Science.gov

Sample records for insular area energy

  1. Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  2. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  3. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  9. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  10. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... met in accordance with 24 CFR 58.22, and with the understanding that HUD has no obligation whatsoever... under any of the following circumstances: (1) When local environmental reviews under 24 CFR part 58 have... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true The insular areas. 570.405...

  14. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  15. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  16. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  17. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  18. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  19. 76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA517 Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY... Pacific Insular Areas other than American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. DATES:...

  20. 75 FR 20237 - Interagency Group on Insular Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-9078 Filed 4-16-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13537 of April 14, 2010 Interagency Group... United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Interagency Group on Insular...

  1. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extent the local government in an eligible carrier's service area has implemented 911 or enhanced 911... cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support. The...

  2. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extent the local government in an eligible carrier's service area has implemented 911 or enhanced 911... cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support. The...

  3. 5 CFR 532.259 - Special appropriated fund wage schedules for U.S. insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.259 Special... the same time and with rates identical to the foreign area appropriated fund wage schedules established under § 532.255 of this subpart. (c) Wage employees recruited from outside the insular area...

  4. 3 CFR 13537 - Executive Order 13537 of April 14, 2010. Interagency Group on Insular Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Executive Order 13537 of April 14, 2010. Interagency Group on Insular Areas 13537 Order 13537 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13537... its own expenses of participating in the IGIA. (b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to...

  5. 5 CFR 532.259 - Special appropriated fund wage schedules for U.S. insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special appropriated fund wage schedules for U.S. insular areas. 532.259 Section 532.259 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.259 Special appropriated fund wage schedules for...

  6. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans. PMID:25784072

  7. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  8. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of “good” health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders. PMID:27330843

  9. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study.

    PubMed

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of "good" health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders. PMID:27330843

  10. The insular cortex: a review.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the Sylvian fissure. Here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. It appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei, is (mostly reciprocally) connected with the amygdala and with many limbic and association cortical areas, and is implicated in an astonishingly large number of widely different functions, ranging from pain perception and speech production to the processing of social emotions. Next, we embark on a long, adventurous journey through the voluminous literature on the structural organization of the insular cortex. This journey yielded the following take-home messages: (1) The meticulous, but mostly neglected publications of Rose (1928) and Brockhaus (1940) are still invaluable for our understanding of the architecture of the mammalian insular cortex. (2) The relation of the insular cortex to the adjacent claustrum is neither ontogenetical nor functional, but purely topographical. (3) The insular cortex has passed through a spectacular progressive differentiation during hominoid evolution, but the assumption of Craig (2009) that the human anterior insula has no homologue in the rhesus monkey is untenable. (4) The concept of Mesulam and Mufson (1985), that the primate insula is essentially composed of three concentrically arranged zones, agranular, dysgranular, and granular, is presumably correct, but there is at present much confusion concerning the more detailed architecture of the anterior insular cortex. (5) The large spindle-shaped cells in the fifth layer of the insular cortex, currently known as von Economo neurons (VENs), are not only confined to large-brained mammals, such as whales, elephants, apes, and humans, but also occur in monkeys and prosimians, as well as in the pygmy hippopotamus, the Atlantic

  11. Attenuated sensitivity to the emotions of others by insular lesion.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Yuri; Kurosaki, Yoshiko; Ibata, Yukio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Umeda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions. In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness). Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger) as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness) and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional awareness. PMID

  12. Attenuated sensitivity to the emotions of others by insular lesion

    PubMed Central

    Terasawa, Yuri; Kurosaki, Yoshiko; Ibata, Yukio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Umeda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions. In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness). Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger) as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness) and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional awareness. PMID

  13. Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; López-Pérez, C.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of mesoscale physical and trophic variables on deep-sea megafauna, a scale of variation often neglected in deep-sea studies, is crucial for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution have been investigated in two contrasting areas of the Balearic basin in the NW Mediterranean: on the mainland slope (Catalonian coasts) and on the insular slope (North of Mallorca, Balearic Islands). An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out during summer 2010, at stations in both sub-areas located between 450 and 2200 m water depth. Environmental data were collected simultaneously: near-bottom physical parameters, and the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments. Initially, data were analysed along the whole depth gradient, and then assemblages from the two areas were compared. Analysis of the trawls showed the existence of one group associated with the upper slope (US=450-690 m), another with the middle slope (MS=1000-1300 m) and a third with the lower slope (LS=1400-2200 m). Also, significant differences in the assemblage composition were found between mainland and insular slopes at MS. Dominance by different species was evident when the two areas were compared by SIMPER analysis. The greatest fish biomass was recorded in both areas at 1000-1300 m, a zone linked to minimum temperature and maximum O2 concentration on the bottom. Near the mainland, fish assemblages were best explained (43% of total variance, DISTLM analysis) by prey availability (gelatinous zooplankton biomass). On the insular slope, trophic webs seemed less complex and were based on vertical input of surface primary production. Decapods, which reached their highest biomass values on the upper slope, were correlated with salinity and temperature in both the areas. However, while hydrographic conditions (temperature and salinity) seemed to be the most important variables over the insular slope, resource availability

  14. Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

    2012-08-01

    The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5). PMID:22990827

  15. Body Size Evolution in Insular Speckled Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii)

    PubMed Central

    Meik, Jesse M.; Lawing, A. Michelle; Pires-daSilva, André

    2010-01-01

    Background Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii) inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size) evolving in response to shifts in prey size. Methodology/Principal Findings Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Ángel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics

  16. Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland vs. insular areas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Lloris, Domènec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    We have compared the distribution of mesopelagic, benthopelagic and benthic fauna between two areas: one on the continental side of the Catalan Sea (cCS: northwestern Mediterranean) and one to the SW of the Balearic Islands (SWB: southwestern Mediterranean) at depths between 147 and 2266 m. Based on 88 bathyal fish and crustaceans (Decapoda and Peracarida) dominant in these communities, we compared the maximum depth of occurrence (MDO) of (upper) middle-slope species and the minimum depth of occurrence (mDO) of lower-slope dwelling species. Mid-slope fish, decapods, peracarids and, within the latter, amphipods and cumaceans had a deeper MDO in the cCS than in the SWB. Depth differences between MDO of species were significant for all taxa, except isopods. In the same way, lower slope fish and decapods had a shallower mDO in the SWB than in the cCS. Within peracarids, the dominant taxon (amphipods) also followed this trend. Depth differences in mDO of species between the areas were significant for decapods and for amphipods (not for fish, nor all peracarids nor cumaceans). In summary, most taxa showed a deeper depth distribution of middle-slope species in the cCS, and a shallower depth distribution of lower-slope dwelling species in the SWB. This suggests that the whole community, from small detritus-feeders (peracarids) to top predators (fish) have a similar response to a common signal. Much basic information on the biology and possible environmental factors affecting deep-sea species distribution is not available, so causes of the trends demonstrated here cannot be fully evaluated. In spite of these obvious limitations, we have shown that (1) mesopelagic decapods (e.g., Gennadas elegans and Sergia robusta), with a higher dependence upon primary sources of food close to the surface primary production, showed greater differences in their mDO between the areas than benthopelagic (e.g., Acanthephyra eximia, Nematocarcinus exilis) and benthic (e.g., Stereomastis sculpta

  17. Insular erosion, isostasy, and subsidence.

    PubMed

    Menard, H W

    1983-05-27

    Organic reefs and shore erosion record the intersection of sea level with islands. From this record it is possible to reconstruct the history of vertical movement of the islands and the adjacent deep sea floor, including midplate swells. As judged by coral thickness, islands with barrier reefs sink as though they were on thermally youthful crust regardless of the actual age. Reefless islands do not sink until truncated by erosion. Apparently, thermal subsidence is balanced by isostatic uplift in response to erosion. Barrier reefs prevent wave erosion of encircled volcanoes and capture products of stream erosion so that isostatic uplift is eliminated. Insular shelves widen initially at rates of 0.6 to 1.7 kilometers per million years; the rates decrease with time. Thus the subsidence of islands depends on the size of the is land and the presence of reefs, and it may not always be the same as that of the surrounding oceanic crust. PMID:17816008

  18. Relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in Insectivora.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz, O; Mamos, L

    1990-01-01

    The claustra of 9 species of Insectivora (Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Solenodon paradoxus, Neomys fodiens, Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa europaea, Desmana moschata, Potamogale velox) were investigated. In all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. In the "basal" Insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer VIa of the neocortex. In some more developed "basal" and in all "progressive" Insectivora the area capsularis appears. Dorsolaterally it separates the main part of the insular claustrum from the neocortex and possesses, besides neurons, also numerous fibers of the extreme capsule. The above data strongly suggest that in the phylogenesis the insular claustrum originates from the cortex from which it gets separated by the extreme capsule. Lamina profunda claustri is rather a narrow band of neurons situated on the medial side of the pars principalis and mostly separated from it by a thin lamina of white substance. Lamina profunda is continuous with the layer VIb of the neocortex. PMID:1707077

  19. Indocyanine green as an adjunct for resection of insular gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Rangarajan, Vithal; Kaswa, Amol; Jain, Sonal; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many controversies exist regarding the extent of resection for insular gliomas and the timing of resection. Several techniques and adjuncts are used to maximize safety during resection of these tumors. We describe the use of indocyanine green (ICG) to identify the branches of the middle cerebral artery and discuss its utility to increase safety for resection for insular gliomas. Materials and Methods: Five patients with insular gliomas were surgically treated by the authors from June 2013 to June 2014. The patients presented with complaints of either a headache or recurring episodes of convulsions. All the patients were operated with the aid of neuronavigation and tractography. The long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery course through the insula and pass onward to supply the corona radiata. It is essential to preserve these vessels to prevent postoperative neurological deficits. ICG (Aurogreen) was used to identify and preserve the long perforating arteries of the middle cerebral artery. Results: ICG dye correctly identified the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery and easily distinguished these vessels from the short perforating branches. All the branches of the middle cerebral artery that coursed through the tumor and had an onward course were preserved in all the patients. Only one patient developed a transient right sided hemiparesis that had improved at follow-up. Conclusions: Surgery for insular gliomas is challenging due to its location adjacent to eloquent areas, important white fiber tracts and the course of the middle cerebral artery within it. ICG is useful to identify and preserve the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery that course through the tumor and traverse onward to supply the corona radiata. PMID:27366256

  20. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes. PMID:25690412

  1. America's Energy Potential: A Summary and Explanation; Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. [Committee Print].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udall, Morris K.

    This report reviews America's current energy position. The energy sources studied include oil and gas, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, and geothermal energy. Each source is analyzed in terms of current use, technology for extracting and developing the energy, research and development funding, and projections for future consumption and…

  2. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean. PMID:19205174

  3. 27 CFR 479.121 - Insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insular possessions. 479.121 Section 479.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  4. 27 CFR 479.121 - Insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insular possessions. 479.121 Section 479.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  5. 27 CFR 479.121 - Insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insular possessions. 479.121 Section 479.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 27 CFR 479.121 - Insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insular possessions. 479.121 Section 479.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  7. 27 CFR 479.121 - Insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insular possessions. 479.121 Section 479.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  8. The insular cortex: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R

    2010-06-01

    The human insular cortex is involved in a variety of viscerosensory, visceromotor, and interoceptive functions, and plays a role in complex processes such as emotions, music, and language. Across mammals, the insula has considerable morphologic variability. We review the structure and connectivity of the insula in laboratory animals (mouse, domestic cat, macaque monkey), and we present original data on the morphology and cytoarchitecture of insular cortex in less common species including a large carnivore (the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus), two artiodactyls (the pigmy hippopotamus, Hexaprotodon liberiensis, and the Western bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus), two cetaceans (the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and a sirenian (the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris). The insula shows substantial variability in shape, extent, and gyral and sulcal patterns, as well as differences in laminar organization, cellular specialization, and structural association with the claustrum. Our observations reveal that the insular cortex is extremely variable among mammals. These differences could be related to the role exerted by specific and selective pressures on cortical structure during evolution. We conclude that it is not possible to identify a general model of organization for the mammalian insular cortex. PMID:20512368

  9. Pathomechanisms of atrophy in insular cortex in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeonsil; Moon, Won-Jin; Han, Seol-Heui

    2015-08-01

    The insular cortex is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms, changes in cardiovascular and autonomic control, and mortality in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the insular cortex does not provide information on the contribution of the other cortices to cognitive decline. We hypothesized that the factors that affect to atrophy in insular cortex are different from other cortical regions. A total of 42 patients with probable Alzheimer's dementia were included in the analyses. The manual drawing of regions of interest was used to detect insular cortex located in the deep gray matter and to avoid coatrophy. Covariates, which could affect to the atrophy of the cerebral cortex, were selected based on previous studies. Any of the demographic factors, vascular risk factors, and the severity scales of dementia was not associated with any insular volume ratio. We suggest that the pathomechanisms of atrophy in insular cortex are different from those of other cortex regions in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25596207

  10. Neural processing of gustatory information in insular circuits.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Arianna; Haley, Melissa; Fontanini, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    The insular cortex is the primary cortical site devoted to taste processing. A large body of evidence is available for how insular neurons respond to gustatory stimulation in both anesthetized and behaving animals. Most of the reports describe broadly tuned neurons that are involved in processing the chemosensory, physiological and psychological aspects of gustatory experience. However little is known about how these neural responses map onto insular circuits. Particularly mysterious is the functional role of the three subdivisions of the insular cortex: the granular, the dysgranular and the agranular insular cortices. In this article we review data on the organization of the local and long-distance circuits in the three subdivisions. The functional significance of these results is discussed in light of the latest electrophysiological data. A view of the insular cortex as a functionally integrated system devoted to processing gustatory, multimodal, cognitive and affective information is proposed. PMID:22554880

  11. A Rapid Sound-Action Association Effect in Human Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Glauche, Volkmar; Demandt, Evariste; Speck, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Background Learning to play a musical piece is a prime example of complex sensorimotor learning in humans. Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) indicate that passive listening to melodies previously rehearsed by subjects on a musical instrument evokes differential brain activation as compared with unrehearsed melodies. These changes were already evident after 20–30 minutes of training. The exact brain regions involved in these differential brain responses have not yet been delineated. Methodology/Principal Finding Using functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated subjects who passively listened to simple piano melodies from two conditions: In the ‘actively learned melodies’ condition subjects learned to play a piece on the piano during a short training session of a maximum of 30 minutes before the fMRI experiment, and in the ‘passively learned melodies’ condition subjects listened passively to and were thus familiarized with the piece. We found increased fMRI responses to actively compared with passively learned melodies in the left anterior insula, extending to the left fronto-opercular cortex. The area of significant activation overlapped the insular sensorimotor hand area as determined by our meta-analysis of previous functional imaging studies. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence for differential brain responses to action-related sounds after short periods of learning in the human insular cortex. As the hand sensorimotor area of the insular cortex appears to be involved in these responses, re-activation of movement representations stored in the insular sensorimotor cortex may have contributed to the observed effect. The insular cortex may therefore play a role in the initial learning phase of action-perception associations. PMID:17327919

  12. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities in patients with insular glioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Guangming; Ma, Ru; Jing, Fang; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Peng; Niu, Chaoshi; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that there are two possible systems for empathy: affective empathy (AE) and cognitive empathy (CE). Neuroimaging paradigms have proven that the insular cortex is involved in empathy processing, particularly in AE. However, these observations do not provide causal evidence for the role of the insula in empathy. Although impairments in empathy have been described following insular damage in a few case studies, it is not clear whether insular cortex is involved in CE and whether these two systems are impaired independently or laterally in patients with insular gliomas. In this study, we assessed 17 patients with an insular glioma, 17 patients with a noninsular glioma, and 30 healthy controls using a method that combined a self-report empathy questionnaire with the emotion recognition task, assessment of empathy for others' pain, and the emotional perspective-taking paradigm. We found that patients with an insular glioma had lower scores for empathic concern and perspective taking than did either healthy controls or lesion controls. The patients' abilities to recognize facial emotions, perceive others' pain, and understand the emotional perspectives of others were also significantly impaired. Furthermore, we did not observe a laterality effect on either AE or CE among those with insular lesions. These findings revealed that both AE and CE are impaired in patients with an insular glioma and that the insular cortex may be a central neuroanatomical structure in both the AE and CE systems. PMID:27456973

  13. Appropriate energy technology for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, W. R.

    1981-05-01

    Some of the unique characteristics of high density urban areas as they affect the potential use of energy conservation measures and more efficient and renewable energy sources are addressed. Energy related problems of urban areas are presented and the inner city is characterized as an environment with limited potential for applying conservation measures and innovative energy sources of the level of individual buildings. District heating and cooling is presented as one technology, uniquely appropriate for urban areas, that can collect thermal energy from efficient cogeneration plants, municipal incinerators, industrial processes, and renewable natural energy resources and distribute that energy throughout a community to its ultimate consumers. Through district heating, the urban communities can conserve energy and scarce fuels, improve environmental quality, and participate in achieving a more harmonious interface between humanity and the natural environment.

  14. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  15. Differential columnar processing in local circuits of barrel and insular cortices.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Shimanuki, Yasushi; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Nokubi, Takashi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kang, Youngnam

    2008-03-19

    The columnar organization is most apparent in the whisker barrel cortex but seems less apparent in the gustatory insular cortex. We addressed here whether there are any differences between the two cortices in columnar information processing by comparing the spatiotemporal patterns of excitation spread in the two cortices using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. In contrast to the well known excitation spread in the horizontal direction in layer II/III induced in the barrel cortex by layer IV stimulation, the excitation caused in the insular cortex by stimulation of layer IV spread bidirectionally in the vertical direction into layers II/III and V/VI, displaying a columnar image pattern. Bicuculline or picrotoxin markedly extended the horizontal excitation spread in layer II/III in the barrel cortex, leading to a generation of excitation in the underlying layer V/VI, whereas those markedly increased the amplitude of optical responses throughout the whole column in the insular cortex, subsequently widening the columnar image pattern. Such synchronous activities as revealed by the horizontal and vertical excitation spreads were consistently induced in the barrel and insular cortices, respectively, even by stimulation of different layers with varying intensities. Thus, a unique functional column existed in the insular cortex, in which intracolumnar communication between the superficial and deep layers was prominent, and GABA(A) action is involved in the inhibition of the intracolumnar communication in contrast to its involvement in intercolumnar lateral inhibition in the barrel cortex. These results suggest that the columnar information processing may not be universal across the different cortical areas. PMID:18354011

  16. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  17. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  18. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  19. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  20. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  1. The association of insular stroke with lesion volume

    PubMed Central

    Kodumuri, Nishanth; Sebastian, Rajani; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Kim, Eun Hye; Tippett, Donna C.; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E.

