change the change is so small that it is irrelevant. It is also shown that by taking small windows of data, within which the change in parameters is small, it is possible to accurately identify parameters from the time varying data. Finally it is shown that at least in principal parameters can be predicted using data from sub-critical airspeeds, and that testing can be discontinued before an unstable flight condition is reached.

Harris, Charles A.

319

Estimation of Handling Qualities Parameters of the Tu-144 Supersonic Transport Aircraft from Flight Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low order equivalent system (LOES) models for the Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft were identified from flight test data. The mathematical models were given in terms of transfer functions with a time delay by the military standard MIL-STD-1797A, "Flying Qualities of Piloted Aircraft," and the handling qualities were predicted from the estimated transfer function coefficients. The coefficients and the time delay in the transfer functions were estimated using a nonlinear equation error formulation in the frequency domain. Flight test data from pitch, roll, and yaw frequency sweeps at various flight conditions were used for parameter estimation. Flight test results are presented in terms of the estimated parameter values, their standard errors, and output fits in the time domain. Data from doublet maneuvers at the same flight conditions were used to assess the predictive capabilities of the identified models. The identified transfer function models fit the measured data well and demonstrated good prediction capabilities. The Tu-144 was predicted to be between level 2 and 3 for all longitudinal maneuvers and level I for all lateral maneuvers. High estimates of the equivalent time delay in the transfer function model caused the poor longitudinal rating.

Curry, Timothy J.; Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

320

Flight testing a V/STOL aircraft to identify a full-envelope aerodynamic model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight-test techniques are being used to generate a data base for identification of a full-envelope aerodynamic model of a V/STOL fighter aircraft, the YAV-8B Harrier. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventionally flight and back to hover, STOL operation, and normal cruise. Standard V/STOL operation, and normal cruise. Standard V/STOL procedures such as vertical takeoff and landings, and short takeoff and landings are used to gather data in the powered-lift flight regime. Long (3-5-min) maneuvers which include a variety of input types are used to obtain large-amplitude control and response excitations. The aircraft is under continuous radar tracking; a laser tracker is used for V/STOL operations near the ground. Tracking data are used with state-estimation techniques to check data consistency and to derive unmeasured variables, for example, angular accelerations. A propulsion model of the YAV-8B's engine and reaction control system is used to isolate aerodynamic forces and moments for model identification. Representative V/STOL flight data are presented. The processing of a typical short-takeoff and slow-landing maneuver is illustrated.

Mcnally, B. David; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

1988-01-01

321

Flight testing a V/STOL aircraft to identify a full-envelope aerodynamic model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight-test techniques are being used to generate a data base for identification of a full-envelope aerodynamic model of a V/STOL fighter aircraft, the YAV-8B Harrier. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventional flight and back to hover, STOL operation, and normal cruise. Standard V/STOL procedures such as vertical takeoff and landings, and short takeoff and landings are used to gather data in the powered-lift flight regime. Long (3 to 5 min) maneuvers which include a variety of input types are used to obtain large-amplitude control and response excitations. The aircraft is under continuous radar tracking; a laser tracker is used for V/STOL operations near the ground. Tracking data are used with state-estimation techniques to check data consistency and to derive unmeasured variables, for example, angular accelerations. A propulsion model of the YAV-8B's engine and reaction control system is used to isolate aerodynamic forces and moments for model identification. Representative V/STOL flight data are presented. The processing of a typical short takeoff and slow landing maneuver is illustrated.

Mcnally, B. David; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

1988-01-01

322

Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2006-01-01

323

In-flight alignment using H ? filter for strapdown INS on aircraft.  

PubMed

In-flight alignment is an effective way to improve the accuracy and speed of initial alignment for strapdown inertial navigation system (INS). During the aircraft flight, strapdown INS alignment was disturbed by lineal and angular movements of the aircraft. To deal with the disturbances in dynamic initial alignment, a novel alignment method for SINS is investigated in this paper. In this method, an initial alignment error model of SINS in the inertial frame is established. The observability of the system is discussed by piece-wise constant system (PWCS) theory and observable degree is computed by the singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. It is demonstrated that the system is completely observable, and all the system state parameters can be estimated by optimal filter. Then a H ? filter was designed to resolve the uncertainty of measurement noise. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reach a better accuracy under the dynamic disturbance condition. PMID:24511300

Pei, Fu-Jun; Liu, Xuan; Zhu, Li

2014-01-01

324

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

Bauer, Jeff

2007-01-01

325

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

Bauer, Jeff

2007-01-01

326

Flight test evaluation of predicted light aircraft drag, performance, and stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed which permits simultaneous extraction of complete lift, drag, and thrust power curves from time histories of a single aircraft maneuver such as a pull up (from V max to V stall) and pushover (to V max for level flight). The technique, which is an extension of nonlinear equations of motion of the parameter identification methods of Iliff and Taylor and includes provisions for internal data compatibility improvement as well, was shown to be capable of correcting random errors in the most sensitive data channel and yielding highly accurate results. Flow charts, listings, sample inputs and outputs for the relevant routines are provided as appendices. This technique was applied to flight data taken on the ATLIT aircraft. Lack of adequate knowledge of the correct full throttle thrust horsepower true airspeed variation and considerable internal data inconsistency made it impossible to apply the trajectory matching features of the technique.

Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.

