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Sample records for insulin loaded plga

  1. Preparation of insulin loaded PLGA-Hp55 nanoparticles for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fu-de; Tao, An-jin; Cun, Dong-mei; Zhang, Li-qiang; Shi, Kai

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles (PNP) and PLGA-Hp55 nanoparticles (PHNP) as potential drug carriers for oral insulin delivery. The nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsion solvent diffusion method in water, and their physicochemical characteristics, drug release in vitro and hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats were evaluated. The particle sizes of the PNP and PHNP were 150+/-17 and 169+/-16 nm, respectively, and the drug recoveries of the nanoparticles were 50.30+/-3.1 and 65.41+/-2.3%, respectively. The initial release of insulin from the nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid over 1 h was 50.46+/-6.31 and 19.77+/-3.15%, respectively. The relative bioavailability of PNP and PHNP compared with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection (1 IU/kg) in diabetic rats was 3.68+/-0.29 and 6.27+/-0.42%, respectively. The results show that the use of insulin-loaded PHNP is an effective method of reducing serum glucose levels. PMID:17051590

  2. Preparation of insulin-loaded PLA/PLGA microcapsules by a novel membrane emulsification method and its release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Huang, Shan-Shan; Wan, Yin-Hua; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2006-08-01

    Uniform-sized biodegradable PLA/PLGA microcapsules loading recombinant human insulin (rhI) were successfully prepared by combining a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique and a double emulsion-evaporation method. An aqueous phase containing rhI was used as the inner water phase (w1), and PLA/PLGA and Arlacel 83 were dissolved in a mixture solvent of dichloromethane (DCM) and toluene, which was used as the oil phase (o). These two solutions were emulsified by a homogenizer to form a w1/o primary emulsion. The primary emulsion was permeated through the uniform pores of a SPG membrane into an outer water phase by the pressure of nitrogen gas to form the uniform w1/o/w2 droplets. The solid polymer microcapsules were obtained by simply evaporating solvent from droplets. Various factors of the preparation process influencing the drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug cumulative release were investigated systemically. The results indicated that the drug encapsulation efficiency and the cumulative release were affected by the PLA/PLGA ratio, NaCl concentration in outer water phase, the inner water phase volume, rhI-loading amount, pH-value in outer water phase and the size of microcapsules. By optimizing the preparation process, the drug encapsulation efficiency was high up to 91.82%. The unique advantage of preparing drug-loaded microcapsules by membrane emulsification technique is that the size of microcapsules can be controlled accurately, and thus the drug cumulative release profile can be adjusted just by changing the size of microcapsules. Moreover, much higher encapsulation efficiency can be obtained when compared with the conventional mechanical stirring method. PMID:16814994

  3. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated PLGA nanoparticles overcoming multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jianyong; Han, Limei; Qin, Jing; Ru, Ge; Li, Ruixiang; Wu, Lihong; Cui, Dongqi; Yang, Pei; He, Yuwei; Wang, Jianxin

    2015-07-22

    Although several strategies have been applied for oral insulin delivery to improve insulin bioavailability, little success has been achieved. To overcome multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption simultaneously, insulin-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC)-coated polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ins TMC-PLGA NPs) were formulated in our study. The Ins TMC-PLGA NPs were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method and were characterized to determine their size (247.6 ± 7.2 nm), ζ-potential (45.2 ± 4.6 mV), insulin-loading capacity (7.8 ± 0.5%) and encapsulation efficiency (47.0 ± 2.9%). The stability and insulin release of the nanoparticles in enzyme-containing simulated gastrointestinal fluids suggested that the TMC-PLGA NPs could partially protect insulin from enzymatic degradation. Compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, the positively charged TMC-PLGA NPs could improve the mucus penetration of insulin in mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells, the cellular uptake of insulin via clathrin- or adsorption-mediated endocytosis in Caco-2 cells and the permeation of insulin across a Caco-2 cell monolayer through tight junction opening. After oral administration in mice, the TMC-PLGA NPs moved more slowly through the gastrointestinal tract compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, indicating the mucoadhesive property of the nanoparticles after TMC coating. Additionally, in pharmacological studies in diabetic rats, orally administered Ins TMC-PLGA NPs produced a stronger hypoglycemic effect, with 2-fold higher relative pharmacological availability compared with unmodified NPs. In conclusion, oral insulin absorption is improved by TMC-PLGA NPs with the multiple absorption barriers overcome simultaneously. TMC-PLGA NPs may be a promising drug delivery system for oral administration of macromolecular therapeutics. PMID:26111015

  4. HP55-coated capsule containing PLGA/RS nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi Min; Zhou, Liying; Guo, Xin Dong; Jiang, Wei; Ling, Li; Qian, Yu; Luo, Kathy Qian; Zhang, Li Juan

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we designed and developed a two-stage delivery system composed of enteric capsule and cationic nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin. The enteric capsule was coated with pH-sensitive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55), which could selectively release insulin from nanoparticles in the intestinal tract, instead of stomach. The biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was selected as the matrix for loading insulin. Eurdragit(®) RS (RS) was also introduced to the nanoparticles for enhancing the penetration of insulin across the mucosal surface in the intestine. The nanoparticles were prepared with the multiple emulsions solvent evaporation method via ultrasonic emulsification. The optimized nanoparticles have a mean size of 285nm, a positive zeta potential of 42mV. The encapsulation efficiency was up to 73.9%. In vitro results revealed that the initial burst release of insulin from nanoparticles was markedly reduced at pH 1.2, which mimics the stomach environment. In vivo effects of the capsule containing insulin PLGA/RS nanoparticles were also investigated in diabetic rat models. The oral delivered capsules induced a prolonged reduction in blood glucose levels. The pharmacological availability was found to be approximately 9.2%. All the results indicated that the integration of HP55-coated capsule with cationic nanoparticles may be a promising platform for oral delivery of insulin with high bioavailability. PMID:22248666

  5. Release of insulin from PLGA-alginate dressing stimulates regenerative healing of burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Silva, João P; Liu, Yan; Hrynyk, Michael; Garcia, Monika; Chan, Alex; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Neufeld, Ronald J; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Burn wound healing involves a complex set of overlapping processes in an environment conducive to ischaemia, inflammation and infection costing $7.5 billion/year in the U.S.A. alone, in addition to the morbidity and mortality that occur when the burns are extensive. We previously showed that insulin, when topically applied to skin excision wounds, accelerates re-epithelialization and stimulates angiogenesis. More recently, we developed an alginate sponge dressing (ASD) containing insulin encapsulated in PLGA [poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microparticles that provides a sustained release of bioactive insulin for >20 days in a moist and protective environment. We hypothesized that insulin-containing ASD accelerates burn healing and stimulates a more regenerative, less scarring healing. Using heat-induced burn injury in rats, we show that burns treated with dressings containing 0.04 mg insulin/cm(2) every 3 days for 9 days have faster closure, a higher rate of disintegration of dead tissue and decreased oxidative stress. In addition, in insulin-treated wounds, the pattern of neutrophil inflammatory response suggests faster clearing of the burned dead tissue. We also observe faster resolution of the pro-inflammatory macrophages. We also found that insulin stimulates collagen deposition and maturation with the fibres organized more like a basket weave (normal skin) than aligned and cross-linked (scar tissue). In summary, application of ASD-containing insulin-loaded PLGA particles on burns every 3 days stimulates faster and more regenerative healing. These results suggest insulin as a potential therapeutic agent in burn healing and, because of its long history of safe use in humans, insulin could become one of the treatments of choice when repair and regeneration are critical for proper tissue function. PMID:26310669

  6. Transdermal iontophoresis of flufenamic acid loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Malinovskaja-Gomez, K; Labouta, H I; Schneider, M; Hirvonen, J; Laaksonen, T

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to test in vitro a drug delivery system that combines nanoencapsulation and iontophoresis for the transdermal delivery of lipophilic model drug using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as the carrier polymer. Negatively charged fluorescent nanoparticles loaded with negatively charged flufenamic acid were prepared. The colloidal properties of the particles were stable under iontophoretic current (constant, pulsed and alternating) profiles and in contact with skin barrier. The release of the drug from the particles was not affected by iontophoresis and remained always limited (≈50%), leading to significantly lower transdermal fluxes across human epidermis and full thickness porcine skin compared to respective free drug formulation. From nanoparticles, pulsed current profile resulted in comparable or higher fluxes compared to constant current profile although fluorescence imaging was not able to confirm deeper distribution of nanoparticles in skin. Based on our results, there is no clear advantage with respect to drug permeation from nanoencapsulating flufenamic acid into PLGA nanoparticles compared to free drug formulation, either in passive or iontophoretic delivery regimens. However, pulsed current iontophoresis could be an effective alternative instead of traditional constant current iontophoresis to enhance transdermal permeation of drugs from nanoencapsulated formulations. PMID:27131608

  7. Development of sulfadiazine-decorated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with 5-fluorouracil and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro Pires Goulart; Oliveira, Sheila Rodrigues; de Castro Rodrigues, Gabrielle; Gontijo, Savio Morato Lacerda; Lula, Ivana Silva; Cortés, Maria Esperanza; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize sulfadiazine-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (SUL-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the efficient delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells. The SUL-PLGA conjugation was assessed using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis and TG and DTA analysis. The SUL-PLGA NPs were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, the zeta potential, drug content, and in vitro 5-FU release were evaluated. We found that for the SUL-PLGA NPs, Dh = 114.0 nm, ZP = -32.1 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was 49%. The 5-FU was released for up to 7 days from the NPs. Cytotoxicity evaluations of 5-FU-loaded NPs (5-FU-SUL-PLGA and 5-FU-PLGA) on two cancer cell lines (Caco-2, A431) and two normal cell lines (fibroblast, osteoblast) were compared. Higher cytotoxicity of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs were found to both cancer cell lines when compared to normal cell lines, demonstrating that the presence of SUL could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of the 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs when compared with 5-FU-PLGA NPs. Thus, the development of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs to cancer cells is a promising strategy for the 5-FU antitumor formulation in the future. PMID:25580685

  8. Spectral and spatial characterization of protein loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Rahman, Ziyaur; Habib, Muhammad J; Khan, Mansoor A

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging as approaches to assess drug contents in poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles of a model protein, cyclosporine A (CyA). A 6-factors 12-runs designed set of experiments with Plackett-Burman (PB) screening was applied in order to examine the effects of drug loading (X(1)), polymer loading (X(2)), emulsifier concentration (X(3)), stirring rate (X(4)), type of organic solvent (X(5)), and ratio of organic to aqueous phases' volumes (X(6)), on drug entrapment efficiency (EFF). After omitting the factors with nonsignificant influences on EFF, a reduced mathematical relationship, EFF = 48.34 + 7.3X(1) - 29.95X(3), was obtained to explain the effect of the significant factors on EFF. Using two different sets for calibration and validation, the developed NIR calibration model was able to assess CyA contents within the 12 PB formulations. NIR spectral imaging was capable of clearly distinguishing the 12 formulations, both qualitatively and quantitatively. A good correlation with a coefficient of 0.9727 was obtained for constructing a quantile-quantile plot for the actual drug loading percentage and the % standard deviation obtained for the drug loading prediction using the hyperspectral images. PMID:19774658

  9. Effects of ball-milling on PLGA polymer and its implication on lansoprazole-loaded nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Anjumn; Alhusban, Farhan; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2011-01-01

    PLGA is a biodegradable polymer utilised widely in pharmaceutical research for the encapsulation of a wide range of drugs as nano particulate systems. This study investigates the impact of rotary ball milling on the physical properties of PLGA and its influence on nanoparticle formation prepared using the solvent displacement technique. By applying mechanical stress to the polymer and altering its physical appearance and molecular weight, the loading of lansoprazole within the nanoparticles was increased to 96%, with a reduction in particle size. The results indicate that rotary ball milling significantly reduces particle size, increases lansoprazole loading and improves the release profile for lansoprazole loaded PLGA nanoparticles PMID:24826005

  10. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  11. Efficient Chemotherapy of Rat Glioblastoma Using Doxorubicin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles with Different Stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfart, Stefanie; Khalansky, Alexander S.; Gelperina, Svetlana; Maksimenko, Olga; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Kreuter, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy of glioblastoma is largely ineffective as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents entry of most anticancer agents into the brain. For an efficient treatment of glioblastomas it is necessary to deliver anti-cancer drugs across the intact BBB. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 hold great promise as drug carriers for brain delivery after their intravenous injection. In the present study the anti-tumour efficacy of the surfactant-coated doxorubicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles against rat glioblastoma 101/8 was investigated using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Methodology The particles were prepared by a high-pressure solvent evaporation technique using 1% polyvinylalcohol (PLGA/PVA) or human serum albumin (PLGA/HSA) as stabilizers. Additionally, lecithin-containing PLGA/HSA particles (Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA) were prepared. For evaluation of the antitumour efficacy the glioblastoma-bearing rats were treated intravenously with the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 using the following treatment regimen: 3×2.5 mg/kg on day 2, 5 and 8 after tumour implantation; doxorubicin and poloxamer 188 solutions were used as controls. On day 18, the rats were sacrificed and the antitumour effect was determined by measurement of tumour size, necrotic areas, proliferation index, and expression of GFAP and VEGF as well as Isolectin B4, a marker for the vessel density. Conclusion The results reveal a considerable anti-tumour effect of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles. The overall best results were observed for Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA. These data demonstrate that the poloxamer 188-coated PLGA nanoparticles enable delivery of doxorubicin across the blood-brain barrier in the therapeutically effective concentrations. PMID:21573151

  12. Curcumin loaded PLGA-poloxamer blend nanoparticles induce cell cycle arrest in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Laura; Serri, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Crispi, Stefania; Piccolo, Maria Teresa; Mita, Luigi; Giarra, Simona; Forte, Maurizio; Saija, Antonina; Biondi, Marco; Mita, Damiano Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacological potential of curcumin (CURC) is severely restricted because of its low water solubility/absorption, short half-life and poor bioavailability. To overcome these issues, CURC-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a double emulsion technique. In particular, NPs were made up of an amphiphilic blend of poloxamers and PLGA to confer stealth properties to the NPs to take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Different surface properties of NPs made up of bare PLGA and PLGA/poloxamer blend were confirmed by the different interactions of these NPs with serum proteins and also by their ability to be internalized by mesothelioma cell line. The uptake of PLGA/poloxamer NPs induces a persistent block in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle up to 72 h, thus overcoming the drug tolerance phenomenon, normally evidenced with free CURC. PMID:25794477

  13. Development of new reverse micellar microencapsulation technique to load water-soluble drug into PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Cho, Mihyun; Sah, Hongkee

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new reverse micelle-based microencapsulation technique to load tetracycline hydrochloride into PLGA microspheres. To do so, a reverse micellar system was formulated to dissolve tetracycline hydrochloride and water in ethyl formate with the aid of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The resultant micellar solution was used to dissolve 0.3 to 0.75 g of PLGA, and microspheres were prepared following a modified solvent quenching technique. As a control experiment, the drug was encapsulated into PLGA microspheres via a conventional methylene chloride-based emulsion procedure. The microspheres were then characterized with regard to drug loading efficiency, their size distribution and morphology. The reverse micellar procedure led to the formation of free-flowing, spherical microspheres with the size mode of 88 microm. When PLGA microspheres were prepared following the conventional methylene chloride-based procedure, most of tetracycline hydrochloride leached to the aqueous external phase: A maximal loading efficiency observed our experimental conditions was below 5%. Their surfaces had numerous pores, while their internal architecture was honey-combed. In sharp contrast, the new reverse micellar encapsulation technique permitted the attainment of a maximal loading efficiency of 63.19 +/- 0.64%. Also, the microspheres had smooth and pore-free surfaces, and hollow cavities were absent from their internal matrices. The results of this study demonstrated that PLGA microspheres could be successfully prepared following the new reverse micellar encapsulation technique. PMID:15832828

  14. Phagostimulatory effect of uptake of PLGA microspheres loaded with rifampicin on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Keiji; Hasegawa, Taizo; Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2011-10-15

    Our previous results on the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (Mϕs) toward poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres (PLGA MS) loaded with the anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin (R-PLGA MS) suggest that the phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhances the phagocytic activity of Mϕ cells. To confirm this possibility, we examined the effect of phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS and polystyrene latex (PSL) MS on the phagocytic uptake of fluorescent PSL (F-PSL) MS by cells of the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 at 37°C. Phagocytic activity was examined in terms of the population of Mϕ cells that had phagocytosed MS (N(total)) and the total number of MS phagocytosed (n(total)) by counting the phagocytic Mϕ cells and the MS ingested in optical microscopic fields. Phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhanced about 1.5 times the values of N(total) and n(total) of the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS under the conditions where the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS did not attain the saturated level. In contrast, the phagocytosis of PSL MS did not enhance the phagocytic activity of Mϕ cells toward F-PSL MS. In conclusion, R-PLGA MS are favorable for drug delivery of anti-tuberculosis agents into alveolar Mϕs due to their ability to up-regulate the phagocytosis of MS. PMID:21700434

  15. Anticancer activity of bicalutamide-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    GUO, JUN; WU, SHU-HONG; REN, WEI-GUO; WANG, XIN-LI; YANG, AI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous malignancy in men in western and most developing countries. Bicalutamide (BLT) is an antineoplastic hormonal agent primarily used in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancers. In the present study, the aim was to develop a nanotechnology-based delivery system to target prostate cancer cells. This involved the development of a BLT-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA (PLGA-BLT) nanoparticulate system in an attempt to improve the therapeutic efficacy of BLT in prostate cancer and to mitigate its toxicity. Nanosized particles with a uniform size distribution and spherical shape were developed. PLGA-BLT showed a pronounced cytotoxic effect on LNCaP and C4-2 cancer cells. The superior cell-killing effect of the nanoparticles may be attributable to their sustained drug-release characteristics and high cellular internalization. PLGA-BLT was also found to significantly inhibit colony formation in the two cell lines. Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity of PLGA-BLT treated cancer cells was enhanced, indicating the cell apoptosis-inducing potential of PLGA-BLT. Overall, these results suggest that nanotechnology-based formulations of BLT exhibit superior anticancer activity and have enormous potential in the treatment of prostate cancers. PMID:26668633

  16. Enhancing insulin oral absorption by using mucoadhesive nanoparticles loaded with LMWP-linked insulin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jianyong; He, Huining; Han, Limei; Qin, Jing; Chen, Sunhui; Ru, Ge; Li, Ruixiang; Yang, Pei; Wang, Jianxin; Yang, Victor C

    2016-07-10

    Although significant progress has been achieved, effective oral delivery of protein drugs such as insulin by nanoparticle-based carrier systems still faces certain formidable challenges. Considerable amount of protein drug is released from the nanoparticles (NPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Because of their low permeability through the intestinal mucosa, the released protein would be soon degraded by the large amount of proteases in the GI tract. Herein, we report an oral insulin delivery system that can overcome the above-mentioned problems by mucoadhesive NPs (MNPs) loaded with cell penetrating peptide-linked insulin conjugates. On one hand, after conjugation with low molecular weight protamine (LMWP), a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), insulin showed greatly improved permeability through intestinal mucus layer and epithelia. On the other hand, the mucoadhesive N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated PLGA nanoparticles (MNPs) that were loaded with conjugates enhanced the retention in the intestinal mucus layer. By adopting this delivery strategy, the LMWP-insulin conjugates released from the MNPs could be deprived from enzymatic degradation, due to the short distance in reaching the epithelia and the high permeation of the conjugates through epithelia. The oral delivery system of insulin designed by us showed a long-lasting hypoglycemia effect with a faster onset in diabetic rats. The pharmacological availability of orally delivered conjugates-loaded MNPs was 17.98±5.61% relative to subcutaneously injected insulin solution, with a 2-fold higher improvement over that by MNPs loaded with native insulin. Our results suggested that conjugation with CPP followed by encapsulation in MNPs provides an effective strategy for oral delivery of macromolecular therapeutics. PMID:27178809

  17. Preformulation Studies of Bee Venom for the Preparation of Bee Venom-Loaded PLGA Particles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Ju-Heon; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-01-01

    It is known that allergic people was potentially vulnerable to bee venom (BV), which can induce an anaphylactic shock, eventually leading to death. Up until recently, this kind of allergy was treated only by venom immunotherapy (VIT) and its efficacy has been recognized worldwide. This treatment is practiced by subcutaneous injections that gradually increase the doses of the allergen. This is inconvenient for patients due to frequent injections. Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been broadly studied as a carrier for drug delivery systems (DDS) of proteins and peptides. PLGA particles usually induce a sustained release. In this study, the physicochemical properties of BV were examined prior to the preparation of BV-loaded PLGA nanoparticles NPs). The content of melittin, the main component of BV, was 53.3%. When protected from the light BV was stable at 4 °C in distilled water, during 8 weeks. BV-loaded PLGA particles were prepared using dichloromethane as the most suitable organic solvent and two min of ultrasonic emulsification time. This study has characterized the physicochemical properties of BV for the preparation BV-loaded PLGA NPs in order to design and optimize a suitable sustained release system in the future. PMID:26295219

  18. In vitro drug release behavior, mechanism and antimicrobial activity of rifampicin loaded low molecular weight PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymeric nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Gajendiran, M; Divakar, S; Raaman, N; Balasubramanian, S

    2013-12-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA (92:8)) and a series of PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri block copolymers were synthesized by direct melt polycondensation. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR, and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques, viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rifampicin (RIF) loaded polymeric nanospheres (NPs) were prepared by ultrasonication-W/O emulsification technique. The NPs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvisible spectroscopy and DLS measurements. The drug loaded triblock copolymeric NPs have five folds higher drug content and drug loading efficiency than that of PLGA microspheres (MPs). The in vitro drug release study shows that the drug loaded NPs showed an initial burst release after that sustained release up to 72 h. All the triblock copolymeric NPs follow anomalous drug diffusion mechanism while the PLGA MPs follow non-Fickian super case-II mechanism up to 12 h. The overall in-vitro release follows second order polynomial kinetics up to 72 h. The antimicrobial activity of the RIF loaded polymer NPs was compared with that of pure RIF and tetracycline (TA). The RIF loaded triblock copolymeric NPs inhibited the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure RIF and TA. PMID:23701139

  19. Effects of Caryota mitis profilin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in a murine model of allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Haiqiong; Mei, Lin; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pollen allergy is the most common allergic disease. However, tropical pollens, such as those of Palmae, have seldom been investigated compared with the specific immunotherapy studies done on hyperallergenic birch, olive, and ragweed pollens. Although poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been extensively applied as a biodegradable polymer in medical devices, it has rarely been utilized as a vaccine adjuvant to prevent and treat allergic disease. In this study, we investigated the immunotherapeutic effects of recombinant Caryota mitis profilin (rCmP)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods A mouse model of allergenic asthma was established for specific immunotherapy using rCmP-loaded PLGA nanoparticles as the adjuvant. The model was evaluated by determining airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of serum-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, and IgG2a) and cytokines, and observing histologic sections of lung tissue. Results The rCmP-loaded PLGA nanoparticles effectively inhibited generation of specific IgE and secretion of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4, facilitated generation of specific IgG2a and secretion of the Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma, converted the Th2 response to Th1, and evidently alleviated allergic symptoms. Conclusion PLGA functions more appropriately as a specific immunotherapy adjuvant for allergen vaccines than does conventional Al(OH)3 due to its superior efficacy, longer potency, and markedly fewer side effects. The rCmP-loaded PLGA nanoparticles developed herein offer a promising avenue for specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma. PMID:24376349

  20. Docetaxel Loaded PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles: Optimized Drug Loading, In-vitro Cytotoxicity and In-vivo Antitumor Effect

    PubMed Central

    Noori Koopaei, Mona; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Hossein; Amini, Mohsen; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Jeddi Tehrani, Mahmood; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2014-01-01

    In this study a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to prepare optimized docetaxel (DTX) loaded pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) with polymer concentration (X1), drug concentration (X2) and ratio of the organic to aqueous solvent (X3) as the independent variables and particle size (Y1), poly dispersity index (PDI) (Y2) and drug loading (Y3) as the responses. The cytotoxicity of optimized DTX loaded PEG-PLGA NPs was studied in SKOV3 tumor cell lines by standard MTT assay. The in-vivo antitumor efficacy of DTX loaded PLGA-PEG NPs was assessed in tumor bearing female BALB/c mice. The optimum level of Y1, Y2 and Y3 predicted by the model were 188 nm, 0.16 and 9% respectively with perfect agreement with the experimental data. The in-vitro release profile of optimum formulation showed a burst release of approximately 20% (w/w) followed by a sustained release profile of the loaded drug over 288 h. The DTX loaded optimized nanoparticles showed a greater cytotoxicity against SKOV3 cancer cells than free DTX. Enhanced tumor-suppression effects were achieved with DTX-loaded PEG-PLGA NPs. These results demonstrated that optimized NPs could be a potentially useful delivery system for DTX as an anticancer agent. PMID:25276182

  1. Enteric-coated capsules filled with mono-disperse micro-particles containing PLGA-lipid-PEG nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Li, Yang; Liu, Chang Sheng; Chen, Qin; Wang, Gui Huan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xue E; Li, Dong Hui; Wu, Winston Duo; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2015-04-30

    The success of the oral delivery of insulin (INS) as a therapeutic protein drug would significantly improve the quality of life of diabetic patients who would otherwise receive multiple daily INS injections. The oral delivery of INS, however, is still limited in its delivery efficiency, which could be due to the chemical, enzymatic, and adsorption barriers. In this work, in an attempt to improve the delivery efficiency, the INS-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs) were designed and constructed through a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique, followed by formulation of the spherical micro-particles using a spray freeze dryer (SFD). This kind of dryers has a uniquely designed microfluidic aerosol nozzle (MFAN), ensuring the formation of uniform particles. The resulted particles of ∼212 μm could easily be reverted to discrete INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs in an aqueous solution. The INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs created in this work showed a highly negative surface charge, excellent entrapment efficiency (92.3%) and a sustained drug release (∼24 h). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometer were used to show that the cellular uptake efficiency for the INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs was more effective than the INS in Caco-2 cells. More importantly, the in vivo pharmacodynamics demonstrated that the orally delivered system induced a prolonged decrease in blood glucose levels among diabetic rats. The relative bioavailability of INS compared with subcutaneous injection in diabetic rats was found to be approximately 12%. These results suggested that the encapsulated INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs are promising and should be investigated further in the near future as an effective INS oral delivery system. PMID:25724135

  2. Magnetite loaded Polypeptide-PLGA multifunctional microbubbles for dual-mode US/MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhu, Yunkai; Huang, Can; Li, Rongxin; Chen, Yaqing; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite loaded Polypeptide-PLGA multifunctional microbubbles (Fe3O4 /Polypeptide-PLGA MMBs) that show superparamagnetic properties were prepared by a modified double emulsion method and employed as imaging agent for dual-mode Ultrasound/Magnetic resonance (US/MR) imaging of prostatic cancer. The successful synthesis of MMBs was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The as-prepared MMBs had a diameter of 700 nm and were quite safe as confirmed by MTT assays. Prussian Blue Staining showed that targeted Fe3O4 /Polypeptide-PLGA MMBs enhanced the cellular uptake efficiency. In cell attachment study, adherence of MMBs was significantly higher to LNCaP cells compared with negative control PC3 cells. The in vitro results demonstrated that these MMBs could enhance both US and MR imaging of prostatic cancer. PMID:26647349

  3. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Wang, Xia; Dong, Zhao-Gang; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Li, Lei; Li, Yu-Hua; Pan, Xin; Nie, Lin

    2015-10-01

    By utilizing a modified solid/oil/water (s/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique, calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres (SIM-PLGA-CPC) were prepared in this study. We characterized the morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres as well as the macrostructure, pore size, porosity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds. Rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds, and the proliferation, morphology, cell cycle and differentiation of BMSCs were investigated using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red S staining, respectively. The results revealed that SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and osteogenic in vitro. To determine the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the scaffolds, both pure PLGA-CPC scaffolds and SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femoral condyles and microradiographically and histologically investigated. SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and could improve the efficiency of new bone formation. All these results suggested that the SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds fulfilled the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold and possessed application potentials in orthopedic surgery. PMID:25809455

  4. Factors affecting the loading efficiency of water-soluble drugs in PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Fujimori, Hiroyuki; Makino, Kimiko

    2008-01-15

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), PLGA, microspheres containing blue dextran as a hydrophilic model drug were prepared by a solvent evaporation method from w/o/w emulsions using a micro homogenizer. Effects of surfactant concentration in oil phase, stirring time period and stirring rate in the preparation procedure of primary emulsion (w/o) upon drug-loading efficiency were evaluated. Stirring rate during preparation of primary emulsion and surfactant concentration in oil phase affected drug-loading efficiency and the particle size of primary emulsion. Microspheres having the higher drug-loading efficiency were obtained when size differences between the primary emulsions and the secondary ones were large. That is, when the diameter of the primary emulsion is much smaller than that of the secondary emulsion, PLGA microspheres with high-loading efficiency of blue dextran were obtained. PMID:17719753

  5. Design and Optimization of PLGA-Based Diclofenac Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin L.; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Drug based nanoparticle (NP) formulations have gained considerable attention over the past decade for their use in various drug formulations. NPs have been shown to increase bioavailability, decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs, and prolong drug release. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac block cyclooxygenase expression and reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to several side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize diclofenac entrapped poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were formulated using an emulsion-diffusion-evaporation technique with varying concentrations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1%) stabilizers centrifuged at 8,800 rpm or 12,000 rpm. The resultant nanoparticles were evaluated based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy. DMAB formulated NPs showed the lowest particle size (108±2.1 nm) and highest zeta potential (−27.71±0.6 mV) at 0.1 and 0.25% respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Results of the PVA based NP formulation showed the smallest particle size (92.4±7.6 nm) and highest zeta potential (−11.14±0.5 mV) at 0.25% and 1% w/v, respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Drug entrapment reached 77.3±3.5% and 80.2±1.2% efficiency with DMAB and PVA formulations, respectively. The results of our study indicate the use of DMAB for increased nanoparticle stability during formulation. Our study supports the effective utilization of PLGA based nanoparticle formulation for diclofenac. PMID:24489896

  6. Design and optimization of PLGA-based diclofenac loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Dustin L; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Drug based nanoparticle (NP) formulations have gained considerable attention over the past decade for their use in various drug formulations. NPs have been shown to increase bioavailability, decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs, and prolong drug release. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac block cyclooxygenase expression and reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to several side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize diclofenac entrapped poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were formulated using an emulsion-diffusion-evaporation technique with varying concentrations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1%) stabilizers centrifuged at 8,800 rpm or 12,000 rpm. The resultant nanoparticles were evaluated based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy. DMAB formulated NPs showed the lowest particle size (108 ± 2.1 nm) and highest zeta potential (-27.71 ± 0.6 mV) at 0.1 and 0.25% respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Results of the PVA based NP formulation showed the smallest particle size (92.4 ± 7.6 nm) and highest zeta potential (-11.14 ± 0.5 mV) at 0.25% and 1% w/v, respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Drug entrapment reached 77.3 ± 3.5% and 80.2 ± 1.2% efficiency with DMAB and PVA formulations, respectively. The results of our study indicate the use of DMAB for increased nanoparticle stability during formulation. Our study supports the effective utilization of PLGA based nanoparticle formulation for diclofenac. PMID:24489896

  7. Effects of formulation parameters on encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Yongliang; Mei, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    To develop a long-acting injectable thienorphine biodegradable poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere for the therapy of opioid addiction, the effects of formulation parameters on encapsulation efficiency and release behavior were studied. The thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by o/w solvent evaporation method and characterized by HPLC, SEM, laser particle size analysis, residual solvent content and sterility testing. The microspheres were sterilized by gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy). The results indicated that the morphology of the thienorphine PLGA microspheres presented a spherical shape with smooth surface, the particle size was distributed from 30.19 ± 1.17 to 59.15 ± 0.67 μm and the drug encapsulation efficiency was influenced by drug/polymer ratio, homogeneous rotation speed, PVA concentration in the water phase and the polymer concentration in the oil phase. These changes were also reflected in drug release. The plasma drug concentration vs. time profiles were relatively smooth for about 25 days after injection of the thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres to beagle dogs. In vitro and in vivo correlation was established. PMID:21967467

  8. Study of Antimicrobial Effects of Clarithromycin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles against Clinical Strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lotfipour, F; Valizadeh, H; Milani, M; Bahrami, N; Ghotaslou, R

    2016-01-01

    Clarithromycin (CLR) formulation was prepared as PLGA nanoparticles in order to enhance the therapeutic effects using the distinctive features of a nanoparticulate delivery system. CLR loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by Quasi Emulsion Solvent Diffusion (QESD) method using Poly lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as a biodegradable polymer. Antibacterial activity of the prepared formulations was evaluated against clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori, isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer, and gastroesophageal reflux disease undergoing endoscopy, by using agar dilution method.Spherical nanoparticles with relatively narrow size distribution (between 200 and 800 nm) in the size range of 305 ± 138, 344 ± 148 and 362 ± 110 nm were achieved for F22, F23 and F23 respectively. CLR encapsulation percentages were measured to be 57.4 ± 4.3 to 80.2 ± 4.0%. CLR loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed equal or enhanced eradication effect against H. pylori strains according to the declined MIC values in comparison with the untreated CLR.In conclusion, the prepared CLR nanoformulation showed appropriate physicochemical properties and improved activity against H. pylori that could be a suitable candidate for oral preparations. PMID:25919643

  9. Coseeded Schwann cells myelinate neurites from differentiated neural stem cells in neurotrophin-3-loaded PLGA carriers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Zheng-Yu; Zeng, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Chao; Qi, Guo-Long; Li, Man-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Quan, Da-Ping; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials and neurotrophic factors represent promising guidance for neural repair. In this study, we combined poly-(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduits and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to generate NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers in vitro. Bioactive NT-3 was released stably and constantly from PLGA conduits for up to 4 weeks. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) were coseeded into an NT-releasing scaffold system and cultured for 14 days. Immunoreactivity against Map2 showed that most of the grafted cells (>80%) were differentiated toward neurons. Double-immunostaining for synaptogenesis and myelination revealed the formation of synaptic structures and myelin sheaths in the coculture, which was also observed under electron microscope. Furthermore, under depolarizing conditions, these synapses were excitable and capable of releasing synaptic vesicles labeled with FM1-43 or FM4-64. Taken together, coseeding NSCs and SCs into NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers increased the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, developed synaptic connections, exhibited synaptic activities, and myelination of neurites by the accompanying SCs. These results provide an experimental basis that supports transplantation of functional neural construction in spinal cord injury. PMID:22619535

  10. PLGA nanofiber membranes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate are beneficial to prevention of postsurgical adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Yang, Won Jun; Lee, Jong Ho; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Tai Wan; Park, Jong-Chul; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study concentrates on the development of biodegradable nanofiber membranes with controlled drug release to ensure reduced tissue adhesion and accelerated healing. Nanofibers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the most bioactive polyphenolic compound in green tea, were electrospun. The physicochemical and biomechanical properties of EGCG-releasing PLGA (E-PLGA) nanofiber membranes were characterized by atomic force microscopy, EGCG release and degradation profiles, and tensile testing. In vitro antioxidant activity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by measuring scavenged reactive oxygen species levels and activated partial thromboplastin time, respectively. In vivo antiadhesion efficacy was examined on the rat peritonea with a surgical incision. The average fiber diameter of E-PLGA membranes was approximately 300–500 nm, which was almost similar to that of pure PLGA equivalents. E-PLGA membranes showed sustained EGCG release mediated by controlled diffusion and PLGA degradation over 28 days. EGCG did not adversely affect the tensile strength of PLGA membranes, whereas it significantly decreased the elastic modulus and increased the strain at break. E-PLGA membranes were significantly effective in both scavenging reactive oxygen species and extending activated partial thromboplastin time. Macroscopic observation after 1 week of surgical treatment revealed that the antiadhesion efficacy of E-PLGA nanofiber membranes was significantly superior to those of untreated controls and pure PLGA equivalents, which was comparable to that of a commercial tissue-adhesion barrier. In conclusion, the E-PLGA hybrid nanofiber can be exploited to craft strategies for the prevention of postsurgical adhesions. PMID:25187710

  11. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release studies of insulin-loaded double-walled poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Rezaul H; Rahman, Mokhlesur M; Awang, Mohamed B; Katas, Haliza; Hadi, Hazrina; Doolaanea, Abd Almonen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to fabricate insulin-loaded double-walled and single-polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres using a fast degrading glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (Glu-PLGA), and a moderate degrading carboxyl-terminated PLGA polymers. A modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w/o/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare double-walled microspheres, whereas single-polymer microspheres were fabricated by a conventional water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effect of fabrication techniques and polymer characteristics on microspheres size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and insulin stability was evaluated. The prepared double-walled microspheres were essentially non-porous, smooth surfaced, and spherical in shape, whereas single-polymer microspheres were highly porous. Double-walled microspheres exhibited a significantly reduced initial burst followed by sustained and almost complete release of insulin compared to single-polymer microspheres. Initial burst release was further suppressed from double-walled microspheres when the mass ratio of the component polymers was increased. In conclusion, double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA can be a potential delivery system of therapeutic insulin. PMID:26817478

  12. Size-Dependent Effect of Prochloraz-Loaded mPEG-PLGA Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiakun; Zhao, Caiyan; Liu, Yajing; Cao, Lidong; Wu, Yan; Huang, Qiliang

    2016-06-01

    As a controlled release formulation, polymer-based pesticide particle, provide an effective approach to achieve the target crop sites of increasing the pesticide utilization and reducing side effects. The particle size impacts on the dispersibility, pesticide loading content, control effect, etc. It is essential to investigate size-dependent effect. Hence, size-dependent effect of polymer-based pesticide particle was studied systematically in this paper. The biodegradable mPEG-PLGA copolymer with suitable molecular weight (45 KDa) was selected as carrier. Prochloraz-loaded mPEG-PLGA particles with different sizes (190.7 nm, 708.8 nm and 3980.0 nm) were constructed by emulsion/solvent evaporation method based on the same carrier. With the constant mass ratio of copolymer/prochloraz, as the particle size became large, the prochloraz loading content increased, and prochloraz released speed decreased. All prochloraz-loaded particles showed a sustained-release process and sustained impact against the Fusarium graminearum. Among the prochloraz-loaded mPEG-PLGA particles, the 190.7 nm particles exhibited the best germicidal efficacy in two weeks. Hence, the smaller size particles hold a better control efficacy in short time. PMID:27427695

  13. Bone regeneration using a freeze-dried 3D gradient-structured scaffold incorporating OIC-A006-loaded PLGA microspheres based on β-TCP/PLGA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liulan; Gao, Haitao; Dong, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the latent capacity of the growth factor-like low-molecular-weight material OIC-A006 in tissue regeneration, it is essential to design a porous scaffold in order to concurrently accommodate cells and drug release in a controlled manner. Consequently, we fabricated poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres with an OIC-A006-loaded gradient-structured β-TCP/PLGA scaffold by freeze-drying which could then be used for drug delivery and bone regeneration. The OIC-A006-loaded β-TCP/PLGA scaffold consisted of two parts which loaded different doses of OIC-A006 (6.25 μM, outside; 12.5 μM, inside). The porosity, compressive strength, SEM, degradation, and cumulative amount of drug release in vitro were characterized. Furthermore, we confirmed the incorporation of OIC-A006 into the PLGA-based microspheres within the scaffolds using UV-spectrophotometry, and the amount of drug remaining in the scaffold was maintained by 10 % for up to 28 days. The drug release was slower in the normal-structured drug-loaded scaffold. The OIC-A006 released action from the OIC-A006-loaded β-TCP/PLGA scaffold with ideal therapeutic prospects in tissue regeneration. In vitro cell culture results showed that this gradient-structured composite scaffold can induce the adhesion and proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells towards osteoblasts. These results showed that the newly developed OIC-A006-loaded scaffolds with gradient structure can be potentially applied to bone regeneration in clinical applications. PMID:25577209

  14. Stability study of full-length antibody (anti-TNF alpha) loaded PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Marquette, S; Peerboom, C; Yates, A; Denis, L; Langer, I; Amighi, K; Goole, J

    2014-08-15

    Antibodies (Abs) require the development of stable formulations and specific delivery strategies given their susceptibility to a variety of physical and chemical degradation pathways. In this study, the encapsulation of an antibody into polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) based microspheres was explored to obtain a controlled-release of the incorporated drug. In order to avoid stability issues, a solid-in-oil-in-water (s/o/w) method was preferred. The solid phase was made of anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibody (MAb) spray-dried microparticles, and the PLGA microspheres were produced using two different polymers (i.e., Resomer(®) RG505 and Resomer(®) RG755S). The stability of the MAb incorporated into the microspheres was investigated under three conditions (5 ± 3°C, 25 ± 2°C/60% RH and 40 ± 2°C/75% RH) for 12 weeks. During this stability study, it was demonstrated that the MAb loaded PLGA microspheres were stable when stored at 5 ± 3°C and that the Resomer(®) RG755S, composed of 75%(w/w) lactic acid as PLGA, was preferred to preserve the stability of the system. Storage at temperatures higher than 5°C led to antibody stability issues such as aggregation, fragmentation and loss of activity. The release profiles were also altered. Physical ageing of the system associated with changes in the glass transition temperature and enthalpy of relaxation was noticed during the storage of the MAb loaded PLGA microspheres. PMID:24792974

  15. Intracellular drug delivery in Leishmania-infected macrophages: Evaluation of saponin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Van de Ven, H; Vermeersch, M; Vandenbroucke, R E; Matheeussen, A; Apers, S; Weyenberg, W; De Smedt, S C; Cos, P; Maes, L; Ludwig, A

    2012-02-01

    Drug delivery systems present an opportunity to potentiate the therapeutic effect of antileishmanial drugs. Colloidal carriers are rapidly cleared by the phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), rendering them ideal vehicles for passive targeting of antileishmanials. This paper describes the development of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the antileishmanial saponin β-aescin. NPs were prepared using the combined emulsification solvent evaporation/salting-out technique. Confocal microscopy was used to visualise the internalisation and intracellular trafficking of fluorescein- and nile red-labelled PLGA NPs in J774A.1 macrophages infected with GFP-transfected Leishmania donovani. The in vitro activity of aescin and aescin-loaded NPs on L. infantum was determined in the axenic model as well as in the ex vivo model. The developed PLGA NPs were monodispersed with Z(ave)<300 nm, exhibited negative zeta potentials and had relatively high drug loadings ranging from 5.80 to 8.68% w/w PLGA. The fluorescent NPs were internalised by the macrophages and trafficked towards the lysosomes after 2 h in vitro incubation. Co-localisation of the NPs and the parasite was not shown. A two-fold increase in activity was observed in the ex vivo macrophage model by encapsulating β-aescin in PLGA NPs (IC(50), 0.48-0.76 µg/mL vs. 1.55 ± 0.32 µg/mL for the free drug). PMID:22080813

  16. Aptamer conjugated paclitaxel and magnetic fluid loaded fluorescently tagged PLGA nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Athulya; Nair, Remya; Raveendran, Sreejith; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukuda, Takahiro; Hasumura, Takahashi; Morimoto, Hisao; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2013-10-01

    Controlled and targeted drug delivery is an essential criterion in cancer therapy to reduce the side effects caused by non-specific drug release and toxicity. Targeted chemotherapy, sustained drug release and optical imaging have been achieved using a multifunctional nanocarrier constructed from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), an anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), a fluorescent dye Nile red (NR), magnetic fluid (MF) and aptamers (Apt, AS1411, anti-nucleolin aptamer). The magnetic fluid and paclitaxel loaded fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs (MF-PTX-NR-PLGA NPs) were synthesized by a single-emulsion technique/solvent evaporation method using a chemical cross linker bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) to enable binding of aptamer on to the surface of the nanoparticles. Targeting aptamers were then introduced to the particles through the reaction with the cross linker to target the nucleolin receptors over expressed on the cancer cell surface. Specific binding and uptake of the aptamer conjugated magnetic fluid loaded fluorescently tagged PLGA NPs (Apt-MF-NR-PLGA NPs) to the target cancer cells induced by aptamers was observed using confocal microscopy. Cytotoxicity assay conducted in two cell lines (L929 and MCF-7) confirmed that targeted MCF-7 cancer cells were killed while control cells were unharmed. In addition, aptamer mediated delivery resulting in enhanced binding and uptake to the target cancer cells exhibited increased therapeutic effect of the drug. Moreover, these aptamer conjugated magnetic polymer vehicles apart from actively transporting drugs into specifically targeted tumor regions can also be used to induce hyperthermia or for facilitating magnetic guiding of particles to the tumor regions.