    2016-01-01

    The insula has been implicated in many sequelae of stroke. It is the area most commonly infarcted in people with post-stroke arrhythmias, loss of thermal sensation, hospital acquired pneumonia, and apraxia of speech. We hypothesized that some of these results reflect the fact that: (1) ischemic strokes that involve the insula are larger than strokes that exclude the insula (and therefore are associated with more common and persistent deficits); and (2) insular involvement is a marker of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We analyzed MRI scans of 861 patients with acute ischemic hemispheric strokes unselected for functional deficits, and compared infarcts involving the insula to infarcts not involving the insula using t-tests for continuous variables and chi square tests for dichotomous variables. Mean infarct volume was larger for infarcts including the insula (n = 232) versus excluding the insula (n = 629): 65.8 ± 78.8 versus 10.2 ± 15.9 cm3 (p < 0.00001). Even when we removed lacunar infarcts, mean volume of non-lacunar infarcts that included insula (n = 775) were larger than non-lacunar infarcts (n = 227) that excluded insula: 67.0 cm3 ± 79.2 versus 11.5 cm3 ± 16.7 (p < 0.00001). Of infarcts in the 90th percentile for volume, 87% included the insula (χ2 = 181.8; p < 0.00001). Furthermore, 79.0% infarcts due to MCA occlusion included the insula; 78.5% of infarcts without MCA occlusion excluded the insula (χ2 = 93.1; p < 0.0001). The association between insular damage and acute or chronic sequelae likely often reflects the fact that insular infarct is a marker of large infarcts caused by occlusion of the MCA more than a specific role of the insula in a range of functions. Particularly in acute stroke, some deficits may also be due to ischemia of the MCA or ICA territory caused by large vessel occlusion. PMID:26909326

  2. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Synoptic scale budgets of kinetic energy are computed using 3 and 6 h data from three of NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE's). Numerous areas of intense convection occurred during the three experiments. Large kinetic energy variability, with periods as short as 6 h, is observed in budgets computed over each entire experiment area and over limited volumes that barely enclose the convection and move with it. Kinetic energy generation and transport processes in the smaller volumes are often a maximum when the enclosed storms are near peak intensity, but the nature of the various energy processes differs between storm cases and seems closely related to the synoptic conditions. A commonly observed energy budget for peak storm intensity indicates that generation of kinetic energy by cross-contour flow is the major energy source while dissipation to subgrid scales is the major sink. Synoptic scale vertical motion transports kinetic energy from lower to upper levels of the atmosphere while low-level horizontal flux convergence and upper-level horizontal divergence also occur. Spatial fields of the energy budget terms show that the storm environment is a major center of energy activity for the entire area.

  3. Extensive Clonality and Strong Differentiation in the Insular Pacific Tree Santalum insulare: Implications for its Conservation

    PubMed Central

    LHUILLIER, EMELINE; BUTAUD, JEAN-FRANÇOIS; BOUVET, JEAN-MARC

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The impact of evolutionary forces on insular systems is particularly exacerbated by the remoteness of islands, strong founder effects, small population size and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Patterns of molecular diversity were analysed in an island system with Santalum insulare, a sandalwood species endemic to eastern Polynesia. The aims were to evaluate clonality and to study the genetic diversity and structure of this species, in order to understand the evolutionary process and to define a conservation strategy. • Methods Eight nuclear microsatellites were used to investigate clonality, genetic variation and structure of the French Polynesian sandalwood populations found on ten islands distributed over three archipelagos. • Key Results It was found that 58 % of the 384 trees analysed were clones. The real size of the populations is thus dramatically reduced, with sometimes only one genet producing ramets by root suckering. The diversity parameters were low for islands (nA = 1·5–5·0; HE = 0·28–0·49). No departure from Hardy–Weinberg proportion was observed except within Tahiti island, where a significant excess of homozygotes was noted in the highland population. Genetic structure was characterized by high levels of differentiation between archipelagos (27 % of the total variation) and islands (FST = 0·50). The neighbour-joining tree did not discriminate the three archipelagos but separated the Society archipelago from the other two. • Conclusions This study shows that clonality is a frequent phenomenon in S. insulare. The genetic diversity within populations is lower than the values assessed in species distributed on the mainland, as a consequence of insularity. But this can also be explained by the overexploitation of sandalwood. The differentiation between archipelagos and islands within archipelagos is very high because of the limited gene flow due to oceanic barriers. Delineation of evolutionary

  4. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  5. Parasite richness and abundance in insular and mainland feral cats: insularity or density?

    PubMed

    Fromont, E; Morvilliers, L; Artois, M; Pontier, D

    2001-08-01

    Hosts living on islands carry few parasite species, and the prevalence and intensity of directly transmitted parasites are often higher in insular than in mainland populations. However, it is unclear whether density or other features of insular populations can be responsible for the pattern observed. We compared the parasite richness, prevalence and intensity of parasites between 2 feral populations of cats living either at low density on an island (Kerguelen) or at high density on the mainland (Lyon). Parasite richness was higher in Lyon than in Kerguelen, where only Toxocara cati was found. T. cati egg prevalence was higher in Kerguelen (71.1%) than in Lyon (58.0%). Because cat density cannot explain this pattern, we propose that the low number of parasite species, the diet and/or immunity of cats act to increase prevalence in Kerguelen. Moreover, prevalence, intensity and variance-to-mean ratio increased with age and body mass in Kerguelen whereas, in Lyon, prevalence decreased with age and body mass. We hypothesize that the pattern of exposure differs between populations, and that density-dependent parasite mortality is lower in Kerguelen than in Lyon. We discuss the consequences concerning the influence of parasites on insular host populations. PMID:11510679

  6. Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Bilateral Insular Hypometabolism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Bhad, Roshan; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-01-01

    Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a cluster of syndromes, characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition, language and/or behavioural changes associated with degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a history of gradually progressive behavioural disturbances, disinhibition, unprovoked anger outbursts, apathy, disorganised behaviour and impaired self-care. A clinical diagnosis of Fronto temporal Dementia (behavioural variant) was made. Extensive investigations found no abnormality except in FDG-PET scan of the brain which revealed hypo metabolism in bilateral anterior insular region. Insula is an important brain area implicated in emotional awareness and behaviour control. Hypo metabolism in insular region in the absence of any structural neuroimaging findings, in a case of behavioural variant of Fronto-temporal dementia suggest that, it might be one of the earliest neurobiological changes occurring in this disorder. PMID:27190928

  7. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  8. Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R; Friston, Karl J; Fan, Jin

    2013-10-15

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people's emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  9. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  10. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  11. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Maryland Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of the delineation proposed by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) for the Maryland (MD) WEA and two alternative delineations. The objectives of the NREL evaluation were to assess MEA's proposed delineation of the MD WEA, perform independent analysis, and recommend how the MD WEA should be delineated.

  12. The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The insular cortex has consistently been associated with various aspects of emotion regulation and social interaction, including anger processing and overt aggression. Aggression research distinguishes proactive or instrumental aggression from retaliation, i.e. aggression in response to provocation. Here, we investigated the specific role of the insular cortex during retaliation, employing a controlled behavioral aggression paradigm implementing different levels of provocation. Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in interaction with either a provoking or a non-provoking opponent. FMRI group analyses were complemented by examining the parametric modulations of brain activity related to the individual level of displayed aggression. These analyses identified a hemispheric lateralization as well as an anatomical segregation of insular cortex with specifically the left posterior part being involved in retaliation. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in accordance with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. The posterior localization of insular activity, on the other hand, suggests a spatial segregation within insular cortex with particularly the posterior part being involved in the processing of emotions that trigger intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies. PMID:27096431

  13. The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation

    PubMed Central

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The insular cortex has consistently been associated with various aspects of emotion regulation and social interaction, including anger processing and overt aggression. Aggression research distinguishes proactive or instrumental aggression from retaliation, i.e. aggression in response to provocation. Here, we investigated the specific role of the insular cortex during retaliation, employing a controlled behavioral aggression paradigm implementing different levels of provocation. Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in interaction with either a provoking or a non-provoking opponent. FMRI group analyses were complemented by examining the parametric modulations of brain activity related to the individual level of displayed aggression. These analyses identified a hemispheric lateralization as well as an anatomical segregation of insular cortex with specifically the left posterior part being involved in retaliation. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in accordance with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. The posterior localization of insular activity, on the other hand, suggests a spatial segregation within insular cortex with particularly the posterior part being involved in the processing of emotions that trigger intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies. PMID:27096431

  14. A volumetric comparison of the insular cortex and its subregions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Bauernfeind, Amy L.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Avasthi, Tanvi; Dobson, Seth D.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Zilles, Karl; Semendeferi, Katerina; Allman, John M.; (Bud) Craig, Arthur D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal composition of the insula in primates displays a gradient, transitioning from granular neocortex in the posterior-dorsal insula to agranular neocortex in the anterior-ventral insula with an intermediate zone of dysgranularity. Additionally, apes and humans exhibit a distinctive subdomain in the agranular insula, the frontoinsular cortex (FI), defined by the presence of clusters of von Economo neurons (VENs). Studies in humans indicate that the ventral anterior insula, including agranular insular cortex and FI, is involved in social awareness, and that the posterodorsal insula, including granular and dysgranular cortices, produces an internal representation of the body’s homeostatic state. We examined the volumes of these cytoarchitectural areas of insular cortex in 30 primate species, including the volume of FI in apes and humans. Results indicate that the whole insula scales hyperallometrically (exponent = 1.13) relative to total brain mass, and the agranular insula (including FI) scales against total brain mass with even greater positive allometry (exponent = 1.23), providing a potential neural basis for enhancement of social cognition in association with increased brain size. The relative volumes of the subdivisions of the insular cortex, after controlling for total brain volume, are not correlated with species typical social group size. Although its size is predicted by primate-wide allometric scaling patterns, we found that the absolute volume of the left and right agranular insula and left FI are among the most differentially expanded of the human cerebral cortex compared to our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. PMID:23466178

  15. Hyperacusis following unilateral damage to the insular cortex: a three-case report.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Turgeon, Christine; Champoux, Sara; Ménard, Lucie; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco; Nguyen, Dang K

    2015-05-01

    The insula is a multisensory area involved in various brain functions, including central auditory processing. However, its specific role in auditory function remains unclear. Here we report three cases of persistent hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli following damage to the insular cortex, using behavioral and neurophysiological measures. Two patients who complained of auditory disturbance since they suffered an isolated unilateral insular stroke, and one epileptic patient who underwent right insular resection for control of drug-resistant seizures, were involved in this study. These patients, all young adult women, were tested for auditory function more than one year after brain injury, and were compared to 10 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and education. The assessment included pure-tone detection and speech detection in quiet, loudness discomfort levels, random gap detection, recognition of frequency and duration patterns, binaural separation, dichotic listening, as well as late-latency auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Each patient showed mild or moderate hyperacusis, as revealed by decreased loudness discomfort levels, which was more important on the side of lesion in two cases. Tests of temporal processing also revealed impairments, in concordance with previous findings. ERPs of two patients were characterised by increased amplitude of the P3b component elicited during a two-tone auditory oddball detection task. This study is the first to report cases of persistent hyperacusis following damage to the insular cortex, and suggests that the insula is involved in modulating the perceived intensity of the incoming auditory stimuli during late-stage processing. PMID:25721796

  16. Population size and time since island isolation determine genetic diversity loss in insular frog populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Supen; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Li, Xianping; Yan, Shaofei; Liu, Xuan; Yang, Ji; Gao, Zengxiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to loss of genetic diversity in fragmented populations is crucial for conservation measurements. Land-bridge archipelagoes offer ideal model systems for identifying the long-term effects of these factors on genetic variations in wild populations. In this study, we used nine microsatellite markers to quantify genetic diversity and differentiation of 810 pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from 24 islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three sites on nearby mainland China and estimated the effects of the island area, population size, time since island isolation, distance to the mainland and distance to the nearest larger island on reduced genetic diversity of insular populations. The mainland populations displayed higher genetic diversity than insular populations. Genetic differentiations and no obvious gene flow were detected among the frog populations on the islands. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that only time since island isolation (square-root-transformed) and population size (log-transformed) significantly contributed to insular genetic diversity. These results suggest that decreased genetic diversity and genetic differentiations among insular populations may have been caused by random genetic drift following isolation by rising sea levels during the Holocene. The results provide strong evidence for a relationship between retained genetic diversity and population size and time since island isolation for pond frogs on the islands, consistent with the prediction of the neutral theory for finite populations. Our study highlights the importance of the size and estimated isolation time of populations in understanding the mechanisms of genetic diversity loss and differentiation in fragmented wild populations. PMID:24351057

  17. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Parker, Z.; Fields, M.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Draxl, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  18. Glacial Features on the Northern Insular Margin of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgadóttir, G.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Detrick, R. S.; Driscoll, N.

    2003-12-01

    The iceberg scoured insular margin of Iceland is incised by several major fjords which mark the pathways of major outlet glaciers during recent glaciations. New Simrad EM300 multibeam bathymetric and Chirp sonar data from the northern insular margin have revealed glacial and glaciotectonic formations some of which, to our knowledge, have not been previously recognized. The iceberg scoured bank areas are mostly devoid of loose sediments which has accumulated within the fjords. Glacial erosion along the Kolbeinsey Ridge indicates that the Iceland ice cap extended beond 67° N during the last glacial maximum. Multiple marginal moraines exist at 400--500 m depth within a 3--6 km wide, U-shaped valley along the western margin of the ridge (at 66° 55'N). The region east of the ridge is dominated by large volcanic complexes which bear the marks of glacial erosion, however, volcanic deposits from postglacial eruptions have blanketed all glacial features in this region. Scoured bedrock surfaces and eskers reflect the direction of two major outlet glaciers, into Skagafjördur-Skagafjardardjúp and Eyjafjördur-Eyjafjardaráll. The region between 66° 20'N and 66° 35'N in Eyjafjardaráll is dominated by a system of a Λ -shaped highly reflective (till?) ridges, which are characteristically up to 1 km long and 300--500 m wide and open towards the presumed glacial flow. The northernmost ridges strike NNE-SSW, parallel to a 10 km long lateral moraine, which most likely separated the two main outlet glaciers in this region, i.e. from Skagafjördur and Eyjafjördur. Further south, they change direction gradually, along with the fjord curvature. The Λ -shaped ridges most likely represent glaciotectonic features formed during repeated glacier advances. They are not drumlins as drumlins generally increase in volume up-glacier but the ridges down-glacier. Instead they represent some sort of composite ridges intervening depressions conforming to the general shape of the glacier

  19. The Insular Cortex and the Regulation of Cardiac Function.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Stephen; Cechetto, David

    2016-04-01

    Cortical representation of the heart challenges the orthodox view that cardiac regulation is confined to stereotyped, preprogrammed and rigid responses to exteroceptive or interoceptive environmental stimuli. The insula has been the region most studied in this regard; the results of clinical, experimental, and functional radiological studies show a complex interweave of activity with patterns dynamically varying regarding lateralization and antero-posterior distribution of responsive insular regions. Either acting alone or together with other cortical areas including the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal, and orbito-frontal cortices as part of a concerted network, the insula can imbue perceptions with autonomic color providing emotional salience, and aiding in learning and behavioral decision choice. In these functions, cardiovascular input and the right anterior insula appear to play an important, if not pivotal role. At a more basic level, the insula gauges cardiovascular responses to exteroceptive and interoceptive stimuli, taking into account memory, cognitive, and reflexive constructs thereby ensuring appropriate survival responses and maintaining emotional and physiological homeostasis. When acquired derangements to the insula occur after stroke, during a seizure or from abnormal central processing of interoceptive or exteroceptive environmental cues as in psychiatric disorders, serious consequences can arise including cardiac electrophysiological, structural and contractile dysfunction and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27065176

  20. CREB regulates memory allocation in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin L; Zhou, Miou; Huang, Shan; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Golshani, Peyman; Kamata, Masakazu; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-12-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory storage have attracted a great deal of attention. By comparison, little is known about memory allocation, the process that determines which specific neurons in a neural network will store a given memory. Previous studies demonstrated that memory allocation is not random in the amygdala; these studies showed that amygdala neurons with higher levels of the cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) are more likely to be recruited into encoding and storing fear memory. To determine whether specific mechanisms also regulate memory allocation in other brain regions and whether CREB also has a role in this process, we studied insular cortical memory representations for conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this task, an animal learns to associate a taste (conditioned stimulus [CS]) with the experience of malaise (such as that induced by LiCl; unconditioned stimulus [US]). The insular cortex is required for CTA memory formation and retrieval. CTA learning activates a subpopulation of neurons in this structure, and the insular cortex and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact during CTA formation. Here, we used a combination of approaches, including viral vector transfections of insular cortex, arc fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) system, to show that CREB levels determine which insular cortical neurons go on to encode a given conditioned taste memory. PMID:25454591

  1. Lights and shadows in the evolutionary patterns of insular bovids.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Roberto; Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-03-01

    Endemic bovids are intriguing elements of insular faunas. The living species include the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and the Formosan serow (C. swinhoei), the tamaraw from Mindoro, Philippines, (Bubalus mindorensis) and the anoas (B. depressicornis and B. quarlesi), 2 species of dwarf buffalos endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fossil endemic bovids are only recorded in some Asian, North American and Western Mediterranean islands. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the changes in body size and evolutionary patterns exhibited by both extant and extinct insular bovids. Our appraisal indicates that each insular representative of Bovidae shows its own peculiar evolutionary model, albeit some parallel trends exist (e.g. reduction in body size, allometric changes in limb bones, alteration of the life history traits). Some changes in morphology (e.g. the simplification of horn cores, the increase in hypsodonty, the acquisition of a 'low-gear' locomotion), for instance, appear as common, albeit not general, patterns triggered by a combination of selective forces. Body size patterns support the 'generality of the island rule' and suggest that biotic interaction had/have a major role in influencing body size evolution in these species, although in different ways on different islands. All things considered, available evidence suggest that a major role in the evolution of insular bovids is played by the structure of the insular community, the nature of available niches and by the dynamics of ecological interactions. PMID:24673764

  2. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of insular epileptic spikes based on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Younes; Pouliot, Philippe; Robert, Manon; Mohamed, Ismail; Bouthillier, Alain; Lesage, Frédéric; Nguyen, Dang K

    2016-09-01

    Failure to recognize insular cortex seizures has recently been identified as a cause of epilepsy surgeries targeting the temporal, parietal, or frontal lobe. Such failures are partly due to the fact that current noninvasive localization techniques fare poorly in recognizing insular epileptic foci. Our group recently demonstrated that magnetoencephalography (MEG) is sensitive to epileptiform spikes generated by the insula. In this study, we assessed the potential of distributed source imaging and functional connectivity analyses to distinguish insular networks underlying the generation of spikes. Nineteen patients with operculo-insular epilepsy were investigated. Each patient underwent MEG as well as T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of their standard presurgical evaluation. Cortical sources of MEG spikes were reconstructed with the maximum entropy on the mean algorithm, and their time courses served to analyze source functional connectivity. The results indicate that the anterior and posterior subregions of the insula have specific patterns of functional connectivity mainly involving frontal and parietal regions, respectively. In addition, while their connectivity patterns are qualitatively similar during rest and during spikes, couplings within these networks are much stronger during spikes. These results show that MEG can establish functional connectivity-based signatures that could help in the diagnosis of different subtypes of insular cortex epilepsy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3250-3261, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27220112

  3. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  4. Insular Ecosystems of the Southeastern United States- A Regional Synthesis to Support Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing Climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  5. Insular cortex activity and the evocation of laughter.