1979-01-01

327

In-Flight Alignment Using H? Filter for Strapdown INS on Aircraft  

PubMed Central

In-flight alignment is an effective way to improve the accuracy and speed of initial alignment for strapdown inertial navigation system (INS). During the aircraft flight, strapdown INS alignment was disturbed by lineal and angular movements of the aircraft. To deal with the disturbances in dynamic initial alignment, a novel alignment method for SINS is investigated in this paper. In this method, an initial alignment error model of SINS in the inertial frame is established. The observability of the system is discussed by piece-wise constant system (PWCS) theory and observable degree is computed by the singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. It is demonstrated that the system is completely observable, and all the system state parameters can be estimated by optimal filter. Then a H? filter was designed to resolve the uncertainty of measurement noise. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reach a better accuracy under the dynamic disturbance condition. PMID:24511300

Pei, Fu-Jun; Liu, Xuan; Zhu, Li

2014-01-01

328

Calibration of the Nuclear Compton Telescope Prototype Flight Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is an array of 12 Ge strip detectors (GeDs) capable of 3D tracking of relevant photon interactions in the crystals. The telecope is designed to study astrophysical sources through spectroscopy, imaging, and timing. NCT is sensitive to sources of nuclear line emission in the .2 to 15 MeV range and polarized gamma-ray sources in the .2 to 2 MeV range. A prototype flight consisting of a 2-GeD instrument is scheduled for Spring 2005 to critically test the novel instrument technologies. In this paper we discuss our energy and depth calibration techniques and present the results. Measured detector efficiencies are presented, in addition to the energy, spatial, and resulting angular resolutions. Our electrode event-correlation methods are discussed, as well as our event reconstruction techniques. Please see the paper by Coburn et al (this meeting) for an overview of the balloon payload and navigation systems, as well as the detector electronics, data storage, and relay systems.

Bowen, J. D.; Boggs, S. E.; Coburn, W.; Wunderer, C. B.; Lin, R. P.; Amman, M. S.; Luke, P. N.; Burks, M. T.; Craig, W.; Madden, N. W.; Ziock, K.; Smith, D. M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Jean, P.

2004-08-01

329

Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various control systems are flown in a fixed-base simulator. Pilot inputs and aircraft performance are recorded and analyzed.

Juhasz, Ondrej

330

A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

331

Denoising of impulse response using LS-SVM and SVD for aircraft flight flutter test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel method that applies least-square support vector machines (LS-SVM) to denoising of impulse response signal for aircraft flight flutter test. This method is based on time series prediction using LS-SVM. Since the signal to noise ratio (SNR) varies with amplitude for the decaying property of damped sinusoid, the beginning data points with high SNR is used for

Wei Tang; Zhongke Shi; Hongchao Li

2006-01-01

332

Preliminary validation of a coupled model of nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for HALE aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled model of aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for high-altitude, long-endurance (HALE) aircraft is under development based on the geometrically exact, fully intrinsic beam theory, ONERA aerodynamic stall model, and six degrees of freedom model of rigid body motion. The correlation among the present model, MSC\\/Nastran, UM\\/NAST, and NATASHA was studied, including the cases of static equilibrium and forced vibration

Jian Zhang; Jinwu Xiang

2010-01-01

333

The SR71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments tosupersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described.This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane"flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection

Stephen Corda; Timothy R. Moes; Masashi Mizukami; Neal E. Hass; Daniel Jones; Richard C. Monaghan; Ronald J. Ray; Michele L. Jarvis; Nathan Palumbo

2000-01-01

334

V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 7: Tilt rotor flight control program feedback studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study has been made of the use of feedback control in tilt rotor aircraft. This has included the use of swashplate cyclic and collective controls and direct lift control. Various sensor and feedback systems are evaluated in relation to blade loads alleviation, improvement in flying qualities, and modal suppression. Recommendations are made regarding additional analytical and wind tunnel investigations and development of feedback systems in the full scale flight vehicle. Estimated costs and schedules are given.

Alexander, H. R.; Eason, W.; Gillmore, K.; Morris, J.; Spittle, R.

1973-01-01

335

14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...  

...Except for holders of a flight instructor certificate— (i) The fundamental principles of the teaching-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor-student relationship. (d) The...

2014-01-01

336

Criteria for design of integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the U.S./U.K. STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at Ames Research Center. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot-gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying-qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

Franklin, James A.

1993-01-01

337

Aircraft Fuel Savings in Jet Streams by Maximising Features of Flight Mechanics and Navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance enhancement and cost reduction are driving forces in today's airline industry. In a world of cost pressures and escalating charges, research was conducted into better use of jet streams as a means of reducing costs. When operating on international airline routes, specific features of flight mechanics were adapted and tailored to fit a B747-200 aircraft, major emphasis being placed on intercepting, or avoiding where necessary, the high energy jet stream winds of the global weather system, adjusting flight profiles and modifying route structures. Operations were conducted both into wind and down wind, over a period of five years. Techniques employed show fuel may be saved regardless of the wind being a tailwind or headwind. Both fuel and time have a significant bearing on airline direct operating costs: savings of more than 1·1 percent being made on fuel and 0·786 percent on time. Limitations on using the techniques to gain maximum benefit are related to the high volume of aircraft blocking all major airways, and better quality, real time weather forecasts. The discussion looks at ways of improving the use of jet streams, as the world's airline traffic continues to grow. Forecasting upper winds, particularly in oceanic areas, needs to improve if airlines are to derive maximum benefits from these winds. There is need for further study utilising other aircraft types to ascertain what savings can result. Initial results were encouraging, using a Tristar L1011 aircraft.

Houghton, Ronald C. C.