  17. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Asadollah

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  18. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Asadollah

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of PLGA nanoparticles loaded capecitabine for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shu-Ben; Liu, Ping; Shao, Fa-Ming; Miao, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare and evaluate Poly (D, L-Lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) of Capecitabine, an anticancer agent loaded by solvent displacement method using stabilizer (poly vinyl alcohol). The prepared NPs were characterized by FT-IR, DSC, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology by Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and in-vitro studies. FT-IR and DSC studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer. The morphological studies performed by AFM showed uniform and spherical shaped discrete particles without aggregation and smooth in surface morphology with a nano size range of 144 nm. X-ray diffraction was performed to reveal the crystalline nature of the drug after encapsulation. The NPs formed were spherical in shape with zeta potentials (-14.8 mV). In vitro release studies were carried and showed drug release up to 5 days. The drug release followed zero order kinetics and a Fickian transport mechanism. Nanoparticles obtained a high encapsulation efficiency of 88.4% and drug loading of 16.98%. Drug released from Capecitabine loaded PLGA NPs (84.1%) was for 5 days. It is concluded from the present investigation that PLGA NPs of Capecitabine may effectively deliver the drug to the prostate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26770631

  20. Effect of blending HA-g-PLLA on xanthohumol-loaded PLGA fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tiankui; Jiang, Suchen; Song, Ping; Song, Xiaofeng; Liu, Qimin; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-10-01

    Electropsun poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fiber membrane loaded xanthohumol (XN) has been developed using a co-solvent system of chloroform and dimethylformamide. To enhance its biological functionality as bone tissue engineering scaffolds, 5wt% hydroxyapatite grafted poly (l-lactic acid) (HA-g-PLLA) is blended into the spinning solution. The purpose of the present work is to disclose the effect of blending HA-g-PLLA on the corresponding properties of the medicated fiber membrane including morphology, thermodynamics, wettability, drug release, mechanics as well as cytotoxicity. XN and HA-g-PLLA can be well blended with PLGA to make fibers. Blending HA-g-PLLA not only turns amorphous XN/PLGA fiber membrane into crystal structure, but also changes the membranous wettability. Various medicated membranes exhibit the sustained release profiles. Drug release rate of the ternary membrane with HA-g-PLLA is slower compared to the binary XN/PLGA, and for the ternary membrane, the drug release accelerates with increasing XN content. A model is proposed to account for the drug release process. Tensile testing shows that at 10% of XN, the comprehensive mechanics of the ternary is preferable to the binary. At the same time, these fiber membranes are no cytotoxicity. PMID:27343844

  1. Spontaneous arrangement of a tumor targeting hyaluronic acid shell on irinotecan loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giarra, Simona; Serri, Carla; Russo, Luisa; Zeppetelli, Stefania; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Borzacchiello, Assunta; Biondi, Marco; Ambrosio, Luigi; Mayol, Laura

    2016-04-20

    The arrangement of tumor targeting hyaluronic acid (HA) moieties on irinotecan (IRIN)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) has been directed by means of a gradient of lipophilicity between the oil and water phases of the emulsion used to produce the NPs. PLGA constitutes the NP bulk while HA is superficially exposed, with amphiphilic poloxamers acting as a bridge between PLGA and HA. Differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential analyses and ELISA tests were employed to support the hypothesis of polymer assembly in NP formulations. The presence of flexible HA chains on NP surface enhances NP size stability over time due to an increased electrostatic repulsion between NPs and a higher degree of hydration of the device surface. IRIN in vitro release kinetics can be sustained up to 7-13 days. In vitro biologic studies indicated that HA-containing NPs were more toxic than bare PLGA NPs against CD44-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells (HS578T), therefore indicating their ability to target CD44 receptor. PMID:26876867

  2. Impact of PEG and PEG-b-PAGE modified PLGA on nanoparticle formation, protein loading and release.

    PubMed

    Rietscher, René; Czaplewska, Justyna A; Majdanski, Tobias C; Gottschaldt, Michael; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-03-16

    The effect of modifying the well-established pharmaceutical polymer PLGA by different PEG-containing block-copolymers on the preparation of ovalbumin (OVA) loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) was studied. The used polymers contained poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PAGE) as building blocks. The double emulsion technique yielded spherical NPs in the size range from 170 to 220 nm (PDI<0.15) for all the differently modified polymers, allowing to directly compare protein loading of and release. PEGylation is usually believed to increase the hydrophilic character of produced particles, favoring encapsulation of hydrophilic substances. However, in this study simple PEGylation of PLGA had only a slight effect on protein release. In contrast, incorporating a PAGE block between the PEG and PLGA units, also eventually enabling active targeting introducing a reactive group, led to a significantly higher loading (+25%) and release rate (+100%), compared to PLGA and PEG-b-PLGA NPs. PMID:26784983

  3. Influence of Parathyroid Hormone-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles in Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar; Pabari, Ritesh; Daly, Jacqueline; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, containing human parathyroid hormone (PTH (1–34)), prepared by a modified double emulsion-solvent diffusion-evaporation method, were incorporated in porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds. The PTH-loaded nanoparticles (NPTH) were characterised in terms of morphology, size, protein loading, release kinetics and in vitro assessment of biological activity of released PTH and cytocompatibility studies against clonal human osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Structural integrity of incorporated and released PTH from nanoparticles was found to be intact by using Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE. In vitro PTH release kinetics from PLGA nanoparticles were characterised by a burst release followed by a slow release phase for 3–4 weeks. The released PTH was biologically active as evidenced by the stimulated release of cyclic AMP from hFOB cells as well as increased mineralisation studies. Both in vitro and cell studies demonstrated that the PTH bioactivity was maintained during the fabrication of PLGA nanoparticles and upon release. Finally, a content of 33.3% w/w NPTHs was incorporated in CH-G scaffolds, showing an intermittent release during the first 10 days and, followed by a controlled release over 28 days of observation time. The increased expression of Alkaline Phosphatase levels on hFOB cells further confirmed the activity of intermittently released PTH from scaffolds. PMID:26343649

  4. Influence of Parathyroid Hormone-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles in Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar; Pabari, Ritesh; Daly, Jacqueline; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, containing human parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)), prepared by a modified double emulsion-solvent diffusion-evaporation method, were incorporated in porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds. The PTH-loaded nanoparticles (NPTH) were characterised in terms of morphology, size, protein loading, release kinetics and in vitro assessment of biological activity of released PTH and cytocompatibility studies against clonal human osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Structural integrity of incorporated and released PTH from nanoparticles was found to be intact by using Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE. In vitro PTH release kinetics from PLGA nanoparticles were characterised by a burst release followed by a slow release phase for 3-4 weeks. The released PTH was biologically active as evidenced by the stimulated release of cyclic AMP from hFOB cells as well as increased mineralisation studies. in vitro and cell studies demonstrated that the PTH bioactivity was maintained during the fabrication of PLGA nanoparticles and upon release. Finally, a content of 33.3% w/w NPTHs was incorporated in CH-G scaffolds, showing an intermittent release during the first 10 days and, followed by a controlled release over 28 days of observation time. The increased expression of Alkaline Phosphatase levels on hFOB cells further confirmed the activity of intermittently released PTH from scaffolds. PMID:26343649

  5. Development of zolmitriptan loaded PLGA/poloxamer nanoparticles for migraine using quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Girotra, Priti; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Kumar, Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop Poly (D,L Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA)/poloxamer nanoparticles (NPs) of the hydrophilic drug Zolmitriptan using quality-by-design approach for brain targeting. Randomized 2(4) full factorial design was employed to achieve the critical quality attributes of minimized particle size and maximized encapsulation efficiency. The PLGA/poloxamer NPs were fabricated using modified double emulsion solvent diffusion technique and particle size varied from 165.4-245.4 nm, encapsulation efficiency was in the range of 48.96-95.97% and percent cumulative drug release varied from 43.32 to 100%. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction technique which indicated the loading of drug in NPs without any chemical interactions between drug and the excipients. The uniform and spherical shape of the particles was affirmed from TEM analysis. The in-vivo studies for determination of brain uptake potential demonstrated a 14.13 fold increase in drug delivered to brain from the NPs as compared to the free drug. The pharmacodynamic studies involving Swiss albino mice further confirmed successful delivery of drug to brain circumventing the blood brain barrier, through significantly enhanced anti-migraine potential. This investigation thus presents the suitability of zolmitriptan loaded PLGA/poloxamer NPs in brain targeting for the efficient treatment of migraine. PMID:26724690

  6. Augmentation of diabetic wound healing and enhancement of collagen content using nanofibrous glucophage-loaded collagen/PLGA scaffold membranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Chang, Shang-Hung; Chen, Wei-Jan; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Lin, Yu-Huang; Liu, Shih-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng

    2015-02-01

    This work developed nanofibrous drug-loaded collagen/poly-D-L-lactide-glycolide (PLGA) scaffold membranes that provided the sustained release of glucophage for the wounds associated with diabetes. PLGA, glucophage, and collagen were firstly dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and were spun into nanofibrous membranes by electrospinning. High-performance liquid chromatography assay was used to characterize the in vivo and in vitro release rates of the pharmaceuticals from the membranes. High concentrations of glucophage were released for over three weeks from the nanofibrous membranes. The nanofibrous glucophage-loaded collagen/PLGA membranes were more hydrophilic than collagen/PLGA membranes and exhibited a greater water-containing capacity. The glucophage-loaded collagen/PLGA membranes markedly promoted the healing of diabetic wounds. Moreover, the collagen content of diabetic rats using drug-eluting membranes was higher than that of the control rats, because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9. The experimental results herein suggest that the nanofibrous glucophage-loaded collagen/PLGA membranes had effect for increasing collagen content in treating diabetic wounds and very effective promoters of the healing of such wounds in the early stages. PMID:25463179

  7. PLGA/PFC particles loaded with gold nanoparticles as dual contrast agents for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Sun, Yang; Niu, Chengcheng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Phase-change contrast agents consisting of a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid core stabilized by a lipid, protein, or polymer shell have been proposed for a variety of clinical applications. Previous work has demonstrated that vaporization can be induced by laser irradiation through optical absorbers incorporated inside the droplet. In this study, Poly-lactide-coglycolic acid (PLGA) particles loaded with PFC liquid and silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were developed and characterized using photoacoustic (PA) methods. Microsized PLGA particles were loaded with PFC liquid and GNPs (14, 35, 55nm each with a 20nm silica shell) using a double emulsion method. The PA signal intensity and optical vaporization threshold were investigated using a 375 MHz transducer and a focused 532-nm laser (up to 450-nJ per pulse). The laser-induced vaporization threshold energy decreased with increasing GNP size. The vaporization threshold was 850, 690 and 420 mJ/cm2 for 5μm-sized PLGA particles loaded with 14, 35 and 55 nm GNPs, respectively. The PA signal intensity increased as the laser fluence increased prior to the vaporization event. This trend was observed for all particles sizes. PLGA particles were then incubated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 6 hours to investigate passive targeting, and the vaporization of the PLGA particles that were internalized within cells. The PLGA particles passively internalized by MDA cells were visualized via confocal fluorescence imaging. Upon PLGA particle vaporization, bubbles formed inside the cells resulting in cell destruction. This work demonstrates that GNPs-loaded PLGA/PFC particles have potential as PA theranostic agents in PA imaging and optically-triggered drug delivery systems.

  8. Dextran-PLGA-loaded docetaxel micelles with enhanced cytotoxicity and better pharmacokinetic profile.

    PubMed

    Raza, Kaisar; Kumar, Nitesh; Misra, Charu; Kaushik, Lokesh; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Malik, Ruchi; Bhushan, Shashi; Katare, O P

    2016-07-01

    Docetaxel is one of the promising drugs and employed for the management of variety of cancers. However, challenges like poor-bioavailability, low tissue-permeability, compromised aqueous solubility and dose-dependent side-effects limit its clinical applications. Whereas, PLGA-based polymeric micelles possess the ability to enhance the tissue permeability of drugs and increase their biocompatibility. Henceforth, it was aimed to fabricate the dextran-PLGA-based polymeric-micelles loaded with docetaxel to explore the potential benefits in drug delivery. Dextran was chemically linked to PLGA and the linkage was confirmed by FT-IR, UV and NMR-spectroscopy. Critical-micelle-concentration of amphiphilic polymer was determined and drug was encapsulated by diffusion technique and erythrocyte compatibility. The system was evaluated for drug release profile and in vitro cytotoxicity studies. The pharmacokinetic profile was studied in rats. The micelles obtained were of 96.5±2.5nm and offered drug encapsulation of order of 54.85±1.21%.The cytotoxicity of drug against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was enhanced by approx. 100%. The pharmacokinetic profile was substantially modified and about 16-folds enhancement in bioavailability was observed vis-à-vis plain drug. The approach was not only able to control the drug release, but also offered promise to enhance the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic potential of docetaxel and similar anticancer agents. PMID:27037052

  9. Bioerodable PLGA-Based Microparticles for Producing Sustained-Release Drug Formulations and Strategies for Improving Drug Loading

    PubMed Central

    Han, Felicity Y.; Thurecht, Kristofer J.; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Smith, Maree T.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most widely used biomaterial for microencapsulation and prolonged delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins and antigens. PLGA has excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility and is generally recognized as safe by international regulatory agencies including the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. The physicochemical properties of PLGA may be varied systematically by changing the ratio of lactic acid to glycolic acid. This in turn alters the release rate of microencapsulated therapeutic molecules from PLGA microparticle formulations. The obstacles hindering more widespread use of PLGA for producing sustained-release formulations for clinical use include low drug loading, particularly of hydrophilic small molecules, high initial burst release and/or poor formulation stability. In this review, we address strategies aimed at overcoming these challenges. These include use of low-temperature double-emulsion methods to increase drug-loading by producing PLGA particles with a small volume for the inner water phase and a suitable pH of the external phase. Newer strategies for producing PLGA particles with high drug loading and the desired sustained-release profiles include fabrication of multi-layered microparticles, nanoparticles-in-microparticles, use of hydrogel templates, as well as coaxial electrospray, microfluidics, and supercritical carbon dioxide methods. Another recent strategy with promise for producing particles with well-controlled and reproducible sustained-release profiles involves complexation of PLGA with additives such as polyethylene glycol, poly(ortho esters), chitosan, alginate, caffeic acid, hyaluronic acid, and silicon dioxide. PMID:27445821

  10. Bioerodable PLGA-Based Microparticles for Producing Sustained-Release Drug Formulations and Strategies for Improving Drug Loading.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most widely used biomaterial for microencapsulation and prolonged delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins and antigens. PLGA has excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility and is generally recognized as safe by international regulatory agencies including the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. The physicochemical properties of PLGA may be varied systematically by changing the ratio of lactic acid to glycolic acid. This in turn alters the release rate of microencapsulated therapeutic molecules from PLGA microparticle formulations. The obstacles hindering more widespread use of PLGA for producing sustained-release formulations for clinical use include low drug loading, particularly of hydrophilic small molecules, high initial burst release and/or poor formulation stability. In this review, we address strategies aimed at overcoming these challenges. These include use of low-temperature double-emulsion methods to increase drug-loading by producing PLGA particles with a small volume for the inner water phase and a suitable pH of the external phase. Newer strategies for producing PLGA particles with high drug loading and the desired sustained-release profiles include fabrication of multi-layered microparticles, nanoparticles-in-microparticles, use of hydrogel templates, as well as coaxial electrospray, microfluidics, and supercritical carbon dioxide methods. Another recent strategy with promise for producing particles with well-controlled and reproducible sustained-release profiles involves complexation of PLGA with additives such as polyethylene glycol, poly(ortho esters), chitosan, alginate, caffeic acid, hyaluronic acid, and silicon dioxide. PMID:27445821

  11. Fabrication and in vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA nanoparticles for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, D. Nagasamy; Baskaran, Mahendran; Karri, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy; Mannemala, Sai Sandeep; Radhakrishna, Kollipara; Goti, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5–5 h) remain a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using PLGA and Poloxomer 407. The prepared NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro dissolution studies. Oral bioavailability studies were carried out in New Zealand rabbits by administering developed NFV PLGA-NPs and pure drug suspension. PLGA-NPs prepared by using 1:4 ratio of drug and PLGA, with a stirring rate of 1500 rpm for 4 h. The prepared NPs were in the size of 185 ± 0.83 nm with a zeta potential of 28.7 ± 0.09 mV. The developed NPs were found to be spherical with uniform size distribution. The drug content and EE of the optimized formulation were found to be 36 ± 0.19% and 72 ± 0.47% respectively. After oral administration of NFV PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was enhanced about 4.94 fold compared to NFV suspension as a control. The results describe an effective strategy for oral delivery of NFV loaded PLGA NPs that helps in enhancing bioavailability and reduce the frequency of dosing. PMID:26702262

  12. Doxorubicin-loaded porous PLGA microparticles with surface attached TRAIL for the inhalation treatment of metastatic lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insoo; Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek; Shin, Beom Soo; Lee, Kang Choon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2013-09-01

    Inhalable highly porous large PLGA microparticles with incorporated doxorubicin and surface-attached with TRAIL (TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP) were fabricated using a w/o/w double emulsification method using ammonium bicarbonate as a gas-foaming agent for the treatment of lung cancer. The TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP produced were highly porous and 11.5 ± 0.4 μm in diameter, and the loading efficiencies of Dox and TRAIL were 86.5 ± 6.5% and 91.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. TRAIL and doxorubicin were gradually released by TRAIL/Dox PLGA over 7 days, and pulmonary administration resulted in the deposition of TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP in mouse lungs, and they remained in situ for up to a week. The anti-tumor efficacy of pulmonary administered TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP was evaluated in a BALB/c nu/nu mice mouse model of H226 cell metastasis. Tumors in H226-implanted mice treated with TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP were markedly smaller and fewer in number than mice treated with TRAIL or Dox PLGA MP alone. Furthermore, this improved performance was found to be due to the synergistic apoptotic effects of the two drugs. We believe that TRAIL/Dox PLGA MP offer a promise of a sustained-release, long-acting, inhalable anti-lung cancer agent. Furthermore, the synergism observed between TRAIL and doxorubicin suggests that the doxorubicin dosage could be substantially reduced and its side effects minimized. PMID:23755831

  13. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; El-Gogary, Riham I; Bai, Jie; Mustafa, Falisa; Rubio, Noelia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases have been mainly hindered by its short biological half-life and poor water solubility. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have the potential to enhance the efficacy of poorly soluble drugs for systemic delivery. This study proposes the use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based polymeric oil-cored nanocapsules (NCs) for curcumin loading and delivery to colon cancer in mice after systemic injection. Formulations of different oil compositions are prepared and characterized for their curcumin loading, physico-chemical properties, and shelf-life stability. The results indicate that castor oil-cored PLGA-based NC achieves high drug loading efficiency (≈18% w(drug)/w(polymer)%) compared to previously reported NCs. Curcumin-loaded NCs internalize more efficiently in CT26 cells than the free drug, and exert therapeutic activity in vitro, leading to apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle. In addition, the formulated NC exhibits an extended blood circulation profile compared to the non-PEGylated NC, and accumulates in the subcutaneous CT26-tumors in mice, after systemic administration. The results are confirmed by optical and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. In vivo growth delay studies are performed, and significantly smaller tumor volumes are achieved compared to empty NC injected animals. This study shows the great potential of the formulated NC for treating colon cancer. PMID:26140363

  14. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; El-Gogary, Riham I; Bai, Jie; Mustafa, Falisa; Rubio, Noelia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-09-01

    Clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases have been mainly hindered by its short biological half-life and poor water solubility. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have the potential to enhance the efficacy of poorly soluble drugs for systemic delivery. This study proposes the use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based polymeric oil-cored nanocapsules (NCs) for curcumin loading and delivery to colon cancer in mice after systemic injection. Formulations of different oil compositions are prepared and characterized for their curcumin loading, physico-chemical properties, and shelf-life stability. The results indicate that castor oil-cored PLGA-based NC achieves high drug loading efficiency (≈18% w(drug)/w(polymer)%) compared to previously reported NCs. Curcumin-loaded NCs internalize more efficiently in CT26 cells than the free drug, and exert therapeutic activity in vitro, leading to apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle. In addition, the formulated NC exhibits an extended blood circulation profile compared to the non-PEGylated NC, and accumulates in the subcutaneous CT26-tumors in mice, after systemic administration. The results are confirmed by optical and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. In vivo growth delay studies are performed, and significantly smaller tumor volumes are achieved compared to empty NC injected animals. This study shows the great potential of the formulated NC for treating colon cancer. PMID:26140363

  15. Carboplatin loaded Surface modified PLGA nanoparticles: Optimization, characterization, and in vivo brain targeting studies.

    PubMed

    Jose, S; Juna, B C; Cinu, T A; Jyoti, H; Aleykutty, N A

    2016-06-01

    The carboplatin (CP) loaded poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated by modified solvent evaporation method. Its surface modification is done by 1% polysorbate80 (P80) to improve their entry into the brain after intraperitoneal administration (i.p) via receptor-mediated pathways. A formulation with maximum entrapment efficiency and minimal particle size was optimized by central composite design (CCD) based on mean particle size, and entrapment efficiencies as responses. The optimized formulation was characterized by mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The surface modified NPs were analysed for mean particle, zeta potential, FTIR, and in vitro release studies. The spherical particles with mean particle size 161.9nm, 162.4nm and zeta potential value of -26.5, -23.9 were obtained for unmodified and surface modified NPs respectively. The in vitro release experiments of the surface modified PLGA NPs exhibited sustained release for more than 48h, which was in accordance with Higuchi's equation with Fickian diffusion-based release mechanism. The in vivo bio distribution of P80 coated CP loaded PLGA NPs was compared with CP solution, and CP loaded NPs, in adult wistar rats. In the brain, compared with CP solution, both types of NPs especially NPs coated with P80 increased the concentration of carboplatin by 3.27 fold. All these results suggest that the developed formulation may improve the targeted therapy for malignant brain tumors in future. PMID:26970818

  16. Porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold containing drug-loaded ADM-PLGA microspheres for bone cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zi-Jie; Yang, Lian-Jun; Cai, Bao-Ta; Zhu, Li-Xin; Cao, Yan-Lin; Wu, Guo-Feng; Zhang, Zan-Jie

    2016-05-01

    To develop adriamycin (ADM)-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (ADM-PLGA-NHAC). To provide novel strategies for future treatment of osteosarcoma, the properties of the scaffold, including its in vitro extended-release properties, the inhibition effects of ADM-PLGA-NHAC on the osteosarcoma MG63 cells, and its bone repair capacity, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The PLGA copolymer was utilized as a drug carrier to deliver ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-PLGA-NP). Porous nano-hydroxyapatite and collagen were used to materials to produce the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (NHAC), into which the ADM-PLGA-NP was loaded. The performance of the drug-carrying scaffold was assessed using multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy and in vitro extended release. The antineoplastic activities of scaffold extracts on the human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line were evaluated in vitro using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method and live-dead cell staining. The bone repair ability of the scaffold was assessed based on the establishment of a femoral condyle defect model in rabbits. ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC were implanted into the rat muscle bag for immune response experiments. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was created, and the TUNEL and HE staining results were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate the antineoplastic activity and toxic side effects of the scaffold. The composite scaffold demonstrated extraordinary extended-release properties, and its extracts also exhibited significant inhibition of the growth of osteosarcoma MG63 cells. In the bone repair experiment, no significant difference was observed between ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC by itself. In the immune response experiments, ADM-PLGA-NHAC exhibited remarkable biocompatibility. The in vivo antitumor experiment revealed that the implantation of ADM-PLGA-NHAC in the tumor resulted in a improved antineoplastic

  17. Stem cell differentiation-related protein-loaded PLGA microspheres as a novel platform micro-typed scaffold for chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Sun; Lim, Hye-Jin; Yi, Se Won; Park, Keun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    During cell differentiation for tissue regeneration, several factors, including growth factors and proteins, influence cascades in stem cells such as embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and SOX9, which is an important protein in chondrocytes, were used to generate mature chondrocytes from human MSCs (hMSCs). For safe and effective delivery of bioactive molecules into hMSCs, biodegradable poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MSs) were coated with TGF-β3 and loaded with SOX9. Instead of SOX9 protein, release of the model protein FITC-bovine serum albumin (BSA) from PLGA MS was evaluated in vitro and in vivo by confocal laser microscopy and Kodak imaging. The bioactivities of TGF-β3 and SOX9 were evaluated by assessing α-helical formation using circular dichroism. PLGA MS loaded with FITC-BSA easily entered hMSCs without causing cytotoxicity. To confirm that internalization of PLGA MSs harboring TGF-β3 and SOX9 induced chondrogenesis of hMSCs, we performed several molecular analyses. By analysis, the specific marker gene expression levels in hMSCs adhered onto PLGA MSs coated with TGF-β3 and loaded with SOX9 were more than 3-5 times that of the control group both in vitro and in vivo. This result revealed that PLGA MS uptake and subsequent release of SOX9 induced chondrogenesis of hMSCs was enhanced by coating PLGA MSs with TGF-β3. PMID:27586647

  18. Effects of gatifloxaine content in gatifloxacine-loaded PLGA and β-tricalcium phosphate composites on efficacy in treating osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kimishima, Kaori; Matsuno, Tomonori; Makiishi, Jun; Tamazawa, Gaku; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Composites of gatifloxacin (GFLX)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) containing 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX (0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites), and GFLX-loaded PLGA containing 1, 5, and 10 wt % GFLX (1, 5, and 10wt % GFLX-PLGA) as controls were fabricated and characterized in vitro and in vivo. On in vitro evaluation, the 10 wt % GFLX composite released GFLX over at least 28 days in Hanks' balanced solution and exhibited clinically sufficient bactericidal activities against Streptococcus milleri and Bacteroides fragilis from 1 h to 10 days. The 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA were implanted in bone defects created by debridement of osteomyelitis lesions induced by S. milleri and B. fragilis in the mandible of rabbits (n = 5). Four weeks after implantation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite, inflammation in the debrided area disappeared in all the rabbits, while inflammation remained in all the rabbits after implantation of the 0 wt % GFLX composite and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA, and in three rabbits after implantation of the 1 wt % GFLX composite. Bone formation appears to be less intense for the 10 wt % GFLX composite than for the 1 wt % GFLX composite probably owing to the rapid degradation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite. These findings show that the GFLX composite is effective for the local treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:25533357

  19. Development and evaluation of sustained-release clonidine-loaded PLGA microparticles.

    PubMed

    Gaignaux, Amélie; Réeff, Jonathan; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; De Vriese, Carine; Goole, Jonathan; Amighi, Karim

    2012-11-01

    This work describes the encapsulation of a small, hydrophilic molecule (clonidine) into a PLGA matrix to provide sustained release over more than one month after intra-articular administration. The microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) method followed by evaporation of the organic solvent. To optimize the efficiency of encapsulation and the mean size of the microparticles, which was targeted around 30 μm, the following parameters were modulated: the viscosity and the volume of the organic phase, the molecular weight of the polymer, the volume of the internal and external aqueous phases, the drug loading, the concentration of surfactant, and the stirring parameters. Blends of polymers characterized by different molecular weights (34000-96000 Da) as well as copolymers of PLGA-PEG were used to enhance the entrapment of the drug. The pH of the aqueous phases was adjusted to obtain suitable encapsulation efficiency. Characterization was made of the physico-chemical properties of the microparticles, such as their crystallinity (DSC and PXRD) and microstructure (SEM). When performing in vitro dissolution studies, controlled release for up to approximately 30 days was achieved with several of the formulations developed. Diffusion was found to be the dominant drug release mechanism at early time points. PMID:22903047

  20. Oral Delivery of DMAB-Modified Docetaxel-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Lei; Li, Zhen; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang

    2011-12-01

    Three types of nanoparticle formulation from biodegradable PLGA-TPGS random copolymer were developed in this research for oral administration of anticancer drugs, which include DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles, unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. DMAB was used to increase retention time at the cell surface, thus increasing the chances of particle uptake and improving oral drug bioavailability. Nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with an average particle diameter of around 250 nm. The surface charge of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was changed to positive after DMAB modification. The results also showed that the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cellular uptake than that of DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro, cytotoxicity experiment showed advantages of the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation over commercial Taxotere® in terms of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, oral chemotherapy by DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation is an attractive and promising treatment option for patients.

  1. Formulation optimization of etoposide loaded PLGA nanoparticles by double factorial design and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Khushwant S; Sawant, Krutika K

    2010-01-01

    Etoposide is one of the most commonly used drugs in chemotherapy of acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukaemia. Etoposide has variable oral bioavailability ranging from 24-74% and has terminal half life of 1.5 hours by intravenous route. The conventional parenteral therapy causes inconvenience and pain to the patients as it has to be given through a continuous IV infusion over 24-34 h. The present investigation was aimed at developing etoposide loaded biodegradable nanoparticles which would be a sustained release formulation and replace the conventional therapy of continuous intravenous administration. Nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using high pressure homogenization. The process parameters like homogenization cycles (four) and homogenization pressure (10000 psi) were first optimized using a 3(2) factorial design based on response Y1(mean particle size of 98+/-1nm). Then a 32 factorial design was carried out to study the effect of two independent variables, ratio of drug and polymer (X1) and surfactant concentration (X2) on the two responses to obtain their optimized values, percentage entrapment efficiency (Y2, 83.12+/-8.3%) and mean particle size (Y3, 105+/-5.4 nm) for Etoposide loaded PLGA Nanoparticles. Contour plots and response surface plots showed visual representation of relationship between the experimental responses and the set of input variables. The adequacy of the regression model was verified by a check point analysis. The zeta potential values ranged between -23.0 to -34.2 mV, indicating stability. Sucrose was used as cryoprotectant during lyophilization. DSC and XRD studies indicated that etoposide was present in the amorphous phase and may have been homogeneously dispersed in the PLGA matrix. The electron micrographs showed spherical, discrete and homogenous particles. Drug release study showed that etoposide loaded PLGA nanoparticles sustained release up to 72h. The release from the nanoparticles

  2. Nile Red Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Surface Modified with Gd-DTPA for Potential Dual-Modal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Li, Chenglin; Tong, Weijun

    2016-06-01

    Here, a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging was developed for cell imaging. PLGA NPs loaded with fluorescent dye Nile red (NR) and surface-coated with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were produced in a single step nanoprecipitation process. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to PLGA/NR@PEI NPs through amidation reaction between -COOH of DTPA and -NH2 of PEI, which can chelate gadolinium (Gd3+) as an MR imaging contrast agent. The PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs exhibited a uniform particle size of -200 nm and were stable in culture medium. These NPs had a high T relaxivity (R1) of 28.36 mM(-1)S(-1). They did not introduce serious cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fluorescence and MR imaging studies on A549 lung cancer cells in vitro revealed that PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs can serve as an efficient fluorescence/MR dual-modality imaging nanoprobe. PMID:27427598

  3. Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Marashi, Seyyed Mahmoud Amin; Samadi, Nasrin; Fatemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2012-01-01

    Background Low drug entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles is a major drawback. The objective of this work was to investigate different methods of producing PLGA nanoparticles containing minocycline, a drug suitable for periodontal infections. Methods Different methods, such as single and double solvent evaporation emulsion, ion pairing, and nanoprecipitation were used to prepare both PLGA and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed for their morphology, particle size and size distribution, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity. Results The nanoparticles prepared in this study were spherical, with an average particle size of 85–424 nm. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles prepared using different methods was as follows: solid/oil/water ion pairing (29.9%) > oil/oil (5.5%) > water/oil/water (4.7%) > modified oil/water (4.1%) > nano precipitation (0.8%). Addition of dextran sulfate as an ion pairing agent, acting as an ionic spacer between PEGylated PLGA and minocycline, decreased the water solubility of minocycline, hence increasing the drug entrapment efficiency. Entrapment efficiency was also increased when low molecular weight PLGA and high molecular weight dextran sulfate was used. Drug release studies performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 indicated slow release of minocycline from 3 days to several weeks. On antibacterial analysis, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles was at least two times lower than that of the free drug. Conclusion Novel minocycline-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles prepared by the ion pairing method had the best drug loading and entrapment efficiency compared with other prepared nanoparticles. They also showed higher in vitro antibacterial activity than the free drug. PMID:22275837

  4. IKK2 inhibition using TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles attenuates laser-induced choroidal neovascularization and macrophage recruitment.

    PubMed

    Gaddipati, Subhash; Lu, Qingxian; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Miller, M Clarke; Lu, Qingjun; Trent, John O; Kaplan, Henry J; Li, Qiutang

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of NF-κB by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of IKK2 significantly reduces laser-induced choroid neovascularization (CNV). To achieve a sustained and controlled intraocular release of a selective and potent IKK2 inhibitor, 2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-thiophenecarboxamide (TPCA-1) (MW: 279.29), we developed a biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) polymer-delivery system to further investigate the anti-neovascularization effects of IKK2 inhibition and in vivo biosafety using laser-induced CNV mouse model. The solvent-evaporation method produced spherical TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles characterized with a mean diameter of 2.4 ¼m and loading efficiency of 80%. Retrobulbar administration of the TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles maintained a sustained drug level in the retina during the study period. No detectable TPCA-1 level was observed in the untreated contralateral eye. The anti-CNV effect of retrobulbarly administrated TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles was assessed by retinal fluorescein leakage and isolectin staining methods, showing significantly reduced CNV development on day 7 after laser injury. Macrophage infiltration into the laser lesion was attenuated as assayed by choroid/RPE flat-mount staining with anti-F4/80 antibody. Consistently, laser induced expressions of Vegfa and Ccl2 were inhibited by the TPCA-1-loaded PLGA treatment. This TPCA-1 delivery system did not cause any noticeable cellular or functional toxicity to the treated eyes as evaluated by histology and optokinetic reflex (OKR) tests; and no systemic toxicity was observed. We conclude that retrobulbar injection of the small-molecule IKK2 inhibitor TPCA-1, delivered by biodegradable PLGA microparticles, can achieve a sustained and controllable drug release into choroid/retina and attenuate laser-induced CNV development without causing apparent systemic toxicity. Our results suggest a potential clinical application of TPCA-1 delivered

  5. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and 1H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Maria R.; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15–20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications.