    PubMed

    Wattendorf, Elise; Westermann, Birgit; Lotze, Martin; Fiedler, Klaus; Celio, Marco R

    2016-06-01

    The insular cortex is fundamentally involved in the processing of interoceptive information. It has been postulated that the integrative monitoring of the bodily responses to environmental stimuli is crucial for the recognition and experience of emotions. Because emotional arousal is known to be closely coupled to functions of the anterior insula, we suspected laughter to be associated primarily with neuronal activity in this region. An anatomically constrained re-analysis of our imaging data pertaining to ticklish laughter, to inhibited ticklish laughter, and to voluntary laughter revealed regional differences in the levels of neuronal activity in the posterior and mid-/anterior portions of the insula. Ticklish laughter was associated specifically with right ventral anterior insular activity, which was not detected under the other two conditions. Hence, apparently, only laughter that is evoked as an emotional response bears the signature of autonomic arousal in the insular cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1608-1615, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26287648

  6. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2015-10-01

    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.

  7. Subacute Pain after Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated with Lower Insular N-Acetylaspartate Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Widerström-Noga, Eva; Govind, Varan; Adcock, James P; Levin, Bonnie E; Maudsley, Andrew A

    2016-07-15

    Persistent pain is experienced by more than 50% of persons who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and more than 30% experience significant pain as early as 6 weeks after injury. Although neuropathic pain is a common consequence after CNS injuries, little attention has been given to neuropathic pain symptoms after TBI. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in subjects with TBI show decreased brain concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal density and viability. Although decreased brain NAA has been associated with neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and diabetes, this relationship has not been examined after TBI. The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower NAA concentrations in brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation would be associated with greater severity of neuropathic pain symptoms. Participants with TBI underwent volumetric MRS, pain and psychosocial interviews. Cluster analysis of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory subscores resulted in two TBI subgroups: The Moderate Neuropathic Pain (n = 17; 37.8%), with significantly (p = 0.038) lower insular NAA than the Low or no Neuropathic Pain group (n = 28; 62.2%), or age- and sex-matched controls (n = 45; p < 0.001). A hierarchical linear regression analysis controlling for age, sex, and time post-TBI showed that pain severity was significantly (F = 11.0; p < 0.001) predicted by a combination of lower insular NAA/Creatine (p < 0.001), lower right insular gray matter fractional volume (p < 0.001), female sex (p = 0.005), and older age (p = 0.039). These findings suggest that neuronal dysfunction in brain areas involved in pain processing is associated with pain after TBI. PMID:26486760

  8. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  9. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  10. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... met in accordance with 24 CFR 58.22, and with the understanding that HUD has no obligation whatsoever... under any of the following circumstances: (1) When local environmental reviews under 24 CFR part 58 have...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  11. Three Systems of Insular Functional Connectivity Identified with Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pitskel, Naomi B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research on the function of the insular cortex, few studies have investigated functional subdivisions of the insula in humans. The present study used resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to parcellate the human insular lobe based on clustering of functional connectivity patterns. Connectivity maps were computed for each voxel in the insula based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data and segregated using cluster analysis. We identified 3 insular subregions with distinct patterns of connectivity: a posterior region, functionally connected with primary and secondary somatomotor cortices; a dorsal anterior to middle region, connected with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, along with other regions of a previously described control network; and a ventral anterior region, primarily connected with pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. Applying these regions to a separate task data set, we found that dorsal and ventral anterior insula responded selectively to disgusting images, while posterior insula did not. These results demonstrate that clustering of connectivity patterns can be used to subdivide cerebral cortex into anatomically and functionally meaningful subregions; the insular regions identified here should be useful in future investigations on the function of the insula. PMID:21097516

  12. Ideas on the Margins: Professional Counseling and Ideological Insularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to professionalize counseling practice have yielded extraordinary benefits to counselors. However, professionalization has also caused counselors to adopt strict definitions of their education, practices, and ethics. In order to combat the ideological insularity brought on by professionalization, several marginalized ideas are considered.…

  13. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ius, Tamara; Pauletto, Giada; Cesselli, Daniela; Isola, Miriam; Turella, Luca; Budai, Riccardo; DeMaglio, Giovanna; Eleopra, Roberto; Fadiga, Luciano; Lettieri, Christian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR) are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs) that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR) (P < 0.002), ΔVT2T1 value (P < 0.001), histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P = 0.017), and mutation of IDH1 (P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery. PMID:26539503

  14. Insular Cortex Metabolite Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Santosh K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show significant autonomic and neuropsychologic deficits, which may derive from damage to insular regions that serve those functions. The aim was to assess glial and neuronal status from anterior insular metabolites in OSA versus controls, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMRS), and thus to provide insights for neuroprotection against tissue changes, and to reduce injury consequences. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based medical center. Participants: Thirty-six patients with OSA, 53 controls. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: We performed PMRS in bilateral anterior insulae using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, calculated N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), myo-inositol/creatine (MI/Cr), and MI/NAA metabolite ratios, and examined daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), and neuropsychologic status (Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II] and Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]). Body mass index, BAI, BDI-II, PSQI, and ESS significantly differed between groups. NAA/ Cr ratios were significantly reduced bilaterally, and left-sided MI/Cr and MI/NAA ratios were increased in OSA over controls. Significant positive correlations emerged between left insular MI/Cr ratios and apnea-hypopnea index values, right insular Cho/Cr ratios and BDI-II and BAI scores, and negative correlations appeared between left insular NAA/Cr ratios and PSQI scores and between right-side MI/Cr ratios and baseline and nadir change in O2 saturation. Conclusions: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea showed bilaterally reduced N-acetylaspartate and left-side increased myo-inositol anterior insular metabolites, indicating neuronal damage and increased glial activation, respectively, which may contribute to abnormal autonomic and neuropsychologic functions in the condition. The activated glial status

  15. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    PubMed

    Delibes, Miguel; Blázquez, María del Carmen; Soriano, Laura; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146) of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160) on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc.) challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.). Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures. PMID:22216244

  16. Structural basis of empathy and the domain general region in the anterior insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Isabella; Reinbold, Céline; Wankerl, Johanna; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is key for healthy social functioning and individual differences in empathy have strong implications for manifold domains of social behavior. Empathy comprises of emotional and cognitive components and may also be closely linked to sensorimotor processes, which go along with the motivation and behavior to respond compassionately to another person's feelings. There is growing evidence for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands or intrinsic factors. Here we have investigated changes in brain structure resulting from or predisposing to empathy. Structural MRI data of 101 healthy adult females was analyzed. Empathy in fictitious as well as real-life situations was assessed using a validated self-evaluation measure. Furthermore, empathy-related structural effects were also put into the context of a functional map of the anterior insular cortex (AIC) determined by activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis of previous functional imaging studies. We found that gray matter (GM) density in the left dorsal AIC correlates with empathy and that this area overlaps with the domain general region (DGR) of the anterior insula that is situated in-between functional systems involved in emotion–cognition, pain, and motor tasks as determined by our meta-analysis. Thus, we propose that this insular region where we find structural differences depending on individual empathy may play a crucial role in modulating the efficiency of neural integration underlying emotional, cognitive, and sensorimotor information which is essential for global empathy. PMID:23675334

  17. The Cortical Signature of Central Poststroke Pain: Gray Matter Decreases in Somatosensory, Insular, and Prefrontal Cortices.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Asseyer, S; Taskin, B; Flöel, A; Witte, A V; Mueller, K; Fiebach, J B; Villringer, K; Villringer, A; Jungehulsing, G J

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that cortical structural plasticity plays a crucial role in the emergence and maintenance of chronic pain. Various distinct pain syndromes have accordingly been linked to specific patterns of decreases in regional gray matter volume (GMV). However, it is not known whether central poststroke pain (CPSP) is also associated with cortical structural plasticity. To determine this, we employed T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T and voxel-based morphometry in 45 patients suffering from chronic subcortical sensory stroke with (n = 23) and without CPSP (n = 22), and healthy matched controls (n = 31). CPSP patients showed decreases in GMV in comparison to healthy controls, involving secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), anterior as well as posterior insular cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Comparing CPSP patients to nonpain patients revealed a similar but more restricted pattern of atrophy comprising S2, ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortex. Additionally, GMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex negatively correlated to pain intensity ratings. This shows for the first time that CPSP is accompanied by a unique pattern of widespread structural plasticity, which involves the sensory-discriminative areas of insular/somatosensory cortex, but also expands into prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, where emotional aspects of pain are processed. PMID:25129889

  18. Insular Volume Reduction in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akiko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Kan, Hirohito; Arai, Nobuyuki; Shiraishi, Nao; Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent, there have been only a few structural imaging studies. Moreover, most of them reported about a volume reduction in amygdale, which plays a key role in the neural function of SAD. Insula is another region of interest. Its hyperactivity in regard to processing negative emotional information or interoceptive awareness has been detected in patients with SAD. Referring to these studies, we hypothesized that insular volumes might reduce in patients with SAD and made a comparison of insular volumes between 13 patients with SAD and 18 healthy controls with matched age and gender using voxel-based morphometry. As a result, we found a significant volume reduction in insula in the SAD group. Our results suggest that the patients with SAD might have an insular volume reduction apart from amygdala. Since insula plays a critical role in the pathology of SAD, more attention should be paid not only to functional study but also morphometrical study of insula. PMID:26834652

  19. Predictive coding accounts of shared representations in parieto-insular networks.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Grandi, Laura Clara

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in the macaque monkey brain has provided the physiological evidence for direct matching of the intrinsic motor representations of the self and the visual image of the actions of others. The existence of mirror neurons implies that the brain has mechanisms reflecting shared self and other action representations. This may further imply that the neural basis self-body representations may also incorporate components that are shared with other-body representations. It is likely that such a mechanism is also involved in predicting other's touch sensations and emotions. However, the neural basis of shared body representations has remained unclear. Here, we propose a neural basis of body representation of the self and of others in both human and non-human primates. We review a series of behavioral and physiological findings which together paint a picture that the systems underlying such shared representations require integration of conscious exteroception and interoception subserved by a cortical sensory-motor network involving parieto-inner perisylvian circuits (the ventral intraparietal area [VIP]/inferior parietal area [PFG]-secondary somatosensory cortex [SII]/posterior insular cortex [pIC]/anterior insular cortex [aIC]). Based on these findings, we propose a computational mechanism of the shared body representation in the predictive coding (PC) framework. Our mechanism proposes that processes emerging from generative models embedded in these specific neuronal circuits play a pivotal role in distinguishing a self-specific body representation from a shared one. The model successfully accounts for normal and abnormal shared body phenomena such as mirror-touch synesthesia and somatoparaphrenia. In addition, it generates a set of testable experimental predictions. PMID:25447372

  20. Low energy demonstration accelerator technical area 53

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The resulting Record of Decision (ROD) determined that over the next three years the DOE would follow a dual-track acquisition strategy that assures tritium production for the nuclear weapon stockpile in a rapid, cost effective, and safe manner. Under this strategy the DOE will further investigate and compare two options for producing tritium: (1) purchase of an existing commercial light-water reactor or irradiation services with an option to purchase the reactor for conversion to a defense facility; and (2) design, build, and test critical components of a system for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The final decision to select the primary production option will be made by the Secretary of Energy in the October 1998 time frame. The alternative not chosen as the primary production method, if feasible, would be developed as a back-up tritium supply source. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end low-energy section of the accelerator, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. The following issues were evaluated for the proposed action: utility demands, air, human health, environmental restoration, waste management, transportation, water, threatened and endangered species, wetlands, cultural resources, and environmental justice.

  1. Insular Cortex is Critical for the Perception, Modulation, and Chronification of Pain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changbo; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Huan; Zhang, Ming; Meng, Fancheng; Fu, Hao; Xie, Yingli; Xu, Hui

    2016-04-01

    An increasing body of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of the brain suggest that the insular cortex (IC) integrates multimodal salient information ranging from sensation to cognitive-affective events to create conscious interoception. Especially with regard to pain experience, the IC has been supposed to participate in both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of pain. In this review, we discuss the latest data proposing that subregions of the IC are involved in isolated pain networks: the posterior sensory circuit and the anterior emotional network. Due to abundant connections with other brain areas, the IC is likely to serve as an interface where cross-modal shaping of pain occurs. In chronic pain, however, this mode of emotional awareness and the modulation of pain are disrupted. We highlight some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes of the pain modulation system that contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain in the IC. PMID:26898298

  2. Reduction of brain and sense organs in the fossil insular bovid Myotragus.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Meike; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    Our study of the fossil rupicaprine bovid Myotragus [Bate, 1909] from the Mediterranean island Majorca (Spain) provides evidence that this animal underwent significant changes (reduction) in the relative size of brain and sense organs after geographic isolation at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Miocene-Pliocene boundary, 5.2 Mya). The changes in the central nervous system of Myotragus parallel the pattern reported for domesticated animals, in which decrease in relative brain size is accompanied by a decrease in the relative size of their sense organs. We interpret the important size reduction of brain and sense organs in Myotragus as an adaptive strategy for more efficient energy use under the special environmental conditions of the insular ecosystem, characterized by absence of predation and limitation of trophic resources. PMID:14726622

  3. Altered functional connectivity of the insular cortex across prefrontal networks in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Elton, Amanda; Kennedy, Ashley P; Young, Jonathan; Smitherman, Sonet; Andrew James, George; Kilts, Clinton D

    2013-07-30

    Interoception is theorized to be an important process mediating substance use disorders, and the insular cortex is recognized as a core neural region supporting interoception. The purpose of this study was to compare the integration of the insular cortex into prefrontal-related resting-state networks between individuals with cocaine dependence and healthy controls. Participants comprised 41 patients with cocaine dependence and 19 controls who underwent a resting-state 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Individuals with cocaine dependence demonstrated altered functional connectivity of the insular cortex, predominantly the right insular cortex, with all eight prefrontal-related resting-state networks identified through Independent Component Analysis (ICA). A conjunction analysis demonstrated that the right insular cortex was the neural region with the highest number of common group differences across the networks. There was no evidence that insular cortex connectivity commonly differed between groups for non-prefrontal-related networks. Further, seed-based functional connectivity analyses extended the network analyses and indicated that cocaine dependence was associated with greater connectivity of the right insula with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These data support the hypothesis that cocaine dependence is related to altered functional interactions of the insular cortex with prefrontal networks. The results suggest possible neural mechanisms by which the insular cortex and interoceptive information influence cognitive control and decision-making processes presumably mediated by prefrontal networks in the cocaine dependence process. PMID:23684980

  4. Electrical stimulation of the insular region attenuates nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Hamani, Clement; Yu, Wilson; Shin, Damian S; Kang, Bin; Nobrega, José N; Le Foll, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacological inactivation of the granular insular cortex is able to block nicotine-taking and -seeking behaviors in rats. In this study, we explored the potential of modulating activity in the insular region using electrical stimulation. Animals were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per infusion) under a fixed ratio-5 (FR-5) schedule of reinforcement followed by a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Evaluation of the effect of stimulation in the insular region was performed on nicotine self-administration under FR-5 and PR schedules, as well on reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior induced by nicotine-associated cues or nicotine-priming injections. The effect of stimulation was also examined in brain slices containing insular neurons. Stimulation significantly attenuated nicotine-taking, under both schedules of reinforcement, as well as nicotine-seeking behavior induced by cues and priming. These effects appear to be specific to nicotine-associated behaviors, as stimulation did not have any effect on food-taking behavior. They appear to be anatomically specific, as stimulation surrounding the insular region had no effect on behavior. Stimulation of brain slices containing the insular region was found to inactivate insular neurons. Our results suggest that deep brain stimulation to modulate insular activity should be further explored. PMID:23249816

  5. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Insular Cortex across Prefrontal Networks in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Elton, Amanda; Kennedy, Ashley P.; Young, Jonathan; Smitherman, Sonet; James, George Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2013-01-01

    Interoception is theorized to be an important process mediating substance use disorders, and the insular cortex is recognized as a core neural region supporting interoception. The purpose of this study was to compare the integration of the insular cortex into prefrontal-related resting-state networks between individuals with cocaine dependence and healthy controls. 41 participants with cocaine dependence and 19 control participants underwent a resting-state 3T fMRI scan. Individuals with cocaine dependence demonstrated altered functional connectivity of the insular cortex, predominantly the right insular cortex, with all eight prefrontal-related resting-state networks identified through Independent Component Analysis (ICA). A conjunction analysis demonstrated that the right insular cortex was the neural region with the highest number of common group differences across the networks. There was no evidence that insular cortex connectivity commonly differed between groups for non-prefrontal-related networks. Further, seed-based functional connectivity analyses extended the network analyses and indicated that cocaine dependence was associated with greater connectivity of the right insula with the dorsomedial PFC, inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral dlPFC. These data support the hypothesis that cocaine dependence is related to altered functional interactions of the insular cortex with prefrontal networks. The results suggest possible neural mechanisms by which the insular cortex and interoceptive information influence cognitive control and decision-making processes presumably mediated by prefrontal networks in the cocaine dependence process. PMID:23684980

  6. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior insular cortex—a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions—is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. PMID:27365876