1998-09-01

338

Ground-recorded sonic boom signatures of F-18 aircraft formation flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

1995-01-01

339

Impact of flight regulations on effective use of unmanned aircraft systems for natural resources applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have great potential for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and numerous other applications in natural resources management. In order for UAS to become a dependable tool for public land management agencies in carrying out their government-mandated responsibilities, it is necessary to integrate UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS), which includes all aircraft, manned or unmanned. To achieve this, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations have to be followed to assure public safety. UAS operators need to know that FAA safety regulations, which incorporate line-of-sight restrictions, will only allow slow progress towards an operational system, and they must plan accordingly for the extra time necessary to prepare and complete flight missions. By following approved safety procedures, UAS operators can develop a UAS flight team that is capable of accomplishing missions anywhere in the United States while contributing to a totally integrated NAS comprised of all aircraft systems that can be used jointly for natural resources management. At the same time, it is hoped that FAA regulations will change in the future based on the capabilities and experience of the UAS flight team and on the locale in which operations take place, especially over large, remote, and sparsely populated areas.

Rango, Albert; Laliberte, Andrea S.

2010-07-01

340

Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) system on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft are used to estimate acceleration effects on static pressure measurement. Using data collected during periods of accelerated flight, comparison of measured pressure with that derived from GNSS/IMU geometric altitude show that errors exceeding 150 Pa can occur which is significant in airspeed and atmospheric air motion determination. A method is developed to predict static pressure errors from analysis of differential pressure measurements from a Rosemount model 858 differential pressure air velocity probe. The method was evaluated with a carefully designed probe towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft - a "trailing cone" - in steady flight, and shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, compared to the GNSS/IMU data, this algorithm predicts corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are examined.

Rodi, A. R.; Leon, D. C.

2012-05-01

341

Adaptation of an In Situ Ground-Based Tropospheric OH/HO2 Instrument for Aircraft Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-situ HO(x) (OH and HO2) measurements are an essential part of understanding the photochemistry of aircraft exhaust in the atmosphere. HO(x) affects the partitioning of nitrogen species in the NO(y) family. Its reactions are important sources and sinks for tropospheric ozone, thus providing a link between the NO(x) in aircraft exhaust and tropospheric ozone. OH mixing ratios are enhanced in aircraft wakes due to the photolysis of the HONO that is made close to the engine. Measurements of HO(x) in aircraft wakes, along with NO(x) measurements, thus provides a constraint on chemical models of the engine combustion and exhaust. The development of the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) is reported. We designed, developed, and successfully flew this instrument. It was part of the instrument complement on board the NASA DC-8 during SUCCESS, which took place in Kansas in April and May, 1996. ATHOS has a limit-of-detection for OH (S/N = 2) of 10(exp 5) OH molecules cm(exp -3) in less than 150 seconds. While this sensitivity is about 2-3 times less than the initial projections in the proposal, it is more than adequate for good measurements of OH and HO2 from the planetary boundary layer to the stratosphere. Our participation in SUCCESS was to be engineering test flights for ATHOS; however, the high-quality measurements we obtained are being used to study HO(x) photochemistry in contrails, clouds, and the clear air.

Brune, William H.

1997-01-01

342

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

343

Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

1980-01-01

344

14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix...flight instructor instrument certification course required under this part, for the...

2013-01-01

345

14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix...flight instructor instrument certification course required under this part, for the...

2011-01-01

346

14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics...Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix...flight instructor instrument certification course required under this part, for the...

2012-01-01

347

Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described that estimates the error in the static pressure measurement on an aircraft from differential pressure measurements on the hemispherical surface of a Rosemount model 858AJ air velocity probe mounted on a boom ahead of the aircraft. The theoretical predictions for how the pressure should vary over the surface of the hemisphere, involving an unknown sensitivity parameter, leads to a set of equations that can be solved for the unknowns - angle of attack, angle of sideslip, dynamic pressure and the error in static pressure - if the sensitivity factor can be determined. The sensitivity factor was determined on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft by comparisons with the error measured with a carefully designed sonde towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft - a trailing cone - and the result was shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions, including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) system are used to estimate acceleration effects on the error, and the algorithm is shown to predict corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa under those conditions. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are discussed.

Rodi, A. R.; Leon, D. C.

2012-11-01

348

NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

1986-01-01

349

The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

1986-01-01

350

The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degradation in lift and drag.

Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.

1986-01-01

351

Remote Sensing Measurements of Vertical and Horizontal Moisture Variations from Aircraft Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research in this paper focuses on describing vertical and horizontal of water vapor variability using two remote sensing aircraft instruments. To achieve this goal we will compare precipitable water and upper level humidity estimates derived from the each of the instruments. The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) is a visible and infrared radiometer with similar channels to that of the GOES imager. MAMS has flown aboard the NASA ER-2 numerous times. It has been used to validate features observed with the previous series of GOES satellites. MAMS data has been used to study precipitable water and upper level water vapor as well as other geophysical parameters. MAMS provides the opportunity to obtain water vapor Imagery at 6.7 mm. Upper tropospheric humidity can be computed using this channel in a similar fashion to that of Soden and Bretherton. In addition to the water vapor channel, MAMS records data In 3 other Infrared channels and 8 visible and near Infrared bands at high spatial resolution (I 00 Abstract: m). The 1 1 and 12 mm infrared channels allow for the application of a split technique to derive total precipitable water. The Udar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) which uses the Differential Absorption Udar (DIAL) technique for obtaining simultaneous water vapor and aerosol profiles through the entire troposphere. LASE operates In the 81 5 nm wavelength region and uses a double pulsed Ti:sapphire laser that is locked onto a water vapor line. LASE has good horizontal (IO km) and excellent vertical (300 m) resolution. MAMS and LASE collected data simultaneously on several ER-2 flights in September 1995. LASE mixing ratio profiles will be Integrated for comparison with MAMS precipitable water estimates and the upper tropospheric humidity will be computed for the layer observed by the MAMS 6.7 mm channel for comparison for this time period. Results show a significant correlation between the measurements of the two Instruments. Regions of high/low upper tropospheric humidity are apparent In measurements from both instruments. Also changes in boundary layer moisture depicted by LASE are reflected in the total precipitable water measured by MAMS.