  6. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and (1)H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria R; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15-20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications. PMID:27265726

  7. Enhanced mechanical performance and biological evaluation of a PLGA coated β-TCP composite scaffold for load-bearing applications

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yunqing; Scully, Allison; Young, Daniel A; Kim, Sungwoo; Tsao, Helen; Sen, Milan; Yang, Yunzhi

    2011-01-01

    Porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been used for bone repair and replacement in clinics due to its excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradability. However, the application of β-TCP has been limited by its brittleness. Here, we demonstrated that an interconnected porous β-TCP scaffold infiltrated with a thin layer of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer showed improved mechanical performance compared to an uncoated β-TCP scaffold while retaining its excellent interconnectivity and biocompatibility. The infiltration of PLGA significantly increased the compressive strength of β-TCP scaffolds from 2.90 MPa to 4.19 MPa, bending strength from 1.46 MPa to 2.41 MPa, and toughness from 0.17 MPa to 1.44 MPa, while retaining an interconnected porous structure with a porosity of 80.65%. These remarkable improvements in the mechanical properties of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds are due to the combination of the systematic coating of struts, interpenetrating structural characteristics, and crack bridging. The in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) adhered well, proliferated, and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on both the PLGA-coated β-TCP and the β-TCP. These results suggest a new strategy for fabricating interconnected macroporous scaffolds with significantly enhanced mechanical strength for potential load-bearing bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21892228

  8. Daidzein-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers-PLGA nanofibers for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia; Fan, Xiucong; Shen, Qi

    2016-03-30

    Daidzein is one of the most effective candidates for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. However, considering its poor oral absorption and limited bioavailability, daidzein-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers-PLGA nanofibers were designed to handle the drawbacks. Daidzein-NLCs were successfully prepared by an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The physicochemical characteristics of NLCs were evaluated afterwards. Based on the preparation of daidzein-loaded NLCs, Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers were optimized by electrospinning and were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope to capture the appearance. The sustained release profile of daidzein from Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers in vivo was best fitted to the Kormeyer-Peppas equation. The in vitro skin permeable behavior showed the cumulative amount of daidzein from Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers reached 21.71μgcm(-2) at 60h, which was 3.78 times higher than pure daidzein solution. It demonstrated that the Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers could significantly enhance the transported amount of drug. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy resulting images revealed a more effective content accumulation of Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers than Daidzein-NLCs in epidermis. In vivo study indicated that Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers had better skin retention than Daidzein-NLCs in the long term. The skin irritation experiment showed a positive result with no obvious stimulus observed. These results suggested that Daidzein-NLCs-nanofibers could be a potential candidate for transdermal delivery. PMID:26851353

  9. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Luisa; Musumeci, Teresa; Giannone, Ignazio; Adamo, Luana; Conticello, Concetta; De Maria, Ruggero; Pignatello, Rosario; Puglisi, Giovanni; Gulisano, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil) and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w) had a mean size < 250 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.4 after freeze-drying with 0.5% HP-Cyd as cryoprotector. PTX encapsulation efficiency was 30% and NS showed a prolonged drug release in vitro. An increase of the cytotoxic effect of PTX-NS was observed with respect to free PTX in all cell lines tested. Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies. PMID:18657273

  10. Biopharmaceutical profile of pranoprofen-loaded PLGA nanoparticles containing hydrogels for ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Helen; Souto, Eliana B; Guevara, Bessy; Bellowa, Lyda Halbaut; Parra, Alexander; Calpena, Ana; Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Two optimized pranoprofen-loaded poly-l-lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PF-F1NPs; PF-F2NPs) have been developed and further dispersed into hydrogels for the production of semi-solid formulations intended for ocular administration. The optimized PF-NP suspensions were dispersed in freshly prepared carbomer hydrogels (HG_PF-F1NPs and HG_PF-F2NPs) or in hydrogels containing 1% azone (HG_PF-F1NPs-Azone and HG_PF-F2NPs-Azone) in order to improve the ocular biopharmaceutical profile of the selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), by prolonging the contact of the pranoprofen with the eye, increasing the drug retention in the organ and enhancing its anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficiency. Carbomer 934 has been selected as gel-forming polymer. The hydrogel formulations with or without azone showed a non-Newtonian behavior and adequate physicochemical properties for ocular instillation. The release study of pranoprofen from the semi-solid formulations exhibited a sustained release behavior. The results obtained from ex vivo corneal permeation and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy studies suggest that the ocular application of the hydrogels containing azone was more effective over the azone-free formulations in the treatment of edema on the ocular surface. No signs of ocular irritancy have been detected for the produced hydrogels. PMID:25681744

  11. Enhancing the in vitro anti-cancer efficacy of artesunate by loading into poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hanh Thuy; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Nguyen, Chien Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate (ART)-a well-known anti-malarial agent is also known to have potential anti-proliferative activities but its instability, poor aqueous solubility, and lack of relevant studies have limited its application as an effective anti-cancer drug. To overcome these problems, ART was loaded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles using oil/water emulsion evaporation method. PLGA nanoparticles with small particle size and high entrapment efficiency were obtained. The PLGA nanoparticles were optimized by evaluating the effects of several formulation parameters on physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity of blank PLGA, free ART, and ART-PLGA on 3 human cancer cell lines viz. A549, SCC-7, and MCF-7 was conducted using MTT assay. The particles showed nanometric size (~170 nm), large entrapment efficiency (up to 83.4%), and excellent stability (evaluated for 1 month) after lyophilization with 5% mannitol. ART was dispersed inside particle core allowing a sustained release up to 48 h. The in vitro cytotoxicity results demonstrated strong activity of ART against cancer cell lines. The ART-PLGA formulation significantly reduced cell viability than the free ART. The formulation of ART loaded PLGA nanoparticles supported a potential application of ART as an anticancer agent. PMID:24968925

  12. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the antileishmanial saponin β-aescin: factor influence study and in vitro efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Van de Ven, H; Vermeersch, M; Matheeussen, A; Vandervoort, J; Weyenberg, W; Apers, S; Cos, P; Maes, L; Ludwig, A

    2011-11-25

    Colloidal carriers are known to improve the therapeutic index of the conventional drugs in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by decreasing their toxicity whilst maintaining or increasing therapeutic efficacy. This paper describes the development of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the antileishmanial saponin β-aescin. NPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsification solvent evaporation technique and the influence of five preparation parameters on the NPs' size (Z(ave)), zeta potential and entrapment efficiency (EE%) was investigated using a 2(5-2) fractional factorial design. Cytotoxicity of aescin, aescin-loaded and blank PLGA NPs was evaluated in J774 macrophages and non-phagocytic MRC-5 cells, whereas antileishmanial activity was determined in the Leishmania infantum ex vivo model. The developed PLGA NPs were monodispersed with Z(ave)<500 nm and exhibited negative zeta potentials. The process variables 'surfactant primary emulsion', 'concentration aescin' and 'solvent evaporation rate' had a positive effect on EE%. Addition of Tween 80 to the inner aqueous phase rendered the primary emulsion more stable, which in its turn led to better saponin entrapment. The selectivity index (SI) towards the supporting host macrophages increased from 4 to 18 by treating the cells with aescin-loaded NPs instead of free β-aescin. In conclusion, the in vitro results confirmed our hypothesis. PMID:21864661

  13. The chemotherapeutic potential of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-b-PLGA nanopolymersomes in mouse breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Abnous, Khalil; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-08-01

    Vesicles of mPEG-PLGA block copolymer were developed to deliver a therapeutic quantity of doxorubicin (DOX) for breast cancer treatment. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the pH-gradient method and then evaluated in terms of morphology, size, DOX encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release mechanism. The PEG-PLGA nanopolymersomes were 134±1.2nm spherical NPs with a narrow size distribution (PDI=0.121). DOX was entrapped in mPEG-PLGA nanopolymersomes with an encapsulation efficiency and a loading content of 91.25±4.27% and 7.3±0.34%, respectively. The DOX-loaded nanopolymersomes were found to be stable, demonstrating no significant change in particle size and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) during the 6-month storage period of the lyophilized powder at 4°C. The nanopolymersomes sustained the release of DOX. In cytotoxicity studies of 4T1 cell line samples, free DOX showed a higher cytotoxicity (IC50=1.76μg/mL) than did DOX-loaded nanopolymersomes (15.82μg/mL) in vitro. In order to evaluate the antitumor efficacy and biodistribution of DOX-loaded nanopolymersomes, murine breast tumors were established on the BALB/c mice, and in vivo studies were performed. The obtained results demonstrated that the prepared drug delivery system was highly effective against a murine breast cancer tumor model and successfully accumulated in the tumor site through an enhanced permeation and retention mechanism. In vivo studies also proved that DOX-loaded nanopolymersomes are stable in blood circulation and could be considered a promising and effective DOX delivery system for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26170161

  14. Hot melt extruded and injection moulded disulfiram-loaded PLGA millirods for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme via stereotactic injection.

    PubMed

    McConville, Christopher; Tawari, Patricia; Wang, Weiguang

    2015-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor prognosis and is one of the most common primary malignant brain tumours in adults. Stereotactic injections have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs directly into brain tumours. This paper describes the development of disulfiram (DSF)-loaded biodegradable millirods manufactured using hot melt extrusion (HME) and injection moulding (IM). The paper demonstrates that the stability of the DSF within the millirods is dependent on the manufacturing technique used as well as the drug loading. The physical state of the DSF within the millirods was dependent on the fabrication process, with the DSF in the HME millirods being either completely amorphous within the PLGA, while the DSF within the IM millirods retained between 54 and 66% of its crystallinity. Release of DSF from the millirods was dependent on the degradation rate of the PLGA, the manufacturing technique used as well as the DSF loading. DSF in the 10% (w/w) DSF loaded HME millirods and the 20% (w/w) DSF-loaded HME and IM millirods had a similar cytotoxicity against a GBM cell line compared to the unprocessed DSF control. However, the 10% (w/w) DSF-loaded IM millirods had a significantly lower cytotoxicity when compared to the unprocessed control. PMID:26235918

  15. Methotrexate-loaded PLGA nanobubbles for ultrasound imaging and Synergistic Targeted therapy of residual tumor during HIFU ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Huang, Shuai; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Ding, Mingxia; Li, Qingshu; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Zhibiao; Qi, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has attracted the great attention in tumor ablation due to its non-invasive, efficient and economic features. However, HIFU ablation has its intrinsic limitations for removing the residual tumor cells, thus the tumor recurrence and metastasis cannot be avoided in this case. Herein, we developed a multifunctional targeted poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs), which not only function as an efficient ultrasound contrast agent for tumor imaging, but also a targeted anticancer drug carrier and excellent synergistic agent for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of HIFU ablation. Methotrexate (MTX)-loaded NBs were synthesized and filled with perfluorocarbon gas subsequently using a facile but general double emulsion evaporation method. The active tumor-targeting monoclonal anti-HLA-G antibodies (mAbHLA-G) were further conjugated onto the surface of nanobubbles. The mAbHLA-G/MTX/PLGA NBs could enhance the ultrasound imaging both in vitro and in vivo, and the targeting efficiency to HLA-G overexpressing JEG-3 cells has been demonstrated. The elaborately designed mAbHLA-G/MTX/PLGA NBs can specifically target to the tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and their blood circulation time in vivo was much longer than non-targeted MTX/PLGA NBs. Further therapeutic evaluations showed that the targeted NBs as a synergistic agent can significantly improve the efficiency of HIFU ablation by changing the acoustic environment, and the focused ultrasound can promote the on-demand MTX release both in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo histopathology test and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the mAbHLA-G/MTX/PLGA NBs plus HIFU group presented most serious coagulative necrosis, the lowest proliferation index and the highest apoptotic index. Therefore, the successful introduction of targeted mAbHLA-G/MTX/PLGA NBs provides an excellent platform for the highly efficient, imaging-guided and non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy

  16. Rifapentine-loaded PLGA microparticles for tuberculosis inhaled therapy: Preparation and in vitro aerosol characterization.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Leung, Sharon S Y; Quan, Diana Huynh; Triccas, Jamie A; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-06-10

    Inhaled delivery of drugs incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles allows a sustained lung concentration and encourages phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages that harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, limited data are available on the effects of physicochemical properties of PLGA, including the monomer ratio (lactide:glycide) and molecular weight (MW) on the aerosol performance, macrophage uptake, and toxicity profile. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap, using PLGAs with monomer ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 85:15, MW ranged 24 - 240kDa and an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, rifapentine. The PLGA-rifapentine powders were produced through a solution spray drying technique. The particles were spherical with a smooth surface and a volume median diameter around 2μm (span ~2). When the powders were dispersed using an Osmohaler(®) at 100L/min for 2.4s, the fine particle fraction (FPFtotal, wt.% particles in aerosol <5μm relative to the total recovered drug mass) was ranged between 52 and 57%, with no significant difference between the formulations. This result suggests that the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial parameters for the aerosol performance of PLGA. The phagocytosis analysis was performed using Thp-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The highest rate of uptake was observed in PLGA 85:15 followed by 75:25 and 50:50 with about 90%, 80% and 70%, respectively phagocytosis over 4h of exposure. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity analysis on Thp-1 and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells demonstrated that PLGA concentration up to 1.5mg/mL, regardless of the monomer composition and MW, were non-toxic. In conclusion, the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial in determining the aerosol performance and cytotoxicity profile of PLGA however, the particles with high lactide composition have a superior tendency for macrophage uptake. PMID:27049049

  17. The design of flexible ciprofloxacin-loaded PLGA implants using a reversed phase separation/coacervation method.

    PubMed

    Park, Peter In Pyo; Makoid, Michael; Jonnalagadda, Sriramakamal

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and characterize flexible PLGA-based implants for the controlled release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for up to 6 weeks in vitro. This research uses a reversed phase separation/coacervation method to fabricate flexible PLA and PLGA: excipient implants with dichloromethane/mineral oil as solvent/non-solvent. Physical characterization was performed using thermal and mechanical analyses. Drug loading and release studies were performed with ciprofloxacin HCl as the model drug. Release kinetics was modeled to elucidate possible mechanisms of drug release. Four polymer-excipient combinations with glass transition temperatures less than 20°C and representing a wide range of Young's moduli were shown to entrap up to 8% of ciprofloxacin HCl that could be released at a controlled rate for 65 days in vitro. The release rate could consistently fit a ternary Gaussian pattern with an R(2)>0.99. It was postulated that these release patterns could be related to ciprofloxacin that was loosely or poorly bound (burst release), trapped within the polymer matrix, or encapsulated by the polymer. These studies show that flexible implants can be fabricated from PLGA-based polymers for the controlled release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for up to 6 weeks in vitro. PMID:21145965

  18. Clinical outcomes of amniotic membrane loaded with 5-FU PLGA nanoparticles in experimental trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Zhao-Lian; Liu, Lin-Lin; Huang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of amniotic membrane loaded with 5-fluorouracil poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (5-FU-NPs) in the surgical outcomes of experimental trabeculectomy in rabbits. METHODS Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were randomly categorized into four groups with 8 rabbits in each group. Group 1, the control group, performed traditional trabeculectomy without adjuvant treatment. While the experimental groups performed compound trabeculectomy with different implantations including amniotic membrane (group 2), 5-FU-NPs (group 3) and amniotic membrane loaded with 5-FU-NPs (group 4). Clinical evaluations including IOP measurement and filtration bleb analysis were performed in all groups postoperatively. RESULTS There is no significant difference of mean IOP in all groups at first 7d after surgery. While at P14, mean IOPs of experimental group 2 (9.8±2.1 mm Hg), groups 3 (8.9±2.8 mm Hg) and group 4 (7.6±2.3 mm Hg) were significantly reduced compared to control group (12.4±2.6 mm Hg; n=8, P<0.05). At P21, mean IOPs of groups 3 (11.7±3.2 mm Hg) and group 4 (9.9±1.6 mm Hg) were significantly decreased compare to control group (17.9±1.6 mm Hg) and group 2 (16.6±2.8 mm Hg; n=8, P<0.05). At P28, mean IOPs of groups 3 (13.8±3.3 mm Hg) and group 4 (10.6±2.0 mm Hg) were also significantly reduced compare to control group (19.4±2.3 mm Hg) and group 2 (18.5±2.4 mm Hg; n=8, P<0.05). Meanwhile mean IOP of group 4 is significantly decreased compared to group 3 at P28 (n=8, P<0.05). Survival analysis of functional filtration blub in all groups revealed the longest survival time in group 4 (24.9±5.1d) compared to that in group 3 (20.6±4.3d), group 2 (15.0±5.2d) and control group (10.1±5.7d). CONCLUSION Amniotic membrane loaded with 5-Fu-NPs may function as an effective anti-scarring implant and provides improved long-term surgical outcomes for experimental trabeculectomy in rabbits. PMID:25709903

  19. Inhibition of hTERT Gene Expression by Silibinin-Loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 in T47D Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimnezhad, Zohreh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Keyhani, Manoutchehr; Amirsaadat, Soumaye; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rahmati, Mohammad; Mohammad Taheri, Zohreh; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, using drug delivery is an essential method to improve cancer therapy through decreasing drug toxicity and increasing efficiency of treatment. Silibinin (C25H22O10), a polyphenolic flavonoid which is isolated from the milk thistle plant, has various applications in cancer therapy but it has hydrophobic structure with low water solubility and bioavailability. To increase the effect of silibinin, silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was prepared to determine the inhibitory effect of this nanodrug on Telomerase gene expression. Methods: The rate of silibinin loaded into PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was measured. Then, the cytotoxic effect of silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was determined by Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. After that, inhibition of Telomerase gene expression was indicated through Real-time PCR. Results: Data analysis from MTT assay showed that silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 had dose dependent cytotoxic effect on T47D cell line. MTT assay showed no cytotoxic effect of free PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 on T47D breast cancer cell line. Real Time PCR analysis showed that the level of telomerase gene expression more efficiently decreased with silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 than with free silibinin alone. Conclusion: The present study indicates that this nanodrug causes down-regulation of Telomerase gene expression in cancer cells. Therefore, PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 could be an appropriate carrier for hydrophobic agents such as silibinin to improve their action in cancer therapy. PMID:23878789

  20. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid loaded nano-insulin has greater potentials of combating arsenic induced hyperglycemia in mice: Some novel findings

    SciTech Connect

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; De, Arnab; Saha, Santu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-02-15

    Diabetes is a menacing problem, particularly to inhabitants of groundwater arsenic contaminated areas needing new medical approaches. This study examines if PLGA loaded nano-insulin (NIn), administered either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or through oral route, has a greater cost-effective anti-hyperglycemic potential than that of insulin in chronically arsenite-fed hyperglycemic mice. The particle size, morphology and zeta potential of nano-insulin were determined using dynamic light scattering method, scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. The ability of the nano-insulin (NIn) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was also checked. Circular dichroic spectroscopic (CD) data of insulin and nano-insulin in presence or absence of arsenic were compared. Several diabetic markers in different groups of experimental and control mice were assessed. The mitochondrial functioning through indices like cytochrome c, pyruvate-kinase, glucokinase, ATP/ADP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane potential and calcium-ion level was also evaluated. Expressions of the relevant marker proteins and mRNAs like insulin, GLUT2, GLUT4, IRS1, IRS2, UCP2, PI3, PPARγ, CYP1A1, Bcl2, caspase3 and p38 for tracking-down the signaling cascade were also analyzed. Results revealed that i.p.-injected nano-encapsulated-insulin showed better results; NIn, due to its smaller size, faster mobility, site-specific release, could cross BBB and showed positive modulation in mitochondrial signaling cascades and other downstream signaling molecules in reducing arsenic-induced-hyperglycemia. CD data indicated that nano-insulin had less distorted secondary structure as compared with that of insulin in presence of arsenic. Thus, overall analyses revealed that PLGA nano-insulin showed better efficacy in combating arsenite-induced-hyperglycemia than that of insulin and therefore, has greater potentials for use in nano-encapsulated form. - Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated nano-insulin

  1. Insulin-loaded alginic acid nanoparticles for sublingual delivery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilam H; Devarajan, Padma V

    2016-01-01

    Alginic acid nanoparticles (NPs) containing insulin, with nicotinamide as permeation enhancer were developed for sublingual delivery. The lower concentration of proteolytic enzymes, lower thickness and enhanced retention due to bioadhesive property, were relied on for enhanced insulin absorption. Insulin-loaded NPs were prepared by mild and aqueous based nanoprecipitation process. NPs were negatively charged and had a mean size of ∼200 nm with low dispersity index. Insulin loading capacities of >95% suggested a high association of insulin with alginic acid. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) thermogram of insulin-loaded NPs revealed the association of insulin with alginic acid. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed conformational stability, while HPLC analysis confirmed chemical stability of insulin in the NPs. Sublingually delivered NPs with nicotinamide exhibited high pharmacological availability (>100%) and bioavailability (>80%) at a dose of 5 IU/kg. The high absolute pharmacological availability of 20.2% and bioavailability of 24.1% in comparison with subcutaneous injection at 1 IU/kg, in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, suggest the insulin-loaded alginic acid NPs as a promising sublingual delivery system of insulin. PMID:24901208

  2. Insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles: efficient, sustained and safe insulin delivery system.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Thiago M; Teixeira, Zaine; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Rezende, Luiz F; Boschero, Antonio C; Durán, Nelson; Höehr, Nelci F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an efficient, biodegradable, biocompatible and safe controlled release system using insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. The insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion method (water-in-oil-in-water) using Pluronic F68 as emulsifier. Using the double emulsion method a high insulin encapsulation efficiency (90.6 +/-1.6%) with a zeta potential of -29 +/-2.7 mV and average particle size of 796 +/-10.5 nm was obtained. Insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles showed no toxicity to MIN6 cells. Insulin nanoparticles administered subcutaneously and intraperitoneally in rats reduced glycaemia of basal levels after 15 minutes, and presented a sustainable hypoglycemic effect on insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic rats, showing to be more efficient than unencapsulated insulin. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were not hepatotoxic, as evaluated by the effect over liver cell-death and oxidative stress scavenger system in rats. These results suggest that insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles prepared by water-in-oil-in-water emulsion method are biocompatible, efficient and safe insulin-delivering system with controlled insulin release, which indicates that it may be a powerful tool for insulin-dependent patients care. PMID:23858976

  3. Control of drug loading efficiency and drug release behavior in preparation of hydrophilic-drug-containing monodisperse PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Fujimori, Hiroyuki; Honnami, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Makino, Kimiko

    2010-05-01

    We prepared monodisperse poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing blue dextran (BLD)--a hydrophilic drug--by membrane emulsification technique. The effects of electrolyte addition to the w(2) phase and significance of the droplet size ratio between primary (w(1)/o) and secondary (w(1)/o/w(2)) emulsions during the preparation of these microspheres was examined. The droplet size ratio was evaluated from the effect of stirring rate of the homogenizer when preparing the primary emulsion. The drug loading efficiency of BLD in these microspheres increased with stirring rate. It increased to approximately 90% when 2.0% NaCl was added to the w(2) phase. Drug release from these microspheres was slower than that when they were prepared without electrolyte addition. Despite the very high efficiency drug release was gradual because BLD was distributed at the microspheres core. Relatively monodisperse hydrophilic-drug-containing PLGA microspheres with controlled drug loading efficiency and drug release behavior were prepared. PMID:20221788

  4. Chrysin-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles designed for enhanced effect on the breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Anari, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-09-01

    The development of nanotherapy has presented a new method of drug delivery targeted directly to the neoplasmic tissues, to maximize the action with fewer dose requirements. In the past two decades, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has frequently been investigated by many researchers and is a popular polymeric candidate, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, exhibition of a wide range of erosion times, tunable mechanical properties, and most notably, because it is a FDA-approved polymer. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid which has been reported to have some significant biological effects on the processes of chemical defense, nitrogen fixation, inflammation, and oxidation. However, the low solubility in water decreases its bioavailability and consequently disrupts the biomedical benefits. Being loaded with PLGA-PEG increases chrysin solubility and drug tolerance, and decreases the discordant effects of the drug. The well-structured chrysin efficiently accumulates in the breast cancer cell line (T47D). In the present study, the structure and chrysin loading were delineated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the in vitro cytotoxicity of pure and nanochrysin was studied by the MTT assay. Next, the RNA was exploited and the cytotoxic effects of chrysin were studied by real-time PCR. In conclusion, the nanochrysin therapy developed is a novel method that could increase cytotoxicity to cancer cells without damaging the normal cells, and would be promising in breast cancer therapy. PMID:26148177

  5. Eccentric loading of fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission in PLGA matrix increases nanoparticle fluorescence quantum yield for targeted cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Geng, Junlong; Li, Kai; Qin, Wei; Ma, Lin; Gurzadyan, Gagik G; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2013-06-10

    A simple strategy is developed to prepare eccentrically or homogeneously loaded nanoparticles (NPs) using poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as the encapsulation matrix in the presence of different amounts of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsifier. Using 2,3-bis(4-(phenyl(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)-phenyl)amino)-phenyl)-fumaronitrile (TPETPAFN), a fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics, as an example, the eccentrically loaded PLGA NPs show increased fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) as compared to the homogeneously loaded ones. Field emission transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements reveal that the higher QY of the eccentrically loaded NPs is due to the more compact aggregation of AIE fluorogens that restricts intramolecular rotations of phenyl rings, which is able to more effectively block the non-radiative decay pathways. The eccentrically loaded NPs show far red/near infrared emission with a high fluorescence QY of 34% in aqueous media. In addition, by using poly([lactide-co-glycolide]-b-folate [ethylene glycol]) (PLGA-PEG-folate) as the co-encapsulation matrix, the obtained NPs are born with surface folic acid groups, which are successfully applied for targeted cellular imaging with good photostability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, the developed strategy is also demonstrated for inorganic-component eccentrically or homogeneously loaded PLGA NPs, which facilitates the synthesis of polymer NPs with controlled internal architectures. PMID:23404950

  6. Enhanced in vitro antiproliferative effects of EpCAM antibody-functionalized paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in retinoblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Moutushy; Misra, Ranjita; Harilal, Anju; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2011-01-01

    Background To specifically deliver paclitaxel (PTX) to retinoblastoma (RB) cells, the anionic surface-charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with paclitaxel were conjugated with epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody for enhancing site-specific intracellular delivery of paclitaxel against EpCAM overexpressing RB cells. Methods PTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by the oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the PTX content in NPs was estimated by the reverse phase isocratic mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry was employed for the covalent attachment of monoclonal EpCAM antibody onto the NP surface. In vitro cytotoxicity of native PTX, unconjugated PTX-loaded NPs (PTX-NPs), and EpCAM antibody-conjugated PTX-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-NP-EpCAM) were evaluated on a Y79 RB cell line by a dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, while cellular apoptosis, cysteinyl-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 activation, Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and cell-cycle arrest were quantified by flow cytometry. By employing flow cytometry and fluorescence image analyses, the extent of cellular uptake was comparatively evaluated. Results PTX-NP-EpCAM had superior antiproliferation activity, increased arrested cell population at the G2-M phase, and increased activation of caspase-3, followed by PARP cleavage in parallel with the induction of apoptosis. Increased uptake of PTX-Np-EpCAM by the cells suggests that they were mainly taken up through EpCAM mediated endocytosis. Conclusions EpCAM antibody-functionalized biodegradable NPs for tumor-selective drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance could be an efficient therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma treatment. PMID:22065926

  7. Prevention of K-Ras- and Pten-mediated intravaginal tumors by treatment with camptothecin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jeremy S.; Weller, Caroline E.; Booth, Carmen J.; Babar, Imran A.; Liang, Xianping; Slack, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina is an uncommon disease that often exhibits few symptoms before reaching an advanced stage. Topical intravaginal therapies for resolving precancerous and cancerous vaginal lesions have the potential to be non-invasive and safer alternatives to existing treatment options. Two factors limit the testing of this approach: lack of a preclinical intravaginal tumor model and absence of safe and effective topical delivery systems. In this study, we present both an inducible genetic model of vaginal squamous cell carcinoma in mice and a novel topical delivery system. Tumors were generated via activation of oncogenic K-Ras and inactivation of tumor suppressor Pten in LSL-K-RasG12D/+ PtenloxP/loxP mice. This was accomplished by exposing the vaginal epithelium to a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase (AdCre). As early as 3 weeks after AdCre exposure exophytic masses protruding from the vagina were observed; these were confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma by histology. We utilized this model to investigate an anticancer therapy based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with camptothecin (CPT); our earlier work has shown that PLGA nanoparticles can penetrate the vaginal epithelium and provide sustained CPT release. Particles were lavaged into the vaginal cavity of AdCre-infected mice. None of the mice receiving CPT nanoparticles developed tumors. These results demonstrate a novel topical strategy to resolve precancerous and cancerous lesions in the female reproductive tract. PMID:25419505

  8. Preparation and characterization of metformin hydrochloride loaded-Eudragit®RSPO and Eudragit®RSPO/PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Meltem; Atila, Alptug; Sahin, Selma; Vural, Imran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize metformin HCl-loaded nanoparticle formulations. Nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method using both a single polymer (Eudragit(®)RSPO) and a polymer mixture (Eudragit/PLGA). The mean particle size ranged from 268.8 to 288 nm and the nanoparticle surface was positively charged (9.72 to 10.1 mV). The highest encapsulation efficiency was observed when Eudragit®RSPO was used. All formulations showed highly reproducible drug release profiles and the in vitro drug release in phosphate buffer (pH = 6.8) ranged from 92 to 100% in 12 h. These results suggest that Eudragit(®)RSPO or Eudragit/PLGA nanoparticles might represent a promising sustained-release oral formulation for metformin HCl, reducing the necessity of repeated administrations of high doses to maintain effective plasma concentrations, and thus, increasing patient compliance and reducing the incidence of side-effects. PMID:21864098

  9. In situ-forming PLGA implants loaded with leuprolide acetate/β-cyclodextrin complexes: mathematical modelling and degradation.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Mobedi, Hamid; Behnamghader, Aliasghar

    2016-06-01

    Drug release mechanism of in situ-forming implants (ISIs) based on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) loaded with leuprolide acetate/β-cyclodextrin (LA/β-CD) complexes via fitting with four diffusion-based semi-empirical models were studied. The release rate constants and release exponent of ISIs were calculated. The main drug release mechanism was Fickian diffusion. The LA diffusion coefficient and release constant were decreased via increasing the portion of β-CD in complexes. The release curve was parabolic, with a higher initial slope and then consistent with the exponential. All ISIs containing LA/β-CD complexes better fitted with the Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull and Peppas-Sahlin models rather than first-order model. Furthermore, the effect of LA/β-CD complexation on the degradation of ISIs was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that hydrophilic nature of β-CD facilitated the surface erosion of PLGA chains, however after 18 d, ISI-1/10 had still a proper structural strength, due to no hydrolytic degradation of β-CD in this implant. PMID:27530523

  10. Understanding the quality of protein loaded PLGA nanoparticles variability by Plackett–Burman design

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Zidan, Ahmed S.; Habib, Muhammad J.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to screen and understand the product variability due to important factors affecting the characteristics CyA-PLGA nanoparticles prepared by O/W emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Independent variables studied were cyclosporine A (CyA) (X1), PLGA (X2), and emulsifier concentration namely SLS (X3), stirring rate (X4), type of organic solvent employed (chloroform or dichloromethane, X5) and organic to aqueous phase ratio (X6). The nanoparticles properties considered were encapsulation efficiency (Y1), mean particle size (Y2), zeta potential (Y3), burst effect (Y4) and dissolution efficiency (Y5). The statistical analysis of the results allowed determining the most influent factors. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The factors combination showed variability of entrapment efficiency (Y1), mean particle size (Y2) and zeta potential (Y3) from 10.17% to 93.01%, 41.60 to 372.80nm and 29.60 to 34.90 mV, respectively. Initially, nanoparticles showed burst effect followed by sustained release during the 7-day in vitro release study period. The dissolution efficiency (Y5) varied from 52.67% to 84.11%. The nanoparticles revealed Higuchi release pattern and release occurred by coupling of diffusion and erosion. In conclusion, this study revealed the potential of QbD in understanding the effect of formulation and process variables on the characteristics on CyA-PLGA nanoparticles. PMID:20038446

  11. A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

  12. Preparation and property of a novel bone graft composite consisting of rhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres and calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhengqi; Hu, Yunyu; Wu, Daocheng; Wu, Hong; Lu, Rong; Bai, Jianping; Song, Hongxun

    2008-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a highly promising bone substitute and an excellent carrier for delivering growth factors. Yet, the lack of macro-porosity and osteoinductive ability, limit its use. This study is aimed at developing a novel biodegradable biomaterial for bone repair with both highly osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. RhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres were incorporated into rhBMP-2/CPC for macropores for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength, crystallinity, microscopic structure, and bioactivity of the composites were investigated. The results showed that with the incorporation of rhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres, the compressive strength was decreased from (29.48+/-6.42) MPa to (8.26+/-3.58) MPa. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallinity pattern of HA formed by CPC had no significant change. Inside the composite, the microspheres distributed homogeneously and contacted intimately with the HA matrix, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the PLGA microspheres dissolved after having been emerged in PBS for 56 days, macropores were created within the CPC. The rhBMP-2/PLGA/CPC composite, showing a 4.9% initial release of rhBMP-2 in 24 h, followed by a prolonged release for 28 days, should have a greater amount of rhBMP-2 released compared to the CPC delivery system. When rabbit marrow stromal cells were cocultured with the composite, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) showed a dose response to the rhBMP-2 released from the composite, indicating that the activity of rhBMP-2 was retained. This study shows that the new composite reveals more rhBMP-2 release and osteogenic activity. This novel BMP/PLGA/CPC composite could be a promising synthetic bone graft in craniofacial and orthopedic repairs. PMID:17701313

  13. PLGA-based microparticles loaded with bacterial-synthesized prodigiosin for anticancer drug release: Effects of particle size on drug release kinetics and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Obayemi, J D; Danyuo, Y; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S; Odusanya, O S; Anuku, N; Malatesta, K; Yu, W; Uhrich, K E; Soboyejo, W O

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of biodegradable poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles that are loaded with bacterial-synthesized prodigiosin drug obtained from Serratia marcescens subsp. Marcescens bacteria for controlled anticancer drug delivery. The micron-sized particles were loaded with anticancer drugs [prodigiosin (PG) and paclitaxel (PTX) control] using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). The effects of processing conditions (on the particle size and morphology) are investigated along with the drug release kinetics and drug-loaded microparticle degradation kinetics. The localization and apoptosis induction by prodigiosin in breast cancer cells is also elucidated along with the reduction in cell viability due to prodigiosin release. The implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple negative breast tumor. PMID:27207038

  14. Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löw, Karin; Knobloch, Thomas; Wagner, Sylvia; Wiehe, Arno; Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus; von Briesen, Hagen

    2011-06-01

    The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

  15. Release mechanisms of tacrolimus-loaded PLGA and PLA microspheres and immunosuppressive effects of the microspheres in a rat heart transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ryo; Yoshida, Takatsune; Tasaki, Hiroaki; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Masashi; Higashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Oku, Naoto

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the release and absorption mechanisms of tacrolimus loaded into microspheres composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or polylactic acid (PLA). Tacrolimus-loaded microspheres were prepared by the o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. The entrapment efficiency correlated with the molecular weight of PLGA, and the glass transition temperature of PLGA microspheres was not decreased by the addition of tacrolimus. These results indicate that intermolecular interaction between tacrolimus and the polymer would affect the entrapment of tacrolimus in the microspheres. Tacrolimus was released with weight loss of the microspheres, and the dominant release mechanism of tacrolimus was considered to be erosion of the polymer rather than diffusion of the drug. The whole-blood concentration of tacrolimus in rats was maintained for at least 2 weeks after a single subcutaneous administration of the microspheres. The pharmacokinetic profile of tacrolimus following subcutaneous administration was similar to that following intramuscular administration, suggesting that the release and dissolution of tacrolimus, rather than the absorption of the dissolved tacrolimus, were rate-limiting steps. Graft-survival time in a heart transplantation rat model was prolonged by the administration of tacrolimus-loaded microspheres. The microsphere formulation of tacrolimus would be expected to precisely control the blood concentration while maintaining the immunosuppressive effect of the drug. PMID:26160668

  16. Dextran-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymersome for oral delivery of insulin: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Alabdollah, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-04-10

    Insulin is the first line therapy in type 1 diabetes and usually patients suffer from three or more daily insulin injections. It is obvious that patient compliance can be improved greatly if insulin could be formulated in an oral dosage form. In the current study, polymersomes based on amphiphilic copolymers of dextran (DEX)5000-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)13,000 and DEX25000-PLGA48000 were synthesized and used for the encapsulation of insulin. The polymersomes were prepared using a modified direct hydration method by blending an aqueous solution of insulin with DEX-PLGA copolymers at room temperature. The in vitro insulin release through the nanopolymersomal system was studied in HCl 0.1N (pH1.2) and phosphate buffered saline (pH7.4). The results demonstrated that the average insulin encapsulation efficiency was >90%. The in vitro release experiment demonstrated that while insulin release in the simulated gastric condition was negligible, a significant amount of insulin was released in the simulated intestinal condition. According to the results of a circular dichroism test, secondary and tertiary structures of the released insulin were identical to that of standard insulin. Permeability studies across MDCK cells showed that permeability levels after 240min were 16.89±0.39% with DEX5000-PLGA13000 and 9.34±0.79% with DEX25000-PLGA48000, indicating a noticeable increase compared with free insulin. Significant hypoglycemic effects in the in vivo diabetic rat model revealed the efficacy of the DEX-PLGA-based polymersomes as oral insulin carriers. Thus, insulin-loaded, self-assembled DEX-PLGA polymersomes showed promising in vitro and in vivo efficiency and can be considered as a potential oral insulin carrier system. PMID:26907831

  17. Multilayer Coating of Tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: Effect of surface charges on cellular uptake rate and drug release profile.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Li, Ke; Chen, Zhe; Shi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The effect of surface charges on the cellular uptake rate and drug release profile of tetrandrine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPNs) was studied. Stabilizer-free nanoprecipitation method was used in this study for the synthesis of TPNs. A typical layer-by-layer approach was applied for multi-coating particles' surface with use of poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) as anionic layer and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as cationic layer. The modified TPNs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as Zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency, release profile and cellular uptake rate were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The resultant PSS/PAH/PSS/PAH/TPNs (4 layers) exhibited spherical-shaped morphology with the average size of 160.3±5.165 nm and zeta potential of-57.8 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 57.88% and 1.73%, respectively. Multi-layer coating of polymeric materials with different charges on particles' surface could dramatically influence the drug release profile of TPNs (4 layers vs. 3 layers). In addition, variable layers of surface coating could also greatly affect the cellular uptake rate of TPNs in A549 cells within 8 h. Overall, by coating particles' surface with those different charged polymers, precise control of drug release as well as cellular uptake rate can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, this approach provides a new strategy for controllable drug delivery. PMID:26838734

  18. Gas-generating TPGS-PLGA microspheres loaded with nanoparticles (NIMPS) for co-delivery of minicircle DNA and anti-tumoral drugs.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Vítor M; Moreira, André F; Costa, Elisabete C; Queiroz, João A; Sousa, Fani; Pichon, Chantal; Correia, Ilídio J

    2015-10-01

    Drug-DNA combination therapies are receiving an ever growing focus due to their potential for improving cancer treatment. However, such approaches are still limited by the lack of multipurpose delivery systems that encapsulate drugs and condense DNA simultaneously. In this study, we describe the successful formulation of gas-generating pH-responsive D-α-tocopherol PEG succinate-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (TPGS-PLGA) hollow microspheres loaded with both Doxorubicin (Dox) and minicircle DNA (mcDNA) nanoparticles as a strategy to co-deliver these therapeutics. For this study mcDNA vectors were chosen due to their increased therapeutic efficiency in comparison to standard plasmid DNA. The results demonstrate that TPGS-PLGA microcarriers can encapsulate Dox and chitosan nanoparticles completely condense mcDNA. The loading of mcDNA-nanoparticles into microspheres was confirmed by 3D confocal microscopy and co-localization analysis. The resulting TPGS-PLGA-Dox-mcDNA nanoparticle-in-microsphere hybrid carriers exhibit a well-defined spherical shape and neutral surface charge. Microcarriers incubation in acidic pH produced a gas-mediated Dox release, corroborating the microcarriers stimuli-responsive character. Also, the dual-loaded TPGS-PLGA particles achieved 5.2-fold higher cellular internalization in comparison with non-pegylated microspheres. This increased intracellular concentration resulted in a higher cytotoxic effect. Successful transgene expression was obtained after nanoparticle-mcDNA co-delivery in the microspheres. Overall these findings support the concept of using nanoparticle-microsphere multipart systems to achieve efficient co-delivery of various drug-mcDNA combinations. PMID:26209779

  19. The synergic antitumor effects of paclitaxel and temozolomide co-loaded in mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles on glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Shen, Ming; Li, Yiming; Sun, Ying; Teng, Yanwei; Wang, Yi; Duan, Yourong

    2016-04-12

    To get better chemotherapy efficacy, the optimal synergic effect of Paclitaxel (PTX) and Temozolomide (TMZ) on glioblastoma cells lines was investigated. A dual drug-loaded delivery system based on mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) was developed to potentiate chemotherapy efficacy for glioblastoma. PTX/TMZ-NPs were prepared with double emulsification solvent evaporation method and exhibited a relatively uniform diameter of 206.3 ± 14.7 nm. The NPs showed sustained release character. Cytotoxicity assays showed the best synergistic effects were achieved when the weight ratios of PTX to TMZ were 1:5 and 1:100 on U87 and C6 cells, respectively. PTX/TMZ-NPs showed better inhibition effect to U87 and C6 cells than single drug NPs or free drugs mixture. PTX/TMZ-NPs (PTX: TMZ was 1:5(w/w)) significantly inhibited the tumor growth in the subcutaneous U87 mice model. These results indicate that coordinate administration of PTX and TMZ combined with NPs is an efficient method for glioblastoma. PMID:26956046

  20. The synergic antitumor effects of paclitaxel and temozolomide co-loaded in mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles on glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiming; Sun, Ying; Teng, Yanwei; Wang, Yi; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-01

    To get better chemotherapy efficacy, the optimal synergic effect of Paclitaxel (PTX) and Temozolomide (TMZ) on glioblastoma cells lines was investigated. A dual drug-loaded delivery system based on mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) was developed to potentiate chemotherapy efficacy for glioblastoma. PTX/TMZ-NPs were prepared with double emulsification solvent evaporation method and exhibited a relatively uniform diameter of 206.3 ± 14.7 nm. The NPs showed sustained release character. Cytotoxicity assays showed the best synergistic effects were achieved when the weight ratios of PTX to TMZ were 1:5 and 1:100 on U87 and C6 cells, respectively. PTX/TMZ-NPs showed better inhibition effect to U87 and C6 cells than single drug NPs or free drugs mixture. PTX/TMZ-NPs (PTX: TMZ was 1:5(w/w)) significantly inhibited the tumor growth in the subcutaneous U87 mice model. These results indicate that coordinate administration of PTX and TMZ combined with NPs is an efficient method for glioblastoma. PMID:26956046

  1. Synthesis of doxorubicin-PLGA loaded chitosan stabilized (Mn, Zn)Fe2O4 nanoparticles: Biological activity and pH-responsive drug release.