  7. Insular avian adaptations on two Neotropical continental islands

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natalie A.; Steadman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Most studies of avian insular adaptations have focused on oceanic islands, which may not allow characters that are insular adaptations to be teased apart from those that benefit dispersal and colonization. Using birds on continental islands, we investigated characters that evolved in situ in response to insular environments created by late Pleistocene sea level rise. Location Trinidad and Tobago, nearby Caribbean islands and continental South America. Methods We weighed fresh flight muscles and measured museum skeletal specimens of seven species of birds common to the continental islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Results When corrected for body size, study species exhibited significantly smaller flight muscles, sterna and sternal keels on Tobago than on larger Trinidad and continental South America. Tobago populations were more ‘insular’ in their morphologies than conspecifics on Trinidad or the continent in other ways as well, including having longer bills, longer wings, longer tails and longer legs. Main conclusions We hypothesize that the longer bills enhance foraging diversity, the longer wings and tails compensate for the smaller pectoral assemblage (allowing for retention of volancy, but with a probable reduction in flight power and speed), and the longer legs expand perching ability. Each of these differences is likely to be related to the lower diversity and fewer potential predators and competitors on Tobago compared with Trinidad. These patterns of smaller flight muscles and larger bills, legs, wings and tails in island birds are not the results of selection for island dispersal and colonization, but probably arose from selection pressures acting on populations already inhabiting these islands. PMID:23066173

  8. Learning touch preferences with a tactile robot using dopamine modulated STDP in a model of insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ting-Shuo; Bucci, Liam D.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurorobots enable researchers to study how behaviors are produced by neural mechanisms in an uncertain, noisy, real-world environment. To investigate how the somatosensory system processes noisy, real-world touch inputs, we introduce a neurorobot called CARL-SJR, which has a full-body tactile sensory area. The design of CARL-SJR is such that it encourages people to communicate with it through gentle touch. CARL-SJR provides feedback to users by displaying bright colors on its surface. In the present study, we show that CARL-SJR is capable of learning associations between conditioned stimuli (CS; a color pattern on its surface) and unconditioned stimuli (US; a preferred touch pattern) by applying a spiking neural network (SNN) with neurobiologically inspired plasticity. Specifically, we modeled the primary somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the insular cortex, which is important for hedonic touch, to process noisy data generated directly from CARL-SJR's tactile sensory area. To facilitate learning, we applied dopamine-modulated Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) to our simulated prefrontal cortex, striatum, and insular cortex. To cope with noisy, varying inputs, the SNN was tuned to produce traveling waves of activity that carried spatiotemporal information. Despite the noisy tactile sensors, spike trains, and variations in subject hand swipes, the learning was quite robust. Further, insular cortex activities in the incremental pathway of dopaminergic reward system allowed us to control CARL-SJR's preference for touch direction without heavily pre-processed inputs. The emerged behaviors we found in this model match animal's behaviors wherein they prefer touch in particular areas and directions. Thus, the results in this paper could serve as an explanation on the underlying neural mechanisms for developing tactile preferences and hedonic touch. PMID:26257639

  9. Left-insular damage, autonomic instability, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lacuey, Nuria; Zonjy, Bilal; Theerannaew, Wanchat; Loparo, Kenneth A; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Sahadevan, Jayakumar; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed the only two sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases from 320 prospectively recruited patients in the three-year Prevention and Risk Identification of SUDEP Mortality (PRISM) project. Both patients had surgically refractory epilepsy, evidence of left insular damage following previous temporal/temporo-insular resections, and progressive changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in monitored evaluations prior to death. Insular damage is known to cause autonomic dysfunction and increased mortality in acute stroke. This report suggests a possible role for the insula in the pathogenesis of SUDEP. The presence of intrinsic insular lesions or acquired insular damage in patients with refractory epilepsy may be an additional risk factor for SUDEP. PMID:26797084

  10. Tenth anniversary of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Testimony was heard from representatives from the Society of American Archeology, the Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation Enforcement, the Office of Environmental Energy Management of Pennsylvania, National Wildlife Federation, Sierra Club, Western Organizations of Resource Councils, Southwest Research and Information Center, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, Illinois South Project, Concern About Water Loss Due to Mining, Mountain Stream Monitors, Citizens Organized Against Longwalling, Environmental Policy Institute, Kentucky Fair Tax Coalition, Save Our Cumberland Mountains, Navajo Nation, several coal mining companies, the National Coal Association, and Small Coal Operator Advisory Council. Prepared statements from all witnesses plus additional materials are included.

  11. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  12. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  13. Phylogeny and adaptation shape the teeth of insular mice.

    PubMed

    Ledevin, Ronan; Chevret, Pascale; Ganem, Guila; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Hardouin, Emilie A; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; da Luz Mathias, Maria; Schlager, Stefan; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Sabrina

    2016-02-10

    By accompanying human travels since prehistorical times, the house mouse dispersed widely throughout the world, and colonized many islands. The origin of the travellers determined the phylogenetic source of the insular mice, which encountered diverse ecological and environmental conditions on the various islands. Insular mice are thus an exceptional model to disentangle the relative role of phylogeny, ecology and climate in evolution. Molar shape is known to vary according to phylogeny and to respond to adaptation. Using for the first time a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, compared with a classical two-dimensional quantification, the relative effects of size variation, phylogeny, climate and ecology were investigated on molar shape diversity across a variety of islands. Phylogeny emerged as the factor of prime importance in shaping the molar. Changes in competition level, mostly driven by the presence or absence of the wood mouse on the different islands, appeared as the second most important effect. Climate and size differences accounted for slight shape variation. This evidences a balanced role of random differentiation related to history of colonization, and of adaptation possibly related to resource exploitation. PMID:26842576

  14. Kansas Energy 2000. [Inventory of Energy Related Assets. Research Area Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, J.; Nellis, D.; Simons, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Inventory of Energy Related Assets: Research Area Summary is a compilation of resume-type information on energy researchers in the state of Kansas. Researchers are placed in one of four categories: Fossil Energy Research, Alternative Energy Sources, Electric Power Generation and Usage, and Other Energy Research. Each research biography includes a synopsis of recent research, sources of support, and areas of research emphasis.

  15. Picatinny Arsenal 3000 Area Laboratory Complex Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-05-01

    In response to a request by Picatinny Arsenal, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was asked by the Army to conduct an energy audit of the Arsenal’s 3000 Area Laboratory Complex. The objective of the audit was to identify life-cycle cost-effective measures that the Arsenal could implement to reduce energy costs. A “walk-through” audit of the facilities was conducted on December 7-8, 2009. Findings and recommendations are included in this document.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  17. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  18. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus. PMID:25617666

  19. Insular Cortex and Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Rats that are expecting a high value reward (e.g., 1.0 M sucrose) show an exaggerated underresponding when they are instead given a low value reward (e.g., 0.15% saccharin), an effect termed successive negative contrast (SNC). In the present experiment, insular cortex-lesioned (ICX) rats showed normal responsivity to sucrose and saccharin prior to the reward downshift. However, when switched from sucrose to saccharin during the postshift trials these rats displayed no evidence of SNC. Indeed, over the downshift trials these ICX rats consistently drank more saccharin than the ICX rats maintained on saccharin throughout the experiment. Potential interpretations are discussed including a lesion-induced impairment in the ability to accurately recognize the novelty of the postshift saccharin stimulus. PMID:19634939

  20. Mesophotic communities of the insular shelf at Tutuila, American Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, A. Y.; Grimshaw, K. L.; Rooney, J. J.; Sabater, M. G.; Fenner, D.; Carroll, B.

    2010-06-01

    An investigation into the insular shelf and submerged banks surrounding Tutuila, American Samoa, was conducted using a towed camera system. Surveys confirmed the presence of zooxanthellate scleractinian coral communities at mesophotic depths (30-110 m). Quantification of video data, separated into 10-m-depth intervals, yielded a vertical, landward-to-seaward and horizontal distribution of benthic assemblages. Hard substrata composed a majority of bottom cover in shallow water, whereas unconsolidated sediments dominated the deep insular shelf and outer reef slopes. Scleractinian coral cover was highest atop mid-shelf patch reefs and on the submerged bank tops in depths of 30-50 m. Macroalgal cover was highest near shore and on reef slopes approaching the bank tops at 50-60 m. Percent cover of scleractinian coral colony morphology revealed a number of trends. Encrusting corals belonging to the genus Montipora were most abundant at shallow depths with cover gradually decreasing as depth increased. Massive corals, such as Porites spp., displayed a similar trend. Percent cover values of plate-like corals formed a normal distribution, with the highest cover observed in the 60-70 m depth range. Shallow plate-like corals belonged mostly to the genus Acropora and appeared to be significantly prevalent on the northeastern and eastern banks. Deeper plate-like corals on the reef slopes were dominated by Leptoseris, Pachyseris, or Montipora genera. Branching coral cover was high in the 80-110 m depth range. Columnar and free-living corals were also occasionally observed from 40-70 m.

  1. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  2. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of intense convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Berecek, E. M.; Ebel, D. M.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A kinetic energy budget analysis of the AVE-SESAME 1 period which coincided with the deadly Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented. Horizontal flux convergence was found to be the major kinetic energy source to the region, while cross contour destruction was the major sink. Kinetic energy transformations were dominated by processes related to strong jet intrusion into the severe storm area. A kinetic energy budget of the AVE 6 period also is presented. The effects of inherent rawinsonde data errors on widely used basic kinematic parameters, including velocity divergence, vorticity advection, and kinematic vertical motion are described. In addition, an error analysis was performed in terms of the kinetic energy budget equation. Results obtained from downward integration of the continuity equation to obtain kinematic values of vertical motion are described. This alternate procedure shows promising results in severe storm situations.

  3. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  4. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Eva Henje; Connolly, Colm G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P.; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad- happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Methods Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. Results The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Limitations Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Conclusions Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25827506

  5. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Marique, Anne-Francoise Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  6. Roles of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain: Insights from Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Christopher J.; Sawaki, Lumy; Wittenberg, George F.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Quevedo, Alexandre S.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Subjective sensory experiences are constructed by the integration of afferent sensory information with information about the uniquely personal internal cognitive state. The insular cortex is anatomically positioned to serve as one potential interface between afferent processing mechanisms and more cognitively-oriented modulatory systems. However, the role of the insular cortex in such modulatory processes remain poorly understood. Two individuals with extensive lesions to the insula were examined to better understand the contribution of this brain region to the generation of subjective sensory experiences. Despite substantial differences in the extent of the damage to the insular cortex, three findings were common to both individuals. First, both subjects had substantially higher pain intensity ratings of acute experimental noxious stimuli than age-matched control subjects. Second, when pain-related activation of the primary somatosensory cortex was examined during left and right-sided stimulation, both individuals exhibited dramatically elevated activity of the primary somatosensory cortex ipsilateral to the lesioned insula in relation to healthy control subjects. Finally, both individuals retained the ability to evaluate pain despite substantial insular damage and no evidence of detectible insular activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the insula may be importantly involved in tuning cortical regions to appropriately utilize prior cognitive information during afferent processing. Finally, these data suggest that a subjectively available experience of pain can be instantiated by brain mechanisms that do not require the insular cortex. PMID:19261863

  7. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  8. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  9. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  10. Allozyme Variation in the Endangered Insular Endemic Castilleja grisea

    PubMed Central

    HELENURM, KAIUS; WEST, RACHEL; BURCKHALTER, STEVEN J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genetic diversity in Castilleja grisea, an endangered, perennial herb endemic to San Clemente Island, California was investigated. Subsequent to the elimination of goats from the island in 1992, many populations of C. grisea have reappeared and have been increasing in size. • Methods Nineteen populations were surveyed for their genotype at 19 allozyme loci. • Key Results At the taxon level, 57·9 % of loci are polymorphic with AP = 3·09 and HE = 0·137. Populations averaged 33·0 % polymorphic loci with AP = 2·43 and HE = 0·099. Most variation is found within rather than among populations (GST = 0·128), although differentiation among populations is significant. Genetic identities range from I = 0·960 to I = 1·000 with mean I = 0·990. There is no significant relationship between genetic and geographic distance. Gene flow among populations is Nm = 2·50 based on private alleles and Nm = 1·70 based on FST. Outcrossing rates based on fixation indices average t = 1·01, indicating a primarily outcrossed mating system. • Conclusions The observed genetic variation is moderately high, unusually so for an insular endemic species, suggesting that C. grisea may not have lost substantial genetic variation during 150 years of overgrazing, and indicating that it is unlikely to be endangered by genetic factors. PMID:15820989

  11. Sediment distribution on a storm-dominated insular shelf, Luquillo, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Rodriguez, R.W.; Danforthf, W.W.; Gowen, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    A sea-floor mapping investigation designed to assess the sediment distribution, the movement of the nearshore sand supply, and the fate of sediment eroded from the shoreline was conducted using high-resolution sidescan-sonar, seismic reflection, and sediment sampling techniques on the northern insular shelf of Puerto Rico, off the town of Luquillo. Sea-floor structures and the distribution of sediment texture and composition suggest that regional oceanographic processes result in a net offshore direction for cross-shelf sediment transport on the middle and outer shelf during storms. If these same processes are active on the inner shelf, mapping results indicate that this sediment is not transported seaward of a series of east-west trending Pleistocene-age eolianite ridges that outcrop on the middle shelf. The eolianite ridges may act as natural dams, preventing the removal of sediment from the nearshore area. Sand deposits behind the "dams" are up to 20 m thick on the shoreward flank of the ridges.

  12. Multiarchitectonic characterization of insular, perirhinal and related regions in a basal mammal, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Radtke-Schuller, S

    2000-12-01

    The rhinal cortex was investigated in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, a basal placental mammal. This region parallels the rhinal indentation and presumably contains the equivalents of the insular and perirhinal cortices. Using cyto- and myeloarchitectural, enzyme- and immunohistochemical criteria as well as data on the connections with the olfactory bulb, the rhinal cortex was subdivided tentatively along its rostrocaudal and dorsoventral planes. An area caudally adjacent to the rhinal cortex received a prominent input from the olfactory bulb and was also preliminarily characterized in this study. Because previous studies in insectivores remained controversial with regard to the identification of the claustrum, special attention was paid to the laminar organization of the rhinal cortex and its deep cell groups. The tenrec's claustrum was identified and delineated cytoarchitecturally and by its negative acetylcholinesterase stain. Latexin, a molecular marker for characterizing infragranular and claustral cells, also helped to differentiate the claustrum from the cell groups subjacent to it. Thus, the data indicate that in poorly differentiated mammals the claustrum occupies an intermediate deep position within the width of the rhinal cortex, i.e., it is separated from the subcortical white matter by additional, still unidentified, cell groups. PMID:11131017

  13. Central role for the insular cortex in mediating conditioned responses to anticipatory cues

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto-Yoshida, Ikue; Liu, Haixin; Chen, Billy T.; Fontanini, Alfredo; Bonci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Reward-related circuits are fundamental for initiating feeding on the basis of food-predicting cues, whereas gustatory circuits are believed to be involved in the evaluation of food during consumption. However, accumulating evidence challenges such a rigid separation. The insular cortex (IC), an area largely studied in rodents for its role in taste processing, is involved in representing anticipatory cues. Although IC responses to anticipatory cues are well established, the role of IC cue-related activity in mediating feeding behaviors is poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of the IC in the expression of cue-triggered food approach in mice trained with a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. We observed a significant change in neuronal firing during presentation of the cue. Pharmacological silencing of the IC inhibited food port approach. Such a behavior could be recapitulated by temporally selective inactivation during the cue. These findings represent the first evidence, to our knowledge, that cue-evoked neuronal activity in the mouse IC modulates behavioral output, and demonstrate a causal link between cue responses and feeding behaviors. PMID:25583486

  14. Macroscopic connection of rat insular cortex: anatomical bases underlying its physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC), which lies on the dorsal bank of the rhinal fissure, receives multi-modal sensory inputs, i.e. visceral, gustatory, nociceptive and thermal information from the sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other primary sensory cortices such as visual, auditory and somatosensory areas, the anatomical features of the IC are quite distinctive; more than a half of the IC is composed of agranular or dysgranular cortex, which lacks a complete granular layer (layer IV). In addition to the characteristic layer structures, the IC has dense reciprocal innervations with the limbic structures, including the amygdala and hypothalamus. Such connectivity implies that sensory information processed in the IC is profoundly related to limbic information. By enabling the visualization of functional connectivity in the central nervous system, recent advancements in optical imaging techniques have opened the possibility to elucidate the mechanisms of sensory information processing from a macroscopic perspective. In this review, anatomical and functional features of the IC are overviewed from the aspect of gustatory processing, a typical sensation processed in the IC. In addition, the recently developed optical imaging techniques and their findings in gustatory information processing are summarized. We discuss how these characteristic features of excitatory propagation in the IC play functional roles in transmitting neural excitation arising from the limbic structures to the frontal and orbital cortices. PMID:21708315

  15. The von Economo neurons in fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Allman, John M.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Manaye, Kebreten F.; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M.; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in fronto-insular cortex (FI) and anterior limbic area (LA) in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week post conception, with numbers increasing during the first eight months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of fronto-temporal dementia implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. PMID:21534993

  16. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    starting point, places at the disposal of insular archaeology an analytical theoretical scheme of insularity, in which he integrates a number of key concepts (social identity, ethnicity, habitus, migration, colonial theory). These are much used in archaeological interpretation, but previously treated as independent theoretical notions. To those he adds a number of hitherto secondary concepts (connectivity, islandscape, acculturation, hybridization) to which (especially the last) he assigns a leading role. In the in-depth presentation of each concept, he attempts to establish the history of its usage in archaeological theory and patterning, and to offer an exhaustive conceptual and anthropological analysis of it. The theoretical analysis of identity (island, social and ethnic) and the multiple dimensions of mutual influences between cultures emerges as one of Knapp's most important reasoning. Knapp records in detail the models that describe the variations and gradations of communications and their results, whether migration and colonial theory, on the one hand, or peaceful interaction, on the other. He draws our attention to something that usually goes unnoticed, and this is a substantial contribution to the work of every research archaeologist: namely, that there is no such thing as pure identity. Every identity studied by archaeology is the product of acculturation, assimilation or a blending of intersecting identities, ending in hybridization. At this point, however, I would doubt that hybridization, assimilation and cultural blending should be regarded as the natural and definite result where every communication between two different cultural groups leads. In fact Hodder (1982) has challenged this rule after his observations at Baringo, Kenya, where he noticed that the different groups there would rather emphasize their different features at the interaction areas, instead of letting them assimilate with the other's. This important reference would perfectly fit Knapp

  17. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097

  18. Conditioned place preference induced by electrical stimulation of the insular cortex: effects of naloxone.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Simón, María J; Puerto, Amadeo