Atkinson, R. J.; Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

1998-01-01

352

14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1065(d). (1) The instrument proficiency check must— (i) For a pilot in command of an aircraft requiring that the PIC hold an airline transport pilot certificate, include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot...

2010-01-01

353

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

354

A Flight Evaluation of an Airborne Physiological Instrumentation System, Including Preliminary Results Under Conditions of Varying Accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiological instrumentation system capable of recording the electrocardiogram, pulse rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during flight has been developed. This instrumentation system was designed for use during control studies at varied levels of acceleration in order to monitor the well-being of the pilot and at the same time to obtain data for study of the relationships between his various physiological functions and his performance capability. Flights, made in a T-33 aircraft, demonstrated the ability of the system to obtain the desired physiological data in flight. The data obtained in these flights, although limited in nature, indicate a slowing of the pulse rate under the subgravity conditions of brief duration. There appeared to be a proportional nearly in-phase relationship between pulse rate and acceleration. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure together with an increase in pulse pressure was noted during subgravity conditions and an elevation of the diastolic pressure together with a decrease in pulse pressure du-ring increased accelerations. No change worthy of note was seen in the records of the systolic blood pressure, the respiration rate, or the electrocardiogram over the range of acceleration studied (0 to 3 g).

Smedal, Harald A.; Holden, George R.; Smith, Joseph R., Jr.

1960-01-01

355

NASA space shuttle Columbia hitched a ride on a special 747 carrier aircraft for the flight from Pal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA space shuttle Columbia hitched a ride on a special 747 carrier aircraft for the flight from Palmdale, California, to Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 1, 2001. A half hour behind Columbia's takeoff, the shuttle Atlantis departed the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, also bound for Kennedy Space Center.

2001-01-01

356

Evaluation of cloud detection instruments and performance of laminar-flow leading-edge test articles during NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary evaluations of the performance of laminar-flow control (LFC) leading edge test articles on a NASA JetStar aircraft are presented. Statistics, presented for the test articles' performance in haze and cloud situations, as well as in clear air, show a significant effect of cloud particle concentrations on the extent of laminar flow. The cloud particle environment was monitored by two instruments, a cloud particle spectrometer (Knollenberg probe) and a charging patch. Both instruments are evaluated as diagnostic aids for avoiding laminar-flow detrimental particle concentrations in future LFC aircraft operations. The data base covers 19 flights in the simulated airline service phase of the NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test (LEFT) Program.

Davis, Richard E.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.; Fisher, David F.; Young, Ronald

1989-01-01

357

Instrumentation for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A jet aircraft noise and sonic boom measuring device which converts sound pressure into electric current is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable, amplified by a zero drive amplifier and recorded on magnetic tape. The converter is comprised of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor (FET) mixer and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. A carrier voltage that is applied to one of the gates of the FET mixer is generated by the local oscillator. The microphone signal is mixed with the carrier to produce an electrical current at the frequency of vibration of the microphone diaphragm by the FET mixer. The voltage of the local oscillator and mixer stages is regulated, the carrier at the output is eliminated, and a low output impedance at the cable terminals is provided by the voltage regulator/impedance translator.

Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

1975-01-01

358

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

359

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds,empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

360

Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

Gerren, Donna S.

1993-01-01

361

Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

1995-01-01

362

Aircraft ground vibration testing at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility performs ground vibration testing to assess the structural characteristics of new and modified research vehicles. This paper updates the research activities, techniques used, and experiences in applying this technology to aircraft since 1987. Test equipment, data analysis methods, and test procedures used for typical test programs are discussed. The data presented illustrate the use of modal test and analysis in flight research programs for a variety of aircraft. This includes a technique to acquire control surface free-play measurements on the X-31 airplane more efficiently, and to assess the effects of structural modifications on the modal characteristics of an F-18 aircraft. In addition, the status and results from current research activities are presented. These data show the effectiveness of the discrete modal filter as a preprocessor to uncouple response measurements into simple single-degree-of-freedom responses, a database for the comparison of different excitation methods on a JetStar airplane, and the effect of heating on modal frequency and damping.

Kehoe, Michael W.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

1994-01-01

363

Development and application of linear and nonlinear methods for interpretation of lightning strikes to in-flight aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1980, NASA has been collecting direct strike lightning data by flying an instrumented F-106B aircraft into thunderstorms. The continuing effort to interpret the measured data is reported here. Both linear and nonlinear finite difference modeling techniques are applied to the problem of lightning triggered by an aircraft in a thunderstorm. Five different aircraft are analyzed to determine the effect of aircraft size and shape on lightning triggering. The effect of lightning channel impedance on aircraft response is investigated. The particle environment in thunderstorms and electric field enhancements by typical ice particles is also investigated.

Rudolph, Terence; Perala, Rodney A.; Easterbrook, Calvin C.; Parker, Steven L.

1986-01-01

364

A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

Sim, Alex G.