    PubMed

    Montha, Wararat; Maneeprakorn, Weerakanya; Buatong, Nattha; Tang, I-Ming; Pon-On, Weeraphat

    2016-02-01

    We have synthesized Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 ((Mn, Zn) ferrite) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having radius of 25nm to act as platforms for delivering drugs. The Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 MNPs exhibit superparamagnetic behavior with large saturation magnetization (MS). They were encapsulated in polymer so that they can be developed into PLGA-coated chitosan stabilized (Mn, Zn) MNPs, i.e., DOX-PLGA@CS@Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 which can serve as an effective carrier of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) whose release would be controlled by the pH in the environment surrounding the cancer tumor. The structure of the as-prepared particles is of a magnetic core-encapsulated by polymer shell layer of around 50nm thick. At a pH of 4.0, the DOX release within the first 5h is fast (around 57%). It becomes slower (around 46% over the next 25h) when the pH is increased to 7.4. The DOX-PLGA@CS@Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 (for concentrations lower than 125μgmL(-1)) shows lower toxicity against HeLa cells using DOX only. When the DOX-PLGA@CS@Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 is increased to 250μgmL(-1), the DOX-PLGA@CS@Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 shows greater anti-cancer activity and has satisfactory therapeutic effect. The slow sustained release of the DOX by the drug loaded particles when they are in the physiological pH environment (7.4) of normal tissues and mild toxicity of DOX against cancer cell at low concentration point to the DOX loaded PLGA@CS@Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 being safely used for treating cancer. The higher dosage of DOX needed to kill the cancer cells will be released when the synthesized carriers are subject to the pH stimuli surrounding these cells. PMID:26652369

  2. Potent Engineered PLGA Nanoparticles by Virtue of Exceptionally High Chemotherapeutic Loadings

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Elizabeth M.; Luft, J. Christopher; Napier, Mary E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report the fabrication of engineered poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles via the PRINT® (Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates) process with high and efficient loadings of docetaxel, up to 40% (w/w) with encapsulation efficiencies >90%. The PRINT process enables independent control of particle properties leading to a higher degree of tailorability than traditional methods. Particles with 40% loading display better in vitro efficacy than particles with lower loadings and the clinical formulation of docetaxel, Taxotere®. PMID:21265552

  3. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-triggering potential of disulfiram and disulfiram-loaded polysorbate 80-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles on hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cell line.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Muddasarul; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Shakya, Garima; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2016-08-01

    There is an emerging trend to restudy known drugs for their anti-cancer potential. One such anti-alcoholic drug, disulfiram, with significant anti-cancer potential was studied for its efficacy against Hep3B cell lines, an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, we intended to study the effect of polysorbate 80-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles and its DSF-loaded counterpart. Cell and nuclear staining, comet assay, flow cytometry and Western blots were performed. Results suggest that cell proliferation was inhibited by DSF and its PLGA nanoparticles through cell cycle arrest, triggering activation of apoptotic pathways that culminates with cell death. DSF loaded nanoparticles when compared with free DSF, showed significantly lesser effect due to its sustained drug-releasing property, while empty nanoparticles showed negligible influence on Hep3B cells. Our results suggest that DSF alone contributes to cell death, while polysorbate 80-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles show sustained drug release patterns that would potentially lower dosage regimens. PMID:27013133

  4. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization of PLGA nanoparticles loading pranoprofen for ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Cristina; Alvarado, Helen; Calpena, Ana C; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B; García, Maria L; Abrego, Guadalupe

    2016-09-25

    Pranoprofen (PF) is a NSAID considered as a safe anti-inflammatory treatment for strabismus and/or cataract surgery. The drug has been formulated in poly (lactic/glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PF-F1NPs with cPF 1.5mg/mL, PF-F2NPs with cPF 1mg/mL) produced by solvent displacement technique and tested the in vitro cytotoxicity, ex vivo corneal permeation, in vivo ocular tolerance and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy of PF-F1NPs, PF-F2NPs, in comparison to eye drops conventional dosage form (Oftalar(®), PF 1mg/mL) and free drug solution (PF dissolved in PBS, 1.5mg/mL). The mean particle size of both formulations was around 350nm, with polydispersity index below 0.1, and a net negative charge of -7.41mV and -8.5mV for PF-F1NPs and PF-F2NPs, respectively. Y-79 human retinoblastoma cell line was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of PF-F1NPs and PF-F2NPs, which were compared to blank NPs and free drug solution (PF dissolved in PBS, 1.5mg/mL). Concentrations up to 75μg/mL exhibited no toxicity to Y-79 cells, whereas at 150μg/mL a decrease of about 80% on the cell viability was observed after exposing the cells to PF-F1NPs. When treating the Y-79 cells with concentrations of PF-F2NPs between 1μg/mL to 100μg/mL, the cell viability was similar to control values after 24h and 48h of exposure. An ex vivo corneal permeation study was carried out in New Zealand rabbits. A very similar profile has been observed for the permeation of PF through the cornea when administered as eye drops and as free drug solution, which was kept much lower in comparison to PF-NPs formulations. The permeated amount of PF from the PF-F1NPs was slightly smaller than from PF-F2NPs, attributed to the increase of viscosity of the formulations with the increase of cPVA concentration. New Zealand white rabbits were also used to evaluate the irritancy of PF-F1NPs and PF-F2NPs, which demonstrated to be well-tolerated to the eye (i.e. the mean total score (MTS) was 0). PF-F2NPs exhibited the

  5. Development and characterization of skin permeation retardants and enhancers: a comparative study of levothyroxine-loaded PNIPAM, PLA, PLGA and EC microparticles.

    PubMed

    Azarbayjani, Anahita Fathi; Khu, Jia Vu; Chan, Yew Weng; Chan, Sui Yung

    2011-10-01

    Polymeric microparticles suitable for topical and transdermal delivery systems were studied using poly D,L lactide (PLA), poly D,L lactide co glycoside (PLGA), poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and ethyl cellulose (EC). Drug encapsulation efficacy, microparticle stability and skin permeation studies of levothyroxine loaded microparticles were carried out using excised human skin, and the skin permeation pattern was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that ethyl cellulose microparticles had the highest drug encapsulation and minimal drug leakage during the 14 week storage period. The PNIPAM microparticles had the lowest drug encapsulation efficiency and a fast degradation rate. The PLGA microparticles exhibited a temperature dependent drug leakage. Permeation studies using a flow-through diffusion cell indicated that the polymer transition temperature (T(g)) may influence the skin permeation rate of levothyroxine. Polyesters (PLA and PLGA) and PNIPAM acted as a skin penetration retardant and caused skin accumulation of the drug. These microparticles have potential use in skin formulations containing sunscreens and other active ingredients that are meant to be concentrated on the skin surface. However, skin permeation was observed from EC microparticles, therefore such polymers may be used as carriers in transdermal formulations to help achieve therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the plasma. PMID:21815171

  6. Use of ginsenoside Rg3-loaded electrospun PLGA fibrous membranes as wound cover induces healing and inhibits hypertrophic scar formation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Cheng, Liying; Zhu, Wankun; Hu, Changmin; Jin, Rong; Sun, Baoshan; Shi, Yaoming; Zhang, Yuguang; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-03-01

    Prevention of hypertrophic scar formation of the skin requires a complex treatment process, which mainly includes promoting skin regeneration in an early stage while inhibiting hypertrophic formation in a later stage. Electrospinning PLGA with the three-dimensional micro/nano-fibrous structure and as drugs carrier, could be used as an excellent skin repair scaffold. However, it is difficult to combine the advantage of nanofibrous membranes and drug carriers to achieve early and late treatment. In this study, Ginsenoside-Rg3 (Rg3) loaded hydrophilic poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) electrospun fibrous membranes coated with chitosan (CS) were fabricated by combining electrospinning and pressure-driven permeation (PDP) technology. The PDP method was able to significantly improve the hydrophilicity of electrospun fibrous membranes through surface coating of the hydrophilic fibers with CS, while maintaining the Rg3 releasing rate of PLGA electrospun fibrous membranes. Experimental wounds of animal covered with PDP treated fibrous membranes completely re-epithelialized and healed 3-4 days earlier than the wounds in control groups. Scar elevation index (SEI) measurements and histologic characteristics revealed that Rg3 significantly inhibited scar formation 28 days post-surgery. Moreover, RT-PCR assays and western blot analysis revealed that at day 28 after wound induction the expression of VEGF, mRNA and Collagen Type I in the scars treated with Rg3 was decreased compared to control groups. Taken together PLGA-Rg3/CS electrospun fibrous membranes induced repair of tissue damage in the early stage and inhibited scar formation in the late stage of wound healing. These dual-functional membranes present a combined therapeutic approach for inhibiting hypertrophic scars of the skin. PMID:24333554

  7. Pigment epithelial-derived factor gene loaded novel COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH nanoparticles promoted tumor suppression by systemic administration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ting; Xu, Bei; He, Lili; Xia, Shan; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Jun; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Shuangzhi; Tan, Xiaoyue; Ren, Ke; Yao, Shaohua; Song, Xiangrong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is one of the most powerful endogenous anti-angiogenic reagents discovered to date and PEDF gene therapy has been recognized as a promising treatment option for various tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a safe and valid vector for its systemic delivery. Herein, a novel gene delivery system based on the newly synthesized copolymer COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH (CPPC) was developed in this study, which was probably capable of overcoming the disadvantages of viral vectors and cationic lipids/polymers-based nonviral carriers. PEDF gene loaded CPPC nanoparticles (D-NPs) were fabricated by a modified double-emulsion water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method. D-NPs with uniform spherical shape had relatively high drug loading (~1.6%), probably because the introduced carboxyl group in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) terminal enhanced the interaction of copolymer with the PEDF gene complexes. An excellent in vitro antitumor effect was found in both C26 and A549 cells treated by D-NPs, in which PEDF levels were dramatically elevated due to the successful transfection of PEDF gene. D-NPs also showed a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro and inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo by an alginate-encapsulated tumor cell assay. Further in vivo antitumor investigation, carried out in a C26 subcutaneous tumor model by intravenous injection, demonstrated that D-NPs could achieve a significant antitumor activity with sharply reduced microvessel density and significantly promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Additionally, the in vitro hemolysis analysis and in vivo serological and biochemical analysis revealed that D-NPs had no obvious toxicity. All the data indicated that the novel CPPC nanoparticles were ideal vectors for the systemic delivery of PEDF gene and might be widely

  8. Inhalable, large porous PLGA microparticles loaded with paclitaxel: preparation, in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Shohreh; Montaseri, Hashem; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Large porous particles (LPPs) could be used as a useful carrier for non-invasive delivery to the deep lung. Pulmonary delivery of paclitaxel-loaded LPPs (PTX-LPPs) can help to eliminate the highly complicated and harmful solvent used in PTX parenteral formulations. PTX-LPPs with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 5.74 ± 0.09 μm, high encapsulation efficiency and good aerosolisation properties were produced using ammonium bicarbonate as porogen. Cytotoxicity of PTX-LPPs on A549 and Calu-6 cell lines was comparable with Free-PTX. Endotracheal administration of PTX-LPPs in rats exhibited PTX plasma concentration in the therapeutic range which lasted 4-fold longer than i.v. injection. The bioavailability was measured as 51 ± 7.1%. The lung targeting efficiency (Te) of PTX-LPPs was 11.9-fold higher than i.v. administration. PTX-LPPs could deliver a higher PTX to lung with a non-toxic plasma level in a longer duration which shows their pulmonary delivery suitability. PMID:26415914

  9. PLGA Nanoparticles Loaded Cerebrolysin: Studies on Their Preparation and Investigation of the Effect of Storage and Serum Stability with Reference to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Ruozi, Barbara; Belletti, Daniela; Sharma, Hari S; Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Mössler, Herbert; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Tosi, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Cerebrolysin is a peptide mixture able to ameliorate symptomatology and delay progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia. The administration of this drug in humans presents several criticisms due to its short half-life, poor stability, and high doses needed to achieve the effect. This paper investigates the potential of polylactic-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) as sustained release systems for iv administration of cerebrolysin in normal and brain injured rats. NPs were prepared by water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion technique and characterized by light scattering for mean size and zeta potential and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology. The NPs produced by double sonication under cooling at 60 W for 45 s, 12 mL of 1 % w:v of PVA, and 1:0.6 w:w drug/PLGA ratio (C-NPs4) displayed an adequate loading of drug (24 ± 1 mg/100 mg of NPs), zeta potential value (-13 mV), and average diameters (ranged from 250 to 330 nm) suitable to iv administration. SEM images suggested that cerebrolysin was molecularly dispersed into matricial systems and partially adhered to the NP surface. A biphasic release with an initial burst effect followed by sustained release over 24 h was observed. Long-term stability both at room and at low temperature of freeze-dried NPs was investigated. To gain deeper insight into NP stability after in vivo administration, the stability of the best NP formulation was also tested in serum. These PLGA NPs loaded with cerebrolysin were able to reduce brain pathology following traumatic brain injury. However, the size, the polydispersivity, and the surface properties of sample were significantly affected by the incubation time and the serum concentration. PMID:26108180

  10. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  11. Mechanistic studies for monodisperse exenatide-loaded PLGA microspheres prepared by different methods based on SPG membrane emulsification.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Wu, Jie; Yang, Tingyuan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres have been widely prepared by many methods, including solvent evaporation, solvent extraction and the co-solvent method. However, very few studies have compared the properties of microspheres fabricated by these methods. This is partly because the broad size distribution of the resultant particles severely complicates the analysis and affects the reliability of the comparison. To this end, uniform-sized PLGA microspheres have been prepared by Shirasu porous glass premix membrane emulsification and used to encapsulate exenatide, a drug for treating Type 2 diabetes. Based on this technique, the influences on the properties of microspheres fabricated by the aforementioned three methods were intensively investigated, including in vitro release, degradation and pharmacology. We found that these microspheres presented totally different release behaviors in vitro and in vivo, but exhibited a similar trend of PLGA degradation. Moreover, the internal structural evolution visually demonstrated these release behaviors. We selected for further examination the microsphere prepared by solvent evaporation because of its constant release rate, and explored its pharmacodynamics, histology, etc., in more detail. This microsphere when injected once showed equivalent efficacy to that of twice-daily injections of exenatide with no inflammatory response. PMID:24952071

  12. Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in APP/Ps1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease After Implantation of VEGF-loaded PLGA Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Herran, E; Perez-Gonzalez, R; Igartua, M; Pedraz, J L; Carro, E; Hernandez, R M

    2015-01-01

    During adult life, hippocampus is an important brain region involved in neurogenesis. The generation and cell death of newly generated neuronal cells in this region have critical roles in brain maintenance and alterations in these processes are seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). For the purpose of carrying out a neuroregenerative strategy, we propose a novel approach based on the encapsulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in poly (lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable nanospheres (NS) administered by craniotomy to stimulate the proliferation of neuronal precursors in a transgenic mouse model of AD. VEGF loaded nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, obtaining 200 nm nanospheres with a biphasic release profile. After demonstrating their efficacy in the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cell cultures, in vivo studies were carried out. 3 months after VEGF-NS were implanted directly into the cerebral cortex of APP/Ps1 mice, the determination of BrdU(+) cells in the whole hippocampal region and specifically in the dentate gyrus, demonstrated a significantly enhanced cellular proliferation in VEGF-NS treated group. These results were also confirmed showing an increased number of DCX(+) and NeuN(+) cells. Hence, PLGA-VEGF nanospheres may be a potential strategy to modulate proliferative neuronal progenitors in the hippocampal region, and therefore, provide new insight for future therapeutic approaches in AD. PMID:26502822

  13. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Bao, Ying; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2014-01-01

    Background While unopposed estrogen exposure is considered the main driver of endometrial carcinogenesis, factors associated with states of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are independently associated with endometrial cancer risk. We used dietary insulin load and insulin index scores to represent the estimated insulin demand of overall diets and assessed their association with endometrial cancer risk in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study. Methods We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of invasive endometrial cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. Between the baseline dietary questionnaire (1980) and 2010, we identified a total of 798 incident invasive epithelial endometrial adenocarcinomas over 1,417,167 person-years of follow-up. Results Dietary insulin scores were not associated with overall risk of endometrial cancer. Comparing women in the highest to the lowest quintile, the multivariable-adjusted RRs of endometrial cancer were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.35) for cumulative average dietary insulin load and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.31) for cumulative average dietary insulin index. Findings did not vary substantially by alcohol consumption, total dietary fiber intake, or BMI and/or physical activity (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.10). Conclusions Intake of a diet predicted to stimulate a high postprandial insulin response was not associated with endometrial cancer risk in this large prospective study. Considering the complex interplay of diet, lifestyle and genetic factors contributing to the hyperinsulinemic state, dietary measures alone may not sufficiently capture absolute long-term insulin exposure. Impact This study is the first to investigate dietary insulin scores in relation to endometrial cancer risk. PMID:24859872

  14. XPS and Raman study of zinc containing silica microparticles loaded with insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanea, E.; Simon, V.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc-silica microparticles obtained by sol-gel method solely or by combining sol-gel chemistry with freeze-drying and spray-drying procedures were explored as potential insulin drug delivery carriers for their improved loading efficiency. Zinc containing silica hosts of different specific surface area and mean pore volume loaded with insulin under similar conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess the insulin adherence to these matrices and the biologically active state of the insulin after embedding.

  15. [Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanocomposite particles by premix membrane emulsification coupled with spray-drying method].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei; Pan, Lin-Mei; Li, Bo; Shi, Fei-Yan; Lu, Jin

    2014-11-01

    For effective inhalable dry-powder drug delivery, tetrandrine-PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of nanoparticles and microparticles. The primary nanoparticles were prepared by using premix membrane emulsification method. To prepare second particles, they were spray dried. The final particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis (IR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The average size of the primary particles was (337.5 ± 6.2) nm, while that second particles was (3.675 ± 0.16) μm which can be decomposed into primary nanoparticles in water. And the second particles were solid sphere-like with the drug dispersed as armorphous form in them. It is a reference for components delivery to lung in a new form. PMID:25757290

  16. Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Mojgan; Mohit, Elham

    2016-03-01

    Due to the excellent safety profile of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles in human, and their biodegradability, many studies have focused on the application of PLGA particles as a controlled-release vaccine delivery system. Antigenic proteins/peptides can be encapsulated into or adsorbed to the surface of PLGA particles. The gradual release of loaded antigens from PLGA particles is necessary for the induction of efficient immunity. Various factors can influence protein release rates from PLGA particles, which can be defined intrinsic features of the polymer, particle characteristics as well as protein and environmental related factors. The use of PLGA particles encapsulating antigens of different diseases such as hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chlamydia, malaria, leishmania, toxoplasma and allergy antigens will be described herein. The co-delivery of antigens and immunostimulants (IS) with PLGA particles can prevent the systemic adverse effects of immunopotentiators and activate both dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NKs) cells, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of antigen-loaded PLGA particles. We will review co-delivery of different TLR ligands with antigens in various models, highlighting the specific strengths and weaknesses of the system. Strategies to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of DC-based vaccine using PLGA particles can be designed to target DCs by functionalized PLGA particle encapsulating siRNAs of suppressive gene, and disease specific antigens. Finally, specific examples of cellular targeting where decorating the surface of PLGA particles target orally administrated vaccine to M-cells will be highlighted. PMID:26513024

  17. Possibility for the development of cosmetics with PLGA nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Takahashi, Tadahito; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2013-05-01

    The optimized preparation of Poly-(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres containing ubiquinone (UQ) for cosmetic products was pursued. By investigating various conditions for the preparation of UQ/PLGA nanospheres such as the molecular weight of PLGA, PLGA concentration, and UQ concentration, UQ/PLGA nanospheres with increased stability and slower drug release at a higher drug loading efficiency were prepared. Permeation tests on the prepared nanospheres using iontophoresis via electric dermal administration on membrane filters (200 nm pore size) and hairless mouse skin samples were also carried out. After iontophoresis, the nanospheres choked the membrane filter and remained on the horny layer of the hairless mouse skin, even after washing. Therefore, the prepared UQ/PLGA nanospheres and the established iontophoresis technique with the PLGA nanospheres in the present study can be applied to the future development of cosmetics. PMID:22725249

  18. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X B; Schreyer, David J

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. PMID:26249587

  19. Influence of the primary emulsification procedure on the characteristics of small protein-loaded PLGA microparticles for antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Wischke, C; Borchert, H-H

    2006-06-01

    Microparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a W1/O/W2 double emulsion solvent evaporation method are suitable vehicles for the delivery of proteins to antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells. In this study, the influence of different techniques for the preparation of the primary W1/O emulsion was investigated with respect to the protein localization within the microparticles, morphological characteristics of these particles, protein burst release and the native state of the released protein. Bovine serum albumin bearing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-BSA) was used as model protein. A static micromixer was applied for the preparation of the W1/O/W2 double emulsion. Employing a rotor-stator homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) for primary emulsification, microcapsules with a high burst release were produced, because nearly all FITC-BSA was attached to the outside of the particle wall. Using a high pressure homogenizer or an ultrasonic procedure resulted in the formation of microspheres with homogeneous protein distribution and a reduced burst release. PMID:16854818

  20. Sequentially releasing dual-drug-loaded PLGA-casein core/shell nanomedicine: design, synthesis, biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sreeja; Pavithran, Maya; Viswanath, Aiswarya; Narayanan, Dhanya; Mohan, Chandini C; Manzoor, K; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-05-01

    The present study reports an engineered poly-l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-casein polymer-protein hybrid nanocarrier 190±12nm in size entrapping a combination of chemically distinct (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) model drugs. A simple emulsion-precipitation route was adopted to prepare nearly monodispersed nanoparticles with distinct core/shell morphology entrapping paclitaxel (Ptx) in the core and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the shell, with the intention of providing a sequential and sustained release of these drugs. The idea was that an early release of EGCG would substantially increase the sensitivity of Ptx to cancer, thereby providing improved therapeutics at lower concentrations, with less toxicity. The hemo- and immunocompatibility of the core/shell nanomedicine was established in this study. The core/shell nanoparticles injected via the tail vein in Sprague-Dawley rats did not reveal any organ toxicity as was evident from histopathological evaluations of the major organs. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed a sustained and sequential release of both the drugs in plasma, indicating prolonged circulation of the nanomedicine and enhanced availability of the drugs when compared to the bare drugs. Overall, the polymer-protein multilayered nanoparticles proved to be a promising platform for nanopolypharmaceutics. PMID:24389318

  1. Efficacy of PLGA-loaded apigenin nanoparticles in Benzo[a]pyrene and ultraviolet-B induced skin cancer of mice: mitochondria mediated apoptotic signalling cascades.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Paul, Avijit; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate and becoming resistant to conventional chemotherapy necessitating improved drug delivery system. We loaded apigenin (Ap), a dietary flavonoid having anti-cancer property, with poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NAp) to explore if nano-encapsulation could enhance anti-carcinogenic effect against ultra-violet B (UVB) and Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced skin tumor and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Particle size, morphology and zeta potential of NAp were determined using dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. Tumor incidence and multiplicity in UVB-BaP induced mice with/without NAp treatment were ascertained and their histolopathological sections and chromosomal aberrations were studied. ROS accumulation and mitochondrial functioning through relevant markers like mitochondrial transmembrane potential were analyzed. Mitochondrial volume changes/swelling, cytochrome c (cyt c) release, mRNA and protein expressions of Apaf-1, bax, bcl-2, cyt c, cleaved caspase-9 and 3 were studied. Results showed that NAp produced better effects than Ap, due to their smaller size, and faster mobility. NAp reduced tissue damage and frequency of chromosomal aberrations, increased ROS accumulation to mediate mitochondrial-apoptosis through modulation of several apoptotic markers and mitochondrial matrix swelling. NAp showed ameliorative potentials in combating skin cancer and therefore has greater prospect of use in therapeutic management of skin cancer. PMID:24120900

  2. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  3. An HPLC method for microanalysis and pharmacokinetics of marine sulfated polysaccharide PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with D-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  4. Dorzolamide-loaded PLGA/vitamin E TPGS nanoparticles for glaucoma therapy: Pharmacoscintigraphy study and evaluation of extended ocular hypotensive effect in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Warsi, Musarrat H; Anwar, Mohammed; Garg, Vaidehi; Jain, Gaurav K; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khar, Roop K

    2014-10-01

    Poor drug penetration and rapid clearance after topical instillation of a drug formulation into the eyes are the major causes for the lower ocular bioavailability from conventional eye drops. Along with this, poor encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drug in polymeric nanoparticles remains a major formulation challenge. Taking this perspective into consideration, dorzolamide (DZ)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were developed employing two different emulsifiers (PVA and vitamin E TPGS) and the effects of various formulation and process variables on particle size and encapsulation efficiency were assessed. Nanoparticles emulsified with vitamin E TPGS (DZ-T-NPs) were found to possess enhanced drug encapsulation (59.8±6.1%) as compared to those developed with PVA as emulsifier (DZ-P-NPs). Transcorneal permeation study revealed a significant enhancement in permeation (1.8-2.5 fold) as compared to solution. In addition, ex vivo biodistribution study showed a higher concentration of drug in the aqueous humour (1.5-2.3 fold). Histological and IR-camera studies proved the non-irritant potential of the formulations. Pharmacoscintigraphic studies revealed the reduced corneal clearance, as well as naso-lachrymal drainage in comparison to drug solution. Furthermore, efficacy study revealed that DZ-P-NPs and DZ-T-NPs significantly reduced the intraocular pressure by 22.81% and 29.12%, respectively, after a single topical instillation into the eye. PMID:25159319

  5. Hydrophobic ion pairing of a minocycline/Ca(2+)/AOT complex for preparation of drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with improved sustained release.

    PubMed

    Holmkvist, Alexander Dontsios; Friberg, Annika; Nilsson, Ulf J; Schouenborg, Jens

    2016-02-29

    Polymeric nanoparticles is an established and efficient means to achieve controlled release of drugs. Incorporation of minocycline, an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, into biodegradable nanoparticles may therefore provide an efficient means to combat foreign body reactions to implanted electrodes in the brain. However, minocycline is commonly associated with poor encapsulation efficiencies and/or fast release rates due to its high solubility in water. Moreover, minocycline is unstable under conditions of low and high pH, heat and exposure to light, which exacerbate the challenges of encapsulation. In this work drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsification-solvent-diffusion technique and characterized for size, drug encapsulation and in vitro drug release. A novel hydrophobic ion pair complex of minocycline, Ca(2+) ions and the anionic surfactant AOT was developed to protect minocycline from degradation and prolong its release. The optimized formulation resulted in particle sizes around 220 nm with an entrapment efficiency of 43% and showed drug release over 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The present results constitute a substantial increase in release time compared to what has hitherto been achieved for minocycline and indicate that such particles might provide useful for sustained drug delivery in the CNS. PMID:26773599

  6. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of freeze cast hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffolds with dexamethasone loaded PLGA microspheres for hard tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Farnaz; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-gelatin scaffolds incorporated with dexamethasone-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were synthesized by freeze casting technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs demonstrated a unidirectional microstructure and a decrease in the pore size as a function of temperature gradient. Higher amounts of HA resulted in a decrease in the pore size. According to the results, at lower cooling rates, the formation of a lamellar structure decreased the mechanical strength, but at the same time, enhanced the swelling ratio, biodegradation rate and drug release level. On the other hand, higher weight ratios of HA increased the compressive strength, and reduced the swelling ratio, biodegradation rate and drug release level. The results obtained by furrier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and bioactivity analysis illustrated that the interactions of the materials support the apatite formation in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Based on the obtained results, the synthesized composite scaffolds have the necessary mechanical and physicochemical features to support the regeneration of defects and to maintain their stability during the neo-tissue formation. PMID:27612706

  7. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 loaded PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration membrane fabricated by 3D printing technology for reconstruction of calvaria defects in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yoon, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jang, Jinah; Jeong, Sung-In; Cho, Dong-Woo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2014-12-01

    We successfully fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) printing-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane that slowly released rhBMP-2. To impregnate the GBR membrane with intact rhBMP-2, collagen solution encapsulating rhBMP-2 (5 µg ml(-1)) was infused into pores of a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane constructed using a 3D printing system with four dispensing heads. In a release profile test, sustained release of rhBMP-2 was observed for up to 28 d. To investigate the efficacy of the GBR membrane on bone regeneration, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes with or without rhBMP-2 were implanted in an 8 mm calvaria defect of rabbits. Bone formation was evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 histologically and histomorphometrically. A space making ability of the GBR membrane was successfully maintained in both groups, and significantly more new bone was formed at post-implantation weeks 4 and 8 by rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes. Interestingly, implantation with rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes led to almost entire healing of calvaria defects within 8 weeks. PMID:25384105

  8. Ultrasound-Mediated Microbubble Destruction (UMMD) Facilitates the Delivery of CA19-9 Targeted and Paclitaxel Loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL Nanoparticles in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lingxi; Shi, Qiusheng; Zheng, Kailiang; Shen, Ming; Ma, Jing; Li, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Lizhou; Tu, Wenzhi; Duan, Yourong; Du, Lianfang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies with dismal prognosis, is refractory to existing radio-chemotherapeutic treatment modalities. There is a critical unmet need to develop effective approaches, especially for targeted pancreatic cancer drug delivery. Targeted and drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) combined with ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction (UMMD) have been shown to significantly increase the cellular uptake in vitro and drug retention in vivo, suggesting a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized pancreatic cancer-targeting organic NPs that were modified with anti CA19-9 antibody and encapsulated paclitaxol (PTX). The three-block copolymer methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylacticco-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) constituted the skeleton of the NPs. We speculated that the PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 would circulate long-term in vivo, "actively target" pancreatic cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX while UMMD would "passively target" the irradiated tumor and effectively increase the permeability of cell membrane and capillary gaps. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 with UMMD achieved a low IC50, significant cell cycle arrest, and cell apoptosis in vitro. In mouse pancreatic tumor xenografts, the combined application of PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs with UMMD attained the highest tumor inhibition rate, promoted the pharmacokinetic profile by increasing AUC, t1/2, and mean residence time (MRT), and decreased clearance. Consequently, the survival of the tumor-bearing nude mice was prolonged without obvious toxicity. The dynamic change in cellular uptake, targeted real-time imaging, and the concentration of PTX in the plasma and tumor were all closely associated with the treatment efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs combined with UMMD is a promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446491

  9. Ultrasound-Mediated Microbubble Destruction (UMMD) Facilitates the Delivery of CA19-9 Targeted and Paclitaxel Loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL Nanoparticles in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lingxi; Shi, Qiusheng; Zheng, Kailiang; Shen, Ming; Ma, Jing; Li, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Lizhou; Tu, Wenzhi; Duan, Yourong; Du, Lianfang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies with dismal prognosis, is refractory to existing radio-chemotherapeutic treatment modalities. There is a critical unmet need to develop effective approaches, especially for targeted pancreatic cancer drug delivery. Targeted and drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) combined with ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction (UMMD) have been shown to significantly increase the cellular uptake in vitro and drug retention in vivo, suggesting a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized pancreatic cancer-targeting organic NPs that were modified with anti CA19-9 antibody and encapsulated paclitaxol (PTX). The three-block copolymer methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylacticco-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) constituted the skeleton of the NPs. We speculated that the PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 would circulate long-term in vivo, "actively target" pancreatic cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX while UMMD would "passively target" the irradiated tumor and effectively increase the permeability of cell membrane and capillary gaps. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 with UMMD achieved a low IC50, significant cell cycle arrest, and cell apoptosis in vitro. In mouse pancreatic tumor xenografts, the combined application of PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs with UMMD attained the highest tumor inhibition rate, promoted the pharmacokinetic profile by increasing AUC, t1/2, and mean residence time (MRT), and decreased clearance. Consequently, the survival of the tumor-bearing nude mice was prolonged without obvious toxicity. The dynamic change in cellular uptake, targeted real-time imaging, and the concentration of PTX in the plasma and tumor were all closely associated with the treatment efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs combined with UMMD is a promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446491

  10. Galantamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, from nano-emulsion templating, as novel advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaguera, C.; Feiner-Gracia, N.; Calderó, G.; García-Celma, M. J.; Solans, C.

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from aqueous and micellar solutions. The enzymatic activity of the drug was maintained at 80% after its encapsulation into nanoparticles that were non-cytotoxic at the required therapeutic concentration. Therefore, novel galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles have been designed for the first time using the nano-emulsification approach and showed the appropriate features to become advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases.Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from

  11. A biodegradable antibiotic-eluting PLGA nanofiber-loaded deproteinized bone for treatment of infected rabbit bone defects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianting; Huang, Guofeng; Liu, Guojun; Liu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Ren, Lei; Chen, Changqing; Ding, Zhenqi

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a biodegradable antibiotic-eluting poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide nanofiber-loaded deproteinized bone (ANDB) scaffold that provided sustained delivery of vancomycin to repair methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bone defects. To fabricate the biodegradable ANDB, poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide and vancomycin were first dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propano. The solution was then electrospun to produce biodegradable antibiotic-eluting membranes that were deposited on the surface of bovine deproteinized cancellous bone. We used scanning electron microscopy to determine the properties of the scaffold. Both elution and high-performance liquid chromatography assays were used to evaluate the in vitro vancomycin release rate from the ANDB scaffold. Three types of scaffolds were co-cultured with bacteria to confirm the in vitro antibacterial activity. The infected bone defect rabbit model was induced by injecting 10(7) colony forming units of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain into the radial defect of rabbits. Animals were then separated into treatment groups and implanted according to the following scheme: ANDB scaffold in group A, poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide nanofiber-loaded deproteinized bone (NDB) scaffold with intravenous (i.v.) vancomycin in group B, and NDB scaffold alone in group C. Treatment efficacy was evaluated after eight weeks using radiological, microbiological, and histological examinations. In vitro results revealed that biodegradable ANDB scaffolds released concentrations of vancomycin that were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for more than four weeks. Bacterial inhibition tests also confirmed antibacterial efficacy lasted for approximately four weeks. Radiological and histological scores obtained in vivo revealed significant differences between groups A, B and C. Importantly, group A had significantly lower bacterial load and better bone regeneration when compared to either group B

  12. Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump is connected to your body by a flexible tube that has a tip that sticks under your skin. A cartridge of insulin is put in the pump. The insulin flows through the tube into your body. The pump controls how much insulin goes into your body. The ...

  13. The effect of insulin-loaded chitosan particle-aggregated scaffolds in chondrogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Malafaya, Patrícia B; Oliveira, João T; Reis, Rui L

    2010-02-01

    Osteochondral defect repair requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using a scaffold-cell construct. One ideal approach would be to engineer in vitro a hybrid material using a single-cell source. For that purpose, the scaffold should be able to provide the adequate biochemical cues to promote the selective but simultaneous differentiation of both tissues. In this work, attention was paid primarily to the chondrogenic differentiation by focusing on the development of polymeric systems that provide biomolecules release to induce chondrogenic differentiation. For that, different formulations of insulin-loaded chitosan particle-aggregated scaffolds were developed as a potential model system for cartilage and osteochondral tissue engineering applications using insulin as a potent bioactive substance known to induce chondrogenic differentiation. The insulin encapsulation efficiency was shown to be high with values of 70.37 +/- 0.8%, 84.26 +/- 1.76%, and 87.23 +/- 1.58% for loadings of 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%, respectively. The in vitro release profiles were assessed in physiological conditions mimicking the cell culture procedures and quantified by Micro-BCA protein assay. Different release profiles were obtained that showed to be dependent on the initial insulin-loading percentage. Further, the effect on prechondrogenic ATDC5 cells was investigated for periods up to 4 weeks by studying the influence of these release systems on cell morphology, DNA and glycosaminoglycan content, histology, and gene expression of collagen types I and II, Sox-9, and aggrecan assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. When compared with control conditions (unloaded scaffolds cultured with the standard chondrogenic-inducing medium), insulin-loaded scaffolds upregulated the Sox-9 and aggrecan expression after 4 weeks of culture. From the overall results, it is reasonable to

  14. Effect of acarbose on glucose and insulin response to sucrose load in reactive hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Richard, J L; Rodier, M; Monnier, L; Orsetti, A; Mirouze, J

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of acarbose, an alpha-glycosidase inhibitor, on glycemic and insulin response to an oral sucrose load in sixteen patients suffering from idiopathic reactive hypoglycemia. In each subject, two oral sucrose tolerance tests (45 g/m2 body surface) were performed with either placebo or acarbose in a double-blind random order. Compared with placebo, acarbose dramatically flattened the blood glucose curve with values significantly lower from 30 to 90 min and higher from 150 to 240 min. Moreover the magnitude of both glucose peak and nadir, and rate of blood glucose rise and fall were significantly reduced by acarbose as was the hypoglycemic index. Plasma insulin levels from 30 to 120 min, insulin peak and area under the insulin curve were significantly lower after ingestion of acarbose. Thus, in reducing the early rise in blood glucose and insulin after sucrose ingestion, acarbose prevents the occurrence of reactive hypoglycemia; the present study confirms that this drug may be of value in the treatment of reactive hypoglycemia. PMID:3042485

  15. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress. PMID:10984077

  16. Enhanced oral bioavailability of insulin using PLGA nanoparticles co-modified with cell-penetrating peptides and Engrailed secretion peptide (Sec).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siqi; Chen, Shuangxi; Gao, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Li, Fengying; Xie, Baogang; Zhou, Jianliang; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug carriers are an attractive strategy for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. However, their ability to cross the intestinal epithelium membrane is largely limited. Therefore, in the present study, cell-penetrating peptides (R8, Tat, penetratin) and a secretion peptide (Sec) with N-terminal stearylation were introduced to modify nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface to improve oral bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs. In vitro studies conducted in Caco-2 cells showed the value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the nanoparticles co-modified with Sec and penetratin (Sec-Pen-NPs) was about two-times greater than that of the nanoparticles modified with only penetratin (Pen-NPs), while the increase of transcellular transport of nanoparticles modified together with Sec and R8 (Sec-R8-NPs), or Sec and Tat (Sec-Tat-NPs), was not significant compared with nanoparticles modified with only R8 (R8-NPs) or Tat (Tat-NPs). Using insulin as the model drug, in vivo studies performed on rats indicated that compared to Pen-NPs, the relative bioavailability of insulin for Sec-Pen-NPs was 1.71-times increased after ileal segments administration, and stronger hypoglycemic effects was also observed. Therefore, the nanoparticles co-modified with penetratin and Sec could act as attractive carriers for oral delivery of insulin. PMID:26181841

  17. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  18. The dielectric study of insulin-loaded reverse hexagonal (H(II)) liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Mishraki-Berkowitz, T; Ben Ishai, P; Aserin, A; Feldman, Yu; Garti, N

    2015-04-14

    The dielectric behavior of the insulin-loaded HII mesophase (containing GMO-TAG-water-glycerol-insulin) was studied using two empty reference systems (GMO-TAG-water and GMO-TAG-water-glycerol) at a frequency range of 10(-2)-10(6) Hz, and a temperature range of 290-333 K. Three clearly defined relaxation processes were observed and assigned to the reorientation of GMO polar heads, the tangential movement of counterions at the interface, and the movements of TAGs through the lipid tail. Upon addition of glycerol, a heterogeneous inner structure was formed within the HII cylinders: the water-glycerol core surrounded by a water rigid layer. Upon heating, two critical points were detected referring to the dehydration of the GMO heads (at 304 K, similar to the water-filled HII system) and to energetic modifications (at 316 K), resulting in breaking of the water layer allowing on-demand controlled release. Insulin incorporation combined the features of both reference HII systems. Yet, unlike the empty HII systems, insulin perturbed the GMO-water interface while decreasing the movement of the GMO headgroup, and reducing T0 (296 K). No interactions were formed between the dipole of each counterion at the interface region and the matrix (the GMO), fitting the Debye process. Dynamic behavior was observed, pointing to mobility between the hexagonal rods themselves, enabling controlled release from the HII carrier. PMID:25767829

  19. Dual-responsive mPEG-PLGA-PGlu hybrid-core nanoparticles with a high drug loading to reverse the multidrug resistance of breast cancer: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Helin; Yang, Dan; Cai, Cuifang; Gou, Jingxin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Lihui; Zhong, Haijun; Tang, Xing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-b-P (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-P (l-glutamic acid) (mPEG-PLGA-PGlu) nanoparticles with the ability to rapidly respond to the endolysosomal pH and hydrolase were prepared and the pH-sensitivity was tuned by adjusting the length of the PGlu segment. The mPEG5k-PLGA20k-PGlu (60) nanoparticles were specifically responsive to an endosomal pH of 5.0-6.0 due to the configuration transition of the PGlu segment and rapidly initiated chemical degradation after incubation with proteinase k for 10 min. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), used as a model drug, was easily encapsulated into nanoparticles and the DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-NPs) exhibited a pH-dependent and enzyme-sensitive release profile in vitro. The dual sensitivity enabled the rapid escape of DOX-loaded nanoparticles from the endolysosomal system to target cellular nuclei, which resulted in increased cell toxicity against MCF/ADR resistant breast cancer cells and a higher cellular uptake than free DOX. In Vivo Imaging studies indicated that the nanoparticles could continuously accumulate in the tumor tissues through EPR effects and Ex vivo Imaging biodistribution studies indicated that DOX-NPs increased drug penetration into tumors compared with normal tissues. The in vivo antitumor activity demonstrated that DOX-loaded NPs had less body loss and a significant regression of tumor growth, indicating the increased anti-tumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity. Therefore, this dual sensitive nanoparticle system may be a potential nanocarrier to overcome the multidrug resistance exhibited by breast cancer. PMID:25662165