    2013-04-01

    The insular cortex has been related to various sensory, regulatory, and learning processes, which frequently include affective-emotional components. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of inducing reinforcing effects by electrical stimulation of this cortical region in Wistar rats. Concurrent conditioned place preference tasks were conducted for this purpose, using two rectangular mazes that differed in dimensions, texture, and spatial orientation. A significant correlation was found in the preferences induced by insular cortex electrical stimulation between the two mazes. Animals showed consistent preference or avoidance behaviors associated with simultaneous insular cortex stimulation. No electrical self-stimulation was achieved. In a second experiment, animals that showed consistent place preference after the simultaneous insular cortex electrical stimulation were administered with 4 mg/ml/kg of naloxone. The results revealed that this opiate antagonist blocked concurrent place preference learning when the task was conducted in a new maze but not when it was conducted in the same maze as that in which the animals had learned the task. These results are discussed in terms of the participation of the insular cortex in various reward and aversion modalities. PMID:23377149

  19. Activation of the insular cortex is affected by the intensity of exercise.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J W; McColl, R; Mathews, D; Ginsburg, M; Mitchell, J H

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether there were differences in the magnitude of insular cortex activation across varying intensities of static and dynamic exercise. Eighteen healthy volunteers were studied: eight during two intensities of leg cycling and ten at different time periods during sustained static handgrip at 25% maximal voluntary contraction or postexercise cuff occlusion. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), perceived exertion, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution data were collected. There were significantly greater increases in insular rCBF during lower (6.3 +/- 1.7%; P < 0.05) and higher (13.3 +/- 3.8%; P < 0.05) intensity cycling and across time during static handgrip (change from rest for right insula at 2-3 min, 3.8 +/- 1.1%, P < 0.05; and at 4-5 min, 8.6 +/- 2.8%, P < 0.05). Insular rCBF was decreased during postexercise cuff occlusion (-5.5 +/- 1.2%; P < 0.05) with BP sustained at exercise levels. Right insular rCBF data, but not left, were significantly related, with individual BP changes (r(2) = 0.80; P < 0.001) and with ratings of perceived exertion (r(2) = 0.79; P < 0.01) during exercise. These results suggest that the magnitude of insular activation varies with the intensity of exercise, which may be further related to the level of perceived effort or central command. PMID:10484598

  20. Energy-efficient MAC Protocol for Patient Personal Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of a Personal Area Network (PAN), consisting of a wireless infrastructure of medical sensors, attached to patient's body, and a supervising device carried by them, lays the path for continuous and real-time monitoring of vital signs without discomforting the person in question. This infrastructure enhances the context of remote healthcare services by supporting flexible acquisition of crucial vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Aiming at the exploitation of the inherent features and requirements of wireless medical sensor networks, in this paper we focus on the main design guidelines of a low power Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, designated to support a patient PAN. The proposed protocol intends to improve energy efficiency in such applications and thus is oriented towards the prevention of main energy wastage sources, such as collision, idle listening and power outspending. PMID:17281057

  1. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  2. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  3. Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Islands: Insularity, Hosts and Trade

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Romero, Beatriz; Vicente, Joaquin; Caracappa, Santo; Galluzzo, Paola; Marineo, Sandra; Vicari, Domenico; Torina, Alessandra; Casal, Carmen; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Because of their relative simplicity and the barriers to gene flow, islands are ideal systems to study the distribution of biodiversity. However, the knowledge that can be extracted from this peculiar ecosystem regarding epidemiology of economically relevant diseases has not been widely addressed. We used information available in the scientific literature for 10 old world islands or archipelagos and original data on Sicily to gain new insights into the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We explored three nonexclusive working hypotheses on the processes modulating bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence in cattle and MTC strain diversity: insularity, hosts and trade. Results suggest that bTB herd prevalence was positively correlated with island size, the presence of wild hosts, and the number of imported cattle, but neither with isolation nor with cattle density. MTC strain diversity was positively related with cattle bTB prevalence, presence of wild hosts and the number of imported cattle, but not with island size, isolation, and cattle density. The three most common spoligotype patterns coincided between Sicily and mainland Italy. However in Sicily, these common patterns showed a clearer dominance than on the Italian mainland, and seven of 19 patterns (37%) found in Sicily had not been reported from continental Italy. Strain patterns were not spatially clustered in Sicily. We were able to infer several aspects of MTC epidemiology and control in islands and thus in fragmented host and pathogen populations. Our results point out the relevance of the intensity of the cattle commercial networks in the epidemiology of MTC, and suggest that eradication will prove more difficult with increasing size of the island and its environmental complexity, mainly in terms of the diversity of suitable domestic and wild MTC hosts. PMID:23923053

  4. A giant submarine slope failure on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A large amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across, was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico using long-range sidescan sonar and bathymetric data. This scarp results from the removal of more than 1500 km3 of Tertiary strata. A review of seismic-reflection profiles, stratigraphic data, and subsidence models of the northern insular margin of Puerto Rico were used to infer that large-scale slope failure was induced by the tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope and was responsible for the formation of the scarp. The oversteepening probably was caused by the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began between approximately 4 and 2.5 m.y. ago. The Tertiary strata have been tilted approximately 4.5?? to the north in the last 4 m.y. ?? 1991.

  5. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Cai, X.; Klein, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation. PMID:24817791

  6. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation. PMID:24817791

  7. A Case of Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia with Severe Insular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, T. W.; Links, K. A.; Masterman, D. L.; Mendez, M.F.; Vinters, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviours or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s hypothesis that VEN and fork cell-rich brain regions, particularly in the insula, are targeted in additional subtypes of FTD beyond the behavioral variant. PMID:22150361

  8. Impaired executive functioning after left anterior insular stroke: a case report.

    PubMed

    Markostamou, Ioanna; Rudolf, Jobst; Tsiptsios, Iakovos; Kosmidis, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    Given the insular's anatomic complexity and functional interconnectivity, acute lesions may result in varied clinical presentations, including autonomic, somatosensory, perceptual, motor, affective, and cognitive deficits. Although functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated its role in executive functions, no clinical manifestations have been reported to date. We present the case of a woman with an acute left anterior insular infarction leading to executive (i.e., word and design fluency, mental flexibility, sustained attention, inhibitory control), but not language, visuoperceptual, or memory impairment. This case confirms the left anterior insula's involvement in executive functioning and suggests that an infarction may result in executive impairment. PMID:25537237

  9. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation.

    PubMed Central

    Polis, G A; Hurd, S D

    1995-01-01

    Some islands in the Gulf of California support very high densities of spiders. Spider density is negatively correlated with island size; many small islands support 50-200 spiders per m3 of cactus. Energy for these spiders comes primarily from the ocean and not from in situ productivity by land plants. We explicitly connect the marine and terrestrial systems to show that insular food webs represent one endpoint of the marine web. We describe two conduits for marine energy entering these islands: shore drift and seabird colonies. Both conduits are related to island area, having a much stronger effect on smaller islands. This asymmetric effect helps to explain the exceptionally high spider densities on small islands. Although productivity sets the maximal potential densities, predation (by scorpions) limits realized spider abundance. Thus, prey availability and predation act in concert to set insular spider abundance. PMID:7753815

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  11. Preliminary studies for a high energy neutron area monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R.T.; Hsu, H.H.

    1998-12-01

    Track etch detectors were exposed to neutrons produced by a spallation target struck by a beam of 800 MeV protons. The fields were filtered by 0, 10, and 40 centimeters of polyethylene. The track etch dosimeters were exposed on a polyethylene phantom. The dosimeters were exposed bare and behind lead filters of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 cm of lead with the face of the dosimeter perpendicular to the beam and bare and behind lead filters of 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 cm of lead with angle of incidence 45{degree} and 75{degree}. Monte Carlo calculations of these experimental configurations were done using MCNP and LAHET with input from the calculated spectra. These results are compared with the experimental results to understand the basic processes involved in the production of tracks with high energy neutrons and develop a high energy neutron area monitor.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of excitation in rat insular cortex: intrinsic corticocortical circuit regulates caudal-rostro excitatory propagation from the insular to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Adachi, K; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    2010-01-13

    The insular cortex (IC), composing unique anatomical connections, receives multi-modal sensory inputs including visceral, gustatory and somatosensory information from sensory thalamic nuclei. Axonal projections from the limbic structures, which have a profound influence on induction of epileptic activity, also converge onto the IC. However, functional connectivity underlying the physiological and pathological roles characteristic to the IC still remains unclear. The present study sought to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of excitatory propagation and their cellular mechanisms in the IC using optical recording in urethane-anesthetized rats. Repetitive electrical stimulations of the IC at 50 Hz demonstrated characteristic patterns of excitatory propagation depending on the stimulation sites. Stimulation of the granular zone of the IC (GI) and other surrounding cortices such as the motor/primary sensory/secondary sensory cortices evoked round-shaped excitatory propagations, which often extended over the borders of adjacent areas, whereas excitation of the agranular and dysgranular zones in the IC (AI and DI, respectively) spread along the rostrocaudal axis parallel to the rhinal fissure. Stimulation of AI/DI often evoked excitation in the dorsolateral orbital cortex, which exhibited spatially discontinuous topography of excitatory propagation in the IC. Pharmacological manipulations using 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), a non-NMDA receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV), an NMDA receptor antagonist, and bicuculline methiodide, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, indicate that excitatory propagation was primarily regulated by non-NMDA and GABA(A) receptors. Microinjection of lidocaine or incision of the supragranular layers of the rostrocaudally middle part of excitatory regions suppressed excitation in the remote regions from the stimulation site, suggesting that the excitatory propagation in the IC is largely mediated by

  13. Intrinsic functional connectivity of insular cortex and symptoms of sickness during acute experimental inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lekander, Mats; Karshikoff, Bianka; Johansson, Emilia; Soop, Anne; Fransson, Peter; Lundström, Johan N; Andreasson, Anna; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag; Axelsson, John; Nilsonne, Gustav

    2016-08-01

    Task-based fMRI has been used to study the effects of experimental inflammation on the human brain, but it remains unknown whether intrinsic connectivity in the brain at rest changes during a sickness response. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental inflammation on connectivity between areas relevant for monitoring of bodily states, motivation, and subjective symptoms of sickness. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 52 healthy volunteers were injected with 0.6ng/kg LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, and participated in a resting state fMRI experiment after approximately 2h 45min. Resting state fMRI data were available from 48 participants, of which 28 received LPS and 20 received placebo. Bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior insula sections were used as seed regions and connectivity with bilateral orbitofrontal and cingulate (anterior and middle) cortices was investigated. Back pain, headache and global sickness increased significantly after as compared to before LPS, while a non-significant trend was shown for increased nausea. Compared to placebo, LPS was followed by increased connectivity between left anterior insula and left midcingulate cortex. This connectivity was significantly correlated to increase in back pain after LPS and tended to be related to increased global sickness, but was not related to increased headache or nausea. LPS did not affect the connectivity from other insular seeds. In conclusion, the finding of increased functional connectivity between left anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex suggests a potential neurophysiological mechanism that can be further tested to understand the subjective feeling of malaise and discomfort during a sickness response. PMID:26732827

  14. Macaque Parieto-Insular Vestibular Cortex: Responses to self-motion and optic flow

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aihua; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is thought to contain an important representation of vestibular information. Here we describe responses of macaque PIVC neurons to three-dimensional (3D) vestibular and optic flow stimulation. We found robust vestibular responses to both translational and rotational stimuli in the retroinsular (Ri) and adjacent secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices. PIVC neurons did not respond to optic flow stimulation, and vestibular responses were similar in darkness and during visual fixation. Cells in the upper bank and tip of the lateral sulcus (Ri and S2) responded to sinusoidal vestibular stimuli with modulation at the first harmonic frequency, and were directionally tuned. Cells in the lower bank of the lateral sulcus (mostly Ri) often modulated at the second harmonic frequency, and showed either bimodal spatial tuning or no tuning at all. All directions of 3D motion were represented in PIVC, with direction preferences distributed roughly uniformly for translation, but showing a preference for roll rotation. Spatio-temporal profiles of responses to translation revealed that half of PIVC cells followed the linear velocity profile of the stimulus, one-quarter carried signals related to linear acceleration (in the form of two peaks of direction selectivity separated in time), and a few neurons followed the derivative of linear acceleration (jerk). In contrast, mainly velocity-coding cells were found in response to rotation. Thus, PIVC comprises a large functional region in macaque areas Ri and S2, with robust responses to 3D rotation and translation, but is unlikely to play a significant role in visual/vestibular integration for self-motion perception. PMID:20181599

  15. Node Detection Using High-Dimensional Fuzzy Parcellation Applied to the Insular Cortex.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Ugo; Diano, Matteo; Costa, Tommaso; Nani, Andrea; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Vercelli, Alessandro; Cauda, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Several functional connectivity approaches require the definition of a set of regions of interest (ROIs) that act as network nodes. Different methods have been developed to define these nodes and to derive their functional and effective connections, most of which are rather complex. Here we aim to propose a relatively simple "one-step" border detection and ROI estimation procedure employing the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. To test this procedure and to explore insular connectivity beyond the two/three-region model currently proposed in the literature, we parcellated the insular cortex of 20 healthy right-handed volunteers scanned in a resting state. By employing a high-dimensional functional connectivity-based clustering process, we confirmed the two patterns of connectivity previously described. This method revealed a complex pattern of functional connectivity where the two previously detected insular clusters are subdivided into several other networks, some of which are not commonly associated with the insular cortex, such as the default mode network and parts of the dorsal attentional network. Furthermore, the detection of nodes was reliable, as demonstrated by the confirmative analysis performed on a replication group of subjects. PMID:26881093

  16. Node Detection Using High-Dimensional Fuzzy Parcellation Applied to the Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vercelli, Ugo; Diano, Matteo; Costa, Tommaso; Nani, Andrea; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Vercelli, Alessandro; Cauda, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Several functional connectivity approaches require the definition of a set of regions of interest (ROIs) that act as network nodes. Different methods have been developed to define these nodes and to derive their functional and effective connections, most of which are rather complex. Here we aim to propose a relatively simple “one-step” border detection and ROI estimation procedure employing the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. To test this procedure and to explore insular connectivity beyond the two/three-region model currently proposed in the literature, we parcellated the insular cortex of 20 healthy right-handed volunteers scanned in a resting state. By employing a high-dimensional functional connectivity-based clustering process, we confirmed the two patterns of connectivity previously described. This method revealed a complex pattern of functional connectivity where the two previously detected insular clusters are subdivided into several other networks, some of which are not commonly associated with the insular cortex, such as the default mode network and parts of the dorsal attentional network. Furthermore, the detection of nodes was reliable, as demonstrated by the confirmative analysis performed on a replication group of subjects. PMID:26881093

  17. Differential Effects of Insular and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions on Risky Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, L.; Bechara, A.; Damasio, H.; Aitken, M. R. F.; Sahakian, B. J.; Robbins, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear…

  18. Cholinergic Neurotransmission in the Posterior Insular Cortex Is Altered in Preclinical Models of Neuropathic Pain: Key Role of Muscarinic M2 Receptors in Donepezil-Induced Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Jérémy; Bayet-Robert, Mathilde; Dalmann, Romain; El Guerrab, Abderrahim; Aissouni, Youssef; Graveron-Demilly, Danielle; Chalus, Maryse; Pinguet, Jérémy; Eschalier, Alain; Richard, Damien; Daulhac, Laurence; Balayssac, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most debilitating pain conditions, yet no therapeutic strategy has been really effective for its treatment. Hence, a better understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms is necessary to identify new pharmacological targets. Here, we report important metabolic variations in brain areas involved in pain processing in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy using HRMAS 1H-NMR spectroscopy. An increased concentration of choline has been evidenced in the posterior insular cortex (pIC) of neuropathic animal, which was significantly correlated with animals' pain thresholds. The screening of 34 genes mRNA involved in the pIC cholinergic system showed an increased expression of the high-affinity choline transporter and especially the muscarinic M2 receptors, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis in oxaliplatin-treated rats and the spared nerve injury model (SNI). Furthermore, pharmacological activation of M2 receptors in the pIC using oxotremorine completely reversed oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistently, systemic treatment with donepezil, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, prevented and reversed oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia as well as social interaction impairment. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed a lower level of acetylcholine in the pIC of oxaliplatin-treated rats, which was significantly increased by donepezil. Finally, the analgesic effect of donepezil was markedly reduced by a microinjection of the M2 antagonist, methoctramine, within the pIC, in both oxaliplatin-treated rats and spared nerve injury rats. These findings highlight the crucial role of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission as a critical mechanism of neuropathic pain, and suggest that targeting insular M2 receptors using central cholinomimetics could be used for neuropathic pain treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study describes a decrease in cholinergic neurotransmission in the posterior insular

  19. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  20. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  1. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    2003-07-01

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and γ beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on

  2. The Low Energy Effective Area of the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, D.; Drake, J. J.; Johnson, C. O.; Kashya, V.; Ratzlaff, P. W.; Wargelin, B. J.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; vanderMeer, R.; Paerels, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory was successfully launched on July 23, 1999, and subsequently began an intensive calibration phase. We present the preliminary results from the in-flight calibration of the low energy response of the High Resolution Camera spectroscopic readout (HRC-S) combined with the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) aboard Chandra. These instruments comprise the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph (LETGS). For this calibration study, we employ a pure hydrogen non-LTE white dwarf emission model (T = 25000 K and log g = 9.0) for comparison with the Chandra observations of Sirius B. The pre-flight calibration of the LETGS effective area only covered wavelengths shortward of 44 A (E less than 277 eV). Our Sirius B analysis shows that the HRC-S quantum efficiency (QE) model assumed for longer wavelengths leads to an overestimate of the effective area by an average factor of about 1.6. We derive a correction to the low energy HRC-S QE model to match the predicted and observed Sirius B spectra over the wavelength range of 44-185 A. We make an independent test of our results by the comparison of a Chandra LETGS observation of HZ 43 with pure hydrogen model atmosphere predictions and find good agreement.

  3. 75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Changes in Watch, Watch Movement and Jewelry Program for the U.S. Insular Possessions, 65 FR 8048... producer allocation Belair Quartz, Inc 500,000 The balance of the units allocated to the USVI is...

  4. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses E.; Akinyemi, Marvel L.

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  5. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  6. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  7. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  8. Checkerboard Patterns, Interspecific Competition, and Extinction: Lessons from Distribution Patterns of Tarsiers (Tarsius) and Slow Lorises (Nycticebus) in Insular Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. A. I.