1997-01-01

365

Aircraft as Research Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

1999-01-01

366

Flight Evaluation of an Aircraft with Side and Center Stick Controllers and Rate-Limited Ailerons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an ongoing government and industry effort to study the flying qualities of aircraft with rate-limited control surface actuators, two studies were previously flown to examine an algorithm developed to reduce the tendency for pilot-induced oscillation when rate limiting occurs. This algorithm, when working properly, greatly improved the performance of the aircraft in the first study. In the second study, however, the algorithm did not initially offer as much improvement. The differences between the two studies caused concern. The study detailed in this paper was performed to determine whether the performance of the algorithm was affected by the characteristics of the cockpit controllers. Time delay and flight control system noise were also briefly evaluated. An in-flight simulator, the Calspan Learjet 25, was programmed with a low roll actuator rate limit, and the algorithm was programmed into the flight control system. Side- and center-stick controllers, force and position command signals, a rate-limited feel system, a low-frequency feel system, and a feel system damper were evaluated. The flight program consisted of four flights and 38 evaluations of test configurations. Performance of the algorithm was determined to be unaffected by using side- or center-stick controllers or force or position command signals. The rate-limited feel system performed as well as the rate-limiting algorithm but was disliked by the pilots. The low-frequency feel system and the feel system damper were ineffective. Time delay and noise were determined to degrade the performance of the algorithm.

Deppe, P. R.; Chalk, C. R.; Shafer, M. F.

1996-01-01

367

In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

368

The development of an airborne instrumentation computer system for flight test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation interfacing frequently requires the linking of intelligent systems together, as well as requiring the link itself to be intelligent. The airborne instrumentation computer system (AICS) was developed to address this requirement. Its small size, approximately 254 by 133 by 140 mm (10 by 51/4 by 51/2 in), standard bus, and modular board configuration give it the ability to solve instrumentation interfacing and computation problems without forcing a redesign of the entire unit. This system has been used on the F-15 aircraft digital electronic engine control (DEEC) and its follow on engine model derivative (EMD) project and in an OV-1C Mohawk aircraft stall speed warning system. The AICS is presently undergoing configuration for use on an F-104 pace aircraft and on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-111 aircraft.

Bever, G. A.

1984-01-01

369

Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kevlar-49 fairing panels were inspected and found to be performing satisfactorily after two years flight service on an Eastern and an Air Canada L-1011. Six panels are on each aircraft including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 300 F service aft engine fairings. Some of the panels were removed from the aircraft to permit inspection of inner surfaces and fastener hole conditions. Minor defects such as surface cracks due to impact damage, small delaminated areas, elongation and fraying of fastener holes, were noted. None of these defects were considered serious enough to warrant corrective action in the opinion of airline personnel. The defects are typical for the most part of defects noted on similar fiberglass parts.

Stone, R. H.

1975-01-01

370

Partitioning of flight data for aerodynamic modeling of aircraft at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is sometimes necessary to determine aerodynamic model structure and estimate associated stability and control derivatives for airplanes from flight data that cover a large range of angle of attack or sideslip. One method of dealing with that problem is through data partitioning. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of a data partitioning procedure and its application and to discuss both the power and limitations of that procedure for the analysis of large maneuvers of aircraft. The partitioning methodology is shown to provide estimates for coefficients of those regressors that are well excited in the aircraft motion. In particular, primary lateral stability and damping derivatives are identified throughout the maneuver ranges.

Batterson, James G.; Klein, Vladislav

1987-01-01

371

Research instrumentation requirements for flight/wind-tunnel tests of the YF-12 propulsion system and related flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the requirements for a comprehensive flight and wind-tunnel propulsion research program to examine the predictability of inlet performance, evaluate the effects of high-frequency pressure phenomena on inlets, and investigate improved control concepts in order to cope with airframe interactions. This program is unique in that it requires precise similarity of the geometry of the flight vehicle and tunnel modes; the test conditions, including local flow at the inlet; and instrumentation. Although few wind-tunnel instrumentation problems exist, many problems emerge during flight tests because of the thermal environment. Mach 3 flight temperatures create unique problems with transducers, connectors, and wires. All must be capable of withstanding continuous 1000 F temperatures, as well as the mechanical stresses imposed by vibration and thermal cycling.

Schweikhard, W. G.; Montoya, E. J.

1974-01-01

372

The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer

R. M. Bonnet; P. Lemaire; J. C. Vial; G. Artzner; P. Gouttebroze; A. Jouchoux; A. Vidal-Madjar; J. W. Leibacher; A. Skumanich

1978-01-01

373

Aircraft motion and passenger comfort data from scheduled commercial airline flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data concerning the ride quality of aircraft taken on board commercial airline flights was presented. Five types of data are included: (1) root mean square (RMS) values of linear acceleration, angular acceleration or angular velocities, along with passenger subjective evaluations, (2) power spectra for the motion in each of six degrees of freedom, (3) scattergrams showing the probability density of the rms accelerations in the vertical and transverse directions, (4) probability distributions of the motion, and (5) on board noise levels during takeoff, climb, cruise, and descent.

Gruesbeck, M. G.; Sullivan, D. F.

1976-01-01

374

A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

375

Flight investigation of cabin noise control treatments for a light turboprop aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight evaluation of noise control treatments for a light, twin-engined turboprop aircraft presents several problems associated with data analysis and interpretation. These problems include data repeatability, propeller synchronization, spatial distributions of the exterior pressure field and acoustic treatment, and the presence of flanking paths. They are discussed here with regard to a specific aeroplane configuration. Measurements were made in an untreated cabin and in a cabin fitted with an experimental sidewall treatment. Results are presented in terms of the insertion loss provided by the treatment and comparison made with predictions based on laboratory measurements.

Wilby, J. F.; Oneal, R. L.; Mixson, J. S.