  20. Toxicity and therapy of cisplatin-loaded EGF modified mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles for SKOV3 cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfei; Liu, Peifeng; Qiu, Lihua; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Gu, Liying; Di, Wen; Duan, Yourong

    2013-05-01

    Construction on the nanoparticles with lower toxicity and specific tumor targeting properties is challenging and requires careful design of composition, size, physicochemical properties tailored for the nanoparticles. Here the epidermal growth factor (EGF) modified methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylactic-co-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) encapsulated cisplatin (CDDP) nanoparticles (CDDP-NPs-EGF) was prepared to for solving the toxicity of CDDP and improving therapeutic efficiency. The remarkable features of CDDP-NPs-EGF are increasing cytotoxicity that attribute to effective cell cycle arrest and high cell apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, the CDDP-NPs-EGF change drug distribution, decrease the nephrotoxicity of CDDP and improve significantly therapeutic efficiency without inducing obvious system toxicity, verifying its key role of the CDDP-NPs-EGF in lowering drug toxicity and enhancing the antitumor efficiency for SKOV3 cancer in mice. PMID:23480957

  1. Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  2. Preparation and properties of PLGA nanofiber membranes reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yunfei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Jianghui; Lan, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2015-08-01

    Although extensively used in the fields of drug-carrier and tissue engineering, the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA) nanofiber membranes still limit their applications. The objective of this study was to improve their utility by introducing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into PLGA nanofiber membranes. PLGA and PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes were prepared via electrospinning, and the morphology and thermodynamic and mechanical properties of these nanofiber membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The cytocompatibility and cellular responses of the nanofiber membranes were also studied by WST-1 assay, SEM, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Incorporation of CNCs (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt.%) increased the average fiber diameter of the prepared nanofiber membranes from 100 nm (neat PLGA) to ∼400 nm (PLGA/7 wt.% CNC) and improved the thermal stability of the nanofiber membranes. Among the PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes, those loaded with 7 wt.% CNC nanofiber membranes had the best mechanical properties, which were similar to those of human skin. Cell culture results showed that the PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes had better cytocompatibility and facilitated fibroblast adhesion, spreading, and proliferation compared with neat PLGA nanofiber membranes. These preliminary results suggest that PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes are promising new materials for the field of skin tissue engineering. PMID:26047881

  3. Caffeic Acid-PLGA Conjugate to Design Protein Drug Delivery Systems Stable to Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Selmin, Francesca; Puoci, Francesco; Parisi, Ortensia I.; Franzé, Silvia; Musazzi, Umberto M.; Cilurzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the feasibility of caffeic acid grafted PLGA (g-CA-PLGA) to design biodegradable sterile microspheres for the delivery of proteins. Ovalbumin (OVA) was selected as model compound because of its sensitiveness of γ-radiation. The adopted grafting procedure allowed us to obtain a material with good free radical scavenging properties, without a significant modification of Mw and Tg of the starting PLGA (Mw PLGA = 26.3 ± 1.3 kDa vs. Mw g-CA-PLGA = 22.8 ± 0.7 kDa; Tg PLGA = 47.7 ± 0.8 °C vs. Tg g-CA-PLGA = 47.4 ± 0.2 °C). By using a W1/O/W2 technique, g-CA-PLGA improved the encapsulation efficiency (EE), suggesting that the presence of caffeic residues improved the compatibility between components (EEPLGA = 35.0% ± 0.7% vs. EEg-CA-PLGA = 95.6% ± 2.7%). Microspheres particle size distribution ranged from 15 to 50 µm. The zeta-potential values of placebo and loaded microspheres were −25 mV and −15 mV, respectively. The irradiation of g-CA-PLGA at the dose of 25 kGy caused a less than 1% variation of Mw and the degradation patterns of the non-irradiated and irradiated microspheres were superimposable. The OVA content in g-CA-PLGA microspheres decreased to a lower extent with respect to PLGA microspheres. These results suggest that g-CA-PLGA is a promising biodegradable material to microencapsulate biological drugs. PMID:25569163

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of PLGA Shell Microcapsules Containing Aqueous Cores Prepared by Internal Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Abulateefeh, Samer R; Alkilany, Alaaldin M

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of microcapsules consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer shell and aqueous core is a clear challenge and hence has been rarely addressed in literature. Herein, aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules have been prepared by internal phase separation from acetone-water in oil emulsion. The resulting microcapsules exhibited mean particle size of 1.1 ± 0.39 μm (PDI = 0.35) with spherical surface morphology and internal poly-nuclear core morphology as indicated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of water molecules into PLGA microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules and the corresponding conventional PLGA microspheres were prepared and loaded with risedronate sodium as a model drug. Interestingly, aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules illustrated 2.5-fold increase in drug encapsulation in comparison to the classical PLGA microspheres (i.e., 31.6 vs. 12.7%), while exhibiting sustained release behavior following diffusion-controlled Higuchi model. The reported method could be extrapolated to encapsulate other water soluble drugs and hydrophilic macromolecules into PLGA microcapsules, which should overcome various drawbacks correlated with conventional PLGA microspheres in terms of drug loading and release. PMID:26416284

  5. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  6. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Jaime; Melendres, Julio; Almada, Mario; Burboa, María G.; Taboada, Pablo; Juárez, Josué; Valdez, Miguel A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid nanoparticles system performed by magnetite nanoparticles, loaded in a PLGA matrix, and stabilized by different concentrations of chitosan. Magnetite nanoparticles were hydrophobized with oleic acid and entrapped in a PLGA matrix by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, after that, magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by adding dropwise magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles in chitosan solutions. Magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles produced with different molar ratios did not show significant differences in size and the 3:1 molar ratio showed best spherical shapes as well as uniform particle size. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrated that the first stage of PLGA-chitosan interaction is mostly regulated by electrostatic forces. Based on a single set of identical sites model, we obtained for the average number of binding sites a value of 3.4, which can be considered as the number of chitosan chains per nanoparticle. This value was confirmed by using a model based on the DLVO theory and fitting zeta potential measurements of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles. From the adjusted parameters, we found that an average number of chitosan molecules of 3.6 per nanoparticle are attached onto the surface of the PLGA matrix. Finally, we evaluated the effect of surface charge of nanoparticles on a membrane model of endothelial cells performed by a mixture of three phospholipids at the air-water interface. Different isotherms and adsorption curves show that cationic surface of charged nanoparticles strongly interact with the phospholipids mixture and these results can be the basis of future experiments to understand the nanoparticles- cell membrane interaction.

  7. A review of biodegradable polymeric systems for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yue Yuan; Xiong, Xiang Yuan; Tian, Yuan; Li, Zi Ling; Gong, Yan Chun; Li, Yu Ping

    2016-07-01

    Currently, repeated routine subcutaneous injections of insulin are the standard treatment for insulin-dependent diabetic patients. However, patients' poor compliance for injections often fails to achieve the stable concentration of blood glucose. As a protein drug, the oral bioavailability of insulin is low due to many physiological reasons. Several carriers, such as macromolecules and liposomes have been used to deliver drugs in vivo. In this review article, the gastrointestinal barriers of oral insulin administration are described. Strategies for increasing the bioavailability of oral insulin, such absorption enhancers, enzyme inhibitors, enteric coatings are also introduced. The potential absorption mechanisms of insulin-loaded nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium, including intestinal lymphatic route, transcellular route and paracellular route are discussed in this review. Natural polymers, such as chitosan and its derivates, alginate derivatives, γ-PGA-based materials and starch-based nanoparticles have been exploited for oral insulin delivery; synthetic polymers, such as PLGA, PLA, PCL and PEA have also been developed for oral administration of insulin. This review focuses on recent advances in using biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers for oral insulin delivery along with their future prospects. PMID:26066036

  8. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S.; Buse, John B.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    A glucose-responsive “closed-loop” insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch (“smart insulin patch”) containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy. PMID:26100900

  9. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S; Buse, John B; Gu, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    A glucose-responsive "closed-loop" insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch ("smart insulin patch") containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy. PMID:26100900

  10. Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vilos, Cristian; Velasquez, Luis A.; Rodas, Paula I.; Zepeda, Katherine; Bong, Soung-Jae; Herrera, Natalia; Cantin, Mario; Simon, Felipe; Constandil, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery systems based on polymeric microparticles represent an interesting field of development for the treatment of several infectious diseases for humans and animals. In this work, we developed PLGA microparticles loaded with ceftiofur (PLGA-cef), a third- generation cephalosporin that is used exclusively used in animals. PLGA-cef was prepared by the double emulsion w/o/w method, and exhibited a diameter in the range of 1.5–2.2 μm, and a negative ζ potential in the range of -35 to -55 mV. The loading yield of PLGA-cef was ~7% and encapsulation efficiency was approximately 40%. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated a sustained release profile of ceftiofur for 20 days. PLGA-cef administrated in a single dose was more effective than ceftiofur non-encapsulated in rats challenged with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo toxicological evaluation showed that PLGA-cef did not affect the blood biochemical, hematological and hemostasis parameters. Overall, the PLGA-cef showed slow in vivo release profile, high antibacterial efficacy, and low toxicity. The results obtained supports the safe application of PLGA-cef as sustained release platform in the veterinary industry. PMID:25915043

  11. Formulation of insulin-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan microparticles with improved efficacy for inhalation by supercritical fluid assisted atomization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Bin; Du, Zhe; Tang, Chuan; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2016-05-30

    Supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was proposed as a green technique to fabricate insulin-loaded dry powders for inhalation administration. N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a polymeric mucoadhesive absorption enhancer, was synthesized and successfully micronized from aqueous solution using SAA-HCM. The prepared well-defined spherical TMC microparticles with preserved structure and thermal stability were potential carriers for delivery of proteins. Then, insulin-loaded TMC microparticles with high loading efficiency were coprecipitated from aqueous solutions using SAA-HCM without use of any organic solvents. The polymer/protein ratio revealed to be a factor influencing the particle morphology, and non-coalescing composite microparticles in amorphous state mainly ranging from 1μm to 5μm could be obtained in this work. Aerodynamic properties were assessed by next generation impactor (NGI) and the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) lied inside the inhalable range of 1-5μm, while fine particle fraction (FPF) reached above 60%. The structural integrity of encapsulated insulin was confirmed by HPLC, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. In vivo study demonstrated that TMC could enhance the absorption and bioavailability of the pulmonarily administered insulin formulation for SD rats. These results suggest that TMC microparticles could be efficiently prepared as a promising vehicle for drug delivery, and SAA-HCM is a promising technique to prepare inhalable polymer/protein composite dry powders. PMID:27034000

  12. pH-sensitive poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticle composite microcapsules for oral delivery of insulin

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shaoping; Liang, Na; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Cui, Fude; Yan, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new concept of pH-sensitive poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle composite microcapsules for oral delivery of insulin. Firstly, insulin–sodium oleate complex was prepared by the hydrophobic ion pairing method and then encapsulated into PLGA nanoparticles by the emulsion solvent diffusion method. In order to reduce the burst release of insulin from PLGA nanoparticles and deliver insulin to specific gastrointestinal regions, hence to enhance bioavailability of insulin, the PLGA nanoparticles were further encapsulated into Eudragit® FS 30D to prepare PLGA nanoparticle composite microcapsules by organic spray-drying method. The preparation was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, and the absorption mechanism was discussed. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release was pH dependent, and the in vivo results demonstrated that the formulation of PLGA nanoparticle composite microcapsules was an effective candidate for oral insulin delivery. PMID:25999713

  13. Microencapsulation of curcumin in PLGA microcapsules by coaxial flow focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Fan; Si, Ting; Luo, Xisheng; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin-loaded PLGA microcapsules are fabricated by a liquid-driving coaxial flow focusing device. In the process, a stable coaxial cone-jet configuration is formed under the action of a coflowing liquid stream and the coaxial liquid jet eventually breaks up into microcapsules because of flow instability. This process can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rates of three phases including the driving PVA water solution, the outer PLGA ethyl acetate solution and the inner curcumin propylene glycol solution. Confocal and SEM imaging methods clearly indicate the core-shell structure of the resultant microcapsules. The encapsulation rate of curcumin in PLGA is measured to be more than 70%, which is much higher than the tranditional methods such as emulsion. The size distribution of resultant microcapsules under different conditions is presented and compared. An in vitro release simulation platform is further developed to verify the feasibility and reliability of the method.

  14. PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Coated with Anti-CD45RO and Loaded with HDAC Plus Protease Inhibitors Activate Latent HIV and Inhibit Viral Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Liu, Xinkuang; Zhou, Shuping; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Fujina; Xie, Chunmei; Cai, Shuyu; Wei, Jia; Zhu, Yongqiang; Hou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Activating HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs combined with inhibiting viral spread might be an effective anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. Active specific delivery of therapeutic drugs into cells harboring latent HIV, without the use of viral vectors, is a critical challenge to this objective. In this study, nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol diblock copolymers conjugated with anti-CD45RO antibody and loaded with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and/or protease inhibitor nelfinavir (Nel) were tested for activity against latent virus in vitro. Nanoparticles loaded with SAHA, Nel, and SAHA + Nel were characterized in terms of size, surface morphology, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, and toxicity to ACH-2 cells. We show that SAHA- and SAHA + Nel-loaded nanoparticles can target latently infected CD4+ T-cells and stimulate virus production. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with SAHA + NEL were capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel reagent for targeting and eliminating latent HIV reservoirs.

  15. Drug-loaded PLGA-mPEG microparticles as treatment for atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuibin; Nie, Lei; Zou, Peng; Suo, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of mizolastine-loaded microparticles as therapy for atopic dermatitis. Microparticles have been researched for decades as a controlled-release drug delivery system, but seldom been used as treatment for skin disease. In this research, we induced dermatitis in BALB/c mice model by repeated topical application of dinitrofluorobenzene and compared the mizolastine microparticles injection and daily mizolastine injection treatment. The results showed that the mizolastine microparticles treatments significantly inhibited ear thickness and dermatitis index in dermatitis model compared with the dermatitis mice without treatment, showing a similar curative effect compared with daily mizolastine injection treatment, and the improvement continued for several days. Inflammatory cells infiltration into the ears and the plasma level of immunoglobulin E were also suppressed by mizolastine microparticles according to the histopathology analysis. In conclusion, the results suggested that drug-loaded microparticles could be a proper candidate for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:25539424

  16. Porous silicon oxide-PLGA composite microspheres for sustained ocular delivery of daunorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Kaihui; Ma, Feiyan; Hou, Huiyuan; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    A water-soluble anthracycline antibiotic drug (daunorubicin, DNR) was loaded into oxidized porous silicon (pSiO2) microparticles and then encapsulated with a layer of polymer (poly lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) to investigate their synergistic effects in control of DNR release. Similarly fabricated PLGA-DNR microspheres without pSiO2, and pSiO2 microparticles without PLGA were used as control particles. The composite microparticles synthesized by a solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion method have mean diameters of 52.33±16.37 μm for PLGA-pSiO2_21/40-DNR and the mean diameter of 49.31±8.87 μm for PLGA-pSiO2_6/20-DNR. The mean size, 26.00±8 μm, of PLGA-DNR was significantly smaller, compared with the other two (p<0.0001). Optical microscopy revealed that PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microsphere contained multiple pSiO2 particles. In vitro release experiments determined that control PLGA-DNR microspheres completely released DNR within 38 days and control pSiO2-DNR microparticles (with no PLGA coating) released DNR within 14 days, while the PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres released DNR for 74 days. Temporal release profiles of DNR from PLGA-pSiO2 composite particles indicated that both PLGA and pSiO2 contribute to the sustained release of the payload. The PLGA-pSiO2 composite displayed a more constant rate of DNR release than the pSiO2 control formulation, and it displayed a significantly slower release of DNR than either the PLGA or pSiO2 formulations. We conclude that this system may be useful in managing unwanted ocular proliferation when formulated with anti-proliferation compounds such as DNR. PMID:24793657

  17. Adaptation of β-Cell and Endothelial Function to Carbohydrate Loading: Influence of Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Schneiderman, Neil; Marks, Jennifer B; Mendez, Armando J; Gonzalez, Alex; Llabre, Maria M; Smith, Steven R; Bizzotto, Roberto; Santini, Eleonora; Manca, Maria Laura; Skyler, Jay S; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-07-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25754957

  18. Adaptation of β-Cell and Endothelial Function to Carbohydrate Loading: Influence of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Barry E.; Schneiderman, Neil; Marks, Jennifer B.; Mendez, Armando J.; Gonzalez, Alex; Llabre, Maria M.; Smith, Steven R.; Bizzotto, Roberto; Santini, Eleonora; Manca, Maria Laura; Skyler, Jay S.; Mari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25754957

  19. Biopharmaceutical profile of hydrogels containing pranoprofen-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for skin administration: In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Helen; Souto, Eliana B; Guevara, Bessy; Bellowa, Lyda Halbaut; Garduño, Maria Luisa; Garcia, María Luisa; Calpena, Ana C

    2016-03-30

    Pranoprofen (PF)-loaded nanoparticles (PF-F1NPs and PF-F2NPs) have been formulated into blank hydrogels (HG_PF-F1NPs and HG_PF-F1NPs) or into hydrogels composed of 3% azone (HG_PF-F1NPs-Azone and HG_PF-F2NPs-Azone), as innovative strategy to improve the biopharmaceutical profile of the selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Pranoprofen, PF) for topical application. The purpose of this approach has been to increase the contact of PF with the skin, improve its retention in deeper layers, thus enhancing its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The physicochemical characterization of the developed hydrogels showed a non-Newtonian behaviour, typical of semi-solid formulations for skin administration, with sustained release profile. The results obtained from ex vivo skin human permeation and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy studies suggest that topical application of HG_PF-F2NPs has been more effective in the treatment of oedema on the skin' surface in comparison to other hydrogels. No signs of skin irritancy have been detected for all the semi-solid formulations containing 0% or 3% azone. PMID:26844786

  20. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

  1. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles via human serum albumin conjugation for controlled delivery of docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles are considered to be a promising drug carrier in tumor targeting but suffer from the high level of opsonization by reticuloendothelial system due to their hydrophobic structure. As a result surface modification of these nanoparticles has been widely studied as an essential step in their development. Among various surface modifications, human serum albumin (HSA) possesses advantages including small size, hydrophilic surface and accumulation in leaky vasculature of tumors through passive targeting and a probable active transport into tumor tissues. Methods PLGA nanoparticles of docetaxel were prepared by emulsification evaporation method and were surface conjugated with human serum albumin. Fourier transform infrared spectrum was used to confirm the conjugation reaction where nuclear magnetic resonance was utilized for conjugation ratio determination. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed two different contrast media in conjugated nanoparticles. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of free docetaxel, unconjugated and conjugated PLGA nanoparticles was studied in HepG2 cells. Results Size, zeta potential and drug loading of PLGA nanoparticles were about 199 nm, −11.07 mV, and 4%, respectively where size, zeta potential and drug loading of conjugated nanoparticles were found to be 204 nm, −5.6 mV and 3.6% respectively. Conjugated nanoparticles represented a three-phasic release pattern with a 20% burst effect for docetaxel on the first day. Cytotoxicity experiment showed that the IC50 of HSA conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (5.4 μg) was significantly lower than both free docetaxel (20.2 μg) and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles (6.2 μg). Conclusion In conclusion surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles through HSA conjugation results in more cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines compared with free docetaxel and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles. Albumin conjugated PLGA nanoparticles may

  2. Formulation, characterization and evaluation of the effect of polymer concentration on the release behavior of insulin-loaded Eudragit®-entrapped mucoadhesive microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to use Eudragit® RL 100 (pH-independent polymer) and magnesium stearate (a hydrophobic droplet stabilizer) in combination to improve the controlled release effect of insulin-loaded Eudragit® entrapped microspheres prepared by the emulsification-coacervation technique. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive insulin-loaded microspheres containing magnesium stearate and varying proportions of Eudragit® RL 100 were prepared by the emulsification-coacervation technique and evaluated for thermal properties, physicochemical performance, and in vitro dissolution in acidic and subsequently basic media. Results: Stable, spherical, brownish, discrete, free-flowing and mucoadhesive insulin-loaded microspheres with size range of 14.20 ± 0.30-19.80 ± 0.60 μm and loading efficiency of 74.55 ± 1.05-75.90 ± 1.94% were formed. After 3 h, microspheres prepared with insulin: Eudragit® RL 100 ratios of 1:4, 1:6, and 1:8 released 73.40 ± 1.38, 66.20 ± 1.59, and 71.30 ± 1.27 (%) of insulin, respectively. Conclusion: The physicochemical and physico-technical properties of the microspheres developed in this study demonstrated the effectiveness of the Eudragit® RL entrapped mucoadhesive microspheres (prepared by the emulsification-coacervation technique using varying polymer concentration) as a carrier system for oral insulin delivery. PMID:27051626

  3. Electrospun aligned PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers embedded with silica nanoparticles for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-08-01

    Aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 641±24 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 418±85 nm and 267±58 nm for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The contact angle measurement results (102°±6.7 for the pure PLGA scaffold vs 81°±6.8 and 18°±8.7 for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively) revealed enhanced hydrophilicity of scaffolds upon incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs. Besides, embedding the scaffolds with MSNPs resulted in improved tensile mechanical properties. Cultivation of PC12 cells on the scaffolds demonstrated that introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrices leads to the improved cell attachment and proliferation as well as long cellular processes. DAPI staining results indicated that cell proliferations on the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds were strikingly (nearly 2.5 and 3 folds, respectively) higher than that on the aligned pure PLGA scaffolds. These results suggest superior properties of silica nanoparticles-incorporated PLGA/gelatin eletrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for the stem cell culture and tissue engineering applications. PMID:26045092

  4. PLGA nanofibers improves the antitumoral effect of daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro P G; Oliveira, Michele F; Gomes, Alinne D M; Gontijo, Sávio M L; Cortés, Maria E; Campos, Paula P; Viana, Celso T R; Andrade, Silvia P; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory angiogenesis activity and in vitro cytotoxicity on normal and cancer cell models of a drug delivery system consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers loaded with daunorubicin (PLGA-DNR) that were fabricated using an electrospinning process. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In vitro release of DNR from the nanofibers and its corresponding mechanism were also evaluated. Sixty-five percent of the DNR was released in an initial burst over 8h, and by 1224 h, eighty-five percent of the DNR had been released. The Higuchi model yielded the best fit to the DNR release profile over the first 8h, and the corresponding data from 24 to 1224 h could be modeled using zero-order kinetics. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers exhibited a higher cytotoxicity to A431 cells than free DNR but a cytotoxicity similar to free DNR against fibroblast cells. A higher antiangiogenic effect of PLGA nanofibers was observed in the in vivo data when compared to free DNR, and no inflammatory potential was observed for the nanofibers. PMID:26402423

  5. Assessment of PLGA-PEG-PLGA Copolymer Hydrogel for Sustained Drug Delivery in the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liang; Ward, Jonette A.; Li, S. Kevin; Tolia, Gaurav; Hao, Jinsong; Choo, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitive copolymer systems were previously studied using modified diffusion cells in vitro for intratympanic injection, and the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer systems were found to provide sustained drug delivery for several days. The objectives of the present study were to assess the safety of PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers in intratympanic injection in guinea pigs in vivo and to determine the effects of additives glycerol and poloxamer in PLGA-PEG-PLGA upon drug release in the diffusion cells in vitro for sustained inner ear drug delivery. In the experiments, the safety of PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers to inner ear was evaluated using auditory brainstem response (ABR). The effects of the additives upon drug release from PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel were investigated in the modified Franz diffusion cells in vitro with cidofovir as the model drug. The phase transition temperatures of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers in the presence of the additives were also determined. In the ABR safety study, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer alone did not affect hearing when delivered at 0.05-mL dose but caused hearing loss after 0.1-mL injection. In the drug release study, the incorporation of the bioadhesive additive, poloxamer, in the PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations was found to decrease the rate of drug release whereas the increase in the concentration of the humectant additive, glycerol, provided the opposite effect. In summary, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer did not show toxicity to the inner ear at the 0.05-mL dose and could provide sustained release that could be controlled by using the additives for inner ear applications. PMID:24438444

  6. Solvent mediated microstructures and release behavior of insulin from pH-sensitive nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi Min; Guo, Xin Dong; Zhang, Li Juan; Jiang, Wei; Ling, Li; Qian, Yu; Chen, Yun

    2012-06-01

    The insulin loaded nanoparticles composed of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) were prepared via the emulsions solvent diffusion method with two different solvents, namely, DMSO and acetone/water. The microstructures of the nanoparticles were studied by the solubility parameters theory, DSC, FTIR, and the nitrogen adsorption technique. Phase-separated PLGA domains were observed from the nanoparticles prepared with both types of solvents. Mesopores were observed from the nanoparticles prepared with DMSO as the solvent and almost did not exist with acetone/water. An in vitro drug release study showed that the pH-sensitivity of nanoparticles was not only attributed to the pH-dependent dissolubility of HP55 but also to the internal microstructure. The formation of mesopores accelerated the release of insulin, leading to no obvious pH-sensitivity of the nanoparticles prepared with DMSO. However, for the nanoparticles prepared with acetone/water, the release of insulin was pH-dependent. The results demonstrated that solvents played an important role in affecting the microstructures of nanoparticles, which influenced markedly the insulin release behavior. PMID:22356870

  7. Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to “actively” load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at temperature > hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigen in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two vaccine antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)3-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase proportionally with an increasing loading of Al(OH)3 (0.88-3 wt%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)3/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively > 0.2 mL and 63 μm, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)3 in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~ 97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer

  8. Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2013-01-10

    Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to "actively" load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at a temperature>the hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)₃) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)₃-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase with an increasing loading of Al(OH)₃ (0.88-3 wt.%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)₃/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively >0.2 mL and 63 μm, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)₃ in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt.% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer, and d

  9. Tetracycline-grafted PLGA nanoparticles as bone-targeting drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Jun; Tao, Shan; Chai, Guihong; Wang, Jianwei; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymers and tetracycline (TC)-based bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of drugs, such as simvastatin (SIM), for the treatment of osteoporosis. Methods The molecular structures of TC–PLGA were validated by 1H-NMR, and the SIM-loaded NPs were prepared using the solvent emulsification method. The surface properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, cell mineralization, bone targeting potential, and animal pharmacodynamics of the TC–PLGA NPs were evaluated and compared to those of PLGA NPs. Results It was confirmed that the average particle size of the NPs was approximately 220 nm. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the SIM-loaded NPs exhibited a cumulative release of up to 80% within 72 hours. An in vitro cell evaluation indicated that the NPs had an excellent cellular uptake capacity and showed great biocompatibility with MC3T3-E1 cells, thereby reducing the cytotoxic effects of SIM. The cell mineralization assay showed that the SIM-loaded NPs induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralized nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells, thereby achieving the same effect as SIM. Preliminary findings from in vitro and in vivo bone affinity assays indicated that the TC–PLGA NPs may display increased bone-targeting efficiency compared to PLGA NPs lacking a TC moiety. The use of SIM-loaded TC–PLGA NPs in treating osteoporosis was tested through animal pharmacodynamics analyses performed in ovariectomized rats, and the results suggested that the SIM-loaded TC–PLGA NPs can improve the curative effects of SIM on the recovery of bone mineral density compared to either SIM-loaded PLGA NPs or SIM alone. Conclusion Bone-targeting NPs, which were based on the conjugation of TC to PLGA copolymers, have the ability to target bone. These NPs may be developed as a delivery system for hydrophobic drugs, and they are expected to

  10. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using ALA PLGA nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Tu, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Zhang, Linglin; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Feng; Luan, Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP)-assisted ALA delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cutaneous SCC. Methods: UV-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NPs-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined. Results: PLGA NPs could enhance PpIX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC.

  11. Size matters: effects of PLGA-microsphere size in injectable CPC/PLGA on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongbing; Félix Lanao, Rosa P; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Zhou, Nuo; Both, Sanne K; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PLGA microsphere dimensions on bone formation after injection of calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/PLGA in a guinea pig tibial intramedullarly model. To this end, injectable CPC/PLGA formulations were prepared using PLGA microspheres with either a small (~25 µm) or large (~100 µm) diameter, which were incorporated at a 20:80 ratio (wt%) within apatite CPC. Both CPC/PLGA formulations were injected into a marrow-ablated tibial intramedullary cavity and, after an implantation period of 12 weeks, histology and histomorphometry were used to address bone formation. The results demonstrated bone ingrowth throughout the entire scaffold material for both CPC/PLGA formulations upon PLGA microsphere degradation. More importantly, bone formation within the CPC matrix was > two-fold higher for CPC-PLGA with 25 µm PLGA microspheres. Additionally, the pattern of bone and marrow formation showed distinct differences related to PLGA microsphere dimension. In general, this study demonstrates that PLGA microsphere dimensions of ~25 µm, leading to pores of ~25 µm within CPC, are sufficient for bone ingrowth and allow substantial bone formation. Further, the results demonstrate that PLGA microsphere dimensions provide a tool to control bone formation for injectable CPC/PLGA bone substitutes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24170734

  12. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxue; Chen, Mingshui; Kaushal, Sharmeela; McElroy, Michele; Zhang, Yu; Ozkan, Cengiz; Bouvet, Michael; Kruse, Carol; Grotjahn, Douglas; Ichim, Thomas; Minev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96(®) Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor CTL

  13. In vivo study of ALA PLGA nanoparticles-mediated PDT for treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-09-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still a challenge. Although topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for treating in situ and superficial SCC, the effectiveness of topical ALA delivery to thick SCC can be limited by its bioavailability. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanopartieles (PLGA NPs) might provide a promising ALA delivery strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ALA PLGA NPs PDT for the treatment of cutaneous SCC in a mouse model. Methods: ALA loaded PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The therapeutic efficacy of ALA PLGA NP mediated PDT in treating UV-induced cutaneous SCC in the mice model were examined. Results: In vivo study showed that ALA PLGA NPs PDT were more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating mouse cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: ALA PLGA NPs provides a promising strategy for delivering ALA and treating cutaneous SCC.

  14. pH-Responsive PLGA Nanoparticle for Controlled Payload Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Shalil; Adhikari, Udhab; Rijal, Nava P; Bhattarai, Shanta R; Sankar, Jagannathan; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles have gained increasing attention in delivery applications due to their capability for controlled drug release characteristics, biocompatibility, and tunable mechanical, as well as degradation, properties. However, thorough study is always required while evaluating potential toxicity of the particles from dose dumping, inconsistent release and drug-polymer interactions. In this research, we developed PLGA nanoparticles modified by chitosan (CS), a cationic and pH responsive polysaccharide that bears repetitive amine groups in its backbone. We used a model drug, diclofenac sodium (DS), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to study the drug loading and release characteristics. PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized by double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were evaluated based on their particle size, surface charge, entrapment efficacy, and effect of pH in drug release profile. About 390-420 nm of average diameters and uniform morphology of the particles were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. Chitosan coating over PLGA surface was confirmed by FTIR and DLS. Drug entrapment efficacy was up to 52%. Chitosan coated PLGA showed a pH responsive drug release in in vitro. The release was about 45% more at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4. The results of our study indicated the development of chitosan coating over PLGA nanoparticle for pH dependent controlled release DS drug for therapeutic applications. PMID:27490577

  15. In vitro hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si; Li, Xin; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been an important breakthrough for interventional cardiology applications since 2002. Though successful in reducing restenosis, some adverse clinical problems still emerged, which were mostly caused by the bare-metal stents and non-biodegradable polymer coatings, associated with the delayed endothelialization process. In this study, dexamethasone-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coatings were developed to explore the potential application of dexamethasone-eluting stents. Dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stents were prepared using ultrasonic atomization spray method. For other tests like stability and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility tests, dexamethasone loaded coatings were deposited on 316L SS wafers. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that there was no chemical reaction between PLGA and dexamethasone. The balloon expansion experiment and surface morphology observation suggested that the stent coatings were smooth and uniform, and could also withstand the compressive and tensile strains imparted without cracking after stent expansion. The drug release behavior in vitro indicated that dexamethasone existed burst release within 1 day, but it presented linear release characteristics after 6 days. In vitro platelets adhesion, activation test and APTT test were also done, which showed that after blending dexamethasone into PLGA, the hemocompatibility was improved. Besides, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-loaded PLGA coatings could significantly inhibit the attachment and proliferation of smooth muscle cells.

  16. Effect of mucoadhesive polymers on the in vitro performance of insulin-loaded silica nanoparticles: Interactions with mucin and biomembrane models.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Tatiana; Miziara, Leonardo; Lorenzón, Esteban N; de Souza, Ana Luiza R; Kiill, Charlene P; Fangueiro, Joana F; Garcia, Maria L; Gremião, Palmira D; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2015-06-01

    The present paper focuses on the development and characterization of silica nanoparticles (SiNP) coated with hydrophilic polymers as mucoadhesive carriers for oral administration of insulin. SiNP were prepared by sol-gel technology under mild conditions and coated with different hydrophilic polymers, namely, chitosan, sodium alginate or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with low and high molecular weight (PEG 6000 and PEG 20000) to increase the residence time at intestinal mucosa. The mean size and size distribution, association efficiency, insulin structure and insulin thermal denaturation have been determined. The mean nanoparticle diameter ranged from 289 nm to 625 nm with a PI between 0.251 and 0.580. The insulin association efficiency in SiNP was recorded above 70%. After coating, the association efficiency of insulin increased up to 90%, showing the high affinity of the protein to the hydrophilic polymer chains. Circular dichroism (CD) indicated that no conformation changes of insulin structure occurred after loading the peptide into SiNP. Nano-differential scanning calorimetry (nDSC) showed that SiNP shifted the insulin endothermic peak to higher temperatures. The influence of coating on the interaction of nanoparticles with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) biomembrane models was also evaluated by nDSC. The increase of ΔH values suggested a strong association of non-coated SiNP and those PEGylated nanoparticles coated with DPPC polar heads by forming hydrogen bonds and/or by electrostatic interaction. The mucoadhesive properties of nanoparticles were examined by studying the interaction with mucin in aqueous solution. SiNP coated with alginate or chitosan showed high contact with mucin. On the other hand, non-coated SiNP and PEGylated SiNP showed lower interaction with mucin, indicating that these nanoparticles can interdiffuse across mucus network. The results of the present work provide valuable data in assessing the in vitro performance of insulin-loaded

  17. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using metabolite concentrations as proxies for enzymatic activity, suggested that two variants: rs2014355 in the gene encoding short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS) and rs11161510 in the gene encoding medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid β-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired β-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered insulin release following an oral glucose load or with T2D. Methods The variants were genotyped using KASPar® PCR SNP genotyping system and investigated for associations with estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a random sample of middle-aged Danish individuals (n ACADS = 4,324; n ACADM = 4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (n ACADS = 8,313; n ACADM = 8,344). Results In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following an oral glucose load (per allele effect (β) = -3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P = 0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (β = -3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P = 0.009), reduced acute insulin response (β = -2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P = 0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (β = 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P = 0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P = 0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose-stimulated insulin release or with T2D. Conclusions In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS was associated with reduced measures of

  18. Facile fabrication of biocompatible PLGA drug-carrying microspheres by O/W pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zengjiang; Wang, Chaoyang; Liu, Hao; Zou, Shengwen; Tong, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    This study is focused on the preparation of Ibuprofen (IBU) loaded micrometer-sized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and process variables on the size, drug loading and release during preparation of formulation. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated via a combined system of "Pickering-type" emulsion route and solvent volatilization method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using SiO(2) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier and a dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) solution of PLGA as an oil phase. The SiO(2) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated by the evaporation of CH(2)Cl(2) in situ, and then bare-PLGA microspheres were prepared by removal of the SiO(2) nanoparticles using HF aqueous solution. The two types of microspheres were characterized in terms of size, component and morphology using scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared, optical microscope, and so on. Moreover, IBU was encapsulated into the hybrid beads by dispersing them in the CH(2)Cl(2) solution of PLGA in the fabrication process. The sustained release could be obtained due to the barrier of the polymeric matrix (PLGA). More over, the release curves were nicely fitted by the Weibull equation and the release followed Fickian diffusion. The combined system of Pickering emulsion and solvent volatilization opens up a new route to fabricate a variety of microspheres. The resulting microspheres may find applications as delivery vehicles for biomolecules, drugs, cosmetics and living cells. PMID:22088755

  19. Initial Development and Characterization of PLGA Nanospheres Containing Ropivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; de Matos, Angélica Prado; de Lima, Renata; Rosa, André Henrique; de Paula, Eneida

    2008-01-01

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief by binding to the sodium channels of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Ropivacaine (RVC) is an amino amide, enantiomerically pure, local anesthetic largely used in surgical procedures, which present physico-chemical and therapeutic properties similar to those of bupivacaine but decreased toxicity and motor blockade. The present work focuses on the preparation and characterization of nanospheres containing RVC; 0.25% and 0.50% RVC were incorporated in poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) 50:50) nanospheres (PLGA-NS), prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Characterization of the nanospheres was conducted through the measurement of pH, particle size, and zeta potential. The pH of the nanoparticle system with RVC was 6.58. The average diameters of the RVC-containing nanospheres was 162.7 ± 1.5 nm, and their zeta potentials were negative, with values of about −10.81 ± 1.16 mV, which promoted good stabilization of the particles in solution. The cytotoxicity experiments show that RVC-loaded PLGA-NS generate a less toxic formulation as compared with plain RVC. Since this polymer drug-delivery system can effectively generate an even less toxic RVC formulation, this study is fundamental due to its characterization of a potentially novel pharmaceutical form for the treatment of pain with RVC. PMID:19669531

  20. Molecular mechanism of poly(vinyl alcohol) mediated prevention of aggregation and stabilization of insulin in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Sanjay; Gupta, Pawan; Kumar, Anil; Garg, Prabha; Suri, C Raman; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2015-04-01

    It is a challenge to formulate polymer based nanoparticles of therapeutic proteins as excipients and process conditions affect stability and structural integrity of the protein. Hence, understanding the protein stability and complex aggregation phenomena is an important area of research in therapeutic protein delivery. Herein we investigated the comparative role of three kinds of surfactant systems (Tween 20:Tween 80), small molecular weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (SMW-PVA), and high molecular weight PVA (HMW-PVA) in prevention of aggregation and stabilization of hexameric insulin in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticle formulation. The nanoparticles were prepared using solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsification method with one of the said surfactant system in inner aqueous phase. The thermal unfolding analysis of released insulin using circular dichroism (CD) indicated thermal stability of the hexameric form. Insulin aggregation monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) suggested the importance of nuclei formation for aggregation and its prevention by HMW-PVA. Additional guanidinium hydrochloride based equilibrium unfolding and in silico (molecular docking) studies suggested maximum stability of released insulin from formulation containing HMW-PVA (F3). Furthermore, in vivo studies of insulin loaded nanoparticle formulation (F3) in diabetic rats showed its bioactivity. In conclusion, our studies highlight the importance of C-terminal residues of insulin in structural integrity and suggest that the released insulin from formulation containing HMW-PVA in inner aqueous phase was conformationally and thermodynamically stable and bioactive in vivo. PMID:25644480

  1. A novel and simple preparative method for uniform-sized PLGA microspheres: Preliminary application in antitubercular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xia; Xiu, Bingshui; Duan, Cuimi; Li, Jiangxue; Zhang, Xuhui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    Particle size has been demonstrated as a key parameter influencing the phagocytosis of drug-loaded PLGA microspheres (MS) by the target cells. However, the current preparative methods were either insufficient in controlling the homogeneity of the produced MS, or requires sophisticated and costly equipment. This study aimed to explore a simple and economical method for uniform PLGA MS preparation. Based on the heterogeneous emulsification of routine mechanical stirring, we designed an adjuvant strategy to enhance the homogeneity of MS. By using glass beads as adjutant, the dispersion produced during mechanical stirring was much more homogeneous in the solution. The particles produced were much smaller and the size distribution was much narrower as compared with those produced using the routine mechanical stirring method under the same condition. After enrichment by selective centrifugation, about 60% of the particles of similar size were obtained, providing further evidence for the efficiency of the novel method in controlling particle homogeneity. Further, the method was applied to prepare rifampicin-loaded PLGA MS of the optimized size for macrophage uptake. The functional evaluation showed that the prepared PLGA MS could efficiently deliver an antitubercular drug into macrophages and maintain a higher intracellular concentration by controlled release, suggesting the potential application of the method in PLGA MS-based drug delivery. Collectively, the study provided a simple and economical method for preparing uniform-sized PLGA MS with potential of widespread applications. PMID:27289309

  2. PLGA based drug delivery systems: Promising carriers for wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Current treatment options are limited and require repeated administrations which led to the development of new therapeutics to satisfy the unmet clinical needs. Many potent wound healing agents were discovered but most of them are fragile and/or sensitive to in vivo conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a widely used biodegradable polymer approved by food and drug administration and European medicines agency as an excipient for parenteral administrations. It is a well-established drug delivery system in various medical applications. The aim of the current review is to elaborate the applications of PLGA based drug delivery systems carrying different wound healing agents and also present PLGA itself as a wound healing promoter. PLGA carriers encapsulating drugs such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins/peptides, and nucleic acids targeting various phases/signaling cycles of wound healing, are discussed with examples. The combined therapeutic effects of PLGA and a loaded drug on wound healing are also mentioned. PMID:26749322

  3. Development of a porous PLGA-based scaffold for mastoid air cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Toby W. A.; Birchall, John P.; Mallick, Ali S.; Alliston, Tamara; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a porous, biodegradable scaffold for mastoid air cell regeneration. Study Design In vitro development of a temperature-sensitive poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA/PEG) scaffold tailored for this application. Methods Human mastoid bone microstructure and porosity was investigated using micro-computed tomography. PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds were developed and scaffold porosity was assessed. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. Scaffolds were loaded with ciprofloxacin and release of ciprofloxacin over time in vitro was assessed. Results Porosity of human mastoid bone was measured at 83% with an average pore size of 1.3mm. PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffold porosity ranged from 43–78% depending on the alginate bead content. hBM-MSCs proliferate on the scaffolds in vitro, and release of ciprofloxacin from the scaffolds was demonstrated over 7–10 weeks. Conclusion The PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds developed in this study demonstrate similar structural features to human mastoid bone, support cell growth and display sustained antibiotic release. These scaffolds may be of potential clinical use in mastoid air cell regeneration. Further in vivo studies to assess the suitability of PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds for this application are required. PMID:23670365

  4. Hydrogels composed of cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Mirzazadeh Tekie, Farnaz Sadat; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Esmaeel, Haydar; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed A; Zohuri, Gholamhossein

    2014-02-01

    Although conventional pharmaceuticals have many drug dosage forms on the market, the development of new therapeutic molecules and the low efficacy of instant release formulations for the treatment of some chronic diseases and specific conditions encourage scientists to invent different delivery systems. To this purpose, a supramolecular hydrogel consisting of the tri-block copolymer PLGA-PEGPLGA and α-cyclodextrin was fabricated for the first time and characterised in terms of rheological, morphological, and structural properties. Naltrexone hydrochloride and vitamin B12 were loaded, and their release profiles were determined. PMID:24234803

  5. Effects of Microemulsion Preparation Conditions on Drug Encapsulation Efficiency of PLGA Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Set Hui; Ooi, Ing Hong

    2011-12-01

    Emulsion solvent evaporation technique is widely used to prepare nanoparticles of many organic polymer drug carriers. The mechanism of nanoparticle generation by this technique involves oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion formation followed by solvent evaporation. Various microemulsion preparation conditions can affect the encapsulation efficiency of drug in the nanoparticulate carrier. In this study, emulsifying speed, emulsifying temperature, and organic-to-aqueous phase ratio were varied and the resulting encapsulation efficiency of a model drug in Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles was determined. The organic phase containing PLGA and a model drug dissolved in chloroform was first dispersed in an aqueous solution containing 0.5 %(w/v) Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which was then homogenized at high speeds. The resulting O/W microemulsion was subsequently subjected to stirring at room temperature for four hours during which the solvent diffused and evaporated gradually. The fine white suspension was centrifuged and freeze-dried. The model drug loading in the PLGA nanoparticles was determined using UV spectrophotometry. Results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of a model drug, salicylic acid, ranged from 8.5% to 17% depending on the microemulsion preparation conditions. Under the same temperature (15 °C) and homogenization speed (19000 rpm) conditions studied, a relatively high organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (1:5) provided salicylic acid loaded PLGA nanoparticles with significantly higher drug encapsulation efficiency. In addition, under all microemulsion preparation conditions, PLGA nanoparticles obtained after solvent evaporation and freeze drying were spherical and aggregation between the nanoparticles was not observed under a high power microscope. This indicates that PLGA nanoparticles with desirable amount of drug and with anticipated size and shape can be realized by controlling emulsification process conditions.