    2010-01-01

    Tarsiers (Tarsius) and slow lorises (Nycticebus) are the only extant nocturnal primates occurring in Southeast Asia. Harcourt (1999) hypothesized that in insular Southeast Asia, slow lorises and tarsiers showed a checkerboard distribution on 12 small (<12,000 km2) islands, i.e., only one or the other occurs, and attributed this to extreme levels of competition between these 2 largely faunivorous primates. Further, he predicted slow lorises were able to persist on smaller islands than tarsiers. We re-evaluated these findings using an expanded dataset including 49 islands where tarsiers or slow lorises occur. Tarsiers and slow lorises live on islands of similar size (median size of ca. 300–900 km2), and both taxa inhabit an equal proportion of small, medium, and large islands. On small islands within their area of sympatry tarsiers occur on 1 island, slow lorises on 8, both genera on 3, and we can assume they have become extinct from 11 small islands since the Last Glacial Maximum. Sizes of islands where tarsiers or slow lorises have become extinct do not differ from islands where they are still extant. We show that slow lorises occur on more islands in insular Southeast Asia than perhaps previously assumed, but these islands are not smaller on average than islands where tarsiers occur. A checkerboard distribution between these taxa is not evident. More studies are needed at the macroecological level to assess the importance of biogeographic history in explaining their present-day distribution patterns. PMID:21212813

  9. Additions to the national wilderness preservation system. Part VII. Mineral leasing in wilderness areas. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on H. R. 5282, H. R. 5603 on February 9 and March 22, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Hearings on three bills withdrawing certain wilderness lands for mineral leasing examined the need for oil and gas exploration in light of US conservation and synthetic fuels developments and the validity of energy policies which consider wilderness leasing a last resort. Several panels of witnesses presented the views of environmental groups, land owners, the oil and gas industry, geologists, and others. Interior Secretary James G. Watt defended the administration's wilderness preservations policies along with its intent to release land for surface exploration in a more orderly fashion than is possible under existing mining law. He emphasized that the bills prohibit exploratory drilling. The hearing record includes the testimony, additional materials submitted for the record, and the texts of H.R. 6542, H.R. 5282, and H.R. 5603. (DCK)

  10. Mainland size variation informs predictive models of exceptional insular body size change in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Paul A. P.; Roth, V. Louise

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for island populations of mammalian taxa to diverge in body size from their mainland counterparts consistently in particular directions is both impressive for its regularity and, especially among rodents, troublesome for its exceptions. However, previous studies have largely ignored mainland body size variation, treating size differences of any magnitude as equally noteworthy. Here, we use distributions of mainland population body sizes to identify island populations as ‘extremely’ big or small, and we compare traits of extreme populations and their islands with those of island populations more typical in body size. We find that although insular rodents vary in the directions of body size change, ‘extreme’ populations tend towards gigantism. With classification tree methods, we develop a predictive model, which points to resource limitations as major drivers in the few cases of insular dwarfism. Highly successful in classifying our dataset, our model also successfully predicts change in untested cases. PMID:26085585

  11. Insular carcinoma: A distinct thyroid carcinoma with associated iodine-131 localization

    SciTech Connect

    Justin, E.P.; Seabold, J.E.; Robinson, R.A.; Walker, W.P.; Gurll, N.J.; Hawes, D.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Insular carcinoma, once considered a poorly-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reclassified as a distinct thyroid neoplasm. Since this neoplasm is composed of follicular epithelial cells, it may concentrate radioiodide (131I) making postoperative 131I imaging for detection of metastases and radiotherapy possible. A 20-yr review of 35 cases diagnosed as anaplastic or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma at this medical center revealed five patients with insular carcinoma. Four patients showed postoperative 131I localization and received therapeutic doses of 131I. Three of the four showed extrathyroidal 131I localization in neoplastic lesions. In one patient, the resolution of metastatic lesions by magnetic resonance and 131I imaging suggests that 131I may have an important therapeutic role in this aggressive neoplasm.

  12. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  13. Alternative Energy: A Bay Area Reference Center Workshop. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are proceedings and related documents of a workshop on alternative energy resources which was held in April, 1980. This information is intended to bring reference librarians up to date on alternative energy technologies and available reference materials to which library patrons may be directed. Among the speeches included are those…

  14. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with insular component: a retrospective case study, immunohistochemical analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Htwe, T T; Karim, N; Lam, A K

    2012-03-01

    This is a retrospective case study of a 61-year-old woman diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent thyroidectomy for the treatment of goitre after being admitted for shortness of breath. Microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were performed, which confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with an insular component. We also conducted a review of the literature on this uncommon entity. PMID:22434304

  15. The shore fishes of the Trindade-Martin Vaz insular complex: an update.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Macieira, R M; Joyeux, J-C

    2013-06-01

    A compilation of historical and recent collections and observations of shore fishes yielded 154 recorded species for Trindade and 67 for Martin Vaz. Twelve taxa, mostly small cryptobenthic species with limited dispersal capabilities and low ecological amplitude, are endemic to this insular complex. In several cases, the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Chain appear to have acted as stepping stones between the mainland and islands in periods of low sea level. PMID:23731156

  16. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  17. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  18. Nestedness of desert bat assemblages: species composition patterns in insular and terrestrial landscapes.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Hayes, John P; Heady, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Nested patterns of community composition exist when species at depauperate sites are subsets of those occurring at sites with more species. Nested subset analysis provides a framework for analyzing species occurrences to determine non-random patterns in community composition and potentially identify mechanisms that may shape faunal assemblages. We examined nested subset structure of desert bat assemblages on 20 islands in the southern Gulf of California and at 27 sites along the Baja California peninsula coast, the presumable source pool for the insular faunas. Nested structure was analyzed using a conservative null model that accounts for expected variation in species richness and species incidence across sites (fixed row and column totals). Associations of nestedness and island traits, such as size and isolation, as well as species traits related to mobility, were assessed to determine the potential role of differential extinction and immigration abilities as mechanisms of nestedness. Bat faunas were significantly nested in both the insular and terrestrial landscape and island size was significantly correlated with nested structure, such that species on smaller islands tended to be subsets of species on larger islands, suggesting that differential extinction vulnerabilities may be important in shaping insular bat faunas. The role of species mobility and immigration abilities is less clearly associated with nestedness in this system. Nestedness in the terrestrial landscape is likely due to stochastic processes related to random placement of individuals and this may also influence nested patterns on islands, but additional data on abundances will be necessary to distinguish among these potential mechanisms. PMID:18941795

  19. Are there differences in immune function between continental and insular birds?

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Generally, immune system architecture varies with different environments, which presumably reflect different pathogen pressures. Specifically, populations from relatively disease-free, oceanic islands are expected to exhibit reorganized immune systems, which might be characterized by attenuated responses, given the costs of immune function. Some insular animals exhibit an ‘island syndrome,’ including increased susceptibility to disease, and some insular populations have declined when they failed to resist infection by introduced pathogens. I measured eight indices of immune function (haemolysis, haemagglutination, concentration of haptoglobin and concentration of five leukocyte types) in 15 phylogenetically matched pairs of bird populations from North America and from the islands of Hawaii, Bermuda and the Galápagos. Immune responses were not attenuated in insular birds, and several indices, including the concentration of plasma haptoglobin, were elevated. Thus, I find no support for the specific hypothesis that depauperate parasite communities and the costs of immune defences select for reduced immune function. Instead, I suggest that life on islands leads to an apparent reorganization of immune function, which is defined by increases in defences that are innate and inducible. These increases might signal that systems of acquired humoral immunity and immunological memory are less important or dysfunctional in island populations. PMID:16928627

  20. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  1. ADORA2A genotype modulates interoceptive and exteroceptive processing in a fronto-insular network.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Maximilian J; Domschke, Katharina; Homola, György A; Schulz, Stefan M; Nowak, Johannes; Akhrif, Atae; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Neufang, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Facilitated processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive information in the salience network is suggested to promote the development of anxiety and anxiety disorders. Here, it was investigated whether the adenosine 2 A receptor gene (ADORA2A) 1976T/C (rs5751876) variant - previously associated with anxiety disorders and anxiety-related phenotypes as well as general attentional efficiency -was involved in the regulation of this network. In detail, fMRI recordings of 65 healthy participants (female=35) were analyzed regarding ADORA2A genotype effects on brain connectivity related to (1) interoceptive processing in terms of functional connectivity resting-state fMRI, and (2) exteroceptive processing using dynamic causal modeling in task-based fMRI. In a subsample, cardiac interoceptive accuracy was furthermore measured via the Mental Tracking Task. ADORA2A genotype was found to modulate a fronto-insular network at rest (interoceptive processing) and while performing an executive control task (exteroceptive processing). Across both modalities, the ADORA2A TT risk genotype was associated with increased connectivity between the insula and the prefrontal cortex. The strength in connectivity correlated with interoceptive accuracy. It is concluded that alterations in fronto-insular connectivity are modulated by both the adenosinergic system and interoceptive accuracy. Thus, fronto-insular connectivity in synopsis with ADORA2A genotypic information could serve as combined biomarkers for personalized treatment approaches in anxiety disorders targeting exteroceptive and interoceptive dysfunction. PMID:27262510

  2. Variable temporo-insular cortex neuroanatomy in primates suggests a bottleneck effect in eastern gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barks, Sarah K.; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Cranfield, Michael R.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hopkins, William D.; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Zilles, Karl; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe an atypical neuroanatomical feature present in several primate species that involves a fusion between the temporal lobe (often including Heschl’s gyrus in great apes) and the posterior dorsal insula, such that a portion of insular cortex forms an isolated pocket medial to the Sylvian fissure. We assessed the frequency of this fusion in 56 primate species (including apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines) using either magnetic resonance images or histological sections. A fusion between temporal cortex and posterior insula was present in 22 species (7 apes, 2 Old World monkeys, 4 New World monkeys, and 9 strepsirrhines). The temporo-insular fusion was observed in most eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei and G. b. graueri) specimens (62% and 100% of cases, respectively) but less frequently in other great apes and was never found in humans. We further explored the histology of this fusion in eastern gorillas by examining the cyto- and myeloarchitecture within this region, and observed that the degree to which deep cortical layers and white matter are incorporated into the fusion varies among individuals within a species. We suggest that fusion between temporal and insular cortex is an example of a relatively rare neuroanatomical feature that has become more common in eastern gorillas, possibly as the result of a population bottleneck effect. Characterizing the phylogenetic distribution of this morphology highlights a derived feature of these great apes. PMID:23939630

  3. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-24

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  4. Two insular regions are differentially involved in behavioral variant FTD and nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Paolo; Santos, Miguel; Henry, Maya; Gola, Kelly; Rosenberg, Lynne; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are focal neurodegenerative disorders belonging to the FTD-spectrum clinical syndromes. NfvPPA is characterized by effortful speech and/or agrammatism and left frontal atrophy, while bvFTD is characterized by social-emotional dysfunction often accompanied by right-lateralized frontal damage. Despite their contrasting clinical presentations, both disorders show prominent left anterior insula atrophy. We investigated differential patterns of insular sub-region atrophy in nfvPPA and bvFTD. Based on knowledge of insular connectivity and physiology, we hypothesized that the left superior precentral region of the dorsal anterior insula (SPGI) would be more atrophic in nvfPPA due to its critical role in motor speech, whereas the ventral anterior region would be more atrophied in bvFTD reflecting its known role in social-emotional-autonomic functions. Early stage nfvPPA and bvFTD patients matched for disease severity, age, gender and education and healthy controls participated in the study. Detailed clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological screening evaluation, and high-resolution T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to perform group comparisons across the whole brain and in bilateral insula region of interest (ROI). Correlation analyses between insular sub-region atrophy and relevant clinical features were performed. Whole brain group comparisons between nfvPPA and bvFTD showed the expected predominantly left or right anterior insular atrophy pattern. ROI analysis of bilateral insula showed that the left SPGI was significantly more atrophied in nfvPPA compared to bvFTD, while the bilateral ventral anterior and right dorsal anterior insula sub-regions were more atrophied in bvFTD than nfvPPA. Only left SPGI volume correlated with speech production

  5. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  6. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  7. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  8. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  9. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  10. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  11. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  12. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  13. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...). The PRIA are Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Island, Wake Island, and Palmyra Atoll. Before entering into a PIAFA, the Council must develop a 3-year...

  14. Genetic structure of introduced populations: 120-year-old DNA footprint of historic introduction in an insular small mammal population

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Blampied, Nick; Peniche, Gabriela; Dozières, Anne; Blackett, Tiffany; Coleman, Stephen; Cornish, Nina; Groombridge, Jim J

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife populations have been introduced to new areas by people for centuries, but this human-mediated movement can disrupt natural patterns of genetic structure by altering patterns of gene flow. Insular populations are particularly prone to these influences due to limited opportunities for natural dispersal onto islands. Consequently, understanding how genetic patterns develop in island populations is important, particularly given that islands are frequently havens for protected wildlife. We examined the evolutionary origins and extent of genetic structure within the introduced island population of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) on the Channel Island of Jersey using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and nuclear microsatellite genotypes. Our findings reveal two different genetic origins and a genetic architecture reflective of the introductions 120 years ago. Genetic structure is marked within the maternally inherited mtDNA, indicating slow dispersal of female squirrels. However, nuclear markers detected only weak genetic structure, indicating substantially greater male dispersal. Data from both mitochondrial and nuclear markers support historic records that squirrels from England were introduced to the west of the island and those from mainland Europe to the east. Although some level of dispersal and introgression across the island between the two introductions is evident, there has not yet been sufficient gene flow to erase this historic genetic “footprint.” We also investigated if inbreeding has contributed to high observed levels of disease, but found no association. Genetic footprints of introductions can persist for considerable periods of time and beyond traditional timeframes of wildlife management. PMID:23532702

  15. Geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Holmes, Charles Ward; Trumbull, James V.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, Virgin Islands. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiling reveals that a buried northeast-southwest striking bedrock ridge controls the shallow structure of the eastern portion of the shelf. This ridge is thought to be related to the Virgin Islands pluton farther north. Bedrock in the western shelf portion is more deeply buried and is thought to be a flatter terrain, probably lithologically similar to rocks exposed on St. Thomas. The sediment cover appears to consist principally of carbonate grains in the sand-size range. This sand is covered to various degrees by carbonate nodules at depths below about 34 m, but at shallower depths the nodules are not present. Three large areas of sandy bottom were mapped 1) west of Brewers Bay, 2) near Buck Island, and 3) off south-central St. John. Variations in the amounts of land-derived particles, organic matter, and silt/clay sized material were mapped in these bodies.

  16. Opposite effects of mu and delta opioid receptor agonists on excitatory propagation induced in rat somatosensory and insular cortices by dental pulp stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Eiko; Koyanagi, Yuko; Nakamura, Hiroko; Horinuki, Eri; Oi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2016-08-15

    The insular cortex (IC) contributes to nociceptive information processing. IC neurons express opioid receptors, including the mu (MOR), kappa (KOR), and delta (DOR) subtypes. Opioidergic agonists suppress excitatory synaptic transmission in the cerebral cortex. In addition, morphine injection into the IC reduces responses to noxious thermal stimuli. However, the mechanisms of the opioid-dependent modulation of cortical excitation at the macroscopic level, which bridge the cellular and behavioral findings, have remained unknown. The present in vivo optical imaging study aimed to examine the effects of the agonists of each subtype on cortical excitatory propagation in the IC and the neighboring cortices, the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory (S2) areas. To assess the opioidergic effects on the cortical circuits, we applied electrical stimulation to the maxillary 1st molar pulp, which induced excitation in the ventral part of S1 and the S2/insular oral region (IOR). The initial excitatory response was observed 10-14ms after stimulation, and then excitation propagated concentrically. DAMGO (10-100μM), an MOR agonist, suppressed the amplitude of cortical excitation and shrank the maximum excitation areas in S1 and S2/IOR. In contrast, 10-100μM DPDPE, a DOR agonist, increased the amplitude of excitation and expanded the area of maximum excitation. U50488 (10-100μM), a KOR agonist, had little effect on cortical excitation. These results suggest that MOR-induced suppression of excitatory propagation in the IC is an underlying mechanism of the powerful analgesic effects of MOR agonists. In contrast, DOR may play a minor role in suppressing acute pain. PMID:27246300

  17. Pre-Surgical Integration of fMRI and DTI of the Sensorimotor System in Transcortical Resection of a High-Grade Insular Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrand, Chelsea L.; Mickleborough, Marla J. S.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Gould, Layla A.; Lorentz, Eric J.; Ellchuk, Tasha; Borowsky, Ron W.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report on a patient with a WHO Grade III astrocytoma in the right insular region in close proximity to the internal capsule who underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy. Total gross resection of insular gliomas remains surgically challenging based on the possibility of damage to the corticospinal tracts. However, maximizing the extent of resection has been shown to decrease future adverse outcomes. Thus, the goal of such surgeries should focus on maximizing extent of resection while minimizing possible adverse outcomes. In this case, pre-surgical planning included integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to localize motor and sensory pathways. Novel fMRI tasks were individually developed for the patient to maximize both somatosensory and motor activation simultaneously in areas in close proximity to the tumor. Information obtained was used to optimize resection trajectory and extent, facilitating gross total resection of the astrocytoma. Across all three motor-sensory tasks administered, fMRI revealed an area of interest just superior and lateral to the astrocytoma. Further, DTI analyses showed displacement of the corona radiata around the superior dorsal surface of the astrocytoma, extending in the direction of the activation found using fMRI. Taking into account these results, a transcortical superior temporal gyrus surgical approach was chosen in order to avoid the area of interest identified by fMRI and DTI. Total gross resection was achieved and minor post-surgical motor and sensory deficits were temporary. This case highlights the utility of comprehensive pre-surgical planning, including fMRI and DTI, to maximize surgical outcomes on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27013996

  18. Wind energy potential in coastal areas in India

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    The strength of the surface winds over any location is governed by the magnitude of the pressure gradient just above the planetary boundary layer, the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer as well as the modifying influences of local topography. Near the coasts, winds tend to be stronger due to the additional pressure gradient provided by the thermal contrast between the land and the sea. In this paper an attempt is made to estimate the energy availability at some coastal locations based on windspeed data of Indian Meteorological Department (1958-1968).

  19. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  20. Controls for Reusable Launch Vehicles During Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driessen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    During the terminal energy management phase of flight (last of three phases) for a reusable launch vehicle, it is common for the controller to receive guidance commands specifying desired values for (i) the roll angle roll q(sub roll), (ii) the acceleration a(sub n) in the body negative z direction, -k(sub A)-bar, and (iii) omega(sub 3), the projection of onto the body-fixed axis k(sub A)-bar, is always indicated by guidance to be zero. The objective of the controller is to regulate the actual values of these three quantities, i.e make them close to the commanded values, while maintaining system stability.