1985-01-01

376

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

377

The Development of Instrumentation and Methods for Measurement of Air-Sea Interaction and Coastal Processes from Manned and Unmanned Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present the development of instrumentation and methods for the measurement of coastal processes, ocean surface phenomena, and air-sea interaction in two parts. In the first, I discuss the development of a portable scanning lidar (light detection and ranging) system for manned aircraft and demonstrate its functionality for oceanographic and coastal measurements. Measurements of the Southern California coastline and nearshore surface wave fields from seventeen research flights between August 2007 and December 2008 are analyzed and discussed. The October 2007 landslide on Mt. Soledad in La Jolla, California was documented by two of the flights. The topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding wave field of Lady Elliot Island in Australia's Great Barrier Reef were measured with the airborne scanning lidar system on eight research flights in April 2008. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, ship wake studies, and coral reef research, are presented and discussed. In the second part, I detail the development of instrumentation packages for small (18 -- 28 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure momentum fluxes and latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and the surface topography. Fast-response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes permit turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements, and short- and long-wave radiometers allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Careful design and testing of an accurate turbulence probe, as demonstrated in this thesis, are essential for the ability to measure momentum and scalar fluxes. The low altitude required for accurate flux measurements (typically assumed to be 30 m) is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, it is now within the capability of small UAV platforms. Flight tests of two instrumented BAE Manta UAVs over land were conducted in January 2011 at McMillan Airfield (Camp Roberts, CA), and flight tests of similarly instrumented Boeing-Insitu ScanEagle UAVs were conducted in April 2012 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (Dahlgren, VA), where the first known direct flux measurements were made from low-altitude (down to 30 m) UAV flights over water (Potomac River). During the October 2012 Equatorial Mixing Experiment in the central Pacific aboard the R/V Roger Revelle, ship-launched and recovered ScanEagles were deployed in an effort to characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer structure and dynamics. I present a description of the instrumentation, summarize results from flight tests, present preliminary analysis from UAV flights off of the Revelle, and discuss potential applications of these UAVs for marine atmospheric boundary layer studies.

Reineman, Benjamin D.

378

Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are presented for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. In addition to presenting the mathematical models and a brief description of existing analytical techniques, an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results is presented.

Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

1981-01-01

379

Flight test validation of a frequency-based system identification method on an F-15 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frequency-based performance identification approach was evaluated using flight data from the NASA F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control aircraft. The approach used frequency separation to identify the effectiveness of multiple controls simultaneously as an alternative to independent control identification methods. Fourier transformations converted measured control and response data into frequency domain representations. Performance gradients were formed using multiterm frequency matching of control and response frequency domain models. An objective function was generated using these performance gradients. This function was formally optimized to produce a coordinated control trim set. This algorithm was applied to longitudinal acceleration and evaluated using two control effectors: nozzle throat area and inlet first ramp. Three criteria were investigated to validate the approach: simultaneous gradient identification, gradient frequency dependency, and repeatability. This report describes the flight test results. These data demonstrate that the approach can accurately identify performance gradients during simultaneous control excitation independent of excitation frequency.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Orme, John S.; Hreha, Mark A.

1995-01-01

380

[Flight and altitude medicine for anesthetists-part 3: emergencies on board commercial aircraft].  

PubMed

The demographic trend of industrialized societies is also reflected in commercial airlines' passengers: passengers are older nowadays and long-haul flights are routine mode of transport despite considerable chronic and acute medical conditions. Moreover, duration of non-stop flight routes and the number of passengers on board increase. Thus, the probability of a medical incident during a particular flight event increases, too.Due to international regulations minimum standards for medical equipment on board, and first aid training of the crews are set. However, it is often difficult to assess whether a stopover at a nearby airport can improve the medical care of a critically ill passenger. Besides flight operations and technical aspects, the medical infrastructure on the ground has to be considered carefully.Regardless of the amount of experience of a physician medical emergencies on board an aircraft usually represent a particular challenge. This is mainly due to the unfamiliar surroundings, the characteristics of the cabin atmosphere, the often existing cultural and language barriers and legal liability concerns. PMID:23633251

Graf, Jürgen; Stüben, Uwe; Pump, Stefan

2013-04-01

381

Development of TPS flight test and operational instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal and flow sensor instrumentation was developed for use as an integral part of the space shuttle orbiter reusable thermal protection system. The effort was performed in three tasks: a study to determine the optimum instruments and instrument installations for the space shuttle orbiter RSI and RCC TPS; tests and/or analysis to determine the instrument installations to minimize measurement errors; and analysis using data from the test program for comparison to analytical methods. A detailed review of existing state of the art instrumentation in industry was performed to determine the baseline for the departure of the research effort. From this information, detailed criteria for thermal protection system instrumentation were developed.

Carnahan, K. R.; Hartman, G. J.; Neuner, G. J.

1975-01-01

382

Instrumentation and Performance Analysis Plans for the HIFiRE Flight 2 Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supersonic combustion performance of a bi-component gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture is one of the primary aspects under investigation in the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In-flight instrumentation and post-test analyses will be two key elements used to determine the combustion performance. Pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses provide valuable information that can be used to optimize the placement of a constrained set of wall pressure instrumentation in the experiment. The simulations also allow pre-flight assessments of performance sensitivities leading to estimates of overall uncertainty in the determination of combustion efficiency. Based on the pre-flight CFD results, 128 wall pressure sensors have been located throughout the isolator/combustor flowpath to minimize the error in determining the wall pressure force at Mach 8 flight conditions. Also, sensitivity analyses show that mass capture and combustor exit stream thrust are the two primary contributors to uncertainty in combustion efficiency.