  6. Aptamer-modified PLGA nanoparticle delivery of triplex forming oligonucleotide for targeted prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiao, J; Zou, Q; Zou, M H; Guo, R M; Zhu, S; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Presented study aimed to prepare A10 aptamer-modified poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with triplex forming oligonucleotides(TFO) for targeted prostate cancer therapy. We first synthesized a PLGA-PEG-Apt copolymer. The PLGA-PEG-Apt nanoparticles (NP-Apt) were loaded with TFO using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. Carboxy-fluorescein labeled TFO-NP-Apt, TFO-NP and TFO were prepared for cellular uptake experiments. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test was used to determine the ability of TFO-NP-Apt to inhibit LNCaP cell proliferation. RT-PCR and Western blot was conducted to analyze AR gene expressing. Then, a mouse model of prostate cancer was used to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of TFO-NP-Apt in vivo. We confirmed that the PLGA-PEG-Apt conjugation was successful. The TFO encapsulation efficiency and drug loading percentage were 46.1± 3.6% and 40.8±5.3%, respectively. TFO-NP-Apt showed a more efficient cellular uptake than TFO-NP or TFO in LNCaP cells. TFO-NP-Apt was significantly more cytotoxic than TFO-NP and TFO in the CCK-8 test (p<0.001). TFO-NP-Apt silenced the AR gene better than unconjugated Apt, naked TFO, NP or saline. TFO-NP-Apt were more effective than TFO-NP, naked TFO, NP and saline at inhibiting prostate cancer growth in vivo (p<0.05). Aptamer-modified TFO-loaded PLGA nanoparticles may prove useful in targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27268920

  7. Enhanced efficacy of clindamycin hydrochloride encapsulated in PLA/PLGA based nanoparticle system for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Das, Niladri Mohan; Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-08-01

    Clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) is a clinically important oral antibiotic with wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity that includes gram-positive aerobes (staphylococci, streptococci etc.), most anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia and certain protozoa. The current study was focused to develop a stabilised clindamycin encapsulated poly lactic acid (PLA)/poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nano-formulation with better drug bioavailability at molecular level. Various nanoparticle (NPs) formulations of PLA and PLGA loaded with CLH were prepared by solvent evaporation method varying drug: polymer concentration (1:20, 1:10 and 1:5) and characterised (size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and Fourier transform infrared [FTIR] studies). The ratio 1:10 was found to be optimal for a monodispersed and stable nano formulation for both the polymers. NP formulations demonstrated a significant controlled release profile extended up to 144 h (both CLH-PLA and CLH-PLGA). The thermal behaviour (DSC) studies confirmed the molecular dispersion of the drug within the system. The FTIR studies revealed the intactness as well as unaltered structure of drug. The CLH-PLA NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus. The results notably suggest that encapsulation of CLH into PLA/PLGA significantly increases the bioavailability of the drug and due to this enhanced drug activity; it can be widely applied for number of therapies. PMID:27463797

  8. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for

  9. Design of Controlled Release PLGA Microspheres for Hydrophobic Fenretinide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wischke, Christian; Mittal, Sachin; Mitra, Amitava; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2016-08-01

    Fenretinide, a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer, is water-insoluble and has a very low oral bioavailability. Hence, the objective was to deliver it as an injectable depot and improve the drug solubility and release behavior from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres by incorporating nonionic surfactants with fenretinide. Enhancement of drug solubilization was observed with Brij 35 or 98, Tween 20, and Pluronic F127, but not Pluronic F68. Co-incorporation of Brij 98 with fenretinide significantly changed the microsphere morphology and improved the fenretinide release profile. The most optimal microsphere formulation, with 20% Brij 98 as excipient, showed an initial in vitro burst around 20% and a sustained release over 28 days in a solubilizing release medium at 37 °C. The effect of addition of MgCO3, drug loading, and polymer blending on the release of fenretinide from PLGA microspheres was also investigated and observed to enhance the drug release. Two sustained release formulations, one incorporating 20% Brij 98 and the other incorporating 3% MgCO3 in the oil phase, were selected for dosing in Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to a single injection of an equivalent dose of fenretinide drug suspension. These two formulations were chosen due to their high encapsulation efficiency, high cumulative release, and desirable in vitro release profile. The drug suspension resulted in a higher initial release in rats compared to the polymeric formulations, however, sustained release was also observed beyond 2 weeks, which may be attributed to the physiological disposition of the drug in vivo. The two PLGA based test formulations provided the desired low initial burst of fenretinide followed by 4 weeks of in vivo sustained release. PMID:27144450

  10. A biomimetic approach to active self-microencapsulation of proteins in PLGA.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ronak B; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-12-28

    A biomimetic approach to organic solvent-free microencapsulation of proteins based on the self-healing capacity of poly (DL)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing glycosaminoglycan-like biopolymers (BPs), was examined. To screen BPs, aqueous solutions of BP [high molecular weight dextran sulfate (HDS), low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LDS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), hyaluronic acid (HA), chitosan (CH)] and model protein lysozyme (LYZ) were combined in different molar and mass ratios, at 37 °C and pH7. The BP-PLGA microspheres (20-63 μm) were prepared by a double water-oil-water emulsion method with a range of BP content, and trehalose and MgCO3 to control microclimate pH and to create percolating pores for protein. Biomimetic active self-encapsulation (ASE) of proteins [LYZ, vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FgF-20)] was accomplished by incubating blank BP-PLGA microspheres in low concentration protein solutions at ~24 °C, for 48 h. Pore closure was induced at 42.5 °C under mild agitation for 42h. Formulation parameters of BP-PLGA microspheres and loading conditions were studied to optimize protein loading and subsequent release. LDS and HP were found to bind >95% LYZ at BP:LYZ>0.125 w/w, whereas HDS and CS bound >80% LYZ at BP:LYZ of 0.25-1 and <0.33, respectively. HA-PLGA microspheres were found to be not ideal for obtaining high protein loading (>2% w/w of LYZ). Sulfated BP-PLGA microspheres were capable of loading LYZ (~2-7% w/w), VEGF (~4% w/w), and FgF-20 (~2% w/w) with high efficiency. Protein loading was found to be dependent on the loading solution concentration, with higher protein loading obtained at higher loading solution concentration within the range investigated. Loading also increased with content of sulfated BP in microspheres. Release kinetics of proteins was evaluated in-vitro with complete release media replacement. Rate and extent of release were found to depend

  11. A Biomimetic Approach to Active Self-Microencapsulation of Proteins in PLGA

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ronak B.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    A biomimetic approach to organic solvent-free microencapsulation of proteins based on the self-healing capacity of poly (DL)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing glycosaminoglycan-like biopolymers (BPs), was examined. To screen BPs, aqueous solutions of BP [high molecular weight dextran sulfate (HDS), low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LDS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), hyaluronic acid (HA), chitosan (CH)] and model protein lysozyme (LYZ) were combined in different molar and mass ratios, at 37 °C and pH 7. The BP-PLGA microspheres (20–63 µm) were prepared by a double water-oil-water emulsion method with a range of BP content, and trehalose and MgCO3 to control microclimate pH and to create percolating pores for protein. Biomimetic active self-encapsulation (ASE) of proteins [LYZ, vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FgF-20)] was accomplished by incubating blank BP-PLGA microspheres in low concentration protein solutions at ~24 °C, for 48 h. Pore closure was induced at 42.5 °C under mild agitation for 42 h. Formulation parameters of BP-PLGA microspheres and loading conditions were studied to optimize protein loading and subsequent release. LDS and HP were found to bind >95% LYZ at BP:LYZ >0.125 w/w, whereas HDS and CS bound > 80% LYZ at BP:LYZ of 0.25–1 and < 0.33, respectively. HA-PLGA microspheres were found to be not ideal for obtaining high protein loading (>2% w/w of LYZ). Sulfated BP-PLGA microspheres were capable of loading LYZ (~2–7 % w/w), VEGF (~ 4% w/w), and FgF-20 (~2% w/w) with high efficiency. Protein loading was found to be dependent on the loading solution concentration, with higher protein loading obtained at higher loading solution concentration within the range investigated. Loading also increased with content of sulfated BP in microspheres. Release kinetics of proteins was evaluated in-vitro with complete release media replacement. Rate and extent of release were

  12. Surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for brain targeting of Bacoside-A.

    PubMed

    Jose, S; Sowmya, S; Cinu, T A; Aleykutty, N A; Thomas, S; Souto, E B

    2014-10-15

    The present paper focuses on the development and in vitro/in vivo characterization of nanoparticles composed of poly-(D,L)-Lactide-co-Glycolide (PLGA) loading Bacoside-A, as a new approach for the brain delivery of the neuroprotective drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Alzheimer Disease). Bacoside-A-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared via o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Surface of the nanoparticles were modified by coating with polysorbate 80 to facilitate the crossing of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the processing parameters (i.e. sonication time, the concentration of polymer (PLGA) and surfactant (polysorbate 80), and drug-polymer ratio) were optimized with the aim to achieve a high production yield. Brain targeting potential of the nanoparticles was evaluated by in vivo studies using Wistar albino rats. The nanoparticles produced by optimal formulation were within the nanosized range (70-200 nm) with relatively low polydispersity index (0.391 ± 1.2). The encapsulation efficiency of Bacoside-A in PLGA nanoparticles was 57.11 ± 7.11%, with a drug loading capacity of 20.5 ± 1.98%. SEM images showed the spherical shape of the PLGA nanoparticles, whereas their low crystallinity was demonstrated by X-ray studies, which also confirmed no chemical interactions between the drug and polymer molecules. The in vitro release of Bacoside-A from the PLGA nanoparticles followed a sustained release pattern with a maximum release of up to 83.04 ± 2.55% in 48 h. When compared to pure drug solution (2.56 ± 1.23 μg/g tissue), in vivo study demonstrated higher brain concentration of Bacoside-A (23.94 ± 1.74 μg/g tissue) suggesting a significant role of surface coated nanoparticles on brain targeting. The results indicate the potential of surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of Bacoside-A to the brain. PMID:25010261

  13. Therapeutic Use of 3β-[N-(N′,N′-Dimethylaminoethane) Carbamoyl] Cholesterol-Modified PLGA Nanospheres as Gene Delivery Vehicles for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, So-Jung; Yun, Yeomin; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun; Ha, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery holds therapeutic promise for the treatment of neurological diseases and spinal cord injury. Although several studies have investigated the use of non-viral vectors, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), their clinical value is limited by their cytotoxicity. Recently, biodegradable poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres have been explored as non-viral vectors. Here, we show that modification of PLGA nanospheres with 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane) carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) enhances gene transfection efficiency. PLGA/DC-Chol nanospheres encapsulating DNA were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. PLGA/DC-Chol nanospheres were less cytotoxic than PEI both in vitro and in vivo. DC-Chol modification improved the uptake of nanospheres, thereby increasing their transfection efficiency in mouse neural stem cells in vitro and rat spinal cord in vivo. Also, transgene expression induced by PLGA nanospheres was higher and longer-lasting than that induced by PEI. In a rat model of spinal cord injury, PLGA/DC-Chol nanospheres loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor gene increased angiogenesis at the injury site, improved tissue regeneration, and resulted in better recovery of locomotor function. These results suggest that DC-Chol-modified PLGA nanospheres could serve as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles for spinal cord injury. PMID:26824765

  14. Lactosylated PLGA nanoparticles containing ϵ-polylysine for the sustained release and liver-targeted delivery of the negatively charged proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; An, Tong; Zhao, Chuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Rongshan; Yang, Rui; Wang, Yinsong; Gao, Xiujun

    2015-01-30

    The acidic internal pH environment, initial burst release and lack of targeting property are main limitations of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for carrying proteins. In this study, ϵ-polylysine (ϵ-PL) was used as an anti-acidic agent and a protein protectant to prepare PLGA nanoparticles for the protein delivery. To obtain the liver-targeting capability, lactosylated PLGA (Lac-PLGA) was synthesized by conjugation of lactose acid to PLGA at both ends, and then used to prepare nanoparticles containing ϵ-PL by the nanoprecipitation method. Bovine serumal bumin (BSA), a negatively charged protein, was efficiently loaded into Lac-PLGA/ϵ-PL nanoparticles and exhibited significant decreased burst release in vitro, sustained release in the blood and increased liver distribution in mice after intravenous injections. The enhanced stability of BSA was due to its electrical interaction with ϵ-PL and the neutralized internal environment of nanoparticles. In conclusion, Lac-PLGA/ϵ-PL nanoparticle system can be used as a promising carrier for the negatively charged proteins. PMID:25510599

  15. Enhanced hypoglycemic effect of biotin-modified liposomes loading insulin: effect of formulation variables, intracellular trafficking, and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Qi, Jianping; Lu, Yi; Hu, Xiongwei; He, Wei; Wu, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Peroral protein/peptide delivery has been one of the most challenging, but encouraging topics in pharmaceutics. This article was intended to explore the potential of biotin-modified liposomes (BLPs) as oral insulin delivery carriers. By incorporating biotin-DSPE into the lipid bilayer, we prepared BLPs using reverse evaporation/sonication method. We investigated hypoglycemic effects in normal rats after oral administration of BLPs, and the possible absorption mechanism by a series of in vitro tests. The relative pharmacological bioavailability of BLPs was up to 11.04% that was as much as 5.28 folds of conventional liposomes (CLPs). The results showed that the enhanced oral absorption of insulin mainly attributed to biotin ligand-mediated endocytosis. The results provided proof of BLPs as effective carriers for oral insulin delivery.

  16. Enhanced hypoglycemic effect of biotin-modified liposomes loading insulin: effect of formulation variables, intracellular trafficking, and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peroral protein/peptide delivery has been one of the most challenging, but encouraging topics in pharmaceutics. This article was intended to explore the potential of biotin-modified liposomes (BLPs) as oral insulin delivery carriers. By incorporating biotin-DSPE into the lipid bilayer, we prepared BLPs using reverse evaporation/sonication method. We investigated hypoglycemic effects in normal rats after oral administration of BLPs, and the possible absorption mechanism by a series of in vitro tests. The relative pharmacological bioavailability of BLPs was up to 11.04% that was as much as 5.28 folds of conventional liposomes (CLPs). The results showed that the enhanced oral absorption of insulin mainly attributed to biotin ligand-mediated endocytosis. The results provided proof of BLPs as effective carriers for oral insulin delivery. PMID:24739082

  17. Electrospinning of PLGA/gum tragacanth nanofibers containing tetracycline hydrochloride for periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Zamani, M; Prabhakaran, M P; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ramakrishna, S

    2016-01-01

    Controlled drug release is a process in which a predetermined amount of drug is released for longer period of time, ranging from days to months, in a controlled manner. In this study, novel drug delivery devices were fabricated via blend electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning using poly lactic glycolic acid (PLGA), gum tragacanth (GT) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) as a hydrophilic model drug in different compositions and their performance as a drug carrier scaffold was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that fabricated PLGA, blend PLGA/GT and core shell PLGA/GT nanofibers had a smooth and bead-less morphology with the diameter ranging from 180 to 460 nm. Drug release studies showed that both the fraction of GT within blend nanofibers and the core-shell structure can effectively control TCH release rate from the nanofibrous membranes. By incorporation of TCH into core-shell nanofibers, drug release was sustained for 75 days with only 19% of burst release within the first 2h. The prolonged drug release, together with proven biocompatibility, antibacterial and mechanical properties of drug loaded core shell nanofibers make them a promising candidate to be used as drug delivery system for periodontal diseases. PMID:26478340

  18. Electrospraying technique for the fabrication of metronidazole contained PLGA particles and their release profile.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Zamani, Maedeh; Felice, Betiana; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Advanced engineering of materials for the development of drug delivery devices provides scope for novel and versatile strategies for treatment of various diseases. 'Electrospraying' was used to prepare PLGA microparticles and further encapsulate the drug, metronidazole (Met) within the particles to function as a drug delivery system. Two different solvents were utilized for the preparation of drug loaded PLGA particles, whereby the polymeric solution in dichloromethane (DCM) produced particles of bigger sizes than using trifluoroethanol (TFE). Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical morphology of the particles, with sizes of 3946±407nm and 1774±167nm, respectively for PLGA-Met(DCM) and PLGA-Met(TFE). The FTIR spectroscopy proved the incorporation of metronidazole in the polymer, but without any specific drug-polymer interaction. The release of the drug from the particles was studied in phosphate buffered saline, where a sustained drug release was obtained for at least 41days. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug extract using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed not hindering the proliferation of MSCs, and the cell phenotype was retained after incubation in the drug containing media. Electrospraying is suggested as a cost-effective and single step process for the preparation of polymeric microparticles for prolonged and controlled release of drug. PMID:26249566

  19. Glycemic load effect on fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in a randomized, controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Runchey, Shauna S.; Pollak, Michael N.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Breymeyer, Kara L.; Wang, Chiachi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Subjects/Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight-obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet-component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses. Results The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6 ng/mL, p=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, p=0.01) compared to the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/L/240min) (p<0.01) and 2253±539 (μU/mL/240min) (p<0.01) lower following the low- compared to the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean HOMA-IR or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity. Conclusions Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease. PMID:22892437

  20. Nanoparticle based insulin delivery system: the next generation efficient therapy for Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Nam, Ju-Suk; Doss, George Priya C; Lee, Sang-Soo; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cases have increased rapidly in recent years throughout the world. Currently, for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), multiple daily insulin (MDI) injections is the most popular treatment throughout the world. At this juncture, researchers are trying to develop different insulin delivery systems, especially through oral and pulmonary route using nanocarrier based delivery system. This next generation efficient therapy for T1DM may help to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients who routinely employ insulin by the subcutaneous route. In this paper, we have depicted various next generation nanocarrier based insulin delivery systems such as chitosan-insulin nanoparticles, PLGA-insulin nanoparticles, dextran-insulin nanoparticles, polyalkylcyanoacrylated-insulin nanoparticles and solid lipid-insulin nanoparticles. Modulation of these insulin nanocarriers may lead to successful oral or pulmonary insulin nanoformulations in future clinical settings. Therefore, applications and limitations of these nanoparticles in delivering insulin to the targeted site have been thoroughly discussed. PMID:26498972

  1. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with vitamin E TPGS by porous PLGA nanoparticles for enhanced chemotherapy against multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huijun; Chen, Hongbo; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Xudong; Wu, Yanping; Gao, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jinxie; Liu, Kewei; Liu, Ranyi; Cai, Lintao; Mei, Lin; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-02-01

    We report a strategy to make use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (PLGA NPs) for co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) as a model anticancer drug together with vitamin E TPGS. The latter plays a dual role as a pore-forming agent in the nanoparticles that may result in smaller particle size, higher drug encapsulation efficiency and faster drug release, and also as a bioactive agent that could inhibit P-glycoprotein to overcome multi-drug resistance of the cancer cells, The DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20 and 40% TPGS were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface morphology, physical status and encapsulation efficiency of the drug in the NPs. All four NPs were found of size ranged 100-120 nm and EE ranged 85-95% at drug loading level around 10%. The in vitro evaluation showed that the 48 h IC50 values of the free DTX and the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20% TPGS were 2.619 and 0.474, 0.040, 0.009 μg/mL respectively, which means that the PLGA NPs formulation could be 5.57 fold effective than the free DTX and that the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 10 or 20% TPGS further be 11.85 and 52.7 fold effective than the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of no TPGS (therefore, 66.0 and 284 fold effective than the free DTX). Xenograft tumor model and immunohistological staining analysis further confirmed the advantages of the strategy of co-delivery of anticancer drugs with TPGS by PLGA NPs. PMID:24360574

  2. New approach for local delivery of rapamycin by bioadhesive PLGA-carbopol nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiwei; Cao, Guangqing; Xi, Yanwei; Zhang, Na

    2009-01-01

    Local delivery of antiproliferative drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles has shown promise as an experimental strategy for preventing vascular restenosis development. The general aim of this work was to develop polymeric nanoparticle carriers with bioadhesive properties, and to evaluate its adjuvant potential for local, intramural delivery of rapamycin for inhibition of restenosis. The bioadhesive rapamycin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were obtained by applying carbopol 940 of different concentrations as stabilizer and bioadhesive agent. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized concerning physicochemical properties such as morphology, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, drug release in vitro, stability in vitro as well as the arterial uptake and retention ability in an ex-vivo model. The results revealed that carbopol could serve as a better stabilizer in the preparation of rapamycin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles compared with PVA, and the physicochemical characteristics of the obtained PLGA nanoparticles were affected by the concentration of carbopol. Furthermore, it was found that carbopol could impart the nanoparticles with bioadhesive properties, improving the rentention and uptake of nanoparticles in the arterial wall, benefiting the nanoparticles for efficient localization of therapeutic agents in restenosis site. Cell viability assay results showed that blank PLGA-carbopol nanoparticles exhibited low toxicity and excellent biocompatibility and rapamycin-loaded nanoparticles with a smaller particle size (< 200 nm) had an increased antiproliferative effect on cells in comparison to free drug. These results indicated that this research might provide a potential experimental basis for the further study of carbopol stabilized bioadhesive nanoparticles against restenosis in vivo. PMID:19555304

  3. Preparation and properties of PLGA microspheres containing hydrophilic drugs by the SPG (shirasu porous glass) membrane emulsification technique.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Honnami, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Makino, Kimiko

    2008-11-15

    In the present paper, monodisperse poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing the hydrophilic model drug, blue dextran (BLD), were manufactured by the solvent evaporation method and the shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique. In order to prepare PLGA microspheres with a higher drug loading efficiency by the membrane emulsification technique, the test of stability and productivity of the primary emulsion (w(1)/o emulsion) was preliminary examined by change species or concentration of the oil-soluble surfactant and the ratio of water and organic solvent. The primary emulsion (w(1)/o) composed of the BLD aqueous solution and dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved PLGA was prepared with the micro homogenizer. The secondary emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) was prepared by the SPG membrane emulsification technique. BLD/PLGA microspheres of various micro level sizes of 2.0-10 microm prepared by variation of pore size of the using SPG membrane. The highly monodisperse BLD/PLGA microspheres were also manufactured by added polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the water phase, as reported in a previous paper. The initial release rate of the drug from such microspheres controlled than the sample manufactured without an additive. PMID:18774278

  4. Controlled Release of Nor-β-lapachone by PLGA Microparticles: A Strategy for Improving Cytotoxicity against Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcilia P; Feitosa, Anderson C S; Oliveira, Fátima C E; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; da Silva, Eufrânio N; Dias, Gleiston G; Sales, Francisco A M; Sousa, Bruno L; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Pessoa, Cláudia; Caetano, Ewerton W S; Di Fiore, Stefano; Fischer, Rainer; Ladeira, Luiz O; Freire, Valder N

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males and it has become a major worldwide public health problem. This study characterizes the encapsulation of Nor-β-lapachone (NβL) in poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microcapsules and evaluates the cytotoxicity of the resulting drug-loaded system against metastatic prostate cancer cells. The microcapsules presented appropriate morphological features and the presence of drug molecules in the microcapsules was confirmed by different methods. Spherical microcapsules with a size range of 1.03 ± 0.46 μm were produced with an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 19%. Classical molecular dynamics calculations provided an estimate of the typical adsorption energies of NβL on PLGA. Finally, the cytotoxic activity of NβL against PC3M human prostate cancer cells was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced when delivered by PLGA microcapsules in comparison with the free drug. PMID:27384551

  5. Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Rather than Body-Mass-Index Determines Fasting and Post-Glucose-Load Growth Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Tura, Andrea; Gessl, Alois; Smajis, Sabina; Bieglmayer, Christian; Marculescu, Rodrig; Luger, Anton; Pacini, Giovanni; Krebs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese, non-acromegalic persons show lower growth hormone (GH) concentrations at fasting and reduced GH nadir during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, this finding has never been studied with regard to whole-body insulin-sensitivity as a possible regulator. Methods In this retrospective analysis, non-acromegalic (NonACRO, n = 161) and acromegalic (ACRO, n = 35), non-diabetic subjects were subdivided into insulin-sensitive (IS) and –resistant (IR) groups according to the Clamp-like Index (CLIX)-threshold of 5 mg·kg−1·min−1 from the OGTT. Results Non-acromegalic IS (CLIX: 8.8±0.4 mg·kg−1·min−1) persons with similar age and sex distribution, but lower (p<0.001) body-mass-index (BMI = 25±0 kg/m2, 84% females, 56±1 years) had 59% and 70%, respectively, higher (p<0.03) fasting GH and OGTT GH area under the curve concentrations than IR (CLIX: 3.5±0.1 mg·kg−1·min−1, p<0.001) subjects (BMI = 29±1 kg/m2, 73% females, 58±1 years). When comparing on average overweight non-acromegalic IS and IR with similar anthropometry (IS: BMI: 27±0 kg/m2, 82% females, 58±2 years; IR: BMI: 27±0 kg/m2, 71% females, 60±1 years), but different CLIX (IS: 8.7±0.9 vs. IR: 3.8±0.1 mg·kg−1·min−1, p<0.001), the results remained almost the same. In addition, when adjusted for OGTT-mediated glucose rise, GH fall was less pronounced in IR. In contrast, in acromegalic subjects, no difference was found between IS and IR patients with regard to fasting and post-glucose-load GH concentrations. Conclusions Circulating GH concentrations at fasting and during the OGTT are lower in non-acromegalic insulin-resistant subjects. This study seems the first to demonstrate that insulin sensitivity rather than body-mass modulates fasting and post-glucose-load GH concentrations in non-diabetic non–acromegalic subjects. PMID:25517727

  6. Prediction of dexamethasone release from PLGA microspheres prepared with polymer blends using a design of experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-11-10

    Hydrophobic drug release from poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres typically exhibits a tri-phasic profile with a burst release phase followed by a lag phase and a secondary release phase. High burst release can be associated with adverse effects and the efficacy of the formulation cannot be ensured during a long lag phase. Accordingly, the development of a long-acting microsphere product requires optimization of all drug release phases. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a blend of low and high molecular weight polymers can be used to reduce the burst release and eliminate/minimize the lag phase. A single emulsion solvent evaporation method was used to prepare microspheres using blends of two PLGA polymers (PLGA5050 (25 kDa) and PLGA9010 (113 kDa)). A central composite design approach was applied to investigate the effect of formulation composition on dexamethasone release from these microspheres. Mathematical models obtained from this design of experiments study were utilized to generate a design space with maximized microsphere drug loading and reduced burst release. Specifically, a drug loading close to 15% can be achieved and a burst release less than 10% when a composition of 80% PLGA9010 and 90 mg of dexamethasone is used. In order to better describe the lag phase, a heat map was generated based on dexamethasone release from the PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composite coatings. Using the heat map an optimized formulation with minimum lag phase was selected. The microspheres were also characterized for particle size/size distribution, thermal properties and morphology. The particle size was demonstrated to be related to the polymer concentration and the ratio of the two polymers but not to the dexamethasone concentration. PMID:26325309

  7. The effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Tang, Xiangyuan; Li, Xin; Xia, Wenquan; Liu, Daojun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the therapeutic effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(ethylenediamine l-glutamate)-g-poly(l-lysine)) (PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as compared to free insulin. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 30 U/kg insulin or insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) complex, and then subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The blood and lungs were collected, the level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured, and the dry/wet lung ratios, the activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase, the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the expression of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in pulmonary tissues. Both insulin and insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function, reduced pulmonary oxidative stress injury, restrained inflammatory damage, and downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF as compared to ischemia/reperfusion group, while insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) significantly improved this effect. PMID:27175073

  8. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. PMID:23827539

  9. Release of gentamicin sulphate from biodegradable PLGA-implants produced by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Gosau, M; Müller, B W

    2010-07-01

    For a long-term local treatment of osteomyelitis biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants loaded with gentamicin sulphate (GS) were prepared, analysed and compared to the marketed product Septopal (Biomet, Darmstadt, Germany), which consists of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads loaded with the same active ingredient. The implants were manufactured by hot melt extrusion with a twin screw extruder. In order to decrease the processing temperature and to improve the drug release behaviour, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) was added as plasticizer in different concentrations. The glass transition temperature of PLGA measured by differential scanning calorimetry declined in the same manner as the extrusion temperature with increasing PEG 400 concentration. The extrudates of all batches exhibited good encapsulation efficiency between 85% and 115% of the specified content. The behaviour of the implants during exposure to a release medium were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, gravimetric analysis and finally in vitro drug release studies. The results suggest that drug liberation is not affected by the addition of PEG 400, and depends on the drug-PLGA ratio only. Extrudates with 25% GS showed a release pattern with an initially higher drug release followed by a zero order kinetic for about four weeks and showed release profiles equivalent to Septopal. PMID:20662316

  10. Development of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds containing VEGF for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Jafarian, Mohammad; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Bastami, Farshid; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering is sought to apply strategies for bone defects healing without limitations and short-comings of using either bone autografts or allografts and xenografts. The aim of this study was to fabricate a thin layer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) coated beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PLGA coating increased compressive strength of the β-TCP scaffolds significantly. For in vitro evaluations, canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and canine endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) were isolated and characterized. Cell proliferation and attachment were demonstrated and the rate of cells proliferation on the VEGF released scaffold was significantly more than compared to the scaffolds with no VEGF loading. A significant increase in expression of COL1 and RUNX2 was indicated in the scaffolds loaded with VEGF and MSCs compared to the other groups. Consequently, PLGA coated β-TCP scaffold with sustained and localized release of VEGF showed favourable results for bone regeneration in vitro, and this scaffold has the potential to use as a drug delivery device in the future. PMID:27612772

  11. Bone Regeneration from PLGA Micro-Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Peula-García, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the most widely used synthetic polymers for development of delivery systems for drugs and therapeutic biomolecules and as component of tissue engineering applications. Its properties and versatility allow it to be a reference polymer in manufacturing of nano- and microparticles to encapsulate and deliver a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. It additionally facilitates and extends its use to encapsulate biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids that can be released in a controlled way. This review focuses on the use of nano/microparticles of PLGA as a delivery system of one of the most commonly used growth factors in bone tissue engineering, the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Thus, all the needed requirements to reach a controlled delivery of BMP2 using PLGA particles as a main component have been examined. The problems and solutions for the adequate development of this system with a great potential in cell differentiation and proliferation processes under a bone regenerative point of view are discussed. PMID:26509156

  12. Bone Regeneration from PLGA Micro-Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Peula-García, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the most widely used synthetic polymers for development of delivery systems for drugs and therapeutic biomolecules and as component of tissue engineering applications. Its properties and versatility allow it to be a reference polymer in manufacturing of nano- and microparticles to encapsulate and deliver a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. It additionally facilitates and extends its use to encapsulate biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids that can be released in a controlled way. This review focuses on the use of nano/microparticles of PLGA as a delivery system of one of the most commonly used growth factors in bone tissue engineering, the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Thus, all the needed requirements to reach a controlled delivery of BMP2 using PLGA particles as a main component have been examined. The problems and solutions for the adequate development of this system with a great potential in cell differentiation and proliferation processes under a bone regenerative point of view are discussed. PMID:26509156

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Δ⁹-tetrahidrocannabinol/PLGA nanoparticles for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Martín-Banderas, L; Muñoz-Rubio, I; Prados, J; Álvarez-Fuentes, J; Calderón-Montaño, J M; López-Lázaro, M; Arias, J L; Leiva, M C; Holgado, M A; Fernández-Arévalo, M

    2015-06-20

    Nanoplatforms can optimize the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy, and thus cancer therapy. However, new approaches are encouraged in developing new nanomedicines against malignant cells. In this work, a reproducible methodology is described to prepare Δ(9)-tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC)-loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles against lung cancer. The nanoformulation is further improved by surface functionalization with the biodegradable polymers chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in order to optimize the biological fate and antitumor effect. Mean nanoparticle size (≈ 290 nm) increased upon coating with PEG, CS, and PEG-CS up to ≈ 590 nm, ≈ 745 nm, and ≈ 790 nm, respectively. Surface electrical charge was controlled by the type of polymeric coating onto the PLGA particles. Drug entrapment efficiencies (≈ 95%) were not affected by any of the polymeric coatings. On the opposite, the characteristic sustained (biphasic) Δ(9)-THC release from the particles can be accelerated or slowed down when using PEG or chitosan, respectively. Blood compatibility studies demonstrated the adequate in vivo safety margin of all of the PLGA-based nanoformulations, while protein adsorption investigations postulated the protective role of PEGylation against opsonization and plasma clearance. Cell viability studies comparing the activity of the nanoformulations against human A-549 and murine LL2 lung adenocarcinoma cells, and human embryo lung fibroblastic MRC-5 cells revealed a statistically significant selective cytotoxic effect toward the lung cancer cell lines. In addition, cytotoxicity assays in A-549 cells demonstrated the more intense anticancer activity of Δ(9)-THC-loaded PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. These promising results were confirmed by in vivo studies in LL2 lung tumor-bearing immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25899283

  14. Studies on the preparation, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of tolterodine PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengying; Sui, Cheng; Teng, Lesheng; Liu, Ximing; Teng, Lirong; Meng, Qingfan; Li, Youxin

    2010-09-15

    In this study, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres of tolterodine depot formulation were prepared using oil in water (o/w) method to investigate their potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over tolterodine l-tartrate tablets. Morphological studies of the microspheres showed a spherical shape and smooth surface with mean size of 50.69-83.01 microm, and the encapsulation efficiency was improved from 62.55 to 79.10% when the polymer concentration increased from 180 to 230 mg/ml. The addition of stearic or palmitic acids could significantly raise the drug entrapment efficiency but only slightly affected the in vitro release. A low initial burst followed by a proximately constant release of tolterodine was noticed in the in vitro release profiles. The in vivo study was carried out by intramuscular (i.m.) administration of tolterodine-loaded microspheres on beagle dogs, and a sustained release of drug from the PLGA microspheres was achieved until the 18th day with a low initial burst. Since the absence of hepatic first pass metabolism, only a single active compound-tolterodine was detected in the plasma. This avoided the coexistence of two active compounds in plasma in the case of oral administration of tolterodine, which may lead to a difficulty in dose control due to the different metabolic capacity of patients. In the pharmacodynamic study, the influence of tolterodine PLGA microspheres on the inhibition of carbachol-induced rat urinary bladder contraction was more significant than that of tolterodine l-tartrate tablets. There were invisible changes in rat bladder slices between tolterodine-loaded PLGA microspheres group and tolterodine l-tartrate tablets group. These results indicate that the continuous inhibition of muscarinic receptor may offer an alternative therapy of urge incontinence. PMID:20600717

  15. Exendin-4-loaded PLGA microspheres relieve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and neurologic deficits through long-lasting bioactivity-mediated phosphorylated Akt/eNOS signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chiang-Ting; Jou, Ming-Jia; Cheng, Tai-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Li, Ping-Chia

    2015-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation in the brain provides neuroprotection. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 analog, has seen limited clinical usage because of its short half-life. We developed long-lasting Ex-4-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PEx-4) and explored its neuroprotective potential against cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats. Compared with Ex-4, PEx-4 in the gradually degraded microspheres sustained higher Ex-4 levels in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for at least 2 weeks and improved diabetes-induced glycemia after a single subcutaneous administration (20 μg/day). Ten minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (CAO) combined with hemorrhage-induced hypotension (around 30 mm Hg) significantly decreased cerebral blood flow and microcirculation in male Wistar rats subjected to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. CAO increased cortical O2(-) levels by chemiluminescence amplification and prefrontal cortex edema by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging analysis. CAO significantly increased aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and led to cognition deficits. CAO downregulated phosphorylated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-Akt/p-eNOS) signaling and enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex. PEx-4 was more effective than Ex-4 to improve CAO-induced oxidative injury and cognitive deficits. The neuroprotection provided by PEx-4 was through p-Akt/p-eNOS pathways, which suppressed CAO-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling, ER stress, and apoptosis. PMID:26058696

  16. The in vivo performance of CaP/PLGA composites with varied PLGA microsphere sizes and inorganic compositions.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; Ma, Jinling; Plachokova, Adelina S; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Bohner, Marc; Pan, Juli; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2013-07-01

    Enrichment of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to create porosity overcomes the problem of poor CaP degradation. The degradation of CaP-PLGA composites can be customized by changing the physical and chemical properties of PLGA and/or CaP. However, the effect of the size of dense (solid rather than hollow) PLGA microspheres in CaP has not previously been described. The present study aimed at determining the effect of different dense (i.e. solid) PLGA microsphere sizes (small (S) ~20μm vs. large (L) ~130μm) and of CaP composition (CaP with either anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD)) on CaP scaffold biodegradability and subsequent bone in-growth. To this end mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with pre-set CaP-PLGA implants, with autologous bone being used as a control. After 4weeks the autologous bone group outperformed all CaP-PLGA groups in terms of the amount of bone present at the defect site. On the other hand, at 12weeks substantial bone formation was observed for all CaP-PLGA groups (ranging from 47±25% to 62±15%), showing equal amounts of bone compared with the autologous bone group (82±9%), except for CaP with DCP and large PLGA microspheres (47±25%). It was concluded that in the current study design the difference in PLGA microsphere size and CaP composition led to similar results with respect to scaffold degradation and subsequent bone in-growth. Further, after 12weeks all CaP-PLGA composites proved to be effective for bone substitution. PMID:23511808

  17. Hyaluronic acid/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) core/shell fiber meshes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate as skin tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Linhua; Jin, Oh Seong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Sang, Jin Oh; Lee, Jaebeom; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook

    2014-11-01

    In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) core/shell fiber meshes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (HA/PLGA-E) for application to tissue engineering scaffolds for skin regeneration were prepared via coaxial electrospinning. Physicochemical properties of HA/PLGA-E core/shell fiber meshes were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle, EGCG release profiling and in vitro degradation. Biomechanical properties of HA/PLGA-E meshes were also investigated by a tensile strength test. SEM images showed that HA/PLGA-E fiber meshes had a three-dimensional interconnected pore structure with an average fiber diameter of about 1270 nm. Raman spectra revealed that EGCG was uniformly dispersed in the PLGA shell of meshes. HA/PLGA-E meshes showed sustained EGCG release patterns by controlled diffusion and PLGA degradation over 4 weeks. EGCG loading did not adversely affect the tensile strength and elastic modulus of HA/PLGA meshes, while increased their hydrophilicity and surface energy. Attachment of human dermal fibroblasts on HA/PLGA-E meshes was appreciably increased and their proliferation was steadily retained during the culture period. These results suggest that HA/PLGA-E core/shell fiber meshes can be potentially used as scaffolds supporting skin regeneration. PMID:25958546

  18. Effects of degree of quaternization on the preparation and characterization of insulin-loaded trimethyl chitosan polyelectrolyte complexes optimized by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yun; Zhou, Dan; Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of varying degrees of quaternization (DQ: 22, 35 and 41%) on the preparation and characterization of insulin (INS)-loaded polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) prepared by N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC). A two factor-five level central composite design was used for the optimization. The concentrations of INS and TMC were defined as independent variables, while the entrapment efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) as dependent variables. The three optimized INS-TMC PECs were characterized for their size, zeta potential, EE% and LE%. The morphology and electrostatic interaction of PECs were evaluated. Then, the stability in the enzyme solution and in vitro release as well as mucoadhesive properties of the three PECs were all investigated. The results showed that the size and EE% of the optimum formulations were significantly decreased using TMC of higher DQ, while the zeta potential and LE% were slightly influenced by DQ. The stability assay exhibited partial protection of TMC PECs, and the better protective effect was observed for PECs of higher DQ. The in vitro release study presented different initial and sustained release behaviors of INS-TMC PECs and the mucin adsorption study confirmed a positive correlation between the DQ and the mucoadhesive property of PECs. PMID:21563989

  19. Encapsulation-free controlled release: Electrostatic adsorption eliminates the need for protein encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pakulska, Malgosia M.; Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Obermeyer, Jaclyn M.; Tuladhar, Anup; McLaughlin, Christopher K.; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of therapeutic molecules within polymer particles is a well-established method for achieving controlled release, yet challenges such as low loading, poor encapsulation efficiency, and loss of protein activity limit clinical translation. Despite this, the paradigm for the use of polymer particles in drug delivery has remained essentially unchanged for several decades. By taking advantage of the adsorption of protein therapeutics to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, we demonstrate controlled release without encapsulation. In fact, we obtain identical, burst-free, extended-release profiles for three different protein therapeutics with and without encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles embedded within a hydrogel. Using both positively and negatively charged proteins, we show that short-range electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the PLGA nanoparticles are the underlying mechanism for controlled release. Moreover, we demonstrate tunable release by modifying nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, or environmental pH. These new insights obviate the need for encapsulation and offer promising, translatable strategies for a more effective delivery of therapeutic biomolecules. PMID:27386554

  20. Controllable promotion of chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels by controlled release of TGF-β1 from porous PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lei; Zhang, Guohua; Hou, Ruixia; Xu, Haiping; Li, Yaping; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels have been candidate materials for cartilage tissue engineering. However, the cell non-adhesive nature of PVA hydrogels has been a limit. In this paper, the cell adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels were promoted by compositing with transform growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) loaded porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. The porous microspheres were fabricated by a modified double emulsion method with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as porogen. The average pore size of microspheres was manipulated by changing the BSA/PLGA ratio. Such controllable porous structures effectively influenced the encapsulation efficiency (Eencaps) and release profile of TGF-β1. By compositing PVA hydrogels with such TGF-β1-loaded PLGA microspheres, chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted in a controllable manner, as confirmed by fluorescent imaging and quantitative CCK-8 assay. That is, the chondrocyte proliferation was favored by using PLGA microspheres with high Eencaps of TGF-β1 or by increasing the PLGA microsphere content in the hydrogels. These results demonstrated a facile method to improve the cell adhesion and growth on the intrinsically cell non-adhesive PVA hydrogels, which may find applications in cartilage substitution. PMID:25437063

  1. Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptations in muscle mass stimulated by changes in muscle loading state entail alternations in the synthesis and degradation of myofiber proteins and the modulation of myonuclear number such that the ratio between the number of myonuclei and the size of the myofibers remains relatively constant. As depicted schematically in Figure 2.6, the literature regarding the role of IGF-in mediating muscle adaptation to alterations in loading state suggests the following conclusions: During periods of increased loading, myofibers upregulate the expression and secretion of IGF-I. Acting as an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor, IGF-I stimulates myofiber anabolic processes. Acting as a paracrine growth factor, IGF-I also stimulates adjacent satellite cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Continued myofiber production of IGF-I stimulates some satellite cells to differentiate and then fuse with myofibers, thus providing additional myonuclei in order to maintain or reestablish the myonucleus to myofiber size ratios of the enlarged myofibers.