  1. Intracranial spectral amplitude dynamics of perceptual suppression in fronto-insular, occipito-temporal, and primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    If conscious perception requires global information integration across active distant brain networks, how does the loss of conscious perception affect neural processing in these distant networks? Pioneering studies on perceptual suppression (PS) described specific local neural network responses in primary visual cortex, thalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque brain. Yet the neural effects of PS have rarely been studied with intracerebral recordings outside these cortices and simultaneously across distant brain areas. Here, we combined (1) a novel experimental paradigm in which we produced a similar perceptual disappearance and also re-appearance by using visual adaptation with transient contrast changes, with (2) electrophysiological observations from human intracranial electrodes sampling wide brain areas. We focused on broadband high-frequency (50–150 Hz, i.e., gamma) and low-frequency (8–24 Hz) neural activity amplitude modulations related to target visibility and invisibility. We report that low-frequency amplitude modulations reflected stimulus visibility in a larger ensemble of recording sites as compared to broadband gamma responses, across distinct brain regions including occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. Moreover, the dynamics of the broadband gamma response distinguished stimulus visibility from stimulus invisibility earlier in anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus than in temporal regions, suggesting a possible role of fronto-insular cortices in top–down processing for conscious perception. Finally, we report that in primary visual cortex only low-frequency amplitude modulations correlated directly with perceptual status. Interestingly, in this sensory area broadband gamma was not modulated during PS but became positively modulated after 300 ms when stimuli were rendered visible again, suggesting that local networks could be ignited by top–down influences during conscious perception. PMID:25642199

  2. Intracranial spectral amplitude dynamics of perceptual suppression in fronto-insular, occipito-temporal, and primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan R; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    If conscious perception requires global information integration across active distant brain networks, how does the loss of conscious perception affect neural processing in these distant networks? Pioneering studies on perceptual suppression (PS) described specific local neural network responses in primary visual cortex, thalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque brain. Yet the neural effects of PS have rarely been studied with intracerebral recordings outside these cortices and simultaneously across distant brain areas. Here, we combined (1) a novel experimental paradigm in which we produced a similar perceptual disappearance and also re-appearance by using visual adaptation with transient contrast changes, with (2) electrophysiological observations from human intracranial electrodes sampling wide brain areas. We focused on broadband high-frequency (50-150 Hz, i.e., gamma) and low-frequency (8-24 Hz) neural activity amplitude modulations related to target visibility and invisibility. We report that low-frequency amplitude modulations reflected stimulus visibility in a larger ensemble of recording sites as compared to broadband gamma responses, across distinct brain regions including occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. Moreover, the dynamics of the broadband gamma response distinguished stimulus visibility from stimulus invisibility earlier in anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus than in temporal regions, suggesting a possible role of fronto-insular cortices in top-down processing for conscious perception. Finally, we report that in primary visual cortex only low-frequency amplitude modulations correlated directly with perceptual status. Interestingly, in this sensory area broadband gamma was not modulated during PS but became positively modulated after 300 ms when stimuli were rendered visible again, suggesting that local networks could be ignited by top-down influences during conscious perception. PMID:25642199

  3. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    listing of external factors (colonization, invasions) originating in the Near East and the Aegean as sequential narrative history, and the descriptive, systemic analysis of 'materiality, production, trade, migration and colonization which have for long been the cornerstones of Cypriot archaeology' (p. 11). In contrast, he turns his attention towards the internal processes within the island society of Bronze Age Cyprus, which shape its insularity and give it a distinctive identity at this specific period, processes that lead to contextual history and formative tradition. 'To study how any society changes, at any time, it is crucial first to look at internal rather than external factors' (p. 1). Defining the concept of insularity is his aim; therefore, he begins with a number of very apposite rhetorical questions (p. 13) and identifies several individual parameters (connectivity, islandscape, social identity, ethnicity, migration, acculturation, hybridization) to which he assigns collective and individual meanings. The eight chapters that follow may be assigned, broadly, to three general units: in the first of these (ch. 1-2), Knapp offers a synthesis of these parameters in the form of a 'theory of insularity'. In the second (ch. 3-7) he formulates his revised narrative of the prehistory and social identity of the island, which involves a presentation of social and economic, rather than stylistic categories, on the basis of the parameters laid down in his theoretical scheme. Finally, in the third unit (ch. 8), he records his overall conclusions, the new cognitive experiences and concerns that have emerged from the application of his theory, both to Cyprus and to insular archaeology in the Mediterranean and on a world scale. Knapp's synthesis of the theory of insularity in the first unit is a major contribution to Mediterranean archaeology, and makes this book a seminal work. Continuing and broadening Broodbank's (2000) reasoning about the Cyclades, Knapp, with Cyprus as his

  4. Perception of odor-induced tastes following insular cortex lesion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Miller, Laurie A; McGrillen, Ky

    2015-02-01

    Lesions of the insula can affect olfaction and gustation. Here, we examined the effect of insula lesions on taste and taste-like experiences generated via smelling (i.e., odor-induced tastes) in patients with focal insula lesions and intact olfaction. From a set of 16 patients with lesions to the insula, we found 7 (6 with right-sided lesions) who performed normally on various olfactory measures. These were compared to 42 normal control subjects on tests of gustatory and odor-induced taste perception as well as control measures. The patients were impaired relative to controls on most gustatory measures. They were also impaired on tests of odor-induced taste perception, primarily for stimuli presented on the left side. Examining cases individually revealed evidence of a dissociation: two patients exhibited no impairment in odor-induced taste perception in spite of gustatory deficits. Together, these findings suggest that the insula mediates taste recognition, hedonics, and intensity judgments as well as odor-induced taste perception. However, the areas responsible for aspects of taste perception and those responsible for odor-induced taste do not fully overlap each other and they are also independent of olfactory areas. PMID:24308589

  5. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  6. [Zinc and insulin level in islet cells under various functional state of insular apparatus].

    PubMed

    Berehova, T V; Hryhorova, N V; Ieshchenko, Iu V; Bovt, V D; Ieshchenko, V A

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the study of zinc role in pancreas incretory function. Golden hamster and human pancreatic beta cells were investigated under varions functional state of insular apparatus. An increase of zinc and insulin content in islet beta cells was observed during inhibition of its' secretory activity and decrease of both components content in the cells occurred after intensifying of its' activity. Under pancreatic diabetes zinc and insulin quantities in beta cells were significantly less the norm. The results of comparative investigations confirm the thesis concerning this metal and hormone connection in beta-insulocytes. PMID:17902378

  7. Intractable reflex audiogenic epilepsy successfully treated by peri-insular hemispherotomy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Mañas, Rosa; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Debatisse, Damien; Maeder-Ingvar, Malin; Meagher-Villemure, Kathleen; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Deonna, Thierry

    2004-10-01

    We report a case of an infantile hemiplegia seizure syndrome (IHSS) that presented with intractable reflex audiogenic startle epilepsy which in itself is an uncommon form of seizure disorder. Peri-insular hemispherotomy provided complete seizure control. Also of particular interest was that this syndrome resulted from an iatrogenic brain injury sustained during the course of a caesarian section. We review the different mechanisms of birth injury reported in the literature and, discuss the physiopathogenesis of the hemispheric damage in this patient. We also review the literature on "reflex epilepsy" as it applies to this case. Intractable reflex audiogenic (startle) epilepsy in IHSS submitted to hemispherotomy has not previously been reported. PMID:15324827

  8. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  9. Susceptibility to Infection and Immune Response in Insular and Continental Populations of Egyptian Vulture: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan M.; Lemus, Jesús A.; Blanco, Guillermo; Grande, Javier; Donázar, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Background A generalized decline in populations of Old World avian scavengers is occurring on a global scale. The main cause of the observed crisis in continental populations of these birds should be looked for in the interaction between two factors - changes in livestock management, including the increased use of pharmaceutical products, and disease. Insular vertebrates seem to be especially susceptible to diseases induced by the arrival of exotic pathogens, a process often favored by human activities, and sedentary and highly dense insular scavengers populations may be thus especially exposed to infection by such pathogens. Here, we compare pathogen prevalence and immune response in insular and continental populations of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture under similar livestock management scenarios, but with different ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Methods/Principal Findings Adult, immature, and fledgling vultures from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sampled to determine a) the prevalence of seven pathogen taxa and b) their immunocompetence, as measured by monitoring techniques (white blood cells counts and immunoglobulins). In the Canarian population, pathogen prevalence was higher and, in addition, an association among pathogens was apparent, contrary to the situation detected in continental populations. Despite that, insular fledglings showed lower leukocyte profiles than continental birds and Canarian fledglings infected by Chlamydophila psittaci showed poorer cellular immune response. Conclusions/Significance A combination of environmental and ecological factors may contribute to explain the high susceptibility to infection found in insular vultures. The scenario described here may be similar in other insular systems where populations of carrion-eaters are in strong decline and are seriously threatened. Higher susceptibility to infection may be a further factor contributing decisively to the extinction of island scavengers

  10. The insular shelves of the Faial-Pico Ridge (Azores archipelago): A morphological record of its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartau, R.; Madeira, J.; Mitchell, N. C.; Tempera, F.; Silva, P. F.; Brandão, F.

    2015-05-01

    Shelves surrounding reefless volcanic ocean islands are formed by surf erosion of their slopes during changing sea levels. Posterosional lava flows, if abundant, can cross the coastal cliffs and fill partially or completely the accommodation space left by erosion. In this study, multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, and sediment samples are used to characterize the morphology of the insular shelves adjacent to Pico Island. The data show offshore fresh lava flow morphologies, as well as an irregular basement beneath shelf sedimentary bodies and reduced shelf width adjacent to older volcanic edifices in Pico. These observations suggest that these shelves have been significantly filled by volcanic progradation and can thus be classified as "rejuvenated." Despite the general volcanic infilling of the shelves around Pico, most of their edges are below the depth of the Last Glacial Maximum, revealing that at least parts of the island have subsided after the shelves formed by surf erosion. Prograding lava deltas reached the shelf edge in some areas triggering small slope failures, locally decreasing the shelf width and depth of their edges. These areas can represent a significant risk for the local population; hence, their identification can be useful for hazard assessment and contribute to wiser land use planning. Shelf and subaerial geomorphology, magnetic anomalies and crustal structure data of the two islands were also interpreted to reconstruct the long-term combined onshore and offshore evolution of the Faial-Pico ridge. The subaerial emergence of this ridge is apparently older than previously thought, i.e., before ˜850 ka.

  11. Comparison of anterior cingulate vs. insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Kirsten; Breimhorst, Markus; Bauermann, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Haller, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network, notably the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group) for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the BOLD activation in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis. At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback vs. localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28) in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity toward the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a good rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  12. Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Shupe, J.W. . Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. )

    1990-11-01

    American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

  13. To require the Secretary of the Interior to assemble a team of technical, policy, and financial experts to address the energy needs of the insular areas of the United States and the Freely Associated States through the development of energy action plans aimed at promoting access to affordable, reliable energy, including increasing use of indigenous clean-energy resources, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2014-12-08

    12/12/2014 Received in the Senate. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.83, which became Public Law 113-235 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder. PMID:25953358

  15. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder. PMID:25953358

  16. Anterior insular cortex activity to emotional salience of voices in a passive oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chenyi; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Cheng, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    The human voice, which has a pivotal role in communication, is processed in specialized brain regions. Although a general consensus holds that the anterior insular cortex (AIC) plays a critical role in negative emotional experience, previous studies have not observed AIC activation in response to hearing disgust in voices. We used magnetoencephalography to measure the magnetic counterparts of mismatch negativity (MMNm) and P3a (P3am) in healthy adults while the emotionally meaningless syllables dada, spoken as neutral, happy, or disgusted prosodies, along with acoustically matched simple and complex tones, were presented in a passive oddball paradigm. The results revealed that disgusted relative to happy syllables elicited stronger MMNm-related cortical activities in the right AIC and precentral gyrus along with the left posterior insular cortex, supramarginal cortex, transverse temporal cortex, and upper bank of superior temporal cortex. The AIC activity specific to disgusted syllables (corrected p < 0.05) was associated with the hit rate of the emotional categorization task. These findings may clarify the neural correlates of emotional MMNm and lend support to the role of AIC in the processing of emotional salience already at the preattentive level. PMID:25346670

  17. Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Böhle, U R; Hilger, H H; Martin, W F

    1996-10-15

    Numerous island-inhabiting species of predominantly herbaceous angiosperm genera are woody shrubs or trees. Such "insular woodiness" is strongly manifested in the genus Echium, in which the continental species of circummediterranean distribution are herbaceous, whereas endemic species of islands along the Atlantic coast of north Africa are woody perennial shrubs. The history of 37 Echium species was traced with 70 kb of noncoding DNA determined from both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. In all, 239 polymorphic positions with 137 informative sites, in addition to 27 informative indels, were found. Island-dwelling Echium species are shown to descend from herbaceous continental ancestors via a single island colonization event that occurred < 20 million years ago. Founding colonization appears to have taken place on the Canary Islands, from which the Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos were invaded. Colonization of island habitats correlates with a recent origin of perennial woodiness from herbaceous habit and was furthermore accompanied by intense speciation, which brought forth remarkable diversity of forms among contemporary island endemics. We argue that the origin of insular woodiness involved response to counter-selection of inbreeding depression in founding island colonies. PMID:8876207

  18. Direction-dependent activation of the insular cortex during vertical and horizontal hand movements.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Fautrelle, L; Papaxanthis, C; Fadiga, L; Pozzo, T; White, O

    2016-06-14

    The planning of any motor action requires a complex multisensory processing by the brain. Gravity - immutable on Earth - has been shown to be a key input to these mechanisms. Seminal fMRI studies performed during visual perception of falling objects and self-motion demonstrated that humans represent the action of gravity in parts of the cortical vestibular system; in particular, the insular cortex and the cerebellum. However, little is known as to whether a specific neural network is engaged when processing non-visual signals relevant to gravity. We asked participants to perform vertical and horizontal hand movements without visual control, while lying in a 3T-MRI scanner. We highlighted brain regions activated in the processing of vertical movements, for which the effects of gravity changed during execution. Precisely, the left insula was activated in vertical movements and not in horizontal movements. Moreover, the network identified by contrasting vertical and horizontal movements overlapped with neural correlates previously associated to the processing of simulated self-motion and visual perception of the vertical direction. Interestingly, we found that the insular cortex activity is direction-dependent which suggests that this brain region processes the effects of gravity on the moving limbs through non-visual signals. PMID:27001175

  19. Intraoperative diffusion tensor imaging predicts the recovery of motor dysfunction after insular lesions☆

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjiang; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiashu; Zheng, Gang; Lv, Xueming; Li, Fangye; Hu, Shen; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Bainan

    2013-01-01

    Insular lesions remain surgically challenging because of the need to balance aggressive resection and functional protection. Motor function deficits due to corticospinal tract injury are a common complication of surgery for lesions adjacent to the internal capsule and it is therefore essential to evaluate the corticospinal tract adjacent to the lesion. We used diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the corticospinal tract in 89 patients with insular lobe lesions who underwent surgery in Chinese PLA General Hospital from February 2009 to May 2011. Postoperative motor function evaluation revealed that 57 patients had no changes in motor function, and 32 patients suffered motor dysfunction or aggravated motor dysfunction. Of the affected patients, 20 recovered motor function during the 6–12-month follow-up, and an additional 12 patients did not recover over more than 12 months of follow-up. Following reconstruction of the corticospinal tract, fractional anisotropy comparison demonstrated that preoperative, intraoperative and follow-up normalized fractional anisotropy in the stable group was higher than in the transient deficits group or the long-term deficits group. Compared with the transient deficits group, intraoperative normalized fractional anisotropy significantly decreased in the long-term deficits group. We conclude that intraoperative fractional anisotropy values of the corticospinal tracts can be used as a prognostic indicator of motor function outcome. PMID:25206435

  20. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  1. The Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-08-31

    The higher penetration of intermittent generation resources (including wind and solar generation) in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) balancing authorities (BAs) raises issue of requiring expensive additional fast grid balancing services in response to additional intermittency and fast up and down power ramps in the electric supply system. The overall goal of the wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) project is to develop the principles, algorithms, market integration rules, a functional design, and a technical specification for an energy storage system to help cope with unexpected rapid changes in renewable generation power output. The resulting system will store excess energy, control dispatchable load and distributed generation, and utilize inter-area exchange of the excess energy between the California ISO and Bonneville Power Administration control areas. A further goal is to provide a cost-benefit analysis and develop a business model for an investment-based practical deployment of such a system. There are two tasks in Phase 2 of the WAEMS project: the flywheel field tests and the battery evaluation. Two final reports, the Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Flywheel Field Tests Final Report and the Wide-area Energy Storage and Management System Battery Storage Evaluation, were written to summarize the results of the two tasks.

  2. Climate as a driver of tropical insular diversity: comparative phylogeography of two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany S.; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of late Quaternary climate on distributions and evolutionary dynamics of insular species are poorly understood in most tropical archipelagoes. We used ecological niche models under past and current climate to derive hypotheses regarding how stable climatic conditions shaped genetic diversity in two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico. Whereas the Mountain Coquí, Eleutherodactylus portoricensis, is restricted to montane forest in the Cayey and Luquillo Mountains, the Red-eyed Coquí, E. antillensis, is a habitat generalist distributed across the entire Puerto Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, excluding St. Croix). To test our hypotheses, we conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci of each species across their range in Puerto Rico. Patterns of population differentiation in E. portoricensis, but not in E. antillensis, supported our hypotheses. For E. portoricensis, these patterns include: individuals isolated by long-term unsuitable climate in the Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico belong to different genetic clusters; past and current climate strongly predicted genetic differentiation; and Cayey and Luquillo Mountains populations split prior to the last interglacial. For E. antillensis, these patterns include: genetic clusters did not fully correspond to predicted long-term unsuitable climate; and past and current climate weakly predicted patterns of genetic differentiation. Genetic signatures in E. antillensis are consistent with a recent range expansion into western Puerto Rico, possibly resulting from climate change and anthropogenic influences. As predicted, regions with a large area of long-term suitable climate were associated with higher genetic diversity in both species, suggesting larger and more stable populations. Finally, we discussed the implications of our findings for developing evidence-based management decisions for E. portoricensis, a taxon

  3. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  4. "There Are No Housewives on 'Star Trek'": A Reexamination of Exit Rights for the Children of Insular Fundamentalist Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy addresses the problem caused by the liberal state's necessary tolerance of insular fundamentalist groups and the concern that children raised in such groups do not have a fair opportunity to evaluate their inherited beliefs. This tension comes to the fore around disagreements over schooling and requests for religious…

  5. Cost Effective Simulation of the Hybrid Solar/wind and Diesel Energy System in Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Ee. Y.; Barsoum, Nader

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the rural areas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.