Gruber, Mark; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Eklund, Dean; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea M.; Liu, Jiwen

2009-01-01

383

Flight test evaluation of predicted light aircraft drag, performance, and stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed which permits simultaneous extraction of complete lift, drag, and thrust power curves from time histories of a single aircraft maneuver such as a pullup (from V sub max to V sub stall) and pushover (to sub V max for level flight.) The technique is an extension to non-linear equations of motion of the parameter identification methods of lliff and Taylor and includes provisions for internal data compatibility improvement as well. The technique was show to be capable of correcting random errors in the most sensitive data channel and yielding highly accurate results. This technique was applied to flight data taken on the ATLIT aircraft. The drag and power values obtained from the initial least squares estimate are about 15% less than the 'true' values. If one takes into account the rather dirty wing and fuselage existing at the time of the tests, however, the predictions are reasonably accurate. The steady state lift measurements agree well with the extracted values only for small values of alpha. The predicted value of the lift at alpha = 0 is about 33% below that found in steady state tests while the predicted lift slope is 13% below the steady state value.

Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.

1979-01-01

384

Instrumentation and data acquisition for full-scale aircraft crash testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting full-scale aircraft crash tests since the 1970s. Using a pendulum method, aircraft are suspended by cables from a 240-ft high gantry and swung into the impact surface at various attitudes and velocities. Instrumentation for these tests include on-board high-speed cameras, strain gages, load cells, displacement transducers, and accelerometers. Transducers in the aircraft are hard-wired through a long umbilical cable to the data acquisition room. Up to 96 channels of data can be collected at a typical rate of 4000 samples per second. Data acquisition using an FM multiplexed analog system and a high-speed personal computer based digital system is described.

Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

1993-01-01

385

Cockpit simulation study of use of flight path angle for instrument approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a piloted simulation experiment to evaluate the effect of integrating flight path angle information into a typical transport electronic attitude director indicator display format for flight director instrument landing system approaches are presented. Three electronic display formats are evaluated during 3 deg straight-in approaches with wind shear and turbulence conditions. Flight path tracking data and pilot subjective comments are analyzed with regard to the pilot's tracking performance and workload for all three display formats.

Hanisch, B.; Ernst, H.; Johnston, R.

1981-01-01

386

A model-based analysis of handling qualities and adverse aircraft-pilot coupling in high angle of attack flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent flight tests of a NASA supermaneuverable fighter aircraft indicated a susceptibility to a form of aircraft-pilot coupling referred to as pilot-induced-oscillation. This coupling resulted in very degraded handling qualities in air-to-air tracking tasks performed at high angle of attack. A pilot-model based analysis of the vehicle and task was conducted with the goals of: (1) analytically corroborating the oscillation

Ronald A. Hess

1995-01-01

387

Robustness Analysis and Reliable Flight Regime Estimation of an Integrated Resilent Control System for a Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. As a part of the validation process, this paper describes an analysis method for determining a reliable flight regime in the flight envelope within which an integrated resilent control system can achieve the desired performance of tracking command signals and detecting additive faults in the presence of parameter uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. To calculate a reliable flight regime, a structured singular value analysis method is applied to analyze the closed-loop system over the entire flight envelope. To use the structured singular value analysis method, a linear fractional transform (LFT) model of a transport aircraft longitudinal dynamics is developed over the flight envelope by using a preliminary LFT modeling software tool developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, which utilizes a matrix-based computational approach. The developed LFT model can capture original nonlinear dynamics over the flight envelope with the ! block which contains key varying parameters: angle of attack and velocity, and real parameter uncertainty: aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty and moment of inertia uncertainty. Using the developed LFT model and a formal robustness analysis method, a reliable flight regime is calculated for a transport aircraft closed-loop system.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine

2008-01-01

388

Modeling of Aircraft Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics/Part 3 - Parameters Estimated from Flight Data. Part 3; Parameters Estimated from Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteady aerodynamics.

Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

1996-01-01

389

Nonlinear aeroelastic analysis, flight dynamics, and control of a complete aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this research was to analyze a high-aspect-ratio wing aircraft flying at low subsonic speeds. Such aircraft are designed for high-altitude, long-endurance missions. Due to the high flexibility and associated wing deformation, accurate prediction of aircraft response requires use of nonlinear theories. Also strong interactions between flight dynamics and aeroelasticity are expected. To analyze such aircraft one needs to have an analysis tool which includes the various couplings and interactions. A theoretical basis has been established for a consistent analysis which takes into account, (i) material anisotropy, (ii) geometrical nonlinearities of the structure, (iii) rigid-body motions, (iv) unsteady flow behavior, and (v) dynamic stall. The airplane structure is modeled as a set of rigidly attached beams. Each of the beams is modeled using the geometrically exact mixed variational formulation, thus taking into account geometrical nonlinearities arising due to large displacements and rotations. The cross-sectional stiffnesses are obtained using an asymptotically exact analysis, which can model arbitrary cross sections and material properties. An aerodynamic model, consisting of a unified lift model, a consistent combination of finite-state inflow model and a modified ONERA dynamic stall model, is coupled to the structural system to determine the equations of motion. The results obtained indicate the necessity of including nonlinear effects in aeroelastic analysis. Structural geometric nonlinearities result in drastic changes in aeroelastic characteristics, especially in case of high-aspect-ratio wings. The nonlinear stall effect is the dominant factor in limiting the amplitude of oscillation for most wings. The limit cycle oscillation (LCO) phenomenon is also investigated. Post-flutter and pre-flutter LCOs are possible depending on the disturbance mode and amplitude. Finally, static output feedback (SOF) controllers are designed for flutter suppression and gust alleviation. SOF controllers are very simple and thus easy to implement. For the case considered, SOF controllers with proper choice of sensors give results comparable to full state feedback (linear quadratic regulator) designs.