  2. Cartilage Regeneration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in the TGF-β1-Immobilized PLGA-Gelatin Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yin, Feng; Cai, Junfeng; Zen, Wen; Wei, Yanhui; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Feng; Singh, Shree Ram; Wei, Yiyong

    2015-06-01

    Articular cartilage has restricted self-regenerative capacity; therefore, treatment of cartilage lesions is a great challenge in the field of orthopedics. In the present study, we evaluate the enhancing effect of a transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-immobilized scaffold, fabricated by incorporating TGF-β1-loaded gelatin microspheres into PLGA framework, on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes. Significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in the TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold, as compared with the ASC-seeded non-TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold. When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs was evaluated for both constructs, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was significantly higher in the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold. This study showed that ASCs containing the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold better promoted cartilage regeneration in defective articular cartilage, which is assessed by histological observation. Based on the above results, we conclude that TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold seeded with ASCs considerably enhances the quality of the tissue-engineered cartilage, therefore, advancing the field of cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25267436

  3. Codelivery of SH-aspirin and curcumin by mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Duan, Xingmei; Zeng, Shi; Men, Ke; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Li; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Natural product curcumin (Cur) and H2S-releasing prodrug SH-aspirin (SH-ASA) are potential anticancer agents with diverse mechanisms, but their clinical application prospects are restricted by hydrophobicity and limited efficiency. In this work, we coencapsulated SH-ASA and Cur into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-coglycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles through a modified oil-in-water single-emulsion solvent evaporation process. The prepared SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 122.3±6.8 nm and were monodispersed (polydispersity index =0.179±0.016) in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. Intriguingly, by treating with SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obvious synergistic anticancer effects on ES-2 and SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were observed in vitro, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was indicated. Our results demonstrated that SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles could have potential clinical advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26316750

  4. Brain-Targeted Delivery of Trans-Activating Transcriptor-Conjugated Magnetic PLGA/Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifang; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jian; Fu, Yanyan; Du, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Ying; Liu, YongHai; Ma, Kai; Liu, Hongzhi; Song, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain. PMID:25187980

  5. Vitamin E-Oligo(methyl diglycol l-glutamate) as a Biocompatible and Functional Surfactant for Facile Preparation of Active Tumor-Targeting PLGA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jintian; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-11

    Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles have attracted an enormous interest for controlled drug delivery. Their clinical applications are, however, partly hindered by lack of biocompatible, biodegradable and functional surfactants. Here, we designed and developed a novel biocompatible surfactant based on amphiphilic vitamin E-oligo(methyl diglycol l-glutamate) (VEOEG) for facile fabrication of robust and tumor-targeting PLGA-based nanomedicines. VEOEG was prepared with controlled Mn of 1.7-2.6 kg/mol and low molecular weight distribution (Đ = 1.04-1.16) via polymerization of methyl diglycol l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride using vitamin E-ethylenediamine derivative (VE-NH2) as an initiator. VEOEG had a hydrophile-lipophile balance data of 13.8-16.1 and critical micellar concentration of 189.3-203.8 mg/L depending on lengths of oligopeptide. Using VEOEG as a surfactant, PLGA nanoparticles could be obtained via nanoprecipitation method with a small and uniform hydrodynamic size of 135 nm and positive surface charge of +26.6 mV, in accordance with presence of amino groups at the surface. The resulting PLGA nanoparticles could be readily coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) to form highly stable, small-sized (143 nm), monodisperse, and negatively charged nanoparticles (HA-PLGA NPs). Notably, paclitaxel-loaded HA-PLGA NPs (PTX-HA-PLGA NPs) exhibited better antitumor effects in CD44-positive MCF-7 breast tumor cells than Taxol (a clinical paclitaxel formulation). The in vivo pharmacokinetics assay in nude mice displayed that PTX-HA-PLGA NPs possessed a long plasma half-life of 3.14 h. The in vivo biodistribution studies revealed that PTX-HA-PLGA NPs had a high tumor PTX level of 8.4% ID/g, about 6 times better than that of Taxol. Interestingly, therapeutic studies showed that PTX-HA-PLGA NPs caused significantly more effective tumor growth inhibition, better survival rate and lower adverse effect than Taxol. VEOEG has emerged as a versatile and functional

  6. Surface characteristics of PLA and PLGA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragkumar N, Thanki; Edith, Dellacherie; Six, Jean-Luc

    2006-12-01

    Surface segregation and restructuring in polylactides (poly( D, L-lactide) and poly( L-lactide)) and poly( D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films of various thicknesses were investigated using both attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle relaxation measurements. In case of poly( D,L-lactide) (DLPLA), it was observed that the surface segregation and the surface restructuring of methyl side groups are influenced by the polymer film thickness. This result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the same way, PLGA thick films were also characterized by an extensive surface segregation of methyl side groups. Finally, surface restructuring was investigated by dynamic contact angle measurements and it was observed when film surface comes into contact with water. In parallel, we also found that poly( L-lactide) (PLLA) thin and clear films with thickness ˜15 μm undergo conformational changes on the surface upon solvent treatment with certain solvents. The solvent treated surface of PLLA becomes hazy and milky white and its hydrophobicity increases compared to untreated surface. FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that polymer chains at the surface undergo certain conformational changes upon solvent treatment. These changes are identified as the restricted motions of C-O-C segments and more intense and specific vibrations of methyl side groups. During solvent treatment, the change in water contact angle and FTIR spectrum of PLLA is well correlated.

  7. Structural effects of insulin-loading into HII mesophases monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS), and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Mishraki, Tehila; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca; Shames, Alexander I; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-06-30

    Insulin entrapment within a monoolein-based reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase was investigated under temperature-dependent conditions at acidic (pH 3) and basic (pH 8) conditions. Studying the structure of the host H(II) system and the interactions of insulin under temperature-dependent conditions has great impact on the enhancement of its thermal stabilization and controlled release for the purposes of transdermal delivery. Small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS) measurements show that pH variation and/or insulin entrapment preserve the hexagonal structure and do not influence the lattice parameter. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra indicate that, although insulin interacts with hydroxyl groups of GMO in the interface region, it is not affected by pH variations. Hence different microenvironments within the H(II) mesophase were monitored by a computer-aided electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis using 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA) as a pH-dependent probe. The microviscosity, micropolarity, order of systems, and distribution of the probes in different microenvironments were influenced by three factors: temperature, pH, and insulin solubilization. When the temperature is increased, microviscosity and order parameters decreased at both pH 3 and 8, presenting different decrease trends. It was found that, at pH 3, the protein perturbs the lipid structure while "pushing aside" the un-ionized 5-DSA probe to fit into the narrow water cylinders. At the interface region (pH 8), the probe was distributed in two differently structured environments that significantly modifies by increasing temperature. Insulin loading within the H(II) mesophase decreased the order and microviscosity of both the microenvironments and increased their micropolarity. Finally, the EPR analysis also provides information about the unfolding/denaturation of insulin within the channel at high temperatures. PMID:21591776

  8. Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Simon, Lacey; Astete, Carlos E; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami; Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize α-tocopherol (α-T) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) entrapped in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA (PLGA-Chi) based nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized and the effect of nanoparticles entrapment on the cellular uptake, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of α-T and TRF were tested. In vitro uptake studies in Caco2 cells showed that PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles displayed a greater enhancement in the cellular uptake of α-T and TRF when compared with the control without causing toxicity to the cells (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the cellular internalization of both PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles labeled with FITC was investigated by fluorescence microscopy; both types of nanoparticles were able to get internalized into the cells with reasonable amounts. However, PLGA-Chi nanoparticles showed significantly higher (3.5-fold) cellular uptake compared to PLGA nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity studies demonstrated that entrapment of α-T and TRF in PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation at 48 h compared to the control. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed marked cytotoxicity of TRF on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines when delivered by PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles after 48 h incubation compared to control. In summary, PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles may be considered as an attractive and promising approach to enhance the bioavailability and activity of poorly water soluble compounds such as α-tocopherol and tocotrienols. PMID:25622049

  9. Synchronic release of two hormonal contraceptives for about one month from the PLGA microspheres: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Zhijun; Zheng, Yan; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Qiang

    2008-08-01

    A controlled drug release system based on the injectable PLGA microspheres loaded with gestodene and ethinyl estradiol was prepared and evaluated for the feasibility of monthly synchronic delivery of the two hormonal contraceptives. The scanning electron microscopy, light-scattering analyzer and gel permeation chromatography were used to study the morphology, particle size and molecular weight of the polymer microspheres, respectively. HPLC was utilized to determine the drug loading and the drug released, while a LC-MS-MS system was employed to analyze the plasma drug concentration. Result indicated that the PLGA particles obtained were spherical and appropriate in size. The formulation was stable during the test period. In vitro drug release from the microspheres for both drugs was sustained for about 30 days mostly by the diffusion mechanism. The plasma drug concentration-time profiles of the drug-loaded microspheres were relatively smooth after subcutaneous injection to rats for about 1-month, compared with that for drug suspension. In vitro and in vivo correlation was established. One of the most important facts is the synchronicity of the two contraceptives both in the release kinetics in vitro and the pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo. Therefore, the synchronic delivery of two contraceptives is achieved for about 1 month by using the injectable PLGA-based microspheres. PMID:18539353

  10. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    PubMed

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine. PMID:27228466

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of paclitaxel loaded in six-arm star-shaped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongxia; Yang, Ziying; Liu, Chao; Wang, Cuiwei; Zhao, Shunxin; Yang, Jing; Sun, Hongfan; Zhang, Zhengpu; Kong, Deling; Song, Cunxian

    2013-01-01

    Background Star-shaped polymers provide more terminal groups, and are promising for application in drug-delivery systems. Methods A new series of six-arm star-shaped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (6-s-PLGA) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization. The structure and properties of the 6-s-PLGA were characterized by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Then, paclitaxel-loaded six-arm star-shaped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (6-s-PLGA-PTX-NPs) were prepared under the conditions optimized by the orthogonal testing. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the nanoparticles’ encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading capacity, dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size and size distribution, and transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate their morphology. The release performance of the 6-s-PLGA-PTX-NPs in vitro and the cytostatic effect of 6-s-PLGA-PTX-NPs were investigated in comparison with paclitaxel-loaded linear poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (L-PLGA-PTX-NPs). Results The results of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy suggest that the polymerization was successfully initiated by inositol and confirm the structure of 6-s-PLGA. The molecular weights of a series of 6-s-PLGAs had a ratio corresponding to the molar ratio of raw materials to initiator. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the 6-s-PLGA had a low glass transition temperature of 40°C–50°C. The 6-s-PLGA-PTX-NPs were monodispersed with an average diameter of 240.4±6.9 nm in water, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency of the 6-s-PLGA-PTX-NPs was higher than that of the L-PLGA-PTX-NPs. In terms of the in vitro release of nanoparticles, paclitaxel (PTX) was released more slowly and more steadily from 6-s-PLGA than from

  12. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Jiang, X.; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs. PMID:27093541

  13. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-Il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jiang, X; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs. PMID:27093541

  14. Biomimetic mucin modified PLGA nanoparticles for enhanced blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Thasneem, Y M; Rekha, M R; Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2013-11-01

    Efforts to develop long circulating polymeric nanoparticles have propelled many strategies in nanoparticle surface modification to bypass immune surveillance and systemic clearance. In this context, our present study reports on the preparation and evaluation of mucin functionalized poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles as hemocompatible, cell penetrating nanoparticulate drug delivery system. Amino groups of mucin were conjugated to the terminal carboxylic acid groups on PLGA to be followed by nanoparticle synthesis via standard solvent evaporation technique. Detailed in vitro experiments were performed to illustrate the significance of alternating copolymer structured mucin modified PLGA nanoparticles in terms of enhanced hemocompatibility and cellular uptake. Mucylation proved promising in controlling PLGA nanoparticle- interaction with plasma proteins (opsonins) and blood components via hemolysis, thrombogenecity and complement activation. Besides hemocompatibility, the modified and unmodified nanoparticles were also found to be cytocompatible with L929 and C6 cell lines. The fluorescent and confocal image analysis evaluated the extent of cellular uptake of nanoparticles into C6 cells. Specifically the combination of stealth properties and cellular internalization capacity of mucin modified PLGA nanoparticle (PLGA-Mucin) lead us to propose it as a safe, efficient and multifunctional nanoplatform for disease specific intravenous drug delivery applications as far as in vitro experiments are concerned. PMID:23978287

  15. Systemic delivery to central nervous system by engineered PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiang; Wang, Long; Deng, Gang; Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue; Chen, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders are an important global public health problem, but pharmaceutical treatments are limited due to drug access to the central nervous system being restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising drug and gene delivery systems for crossing the BBB. While these systems offer great promise, PLGA NPs also have some intrinsic drawbacks and require further engineering for clinical and research applications. Multiple strategies have been developed for using PLGA NPs to deliver compounds across the BBB. We classify these strategies into three categories according to the adaptations made to the PLGA NPs (1) to facilitate travel from the injection site (pre-transcytosis strategies); (2) to enhance passage across the brain endothelial cells (BBB transcytosis strategies) and (3) to achieve targeting of the impaired nervous system cells (post-transcytosis strategies). PLGA NPs modified according to these three strategies are denoted first, second, and third generation NPs, respectively. We believe that fusing these three strategies to engineer multifunctional PLGA NPs is the only way to achieve translational applications. PMID:27158367

  16. Systemic delivery to central nervous system by engineered PLGA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Wang, Long; Deng, Gang; Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue; Chen, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders are an important global public health problem, but pharmaceutical treatments are limited due to drug access to the central nervous system being restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising drug and gene delivery systems for crossing the BBB. While these systems offer great promise, PLGA NPs also have some intrinsic drawbacks and require further engineering for clinical and research applications. Multiple strategies have been developed for using PLGA NPs to deliver compounds across the BBB. We classify these strategies into three categories according to the adaptations made to the PLGA NPs (1) to facilitate travel from the injection site (pre-transcytosis strategies); (2) to enhance passage across the brain endothelial cells (BBB transcytosis strategies) and (3) to achieve targeting of the impaired nervous system cells (post-transcytosis strategies). PLGA NPs modified according to these three strategies are denoted first, second, and third generation NPs, respectively. We believe that fusing these three strategies to engineer multifunctional PLGA NPs is the only way to achieve translational applications. PMID:27158367

  17. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro evaluation of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles loaded with polyamidoamine-plasmid DNA dendriplexes for applications in non-viral gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Intra, Janjira; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2010-01-01

    We report, for the first time, on the preparation, characterization and in vitro testing of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles loaded with polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-plasmid DNA (pDNA) dendriplexes. Loading of pDNA into the PLGA microparticles increased by 150% when pDNA was first complexed with PAMAM dendrimers relative to loading of pDNA alone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the presence of PAMAM dendrimers in the PLGA microparticles created porous features and indentations on the surface of the microparticles. Loading PLGA microparticles with PAMAM-pDNA dendriplexes lowered the average PLGA microparticle size and changed the surface charge of the microparticles from negative to positive when compared to PLGA microparticles loaded with pDNA alone. The zetapotential and buffering capacity of the microparticles increased as the generation of the PAMAM dendrimer loaded in the PLGA microparticles increased. Gel electrophoresis assays showed that all the PLGA microparticle formulations were able to entrap the pDNA within the PLGA matrix. There was no significant difference in the cytotoxicity of PLGA microparticles loaded with PAMAM-pDNA dendriplexes when compared to PLGA microparticles loaded with pDNA alone. Furthermore, and in contrast to PAMAM dendrimers alone, the generation of the PAMAM dendrimer loaded in the PLGA microparticles had no significant impact on cytotoxicity or transfection efficiencies in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) or Monkey African green kidney fibroblast-like (COS7) cells. The transfection efficiency of PLGA microparticles loaded with generation 3 (G3) PAMAM-pDNA dendriplexes was significantly higher than PLGA microparticles loaded with pDNA alone in HEK293 and COS7 cells. PLGA microparticles loaded with G3 PAMAM-pDNA dendriplexes generated equivalent transfection efficiencies as (G3 to G6) PAMAM-pDNA dendriplexes alone in COS7 cells when the transfection was carried out in serum containing media. The delivery

  18. Detection of PLGA-based nanoparticles at a single-cell level by synchrotron radiation FTIR spectromicroscopy and correlation with X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Bortot, Barbara; Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Tosi, Giovanni; Ruozi, Barbara; Rizzardi, Clara; De Martino, Eleonora; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Severini, Giovanni Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) is one of the few polymers approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a carrier for drug administration in humans; therefore, it is one of the most used materials in the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for therapeutic purposes. Because the cellular uptake of polymeric NPs is a hot topic in the nanomedicine field, the development of techniques able to ensure incontrovertible evidence of the presence of NPs in the cells plays a key role in gaining understanding of their therapeutic potential. On the strength of this premise, this article aims to evaluate the application of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and SR X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscopy in the study of the in vitro interaction of PLGA NPs with cells. To reach this goal, we used PLGA NPs, sized around 200 nm and loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (PLGA-IO-NPs; Fe3O4; size, 10–15 nm). After exposing human mesothelial (MeT5A) cells to PLGA-IO-NPs (0.1 mg/mL), the cells were analyzed after fixation both by SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy and SR-XRF microscopy setups. SR-FTIR-SM enabled the detection of PLGA NPs at single-cell level, allowing polymer detection inside the biological matrix by the characteristic band in the 1,700–2,000 cm−1 region. The precise PLGA IR-signature (1,750 cm−1 centered pick) also was clearly evident within an area of high amide density. SR-XRF microscopy performed on the same cells investigated under SR-FTIR microscopy allowed us to put in evidence the Fe presence in the cells and to emphasize the intracellular localization of the PLGA-IO-NPs. These findings suggest that SR-FTIR and SR-XRF techniques could be two valuable tools to follow the PLGA NPs’ fate in in vitro studies on cell cultures. PMID:24944512

  19. Improved antifungal activity of amphotericin B-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Jiao, Ronghong; Xie, Chunmei; Xu, Lifa; Huo, Zhen; Dai, Jingjing; Qian, Yunyun; Xu, Weiwen; Hou, Wei; Wang, Jiang; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To develop amphotericin B-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) for fungal infection treatment, PLGA-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs were synthesized by a modified double emulsion method and characterized in terms of size and size distribution, morphology and zeta potential. Drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro/vivo tests against Candida glabrata were completed. The data showed that both of the two AMB-loaded NPs (PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) achieved significantly higher level of antifungal effects than water suspended AMB. In comparison with PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs had a stronger protective effect against candidiasis and gained an advantage of prolonged antifungal efficacy. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs system significantly improves AMB bioavailability by increasing the aqueous dispersibility and improving the antifungal activity. And this would be an excellent choice for the antifungal treatment of the entrapped drug because of its low toxicity and higher effectiveness. PMID:26131089

  20. Stem Cells Grown in Osteogenic Medium on PLGA, PLGA/HA, and Titanium Scaffolds for Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Asti, Annalia; Gastaldi, Giulia; Dorati, Rossella; Saino, Enrica; Conti, Bice; Visai, Livia; Benazzo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) can differentiate into various mesodermal cell types such as osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and myoblasts. We isolated hASCs from subcutaneous adipose tissue during orthopaedic surgery and induced the osteogenic differentiation for 28 days on three different synthetic scaffolds such as polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), polylactide-co-glycolide/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA), and trabecular titanium scaffolds (Ti6Al4V). Pore size can influence certain criteria such as cell attachment, infiltration, and vascularization. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PLGA and PLGA/HA scaffolds with a higher porosity, ranging between 75% and 84%, with respect to Ti scaffolds but with smaller pore size, seeded with hASCs to develop a model that could be used in the treatment of bone defects and fractures. Osteogenesis was assessed by ELISA quantitation of extracellular matrix protein expression, von Kossa staining, X-ray microanalysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The higher amount of protein matrix on the Ti scaffold with respect to PLGA and PLGA/HA leads to the conclusion that not only the type of material but the structure significantly affects cell proliferation. PMID:21234383

  1. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties.

    PubMed

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974±68nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832±70, 764±80, and 486±64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. PMID:27207035

  2. Genetic Variations in the Kir6.2 Subunit (KCNJ11) of Pancreatic ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Gene Are Associated with Insulin Response to Glucose Loading and Early Onset of Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Der; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Pei, Dee; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Wei, Jun-Nan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chang, Tien-Jyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene on early onset of type 2 diabetes in school-aged children/adolescents in Taiwan, we recruited 38 subjects with type 2 diabetes (ages 18.6 ± 6.6 years; body mass index percentiles 83.3 ± 15.4) and 69 normal controls (ages 17.3 ± 3.8 years; body mass index percentiles 56.7 ± 29.0) from a national surveillance for childhood/adolescent diabetes in Taiwan. We searched for the E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene. We found that type 2 diabetic subjects had higher carrier rate of E23K polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene than control subjects (P = 0.044). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index percentiles, and fasting plasma insulin, the E23K polymorphism contributed to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (P = 0.047). K23-allele-containing genotypes conferring increased plasma insulin level during OGTT in normal subjects. However, the diabetic subjects with the K23-allele-containing genotypes had lower fasting plasma insulin levels after adjustment of age and BMI percentiles. In conclusion, the E23K variant of the KCNJ11 gene conferred higher susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in children/adolescents. Furthermore, in normal glucose-tolerant children/adolescents, K23 allele carriers had a higher insulin response to oral glucose loading. PMID:25309595

  3. Seeing is believing, PLGA microsphere degradation revealed in PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Sun, Xuanhao; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-04-28

    The aim of this study was to understand the polymer degradation and drug release mechanism from PLGA microspheres embedded in a PVA hydrogel. Two types of microspheres were prepared with different molecular weight PLGA polymers (approximately 25 and 7kDa) to achieve different drug release profiles, with a 9-day lag phase and without a lag phase, respectively. The kinetics of water uptake into the microspheres coincided with the drug release profiles for both formulations. For the 25kDa microspheres, minimal water uptake was observed in the early part of the lag phase followed by substantial water uptake at the later stages and in the drug release phase. For the 7kDa microspheres, water uptake occurred simultaneously with drug release. Water uptake was approximately 2-3 times that of the initial microsphere weight for both formulations. The internal structure of the PLGA microspheres was evaluated using low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Burst drug release occurred followed by pore forming from the exterior to the core of both microspheres. A well-defined hydrogel/microsphere interface was observed. For the 25kDa microspheres, internal pore formation and swelling occurred before the second drug release phase. The surface layer of the microspheres remained intact whereas swelling, and degradation of the core continued throughout the drug release period. In addition, microsphere swelling reduced glucose transport through the coatings in PBS media and this was considered to be a as a consequence of the increased thickness of the coatings. The combination of the swelling and microdialysis results provides a fresh understanding on the competing processes affecting molecular transport of bioanalytes (i.e. glucose) through these composite coatings during prolonged exposure in PBS. PMID:26965956

  4. Janus nanogels of PEGylated Taxol and PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Huaimin; Zhu, Meifeng; Ding, Dan; Li, Dongxia; Yin, Zhinan; Wang, Lianyong; Yang, Zhimou

    2013-09-01

    Nanogels are promising carriers for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for cancer therapy. We report in this study on a Janus nanogel system formed by mixing a prodrug of Taxol (PEGylated Taxol) and a copolymer of PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The Janus nanogels have good stability over months in aqueous solutions and the freeze-dried powder of nanogels can be re-dispersed instantly in aqueous solutions. The Janus nanogels show an enhanced inhibition effect on tumor growth in a mice breast cancer model probably due to the enhanced uptake of the nano-sized materials by the EPR effect. What is more, the nanogels can also serve as physical carriers to co-deliver other anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin to further improve the anti-cancer efficacy. The results obtained from H&E staining and TUNEL assay also support the observation of tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest the potential of this novel delivery system for cancer therapy.Nanogels are promising carriers for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for cancer therapy. We report in this study on a Janus nanogel system formed by mixing a prodrug of Taxol (PEGylated Taxol) and a copolymer of PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The Janus nanogels have good stability over months in aqueous solutions and the freeze-dried powder of nanogels can be re-dispersed instantly in aqueous solutions. The Janus nanogels show an enhanced inhibition effect on tumor growth in a mice breast cancer model probably due to the enhanced uptake of the nano-sized materials by the EPR effect. What is more, the nanogels can also serve as physical carriers to co-deliver other anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin to further improve the anti-cancer efficacy. The results obtained from H&E staining and TUNEL assay also support the observation of tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest the potential of this novel delivery system for cancer therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization of compounds, dynamic time sweep, H

  5. Dry powders based on PLGA nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of antibiotics: modulation of encapsulation efficiency, release rate and lung deposition pattern by hydrophilic polymers.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Francesca; d'Angelo, Ivana; Coletta, Ciro; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Perfetto, Brunella; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Miro, Agnese; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2012-01-10

    Although few experimental studies have been handled so far to exploit the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in the production of dry powders for antibiotic inhalation, there has been no comprehensive study on the role played by NP composition. In this work, we try to shed light on this aspect by designing and developing a pulmonary delivery system for antibiotics, such as tobramycin (Tb), based on PLGA NPs embedded in an inert microcarrier made of lactose, referred to as nano-embedded micro-particles (NEM). At nanosize level, helper hydrophilic polymers were used to impart the desired surface, bulk and release properties to PLGA NPs prepared by a modified emulsion-solvent diffusion technique. Results showed that poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) are essential to optimise the size and modulate the surface properties of Tb-loaded PLGA NPs, whereas the use of alginate (Alg) allows efficient Tb entrapment within NPs and its release up to one month. Optimized formulations display good in vitro antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa planktonic cells. Furthermore, spray-drying of the NPs with lactose yielded NEM with peculiar but promising flow and aerosolization properties, while preserving the peculiar NP features. Nonetheless, in vivo biodistribution studies showed that PVA-modified Alg/PLGA NPs reached the deep lung, while CS-modified NPs were found in great amounts in the upper airways, lining lung epithelial surfaces. In conclusion, PLGA NP composition appears to play a crucial role in determining not only the technological features of NPs but, once processed in the form of NEM, also their in vitro/in vivo deposition pattern. PMID:21864595

  6. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  7. Effect of Miglitol (Bay m1099), a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP responses to an oral sucrose load in patients with post-prandial hypoglycaemic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Parer-Richard, C; Richard, J L; Jureidini, S; Orsetti, A; Mirouze, J

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from symptoms suggestive of idiopathic reactive hypoglycaemia and reproducible during an oral glucose tolerance test when plasma glucose was less than or equal to 2.8 mM, were included in an acute, double-blind and cross-over study to test the efficacy of Miglitol (Bay m1099), a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor versus placebo. Patients were randomized to ingest 100 mg Miglitol or placebo together with a sucrose solution (45 g/m2 body surface), one week apart. During four hours, plasma glucose levels were continuously monitored and plasma insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were measured at 30-minute intervals; serum C-peptide concentration was determined at 0, 30, 60 minutes and then every hour. The post-load rise in plasma glucose was significantly blunted by Miglitol, as shown by the reduced plasma glucose peak, the diminished early (0-120 min) area under the glycaemic curve and the decreased rate of plasma glucose rise. Thereafter, plasma glucose nadir was significantly raised and rate of plasma glucose fall was slowed by Miglitol with a concomitant improvement in the hypoglycaemic index. Insulin secretion was dampened as indicated by parallel reduction of plasma insulin and serum C-peptide peaks; morever, early area under the insulin curve and total (0-240 min) area under the C-peptide curve were significantly reduced. Decrease of plasma GIP peak and total area under the GIP curve were also significant. During sucrose tolerance test with Miglitol, hypoglycaemic symptoms were significantly alleviated but intestinal side-effects were common. Blunting the insulin response to glucose directly by delaying glucose absorption and indirectly through reducing GIP secretion, may be a valuable therapeutic approach in reactive hypoglycemia; nevertheless, long-term study with Miglitol are needed, due to the poor intestinal tolerance of this drug in the present acute study. PMID:1884880

  8. PLGA Nanoparticles for Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy of Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Novel Approach towards Reduction of Renal Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Geetanjali; Shukla, Jaya; Ghosh, Sourabh; Maulik, Subir Kumar; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad

    2012-01-01

    Background Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), employed for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is based on over-expression of Somatostatin Receptors (SSTRs) on NETs. It is, however, limited by high uptake and retention of radiolabeled peptide in kidneys resulting in unnecessary radiation exposure thus causing nephrotoxicity. Employing a nanocarrier to deliver PRRT drugs specifically to the tumor can reduce the associated nephrotoxicity. Based on this, 177Lu-DOTATATE loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated in the present study, as a potential therapeutic model for NETs. Methodology and Findings DOTATATE was labeled with Lutetium-177 (177Lu) (labeling efficiency 98%; Rf∼0.8). Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) coated 177Lu-DOTATATE-PLGA NPs (50∶50 and 75∶25) formulated, were spherical with mean size of 304.5±80.8 and 733.4±101.3 nm (uncoated) and 303.8±67.2 and 494.3±71.8 nm (coated) for PLGA(50∶50) and PLGA(75∶25) respectively. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and In-vitro release kinetics for uncoated and coated NPs of PLGA (50∶50 & 75∶25) were assessed and compared. Mean EE was 77.375±4.98% & 67.885±5.12% (uncoated) and 65.385±5.67% & 58.495±5.35% (coated). NPs showed initial burst release between 16.64–21.65% with total 42.83–44.79% over 21days. The release increased with coating to 20.4–23.95% initially and 60.97–69.12% over 21days. In-vivo studies were done in rats injected with 177Lu-DOTATATE and 177Lu-DOTATATE-NP (uncoated and PEG-coated) by imaging and organ counting after sacrificing rats at different time points over 24 hr post-injection. With 177Lu-DOTATATE, renal uptake of 37.89±10.2%ID/g was observed, which reduced to 4.6±1.97% and 5.27±1.66%ID/g with uncoated and coated 177Lu-DOTATATE-NP. The high liver uptake with uncoated 177Lu-DOTATATE-NP (13.68±3.08% ID/g), reduced to 7.20±2.04%ID/g (p = 0.02) with PEG coating. Conclusion PLGA NPs were easily formulated and modified for desired release properties

  9. In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velásquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

  10. PLA/PLGA nanoparticles for sustained release of docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, T; Ventura, C A; Giannone, I; Ruozi, B; Montenegro, L; Pignatello, R; Puglisi, G

    2006-11-15

    This study investigates the potentiality of nanosphere colloidal suspensions as sustained release systems for intravenous administration of docetaxel (DTX). Nanospheres were prepared by solvent displacement method using polylactic acids (PLA) at different molecular weight and polylactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) as biodegradable matrices. The systems were characterized by light scattering analysis for their mean size, size distribution and zeta potential and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology. The average diameters of the nanoparticles ranged from 100 to 200 nm. Negative zeta potential values were observed for all systems, particularly the nanospheres produced with the lowest molecular weight PLA showed a zeta potential value of -28mV. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) suggested that DTX was molecularly dispersed in the polymeric matrices. A biphasic release of DTX was observed for all colloidal suspensions, after a burst effect in which about 50% (w/w) of the loaded drug was released a sustained release profile for about 10 days was observed. To evaluate the influence of the polymeric carrier on the interaction of DTX with biological membranes, we performed an in vitro study using lipid vesicles made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a biomembrane model. DSC was used as a simple and not invasive technique of analysis. DTX produced a depression of DPPC pretransition peak, no variation of the main phase transition temperature and a significative increase of DeltaH value, showing a superficial penetration of the drug into DPPC bilayer. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that the release process of DTX form nanospheres is affected by the molecular weight of the employed polymers. PMID:16887303

  11. A comparison between PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA nanocarriers in curcumin delivery for hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Roointan, A; Sharifi-Rad, M; Badrzadeh, F; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men. Since the main reason of cancer cells immortality is telomerase activity, targeting of such enzyme can be a promising approach in cancer therapy. Curcumin is a safe and efficient anticancer agent in this context, but its applications in cancer therapy are limited because of its hydrophobic structure and low solubility in water. Today, using nanocarriers for delivery of such anticancer agents is a well performed method. Here, we developed and compared the efficiency of two nanocarriers (PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA) in delivery of curcumin and also in levels of hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line (calu-6). Scanning electron microscopy, MTT assays and real-time PCR were used for imaging, cytotoxicity testing and measuring the expression levels of hTERT after treatment of cells with different concentrations of free curcumin and curcumin loaded nanocarriers. The MTT results demonstrated that the IC50 values of curcumin loaded nanocarriers were in lower concentrations than free curcumin. The hTERT expression levels were decreased by curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG more than curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA and free curcumin. Our results showed that the curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG can be a useful nano based carrier for delivery of anti-cancer agents such as curcumin to fight lung cancer. PMID:27585262

  12. Using a novel coculture model to dissect the role of intramuscular lipid load on skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness under reduced estrogen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wohlers, Lindsay M.; Powers, Brittany L.; Chin, Eva R.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in estrogen function lead to adiposity and peripheral insulin resistance. Significant metabolic changes have been found in adipocytes and skeletal muscle with disruptions in the estrogen-signaling axis; however, it is unclear if intercellular communication exists between these tissues. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of isolated adipocytes cocultured with single adult skeletal muscle fibers (SMF) collected from control female (SHAM) and ovariectomized female (OVX) mice. In addition, a second purpose was to compare differential effects of primary adipocytes from omental and inguinal adipose depots on SMF from these same groups. OVX SMF displayed greater lipid content, impaired insulin signaling, and lower insulin-induced glucose uptake compared with SHAM SMF without coculture. In the SHAM group, regardless of the adipose depot of origin, coculture induced greater intracellular lipid content compared with control SHAM SMF. The increased lipid in the SMF was associated with impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake when adipocytes were of omental, but not inguinal, origin. Coculture of OVX SMF with omental or inguinal adipocytes resulted in higher lipid content but no further reduction in insulin-induced glucose uptake compared with control OVX SMF. The data indicate that, in the OVX condition, there is a threshold for lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle beyond which there is no further impairment in insulin responsiveness. These results also demonstrate depot-specific effects of adipocyte exposure on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and further implicate a role for increased intracellular lipid storage in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance when estrogen levels are reduced. PMID:23548610

  13. Facile Construction of Chloroquine Containing PLGA-Based pDNA Delivery System for Efficient Tumor and Pancreatitis Targeting in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengli; Hu, Tingting; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Lijing; Zhou, Pengxiang; He, Gu; Song, Xiangrong; Tong, Aiping; Guo, Gang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoning; Qian, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaorong; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) was ingeniously used to take place of phosphate salt in traditional calcium phosphate coprecipitation method for pDNA transfection. With multiple roles of CQ in the novel Ca-CQ-pDNA complex including pDNA compaction and assistance in lysosome escape, the transfection efficiency of the pDNA was significantly increased relative to the traditional method. CQ did not intercalate into the DNA double helix as free CQ did, which was probably ascribed to the prior mixing of the pDNA with high concentration of calcium chloride. In order to construct efficacious vector for in vivo gene delivery, Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NPs was designed and prepared. With entrapment efficiency, particle size and pDNA integrity as screening conditions, the optimal prescription was obtained and CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs made with classic calcium phosphate coprecipitation method after optimization was also prepared as control to systematically study the role of CQ in the novel vector. Physical characters of the vectors were comprehensively studied using TEM, DSC, and XRD. The safety of the vector both in vitro and in vivo was evaluated using MTT, hemolysis test, and histological sections. The Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NPs dramatically enhanced the gene tranfection efficiency in Human Embryonic kidney HEK293 cells compared with the CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs and presented an increasing gene transfection for up 144 h. The relative fast release of the CQ compared with pDNA from the nanoparticles was responsive for the increased transfection. The Did-labeled-Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NPs exhibited excellent tumor targeting efficiency and sustained circulation time in CT26 mouse model. The Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NP loaded with the plasmid pVITRO2 expressing mSurvivin-T34A protein gave 70% tumor inhibition rate, which was partially ascribed to CQ. The Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NPs showed high targeting efficiency in C57 acute pancreatitis model. In all, the Ca-CQ-pDNA-PLGA-NP was a promising candidate for targeted gene delivery to