  6. Right insular damage decreases heartbeat awareness and alters cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Lukowska, Marta; Herbelin, Bruno; Cabrilo, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration of bodily signals involving exteroceptive and interoceptive information modulates bodily aspects of self-consciousness such as self-identification and self-location. In the so-called Full Body Illusion subjects watch a virtual body being stroked while they perceive tactile stimulation on their own body inducing illusory self-identification with the virtual body and a change in self-location towards the virtual body. In a related illusion, it has recently been shown that similar changes in self-identification and self-location can be observed when an interoceptive signal is used in association with visual stimulation of the virtual body (i.e., participants observe a virtual body illuminated in synchrony with their heartbeat). Although brain imaging and neuropsychological evidence suggest that the insular cortex is a core region for interoceptive processing (such as cardiac perception and awareness) as well as for self-consciousness, it is currently not known whether the insula mediates cardio-visual modulation of self-consciousness. Here we tested the involvement of insular cortex in heartbeat awareness and cardio-visual manipulation of bodily self-consciousness in a patient before and after resection of a selective right neoplastic insular lesion. Cardio-visual stimulation induced an abnormally enhanced state of bodily self-consciousness; in addition, cardio-visual manipulation was associated with an experienced loss of the spatial unity of the self (illusory bi-location and duplication of his body), not observed in healthy subjects. Heartbeat awareness was found to decrease after insular resection. Based on these data we propose that the insula mediates interoceptive awareness as well as cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness and that insular processing of interoceptive signals is an important mechanism for the experienced unity of the self. PMID:25676677

  7. Late Miocene insular mice from the Tusco-Sardinian palaeobioprovince provide new insights on the palaeoecology of the Oreopithecus faunas.

    PubMed

    Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; van Dam, Jan A; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Rook, Lorenzo

    2011-07-01

    Oreopithecus bambolii is one of the few hominoids that evolved under insular conditions, resulting in the development of unique adaptations that have fueled an intensive debate. The palaeoenvironment associated with this great ape has been the subject of great controversy as well. On the one hand, palaeobotanical data indicate that Oreopithecus likely inhabited mixed mesophytic forests interrupted by swamps; on the other hand, an abundance of hypsodont bovids points towards the existence of dry and open environments. Here, we provide a new approach based on the ecomorphology of the extinct endemic Muridae (rats and mice) of the so-called Oreopithecus faunas. Our results show that the successive species of endemic insular murids (Huerzelerimys and Anthracomys) evolved a number of adaptations observed only in extant family members that include significant proportions of grass in their diet. While this fits the pattern exhibited by large mammals, it contrasts with the available palaeobotanical information, which indicates that grasses were minor components of the vegetation. This contradiction may be explained because these endemic murids may have been adapted to the consumption of particular food items such as hard parts of aquatic plants (as shown by some extant murid species). However, because it is unlikely that the remaining herbivore mammals were adapted to this diet as well, we favour an alternative hypothesis that takes into account the peculiar ecological conditions of insular ecosystems leading to a density-dependent selective regime with strong competition. Such a regime would promote the selection of dental adaptations to increase feeding efficiency and durability of the dentition (such as hypsodonty) as seen in some fossil insular ruminants. This hypothesis requires further testing, but may partly account for parallel evolution of dental traits in phylogenetically unrelated insular mammals. PMID:21371736

  8. Sex Differences in Insular Cortex Gyri Responses to the Valsalva Maneuver.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Rieken, Nicholas S; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A; Middlekauff, Holly R; Wu, Paula; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in autonomic regulation may underlie cardiovascular disease variations between females and males. One key autonomic brain region is the insular cortex, which typically consists of five main gyri in each hemisphere, and shows a topographical organization of autonomic function across those gyri. The present study aims to identify possible sex differences in organization of autonomic function in the insula. We studied brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to a series of four 18-s Valsalva maneuvers in 22 healthy females (age ± SD: 50.0 ± 7.9 years) and 36 healthy males (45.3 ± 9.2 years). Comparisons of heart rate (HR) and fMRI signals were performed with repeated measures ANOVA (threshold P < 0.05 for all findings). All subjects achieved the target 30 mmHg expiratory pressure for all challenges. Typical HR responses were elicited by the maneuver, including HR increases from ~4 s into the strain period (Phase II) and rapid declines to below baseline 5-10 s, following strain release (Phase IV). Small, but significant, sex differences in HR percent change occurred during the sympathetic-dominant Phase II (female < male) and parasympathetic-dominant Phase IV (female > male, i.e., greater undershoot in males). The insular cortices showed similar patterns in all gyri, with greater signal decreases in males than females. Both sexes exhibited an anterior-posterior topographical organization of insular responses during Phase II, with anterior gyri showing higher responses than more posterior gyri. The exception was the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which had lower responses than the four other right gyri. Responses were lateralized, with right-sided dominance during Phase II in both sexes, except the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which showed lower responses than the left. The findings confirm the anterior and right-sided sympathetic dominance of the insula. Although sex differences

  9. Sex Differences in Insular Cortex Gyri Responses to the Valsalva Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Rieken, Nicholas S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Wu, Paula; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in autonomic regulation may underlie cardiovascular disease variations between females and males. One key autonomic brain region is the insular cortex, which typically consists of five main gyri in each hemisphere, and shows a topographical organization of autonomic function across those gyri. The present study aims to identify possible sex differences in organization of autonomic function in the insula. We studied brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to a series of four 18-s Valsalva maneuvers in 22 healthy females (age ± SD: 50.0 ± 7.9 years) and 36 healthy males (45.3 ± 9.2 years). Comparisons of heart rate (HR) and fMRI signals were performed with repeated measures ANOVA (threshold P < 0.05 for all findings). All subjects achieved the target 30 mmHg expiratory pressure for all challenges. Typical HR responses were elicited by the maneuver, including HR increases from ~4 s into the strain period (Phase II) and rapid declines to below baseline 5–10 s, following strain release (Phase IV). Small, but significant, sex differences in HR percent change occurred during the sympathetic-dominant Phase II (female < male) and parasympathetic-dominant Phase IV (female > male, i.e., greater undershoot in males). The insular cortices showed similar patterns in all gyri, with greater signal decreases in males than females. Both sexes exhibited an anterior–posterior topographical organization of insular responses during Phase II, with anterior gyri showing higher responses than more posterior gyri. The exception was the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which had lower responses than the four other right gyri. Responses were lateralized, with right-sided dominance during Phase II in both sexes, except the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which showed lower responses than the left. The findings confirm the anterior and right-sided sympathetic dominance of the insula. Although sex

  10. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  11. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  12. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  13. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  14. Morphine-induced suppression of conditioned stimulus intake: Effects of stimulus type and insular cortex lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Intake of an unconditionally preferred taste stimulus (e.g., saccharin) is reduced by contingent administration of a drug of abuse (e.g., morphine). We examined the influence of insular cortex (IC) lesions on morphine-induced suppression of an olfactory cue and two taste stimuli with different levels of perceived innate reward value. Two major findings emerged from this study. First, morphine suppressed intake of an aqueous odor as well as each taste stimulus in neurologically intact rats. Second, IC lesions disrupted morphine-induced suppression of the taste stimuli but not the aqueous odor cue. These results indicate that the perceived innate reward value of the CS is not a factor that governs drug-induced intake suppression. PMID:19631620

  15. Outbreaks of photosensitisation and deaths in cattle due to Myoporum aff. Insulare R. Br. toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jerrett, I V; Chinnock, R J

    1983-06-01

    Outbreaks of photosensitisation and deaths in cattle on 5 farms in Victoria occurred following access to Myoporum affinity insulare. Signs were observed 2 to 6 days after access to myoporum trees or pruned branches and included depression, anorexia, photosensitisation, constipation, agalactia, jaundice, and mucosal petechiation. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase and aspartate amino transferase levels were elevated in all cases. Gross findings in fatally intoxicated cows consisted of widespread haemorrhages and pale yellow mottling of the liver. Distinctive histological lesions of periportal hepatic necrosis and bile duct proliferation were seen in all cases. An 8-month-old heifer given 30 g/kg fresh minced leaves by stomach tube died approximately 70 h after initial dosing. Post-mortem findings of widespread haemorrhage and hepatic periportal necrosis and bile duct proliferation were identical to those of field cases. PMID:6626066

  16. Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Fernando L; Lees, Alexander C; Cianciaruso, Marcus V

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of species extinctions to introductions has been comparable for many insular assemblages, suggesting that introductions could have 'compensated' for extinctions. However, the capacity for introduced species to replace ecological roles and evolutionary history lost following extinction is unclear. We investigated changes in bird functional and phylogenetic diversity in the wake of extinctions and introductions across a sample of 32 islands worldwide. We found that extinct and introduced species have comparable functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. However, this was distributed at different positions in functional space and in the phylogeny, indicating a 'false compensation'. Introduced and extinct species did not have equivalent functional roles nor belong to similar lineages. This makes it unlikely that novel island biotas composed of introduced taxa will be able to maintain ecological roles and represent the evolutionary histories of pre-disturbance assemblages and highlights the importance of evaluating changes in alpha and beta diversity concurrently. PMID:27353518

  17. Laser Ablation as Treatment Strategy for Medically Refractory Dominant Insular Epilepsy – Therapeutic and Functional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Bandt, S. Kathleen; Hogan, R. Edward; Werner, Nicole; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction to neurosurgery in 2008, laser ablative techniques have been largely confined to the management of unresectable tumors. Application of this technology for the management of focal epilepsy in the adult population has not been fully explored. Given that nearly 1,000,000 Americans live with medically refractory epilepsy and current surgical techniques only address a fraction of epileptic pathologies, additional therapeutic options are needed. We report the successful treatment of dominant insular epilepsy in a 53 year-old male with minimally-invasive laser ablation complicated by mild verbal and memory deficits. We also report neuropsychological test data on this patient before surgery and at 8-months after the ablation procedure. This account represents the first reported successful patient outcome of laser ablation as an effective treatment option for medically refractory post-stroke epilepsy in an adult. PMID:25359500

  18. Quantification of surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy: the concept of effective amorphous surface area.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jeffrey; Burnett, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the use of dispersive surface energy in quantifying surface amorphous content, and the concept of effective amorphous surface area is introduced. An equation is introduced employing the linear combination of surface area normalized square root dispersive surface energy terms. This equation is effective in generating calibration curves when crystalline and amorphous references are used. Inverse gas chromatography is used to generate dispersive surface energy values. Two systems are investigated, and in both cases surface energy data collected for physical mixture samples comprised of amorphous and crystalline references fits the predicted response with good accuracy. Surface amorphous content of processed lactose samples is quantified using the calibration curve, and interpreted within the context of effective amorphous surface area. Data for bulk amorphous content is also utilized to generate a thorough picture of how disorder is distributed throughout the particle. An approach to quantifying surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy is presented. Quantification is achieved by equating results to an effective amorphous surface area based on reference crystalline, and amorphous materials. PMID:21725707

  19. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures. PMID:26177388

  20. Development of Low Cost, High Energy-Per-Unit-Area Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.

    1977-01-01

    Work on the development of low cost, high energy per unit area solar cell modules was conducted. Hexagonal solar cell and module efficiencies, module packing ratio, and solar cell design calculations were made. The cell grid structure and interconnection pattern was designed and the module substrates were fabricated for the three modules to be used. It was demonstrated that surface macrostructures significantly improve cell power output and photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency.

  1. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  2. Designing an Information System for the Preservation of the Insular Tropical Environment of Reunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conruyt, Noël; Sébastien, Didier; Courdier, Rémy; David, Daniel; Sébastien, Nicolas; Ralambondrainy, Tiana

    Decision-makers who wish to manage Insular Tropical Environments more efficiently need to narrow the gap between the production of scientific knowledge in universities, or other labs, and its pragmatic use by the general public and administrations. Today, one of the main challenges concerning the environment is the preservation of the biodiversity of ecosystems that suffer from urban and agricultural pressure. As we can only protect what we know, it is all the more important to share expert knowledge about habitats and species by using Internet in order to educate the public about their wealth and beauty. Based on Reunion Island, and taking into consideration an expected population growth of over 30% in the next twenty years, we are working to predict the human impact on this closed territory. To help tackle these two questions about biodiversity and land consumption, we have designed an Information System (IS) in the framework of the ETIC program. Our aim is to enhance insular tropical environment research in order to help the Reunion National Park to manage its protected territory. On the one hand, biodiversity research is handled statically, using knowledge bases and databases, to enhance Systematics and ecological university research. On the other hand, spatial planning concerns are treated dynamically, using multi-agent systems to simulate population densification movements. These software technologies have been implemented and integrated through a common architectural system in the ETIC program. They were conceived using Web Services that allow each module to communicate its functionalities and information with one another, as well as with external systems.

  3. Cigarette smoking is associated with thinner cingulate and insular cortices in patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Kjetil Nordbø; Psychol, Cand; Skjærvø, Ingeborg; Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Haukvik, Unn Kristin; Lange, Elisabeth Heffermehl; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Agartz, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show reduced cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These subtle brain abnormalities may provide insight into illness mechanisms. However, environmental and lifestyle-related factors, such as cigarette smoking, may contribute to brain structure changes. Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. In nonpsychiatric samples, smoking has been associated with reduced thickness in the anterior (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortices, the insular cortex (INS), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Methods We examined MRI scans from patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar disorder and healthy controls using FreeSurfer. Results We included 506 patients (49% smokers) and 237 controls (20% smokers) in our study. We found reduced cortical thickness in the left rostral ACC and the left INS in smoking patients compared with nonsmoking patients, but this difference was not found among healthy controls. No dose–response relationship was found between amount of smoking and cortical thickness in these regions. Among patients, maps of thickness along the whole cortical surface revealed reduced insular thickness but no effects in other regions. Among healthy controls, similar analyses revealed increased age-related cortical thinning in the left occipital lobe among smokers compared with nonsmokers. Limitations The causal direction could not be determined owing to the cross-sectional design and lack of detailed data on smoking addiction and smoking history. Conclusion The effect of cigarette smoking should be considered in MRI studies of patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25672482

  4. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  5. Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all

  6. Topographically Organized Projection to Posterior Insular Cortex from the Posterior Portion of the Ventral Medial Nucleus (VMpo) in the Long-tailed Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A.D. (Bud)

    2014-01-01

    Prior anterograde tracing work identified somatotopically organized lamina I trigemino- and spino-thalamic terminations in a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of posterolateral thalamus of the macaque monkey, named the posterior part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMpo; Craig, 2004b). Microelectrode recordings from clusters of selectively thermoreceptive or nociceptive neurons were used to guide precise micro-injections of various tracers in VMpo. A prior report (Craig and Zhang, 2006) described retrograde tracing results, which confirmed the selective lamina I input to VMpo and the antero-posterior (head to foot) topography. The present report describes the results of micro-injections of anterograde tracers placed at different levels in VMpo, based on the antero-posterior topographic organization of selectively nociceptive units and clusters over nearly the entire extent of VMpo. Each injection produced dense, patchy terminal labeling in a single coherent field within a distinct granular cortical area centered in the fundus of the superior limiting sulcus. The terminations were distributed with a consistent antero-posterior topography over the posterior half of the superior limiting sulcus. These observations demonstrate a specific VMpo projection area in dorsal posterior insular cortex that provides the basis for a somatotopic representation of selectively nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic activity. These results also identify the VMpo terminal area as the posterior half of interoceptive cortex; the anterior half receives input from the vagal-responsive and gustatory neurons in the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMb). PMID:23853108

  7. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top–down pathway. These findings may

  8. Potential for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the Duck and Elk Rivers area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Options for developing resource recovery projects in Bedford, Coffee, Franklin, Lincoln, and Moore Counties in Middle Tennessee are described. The solid waste inventory for the area; energy use inventory; energy and resource recovery technology alternatives; energy recovery project proposals (resource recovery plan, cogeneration option, subregional option); risk management; financial alternatives; design, procurement, and construction management alternatives; and system management alternatives are discussed in separate chapters. Energy and resource recovery technology alternatives cover incineration (waste heat recovery systems, modular controlled air incinerators, modular refractory incinerators, waterwall rotary combustor, waterwall incineration with unprocessed waste and processed waste, environmental aspects); refuse-derived fuel; pyrolysis systems; materials separation and recovery (handpicking, mechanical separation, and source separation). Information provided in appendices is: energy user data forms; transfer stations; TVA experimental cogeneration program; manpower requirements; state of Tennessee loan program; Warren County solid waste inventory; and comments from the state of Tennessee Department of Public Health. (MCW)

  9. Promotion of Wakefulness and Energy Expenditure by Orexin-A in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area

    PubMed Central

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Billington, Charles J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Sinton, Christopher M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the orexin/hypocretin neuronal system are key regulators of sleep onset, transitions between vigilance states, and energy homeostasis. Reciprocal projections exist between the VLPO and orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although the importance of the VLPO to sleep regulation is clear, it is unknown whether VLPO neurons are involved in energy balance. The purpose of these studies was to determine if the VLPO is a site of action for orexin-A, and which orexin receptor subtype(s) would mediate these effects of orexin-A. We hypothesized that orexin-A in the VLPO modulates behaviors (sleep and wakefulness, feeding, spontaneous physical activity [SPA]) to increase energy expenditure. Design and Measurements: Sleep, wakefulness, SPA, feeding, and energy expenditure were determined after orexin-A microinjection in the VLPO of male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral cannulae targeting the VLPO. We also tested whether pretreatment with a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA, TCS-1102) or an OX2R antagonist (JNJ-10397049) blocked the effects of orexin-A on the sleep/wake cycle or SPA, respectively. Results: Orexin-A injected into the VLPO significantly increased wakefulness, SPA, and energy expenditure (SPA-induced and total) and reduced NREM sleep and REM sleep with no effect on food intake. Pretreatment with DORA blocked the increase in wakefulness and the reduction in NREM sleep elicited by orexin-A, and the OX2R antagonist reduced SPA stimulated by orexin-A. Conclusions: These data show the ventrolateral preoptic area is a site of action for orexin-A, which may promote negative energy balance by modulating sleep/wakefulness and stimulating spontaneous physical activity and energy expenditure. Citation: Mavanji V, Perez-Leighton CE, Kotz CM, Billington CJ, Parthasarathy S, Sinton CM, Teske JA. Promotion of wakefulness and energy expenditure by orexin-A in the ventrolateral preoptic area. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1361–1370

  10. ENERGY-RELATED AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN THE WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program designed to create an environmental data base which will be used to assess the air quality impact of energy development in an eight-state region (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming). The program was de...