Patil, Mayuresh Jayawant

390

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1987-01-01

391

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1988-01-01

392

V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement data codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

1978-01-01

393

V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement item codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

1978-01-01

394

Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

Tibbetts, J. G.

1979-01-01

395

INVESTIGATION OF RADM PERFORMANCE USING AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements using specially instrumented aircraft were obtained during August and September, 1988 as an integral part of the ACID MODES (Model Operational and Diagnostic Evaluation Study) field study. pecialized flights, each designed to diagnose different aspects of the perform...

396

Review of drag measurements from flight tests of manned aircraft with comparisons to wind-tunnel predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight studies of the overall and local components of drag of many types of aircraft were conducted. The primary goal of these studies was to evaluate wind-tunnel and semiempirical prediction methods. Some evaluations are presented in this paper which may be summarized by the following observations: Wind-tunnel predictions of overall vehicle drag can be accurately extrapolated to flight Reynolds numbers, provided that the base drag is removed and the boattail areas on the vehicle are small. The addition of ablated roughness to lifting body configurations causes larger losses in performance and stability than would be expected from the added friction drag due to the roughness. Successful measurements of skin friction have been made in flight to Mach numbers above 4. A reliable inflatable deceleration device was demonstrated in flight which effectively stabilizes and decelerates a lifting aircraft at supersonic speeds.

Pyle, J. S.; Saltzman, E. J.

1973-01-01

397

Measurements of Long-Lived Trace Gases from Commercial Aircraft Platforms: Development of Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upper troposphere (6-12 km altitude) is a poorly understood and highly vulnerable region of the atmosphere. It is important because many trace species, including ozone, have their greatest impact as greenhouse (infrared-absorbing) gases in this region. The addition of relatively small amounts of anthropogenic chemicals, such as nitrogen oxides, can have a dramatic effect on the abundance of ozone. Some of these pollutants are deposited directly, e.g., by aircraft, while others are transported in. The primary goal of this project was to measure several chemical compounds in the upper troposphere that will help us to understand how air is to transported to that part of the atmosphere; that is, does it come down from the stratosphere, does it rise from the surface via convection, and so on. To obtain adequate sampling to accomplish this goal, we proposed to make measurements from revenue aircraft during normal flight operations.

2002-01-01

398

Preliminary Flight Tests of the N.A.C.A. Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the suitability of the N.A.C.A. Roots type aircraft engine supercharger to flight-operating conditions, as determined the effects of the use of the supercharger upon engine operation and airplane performance, is described in this report. Attention was concentrated on the operation of the engine-supercharger unit and on the improvement of climbing ability; some information concerning high speeds at altitude was obtained. The supercharger was found to be satisfactory under flight-operating conditions. Although two failures occurred during the tests, the causes of both were minor and have been eliminated. Careful examination of the engines revealed no detrimental effects which could be attributed to supercharging. Marked improvements in climbing ability and high speeds at altitude were effected. It was also found that the load which could be carried to a given moderate or high altitude in a fixed time was considerably augmented. A slight sacrifice of low-altitude performance was necessitated, however, by the use of a fixed-pitch propeller. From a consideration of the very satisfactory flight performance of the Roots supercharger and of its inherent advantages, it is concluded that this type is particularly attractive for use in certain classes of commercial airplanes and in a number of military types.

Gardiner, Arthur W; Reid, Elliott G

1928-01-01

399

Predicting the effects of unmodeled dynamics on an aircraft flight control system design using eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When using eigenspace assignment to design an aircraft flight control system, one must first develop a model of the plant. Certain questions arise when creating this model as to which dynamics of the plant need to be included in the model and which dynamics can be left out or approximated. The answers to these questions are important because a poor choice can lead to closed-loop dynamics that are unpredicted by the design model. To alleviate this problem, a method has been developed for predicting the effect of not including certain dynamics in the design model on the final closed-loop eigenspace. This development provides insight as to which characteristics of unmodeled dynamics will ultimately affect the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. What results from this insight is a guide for eigenstructure control law designers to aid them in determining which dynamics need or do not need to be included and a new way to include these dynamics in the flight control system design model to achieve a required accuracy in the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. The method is illustrated for a lateral-directional flight control system design using eigenspace assignment for the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV).

Johnson, Eric N.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

1994-01-01

400

Flying the North American Adirondack whitetail on instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare ecosystem-based wildlife management to instrument flight of aircraft. Airplanes cannot be controlled without visual ground reference, or if this is impossible to a cluster of flight instruments. Instrument pilots are trained to develop a rhythmic scan of the cluster to monitor and correct flight path and attitude. The untrained tendency is to fixate on a single gauge. Then,

Richard W. Sage; Bernard C. Patten; Paulette A. Salmon

2003-01-01

401

An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

2013-01-01

402

Comparison of Orbiter STS-2 development flight instrumentation data with thermal math model predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal performance verification of Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) has been accomplished by comparisons of STS-2 Orbiter Flight Test (OFT) data with Thermal Math Model (TMM) predictions. The OFT data was obtained from Development Flight Instrumentation RSI plug and gap thermocouples. Quartertile RSI TMMs were developed using measured flight data for surface temperature and pressure environments. Reference surface heating rates, derived from surface temperature data, were multiplied by gap heating ratios to obtain tile sidewall heating rates. This TMM analysis resulted in good agreement of predicted temperatures with flight data for thermocouples located in the RSI, Strain Isolation Pad, filler bar and structure.

Norman, I.; Rochelle, W. C.; Kimbrough, B. S.; Ritrivi, C. A.; Ting, P. C.; Dotts, R. L.

1982-01-01