  14. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-03-01

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising

  15. Encapsulation of lipophilic kiteplatin Pt(iv) prodrugs in PLGA-PEG micelles.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Nicola; Savino, Salvatore; Denora, Nunzio; Marzano, Cristina; Laquintana, Valentino; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Hoeschele, James D; Gandin, Valentina; Natile, Giovanni

    2016-08-16

    Biodegradable, PEG-coated, nanoparticles (NPs) have gained therapeutic application as injectable colloidal systems for the controlled and site-specific release of drugs. In this paper, encapsulation in PLGA-PEG polymer NPs has been exploited to lower the toxicity and to increase the antitumor activity of kiteplatin ([PtCl2(cis-1,4-DACH)]). Kiteplatin contains an isomeric form of the diamine ligand present in oxaliplatin and proved to be particularly active against ovarian and colon cancers. To favor encapsulation of the platinum drug in the hydrophobic core of the polymeric micelles, Pt(iv) prodrugs having hydrophobic carboxylic ligands at the axial positions were used in place of hydrophilic Pt(ii) complexes (compounds 1-4). The size, size distribution, and zeta potential (ZP) were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) correlated to the alkyl chain length of the different Pt(iv) prodrugs. The number of the Pt atoms per NP (in the range of 1.3-2.4 × 10(6)) is comparable to that of polysilsesquioxane-based NPs and higher than that found for other nanoparticle platforms. The platinum-loaded PLGA-PEG NPs, tested in vivo in a syngeneic murine solid tumor (LLC), had a higher antitumor effect and, most importantly, were markedly less toxic than kiteplatin. PMID:27094010

  16. Magnetic field activated drug release system based on magnetic PLGA microspheres for chemo-thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kun; Song, Lina; Gu, Zhuxiao; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been extensively investigated for cancer therapy in order to obtain better specific targeting and therapeutic efficiency. Herein, we developed doxorubicin-loaded magnetic PLGA microspheres (DOX-MMS), in which DOX was encapsulated in the core and high contents (28.3 wt%) of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (IOs) were electrostatically assembled on the surface of microsphere to ensure the high sensitivity to response of an external alternating current magnetic field (ACMF). The IOs in PLGA shell can both induce the heat effect and trigger shell permeability enhancement to release drugs when DOX-MMs was activated by ACMF. Results show that the cumulative drug release from DOX-MMs exposed to ACMF for 30 min (21.6%) was significantly higher (approximately 7 times higher) than that not exposed to ACMF (2.8%). The combination of hyperthermia and enhanced DOX release from DOX-MMS is beneficial for in vitro 4T1 breast cancer cell apoptosis as well as effective inhibition of tumor growth in 4T1 tumor xenografts. Therefore, the DOX-MMS can be optimized as powerful delivery system for efficient magnetic responsive drug release and chemo-thermal therapy. PMID:26513754

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of PLGA Microspheres Containing Nalmefene

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiangyang; Lin, Wen; Xing, Chuanfeng; Yang, Yanfang; Chi, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Ying; Li, Zhiping; Yang, Yang; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Mingyuang

    2015-01-01

    Poor patient compliance, untoward reactions and unstable blood drug levels after the bolus administration are impeding the pharmacotherapy for insobriety. A long-acting preparation may address these limitations. The aim of this paper was to further investigate the in vitro characteristics and in vivo performances of nalmefene microspheres. Nalmefene was blended with poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to prepare the target microspheres by an O/O emulsification solvent evaporation method. The prepared microspheres exhibited a controlled release profile of nalmefene in vitro over 4 weeks, which was well fitted with a first-order model. In vitro degradation study showed that the drug release in vitro was dominated by both drug diffusion and polymer degradation mechanisms. Pharmacokinetics study indicated that the prepared microspheres could provide a relatively constant of nalmefene plasma concentration for at least one month in rats. The in vivo pharmacokinetics profile was well correlated with the in vitro drug release. Pharmacodynamics studies revealed that the drug loaded microspheres could produce a long-acting antagonism efficacy on rats. These results demonstrated the promising application of injectable PLGA microspheres containing nalmefene for the long-term treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25938514

  18. PVA bio-nanocomposites: a new take-off using cellulose nanocrystals and PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rescignano, N; Fortunati, E; Montesano, S; Emiliani, C; Kenny, J M; Martino, S; Armentano, I

    2014-01-01

    The formation of a new generation of hybrid bio-nanocomposites is reported: these are intended at modulating the mechanical, thermal and biocompatibility properties of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by the combination of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with bovine serum albumin fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC-BSA). CNC were synthesized from microcrystalline cellulose by hydrolysis, while PLGA nanoparticles were produced by a double emulsion with subsequent solvent evaporation. Firstly, binary bio-nanocomposites with different CNC amounts were developed in order to select the right content of CNC. Next, ternary PVA/CNC/NPs bio-nanocomposites were developed. The addition of CNC increased the elongation properties without compromising the other mechanical responses. Thermal analysis underlined the nucleation effect of the synergic presence of cellulose and nanoparticles. Remarkably, bio-nanocomposite films are suitable to vehiculate biopolymeric nanoparticles to adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells successfully, thus representing a new tool for drug delivery strategies. PMID:24274478

  19. Nerve growth factor released from a novel PLGA nerve conduit can improve axon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keng-Min; Shea, Jill; Gale, Bruce K.; Sant, Himanshu; Larrabee, Patti; Agarwal, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Nerve injury can occur due to penetrating wounds, compression, traumatic stretch, and cold exposure. Despite prompt repair, outcomes are dismal. In an attempt to help resolve this challenge, in this work, a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nerve conduit with associated biodegradable drug reservoir was designed, fabricated, and tested. Unlike current nerve conduits, this device is capable of fitting various clinical scenarios by delivering different drugs without reengineering the whole system. To demonstrate the potential of this device for nerve repair, a series of experiments were performed using nerve growth factor (NGF). First, an NGF dosage curve was developed to determine the minimum NGF concentration for optimal axonal outgrowth on chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. Next, PLGA devices loaded with NGF were evaluated for sustained drug release and axon growth enhancement with the released drug. A 20 d in vitro release test was conducted and the nerve conduit showed the ability to meet and maintain the minimum NGF requirement determined previously. Bioactivity assays of the released NGF showed that drug released from the device between the 15th and 20th day could still promote axon growth (76.6-95.7 μm) in chick DRG cells, which is in the range of maximum growth. These novel drug delivery conduits show the ability to deliver NGF at a dosage that efficiently promotes ex vivo axon growth and have the potential for in vivo application to help bridge peripheral nerve gaps.

  20. Development of porous PLGA/PEI1.8k biodegradable microspheres for the delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sook; Lim, Kwang Suk; Oh, Jung-Eun; Yun, Arum; Joo, Wan Seok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promise a therapeutic alternative for many debilitating and incurable diseases. However, one of the major limitations for the therapeutic application of human MSC (hMSC) is the lengthy ex vivo expansion time for preparing a sufficient amount of cells due to the low engraftment rate after transplantation. To solve this conundrum, a porous biodegradable polymeric microsphere was investigated as a potential scaffold for the delivery of MSCs. The modified water/oil/water (W1/O/W2) double emulsion solvent evaporation method was used for the construction of porous microspheres. PEI1.8k was blended with Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to enhance electrostatic cellular attachment to the microspheres. The porous PLGA/PEI1.8k (PPP) particles demonstrated an average particle size of 290 µm and an average pore size of 14.3 µm, providing a micro-carrier for the MSC delivery. PPP particles allowed for better attachment of rMSCs than nonporous PLGA/PEI1.8k (NPP) particles and non-porous (NP) and porous PLGA (PP) microspheres. rMSC successfully grew on the PPP particles for 2 weeks in vitro. Next, PPP particles loaded with 3 different amounts of hMSC showed increased in vivo engraftment rates and maintained the stemness characteristics of hMSC compared with hMSCs-alone group in rats 2 weeks after intramyocardial administration. These customized PPP particles for MSC delivery are a biodegradable and injectable scaffold that can be used for clinical applications. PMID:25575866

  1. Biosimilar Insulins

    PubMed Central

    Hompesch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Until now most of the insulin used in developed countries has been manufactured and distributed by a small number of multinational companies. Beyond the established insulin manufacturers, a number of new players have developed insulin manufacturing capacities based on modern biotechnological methods. Because the patents for many of the approved insulin formulations have expired or are going to expire soon, these not yet established companies are increasingly interested in seeking market approval for their insulin products as biosimilar insulins (BI) in highly regulated markets like the EU and the United States. Differences in the manufacturing process (none of the insulin manufacturing procedures are 100% identical) can lead to insulins that to some extent may differ from the originator insulin. The key questions are if subtle differences in the structure of the insulins, purity, and so on are clinically relevant and may result in different biological effects. The aim of this article is to introduce and discuss basic aspects that may be of relevance with regard to BI. PMID:24876530

  2. Biosimilar insulins.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    Until now most insulin used in developed countries is manufactured and distributed by a small number of multinational companies. Other pharmaceutical companies - many of these are located in countries such as India or China - are also able to manufacture insulin with modern biotechnological methods. Additionally, the patents for many insulin formulations have expired or are going to expire soon. This enables such companies to produce insulins and to apply for market approval of these as biosimilar insulins (BIs) in highly regulated markets such as the EU or the US. To understand the complexity of BIs' approval and usage, scientific and regulatory aspects have to be discussed. Differences in the manufacturing process (none of the insulin-manufacturing procedures are identical) result in the fact that all insulin that might become BIs differ from the originator insulin to some extent. The question is, have such differences in the structure of the insulin molecule and or the purity and so on clinically relevant consequences for the biological effects induced or not. The guidelines already in place in the EU for market approval require that the manufacturer demonstrates that his insulin has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the 'original' insulin formulation. Recently guidelines for biosimilars were issued in the US; however, these do not cover insulin. Although a challenging approval process for insulins to become BI might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant, and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. Nevertheless, it is very likely that in the next years, BIs will come to the market also in highly regulated markets. PMID:22583127

  3. Huperzine A-phospholipid complex-loaded biodegradable thermosensitive polymer gel for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoqing; Luan, Yuxia; Jiang, Yue; Song, Aixin; Shao, Wei; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Zhongxi

    2012-08-20

    The huperzine A-phospholipid complex loaded biodegradable thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer gel was studied as injectable implant system for controlled release of huperzine-A (HA). First, HA molecules were successfully incorporated into the soybean phosphatidylcholine (SP) molecules to form the huperzine-A-soybean phosphatidylcholine complexes (HA-SPC), which was proved by FT-IR, DSC, XRD, solubility study, TEM, etc. The results indicated that hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction between HA and SP molecules play an important role in the formation of HA-SPC. Secondly, the HA-SPC was loaded into biodegradable PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermosensitive gel as injectable implant material to control the release of HA. The in vitro and in vivo drug release behaviors of the prepared products were studied. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that the HA-SPC-loaded gel significantly reduced the initial burst of drug release and extended the release period to about 2 weeks. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study of HA-SPC-loaded gel in rabbits showed that plasma concentration of HA (2.54-0.15ng/mL) was detected for nearly 2 weeks from delivery systems upon single subcutaneous injection. What's more, the in vitro release pattern correlated well with the in vivo pharmacokinetics profile. The present study indicates that HA-SPC loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermal gel may be an attractive candidate vehicle for controlled HA release. PMID:22583846

  4. Emulsion Electrospinning as an Approach to Fabricate PLGA/Chitosan Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tavanai, Hossein; Hilborn, Jöns; Donzel-Gargand, Olivier; Leifer, Klaus; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2014-01-01

    Novel nanofibers from blends of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and chitosan have been produced through an emulsion electrospinning process. The spinning solution employed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsifier. PVA was extracted from the electrospun nanofibers, resulting in a final scaffold consisting of a blend of PLGA and chitosan. The fraction of chitosan in the final electrospun mat was adjusted from 0 to 33%. Analyses by scanning and transmission electron microscopy show uniform nanofibers with homogenous distribution of PLGA and chitosan in their cross section. Infrared spectroscopy verifies that electrospun mats contain both PLGA and chitosan. Moreover, contact angle measurements show that the electrospun PLGA/chitosan mats are more hydrophilic than electrospun mats of pure PLGA. Tensile strengths of 4.94 MPa and 4.21 MPa for PLGA/chitosan in dry and wet conditions, respectively, illustrate that the polyblend mats of PLGA/chitosan are strong enough for many biomedical applications. Cell culture studies suggest that PLGA/chitosan nanofibers promote fibroblast attachment and proliferation compared to PLGA membranes. It can be assumed that the nanofibrous composite scaffold of PLGA/chitosan could be potentially used for skin tissue reconstruction. PMID:24689041

  5. Development of a methacrylate-terminated PLGA copolymer for potential use in craniomaxillofacial fracture plates.

    PubMed

    Upson, Sarah J; Partridge, Simon W; Tcacencu, Ion; Fulton, David A; Corbett, Ian; German, Matthew J; Dalgarno, Kenneth W

    2016-12-01

    We synthesised methacrylate-terminated PLGA (HT-PLGA, 85:15 LA:GA, 169kDa), for potential use as an adhesively attached craniomaxillofacial fracture fixation plate. The in vitro degradation of molecular weight, pH and flexural modulus were measured over 6weeks storage in PBS at 37°C, with commercially available high (225kDa, H-PLGA) and low (116kDa, L-PLGA) molecular weight 85:15 PLGAs used as comparators. Molecular weights of the materials reduced over 6weeks, HT-PLGA by 48%, H-PLGA by 23% and L-PLGA by 81%. HT-PLGA and H-PLGA exhibited a near constant pH (7.35) and had average flexural moduli in excess of 6GPa when produced, similar to that of the mandible. After 1week storage both exhibited a significant reduction in average modulus, however, from weeks 1-6 no further significant changes were observed, the average modulus never dropped significantly below 5.5GPa. In contrast, the L-PLGA caused a pH drop to below 7.3 by week 6 and an average modulus drop to 0.6 from an initial 4.6GPa. Cell culture using rat bone marrow stromal cells, revealed all materials were cytocompatible and exhibited no osteogenic potential. We conclude that our functionalised PLGA retains mechanical properties which are suitable for use in craniofacial fixation plates. PMID:27612737

  6. Biodegradable Nanoparticles of mPEG-PLGA-PLL Triblock Copolymers as Novel Non-Viral Vectors for Improving siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Wang, Chun-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang; Duan, You-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of mRNA by RNA interference is one of the most powerful and specific mechanisms for gene silencing. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) made from monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-l-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) triblock copolymers. Various physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs, including morphology, size, surface charge, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile of siRNA from NPs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of siRNA uptake and targeted gene inhibition were detected in human lung cancer SPC-A1-GFP cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein. Examination of the cultured SPC-A1-GFP cells with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry showed NPs loading Cy3-labeled siRNA had much higher intracellular siRNA delivery efficiencies than siRNA alone and Lipofectamine-siRNA complexes. The gene silencing efficiency of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs was higher than that of commercially available transfecting agent Lipofectamine while showing no cytotoxicity. Thus, the current study demonstrates that biodegradable NPs of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers can be potentially applied as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing. PMID:22312268

  7. Antigen delivery via hydrophilic PEG-b-PAGE-b-PLGA nanoparticles boosts vaccination induced T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Rietscher, René; Schröder, Matthias; Janke, Julia; Czaplewska, Justyna; Gottschaldt, Michael; Scherließ, Regina; Hanefeld, Andrea; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Marc; Knolle, Percy A; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-05-01

    Here, we evaluate the use of hydrophilic PEG-b-PAGE-b-PLGA (PPP) for the preparation of antigen loaded nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for prophylactic vaccination. To investigate the suitability of PPP-NPs for antigen delivery, we used the double emulsion evaporation technique to prepare NPs of different sizes, antigen-loading efficiencies and -release kinetics for the model antigen Ovalbumin (OVA). Prior to applying the PPP-NPs in biological in vitro or in vivo models, all materials were tested for absence of cytotoxicity and endotoxins. While the uptake of NPs in antigen presenting cells was size but not polymer dependent, the efficiency of cross presentation of NP-associated antigen on MHC I molecules for CD8 T cell activation depended on the polymer type. T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells was significantly increased in vitro if antigen was delivered via PPP NPs compared to PLGA NPs or soluble OVA, although antigen content was the same in all tested formulations. Subcutaneous application of PPP-OVA-NPs even without adjuvants led to generation of potent CD8 T cell-mediated OVA-specific cytotoxicity in vivo that was more pronounced than after application of OVA alone or PLGA-OVA-NPs. Our data suggest that PPP-NPs can serve as platform for antigen-delivery in future vaccination formulations. Although PPP-NPs already bear intrinsic adjuvant-function, the complementation with TLR ligands loaded inside NPs may further strengthen the immune response to a point, where it might be possible to use it as a therapeutic vaccine to break immune tolerance in chronic disease states. PMID:26940132

  8. Aqueous Two Phase System Assisted Self-Assembled PLGA Microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeredla, Nitish; Kojima, Taisuke; Yang, Yi; Takayama, Shuichi; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2016-06-01

    Here, we produce poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microparticles with varying morphologies, and temperature responsive properties utilizing a Pluronic F127/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) assisted self-assembly. The PLGA polymer, when emulsified in Pluronic F127/dextran ATPS, forms unique microparticle structures due to ATPS guided-self assembly. Depending on the PLGA concentration, the particles either formed a core-shell or a composite microparticle structure. The microparticles facilitate the simultaneous incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, due to their amphiphilic macromolecule composition. Further, due to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of Pluronic F127, the particles exhibit temperature responsiveness. The ATPS based microparticle formation demonstrated in this study, serves as a novel platform for PLGA/polymer based tunable micro/nano particle and polymersome development. The unique properties may be useful in applications such as theranostics, synthesis of complex structure particles, bioreaction/mineralization at the two-phase interface, and bioseparations.

  9. Aqueous Two Phase System Assisted Self-Assembled PLGA Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Yeredla, Nitish; Kojima, Taisuke; Yang, Yi; Takayama, Shuichi; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we produce poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microparticles with varying morphologies, and temperature responsive properties utilizing a Pluronic F127/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) assisted self-assembly. The PLGA polymer, when emulsified in Pluronic F127/dextran ATPS, forms unique microparticle structures due to ATPS guided-self assembly. Depending on the PLGA concentration, the particles either formed a core-shell or a composite microparticle structure. The microparticles facilitate the simultaneous incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, due to their amphiphilic macromolecule composition. Further, due to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of Pluronic F127, the particles exhibit temperature responsiveness. The ATPS based microparticle formation demonstrated in this study, serves as a novel platform for PLGA/polymer based tunable micro/nano particle and polymersome development. The unique properties may be useful in applications such as theranostics, synthesis of complex structure particles, bioreaction/mineralization at the two-phase interface, and bioseparations. PMID:27279329

  10. Aqueous Two Phase System Assisted Self-Assembled PLGA Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yeredla, Nitish; Kojima, Taisuke; Yang, Yi; Takayama, Shuichi; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we produce poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microparticles with varying morphologies, and temperature responsive properties utilizing a Pluronic F127/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) assisted self-assembly. The PLGA polymer, when emulsified in Pluronic F127/dextran ATPS, forms unique microparticle structures due to ATPS guided-self assembly. Depending on the PLGA concentration, the particles either formed a core-shell or a composite microparticle structure. The microparticles facilitate the simultaneous incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, due to their amphiphilic macromolecule composition. Further, due to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of Pluronic F127, the particles exhibit temperature responsiveness. The ATPS based microparticle formation demonstrated in this study, serves as a novel platform for PLGA/polymer based tunable micro/nano particle and polymersome development. The unique properties may be useful in applications such as theranostics, synthesis of complex structure particles, bioreaction/mineralization at the two-phase interface, and bioseparations. PMID:27279329

  11. Long-term controlled release of PLGA microparticles containing antidepressant mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Vysloužil, Jakub; Doležel, Petr; Kejdušová, Martina; Košťál, Vratislav; Beneš, Ludvík; Dvořáčková, Kateřina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare PLGA microparticles for prolonged release of mirtazapine by o/w solvent evaporation method and to evaluate effects of PVA concentration and organic solvent choice on microparticles characteristics (encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, burst effect, microparticle morphology). Also in vitro drug release tests were performed and the results were correlated with kinetic model equations to approximate drug release mechanism. It was found that dichloromethane provided microparticles with better qualities (encapsulation efficiency 64.2%, yield 79.7%). Interaction between organic solvent effect and effect of PVA concentration was revealed. The prepared samples released the drug for 5 days with kinetics very close to that of zero order (R(2 )= 0.9549 - 0.9816). According to the correlations, the drug was probably released by a combination of diffusion and surface erosion, enhanced by polymer swelling and chain relaxation. PMID:25495857

  12. Hemocompatibility of folic-acid-conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles for co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel: treatment effects for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Zelai; Shi, Zengfang; Sun, Wenjie; Ma, Jing; Xia, Junyong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Wenjun; Huang, Jingwen

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used folic-acid-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (FA-PEG-PLGA) to encapsulate cisplatin and paclitaxel (separately or together), and evaluated their antitumor effects against lung cancer; this study was conducted in order to investigate the antitumor effects of the co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by a targeted drug delivery system. Blood compatibility assays and complement activation tests revealed that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles did not induce blood hemolysis, blood clotting, or complement activation. The results also indicated that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles had no biotoxic effects, the drug delivery system allowed controlled release of the cargo molecules, and the co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel efficiently induces cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle retardation. In addition, co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel showed the ability to suppress xenograft lung cancer growth and prolong the survival time of xenografted mice. These results implied that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles can function as effective carriers of cisplatin and paclitaxel, and that co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles results in more effective antitumor effects than the combination of free-drugs or single-drug-loaded nanoparticles. PMID:26695149

  13. Robust aptamer-polydopamine-functionalized M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles for targeted delivery of docetaxel and enhanced cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojun; Yu, Xinghua; Zhang, Jinxie; Sheng, Yingchao; Liu, Gan; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    One limitation of current biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) is the contradiction between functional modification and maintaining formerly excellent bioproperties with simple procedures. Here, we reported a robust aptamer-polydopamine-functionalized mannitol-functionalized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (M-PLGA)-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) nanoformulation (Apt-pD-NPs) for the delivery of docetaxel (DTX) with enhanced cervical cancer therapy effects. The novel DTX-loaded Apt-pD-NPs possess satisfactory advantages: 1) increased drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency induced by star-shaped copolymer M-PLGA-TPGS; 2) significant active targeting effect caused by conjugated AS1411 aptamers; and 3) excellent long-term compatibility by incorporation of TPGS. Therefore, with simple preparation procedures and excellent bioproperties, the new functionalized Apt-pD-NPs could maximally increase the local effective drug concentration on tumor sites, achieving enhanced treatment effectiveness and minimizing side effects. In a word, the robust DTX-loaded Apt-pD-NPs could be used as potential nanotherapeutics for cervical cancer treatment, and the aptamer-polydopamine modification strategy could be a promising method for active targeting of cancer therapy with simple procedures. PMID:27382282

  14. Injectable long-acting systems for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide based on mono-PEGylation and in situ formation of a PLGA depot

    PubMed Central

    Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, XiangWei; Feng, Yi; Shen, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a highly hydrophilic macromolecule, has a unique anti-ischemic action in the myocardium. One of the main problems with its use is its relatively short half-life in vivo. To solve this problem, injectable long-acting drug delivery systems, which combine mono-PEGylation (PEG, polyethylene glycol) with the in situ formation of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) depots, were tested in this study. Methods Through a moderate coupling reaction between 20 kDa amino-terminated methoxy-PEG and excessive ROP with activated hydroxyls, a long-circulating and bioactive mono-PEGylated ROP was prepared and characterized. A reasonable and applicable range of PLGA formulations loaded with the mono-PEGylated ROP were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in vivo. Results Relative to ROP, the half-life of which was only 0.5 hours, the conjugate alone, following subcutaneous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in the systemic circulation, with a mean residence time in vivo of approximately 2.76 days. In combination with in situ-forming PLGA depots, the residence time of the conjugate in vivo was prolonged further. In particular, a long-lasting and steady plasma exposure for nearly a month was achieved by the formulation comprising 40% 30 kDa PLGA in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Conclusion Long-lasting and steady drug exposure could be achieved using mono-PEGylation in combination with in situ formation of PLGA depots. Such a combination with ROP would be promising for long-term prophylaxis and/or treatment of myocardial ischemia. For high-dose and highly hydrophilic macromolecular drugs like ROP, more than one preparation technology might be needed to achieve week-long or month-long delivery per dosing. PMID:25489243

  15. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Stumvoll, M; Häring, H

    2001-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a co-factor in the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The causes of insulin resistance include factors such as obesity and physical inactivity, and there may also be genetic factors. The mechanism of obesity-related insulin resistance involves the release of factors from adipocytes which exert a negative effect on glucose metabolism: free fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the recently discovered hormone, resistin. The two resulting abnormalities observed consistently in glucose-intolerant states are impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production, and impaired stimulation of glucose uptake. Among the genetic factors, a polymorphism (Pro12Ala) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased insulin sensitivity, primarily that of lipolysis. On the other hand, the association with insulin resistance of a common polymorphism (Gly972Arg) in the insulin receptor substrate 1, long believed to be a plausible candidate gene, is weak at best. This polymorphism may instead be associated with reduced insulin secretion, which, in view of the recent recognition of the insulin signalling system in beta-cells, results in the development of a novel pathogenic concept. Finally, fine-mapping and positional cloning of the susceptibility locus on chromosome 2 resulted in the identification of a polymorphism (UCSNP-43 G/A) in the calpain-10 gene. In non-diabetic Pima Indians, this polymorphism was associated with insulin resistance of glucose disposal. The pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance has recently acquired a novel class of agents: the thiazolidinediones. They act through regulation of PPARgamma-dependent genes and probably interfere favourably with factors released from adipocytes which mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:11684868

  16. Effect of osmotic pressure in the solvent extraction phase on BSA release profile from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ge; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of osmotic pressure in the organic solvent extraction phase on release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. BSA-loaded PLGA microspheres with a target load of 10% were prepared by a double emulsion phase separation method. All the microsphere batches were fabricated in the same conditions except that in the organic solvent (CH2Cl2) evaporation step. Different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1.8, and 3.6%) or sucrose (20%) were used to generate a range of osmotic pressures in the extraction aqueous phase. These microspheres were characterized for incorporation efficiency, surface and internal morphology, particle size, protein stability, and in vitro release. The microspheres were spherical with particle size ranging from 16.8 to 27.8 microns. Higher osmotic pressure resulted in a denser internal structure although similar nonporous surface morphology was observed with all batches. No significant difference in encapsulation efficiency existed from batch to batch (87-94%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA integrity was well retained. The release profile of the batch prepared with only water as the continuous (solvent extraction) phase exhibited a 79% burst release in the first 24 hr followed by a plateau and then a little release after 21 days. In the presence of NaCl or sucrose, the burst effect significantly decreased with increase in osmotic pressure in the extraction aqueous phase, which was then followed by sustained release for 35 days. A mass balance was made when the release terminated. Therefore, in the organic solvent extraction and evaporation step, increasing the osmotic pressure in the aqueous phase both reduced the burst release from the microspheres and improved the subsequent sustained release profile. PMID:12503521

  17. Nose-To-Brain Delivery of PLGA-Diazepam Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Navneet; Gabrani, Reema; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ali, Javed; Dang, Shweta

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to optimize diazepam (Dzp)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP) to achieve delivery in the brain through intranasal administration. Dzp nanoparticles (DNP) were formulated by nanoprecipitation and optimized using Box-Behnken design. The influence of various independent process variables (polymer, surfactant, aqueous to organic (w/o) phase ratio, and drug) on resulting properties of DNP (z-average and drug entrapment) was investigated. Developed DNP showed z-average 148-337 d.nm, polydispersity index 0.04-0.45, drug entrapment 69-92%, and zeta potential in the range of -15 to -29.24 mV. Optimized DNP were further analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ex-vivo drug release, and in-vitro cytotoxicity. Ex-vivo drug release study via sheep nasal mucosa from DNP showed a controlled release of 64.4% for 24 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay performed on Vero cell line showed less toxicity for DNP as compared to Dzp suspension (DS). Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution study of DNP and DS was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats using technetium-99m-labeled ((99m)Tc) Dzp formulations to investigate the nose-to-brain drug delivery pathway. Brain/blood uptake ratios, drug targeting efficiency, and direct nose-to-brain transport were found to be 1.23-1.45, 258, and 61% for (99m)Tc-DNP (i.n) compared to (99m)Tc-DS (i.n) (0.38-1.06, 125, and 1%). Scintigraphy images showed uptake of Dzp from nose-to-brain, and this observation was in agreement with the biodistribution results. These results suggest that the developed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NP could serve as a potential carrier of Dzp for nose-to-brain delivery in outpatient management of status epilepticus. PMID:25698083

  18. In vitro performance of carbamazepine loaded to various molecular weights of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide).

    PubMed

    Barakat, Nahla S; Radwan, Mahasen A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the in vitro characteristics of carbamazepine-loaded microspheres. A solvent evaporation method was used to incorporate carbamazepine (CBZ) into poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with different molecular weights. The optimum conditions for CBZ-PLGA microspheres preparation were considered and the in vitro release of CBZ of PLGA microspheres were followed up to 24 hr in USP dissolution medium. The effect of using different ratios of PLGA microspheres, prepared with different molecular weights, for optimizing CBZ release also was investigated. CBZ encapsulation efficiency was 68 to 82% for all prepared formulations. Thermograms of CBZ-PLGA microspheres suggest that CBZ was totally entrapped with the PLGA polymer. The presence of Pluronic F-68 has improved the encapsulation of CBZ, resulted in better and smoother microspheres surfaces and enhanced its release pattern. CBZ release profiles were biphasic patterns; after an initial burst, a constant CBZ release rate was observed up to 24 hr. The release from these PLGA-based spherical matrices was consistent with the diffusion mechanism. CBZ dissolution T(50%) was significantly affected (> 3-fold) by increasing the lactide percent from 33.3 to 66.6% from different microspheres mixtures. The present study provides evidence that the encapsulation of CBZ to PLGA microspheres, either as a single polymer or mixture of two, was a successful attempt to control the release of CBZ. PMID:16401588

  19. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) composite for stent coating by ultrasonic atomizing spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Soon Hong; Oh, Keun Sang; Park, Jinah; Kim, Soon-Joong; Kim, Jung Ho; Kwon, Il Keun

    2012-04-01

    The mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (PEVA) forms a homogeneous liquid in an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, and a phase-separated PLGA/PEVA composite can be prepared from it by evaporating the organic solvent. Exploiting this phenomenon, we designed a novel method of preparing a drug-loaded PLGA/PEVA composite and used it for coating drug-eluting stents (DESs). Paclitaxel (PTX), an anticancer drug, was chosen as a model drug. PLGA acts as a microdepot for PTX, and PEVA provides mechanical strength to the coating material. The presence of PLGA in the PLGA/PEVA composite suppressed PTX crystallization in the coating material, and PTX showed a sustained release rate over more than 30 days. The mechanical strength of the PLGA/PEVA composite was better than that of PEVA used as a control. After coating the stent with a PLGA/PEVA composite using ultrasonic atomizing spray, the morphology of the coated material was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the release pattern of PTX was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of estradiol-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles on glutamate-induced excitotoxic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Gyu Hyun; Jeong, Ji Heun; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Ye Ji; Lee, Nam Seob; Jeong, Young Gil; Lee, Je Hun; Yu, Kwang Sik; Lee, Shin Hye; Hong, Seul Ki; Kang, Seong Hee; Kang, Bo Sun; Kim, Do Kyung; Han, Seung Yun

    2014-11-01

    Different concentrations of estradiol (E2)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (E2-PLGA-NPs) were synthesized using the emulsion-diffusion method. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the average particle size of E2-PLGA-NPs was 98 ± 1.9 nm when stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol and 103 ± 4.9 nm when stabilized with Tween-80. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with diamond attenuated total reflectance was used to identify the presence or absence of E2 molecules in PLGA nanocapsules. Cell proliferation was assessed after treating SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 1 nM-1 μM of E2 and E2-PLGA-NPs. The neuroprotective efficacy against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was also investigated in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Neuroprotection was greater in E2-PLGA-NP-treated cells than in cells treated with the same concentration of E2. Furthermore, E2- and E2-PLGA-NP-treated cells expressed more p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB than cells treated with glutamate only. Moreover, the expression of p-ERK1/2 was higher than that of p-CREB. In this study, p-ERK1/2 had a greater influence on the neuroprotective effect of E2 and E2-PLGA-NPs than p-CREB. PMID:25958534

  1. Effect of copolymer composition on the physicochemical characteristics, in vitro stability, and biodistribution of PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Avgoustakis, K; Beletsi, A; Panagi, Z; Klepetsanis, P; Livaniou, E; Evangelatos, G; Ithakissios, D S

    2003-06-18

    The physicochemical properties, the colloidal stability in vitro and the biodistribution properties in mice of different PLGA-mPEG nanoparticle compositions were investigated. The nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation-solvent evaporation technique. The physical characteristics and the colloidal stability of the PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles were significantly influenced by the composition of the PLGA-mPEG copolymer used to prepare the nanoparticles. PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles prepared from copolymers having relatively high mPEG/PLGA ratios were smaller and less stable than those prepared from copolymers having relatively low mPEG/PLGA ratios. All PLGA-mPEG nanoparticle compositions exhibited prolonged residence in blood, compared to the conventional PLGA nanoparticles. The composition of the PLGA-mPEG copolymer affected significantly the blood residence time and the biodistribution of the PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles in liver, spleen and bones. The in vivo behavior of the different PLGA-mPEG nanoparticle compositions did not appear to correlate with their in vitro stability. Optimum mPEG/PLGA ratios appeared to exist leading to long blood circulation times of the PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles. This may be associated with the effects of the mPEG/PLGA ratio on the density of PEG on the surface of the nanoparticles and on the size of the nanoparticles. PMID:12787641

  2. A pilot study of conically graded chitosan-gelatin hydrogel/PLGA scaffold with dual-delivery of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 for regeneration of cartilage-bone interface.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengxuan; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-10-01

    Repair of cartilage-bone interface tissue remains challenging, because it combines different cell types and gradients of composition and properties. To enable simultaneous regeneration of bone, cartilage, and especially their interface, a conically graded scaffold of chitosan-gelatin hydrogel/poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was facilely prepared in the study. The chitosan-gelatin hydrogel containing transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used for chondrogenesis, while the PLGA scaffold loading bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for osteogenesis. The conically graded transition from the hydrogel to PLGA scaffold and graded variation in amount of growth factors from TGF-β1 to BMP-2 benefited the cartilage-bone interface reconstruction. The graded scaffold exhibited spatio-temporal delivery of TGF-β1 and BMP-2. Preliminary results of in vitro cell culture demonstrated that the hydrogel and PLGA phases could promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, respectively. From the result of the pilot in vivo experiment, it showed that the regenerated hyaline-like cartilage surface and subchondral bone excellently integrated with the native tissues were found by using the TGF-β1 and BMP-2 double-loaded hydrogel/PLGA graded scaffold via H&E and immunohistochemical stainings of collagen I, collagen II, and osteocalcin at 2 months. The obtained preliminary experiment results showed that the hydrogel/PLGA graded scaffold combining multiphasic composition and spatial dual growth-factor delivery would be useful for cartilage-bone interface tissue defect repair. PMID:25385571

  3. Insulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with type 2 diabetes , polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) , prediabetes or heart disease , or metabolic syndrome . A ... resistance), especially in obese individuals and those with PCOS . This test involves an IV-infusion of insulin, ...

  4. Promoting Diabetic Wound Therapy Using Biodegradable rhPDGF-Loaded Nanofibrous Membranes: CONSORT-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Shang-Hung; Chen, Wei-Jan; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Chou, Chung-Chuan; Chang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wang, Fu-Shing

    2015-11-01

    The nanofibrous biodegradable drug-loaded membranes that sustainably released recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) to repair diabetic wounds were developed in this work.rhPDGF-BB and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were mixed in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol, followed by the electrospinning of the solutions into biodegradable membranes to equip the nanofibrous membranes. An elution technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit were used to determine the rhPDGF-BB release rates in vitro and in vivo from this membrane. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized into 3 groups: rhPDGF-BB-loaded nanofibrous membrane group, PLGA only membrane group, and conventional gauze sponge group for the wound associated with diabetes of rat in each group.The nanofibrous biodegradable membranes released effective concentrations of rhPDGF-BB for over 21 days. The nanofibrous rhPDGF-BB-loaded PLGA membranes contained more water and were further hydrophilic than PLGA only fibers. The rhPDGF-BB-loaded PLGA membranes considerably helped the diabetic wounds repairing. Furthermore, the proliferative cells and angiogenesis of rats associated with diabetes by rhPDGF-BB-loaded nanofibrous membranes were greater than those of other groups, owing to the increased matrix metalloproteinase 9.These biodegradable rhPDGF-BB-loaded membranes were effective in treating diabetic wounds as very advanced accelerators during the initial phases of wound-healing process. PMID:26632682

  5. Formulations for modulation of protein release from large-size PLGA microparticles for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Qodratnama, Roozbeh; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Cox, Helen C; Qutachi, Omar; White, Lisa J

    2015-02-01

    In this study we present an approach to pre-program lysozyme release from large size (100-300 μm) poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. This approach involved blending in-house synthesized triblock copolymers with a PLGA 85:15. In this work it is demonstrated that the lysozyme release rate and the total release are related to the mass of triblock copolymer present in polymer formulation. Two triblock copolymers (PLGA-PEG1500-PLGA and PLGA-PEG1000-PLGA) were synthesized and used in this study. In a like-for-like comparison, these two triblock copolymers appeared to have similar effects on the release of lysozyme. It was shown that blending resulted in the increase of the total lysozyme release and shortened the release period (70% release within 30 days). These results demonstrated that blending PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymer with PLGA 85:15 can be used as a method to pre-program protein release from microparticles. These microparticles with modulated protein release properties may be used to create microparticle-based tissue engineering constructs with pre-programmed release properties. PMID:25492193

  6. A composite hydrogel system containing glucose-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-12-01

    Development of an oral delivery strategy for insulin therapeutics has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study, a glucose-responsive nanocarriers for loading of insulin has been prepared firstly. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited relative low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. In order to enhance the oral bioavailability of insulin, the insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers were further encapsulated into a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel environment for overcoming multiple barriers and providing multi-protection for insulin during the transport process. The hypoglycemic effect for oral delivery of insulin was studied in vivo. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from hydrogel systems containing insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers exhibited an effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with insulin-loaded nanocarriers. PMID:27612686

  7. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films: A sponge for insulin?

    PubMed

    Ladhari, Nadia; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Ball, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Considering restrictive diabetes treatments, new insulin administration strategies constitute a huge medical challenge. This study aimed at developing a new support for insulin reservoirs, using polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEM films), and thus studying this hormone release in a progressive manner. At first, insulin was loaded in (PDADMAC-PAA)n films, by immerging them for various periods of time (2, 14 and 24 h) in a solution containing this protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that insulin-FITC could diffuse inside the film with a bigger concentration in the upper part of the film (after 2 and 14 h in contact with the polypeptide solution), and then in the whole film (after 24 h) from a solution at pH=4.3 (below insulin's isolelectric point). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and CLSM showed that the film swells upon insulin loading. We finally investigated the insulin release by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. It revealed that a loaded (PDADMAC-PAA)15 film, immerged in distilled water, showed no measurable insulin release. In contrast, a slow unloading was observed in the presence of a NaCl 0.15 M solution (salinity close to physiological serum). This study could open the route for a new way of insulin delivery. PMID:20930331

  8. Heuristic modeling of macromolecule release from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Szlęk, Jakub; Pacławski, Adam; Lau, Raymond; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Dissolution of protein macromolecules from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles is a complex process and still not fully understood. As such, there are difficulties in obtaining a predictive model that could be of fundamental significance in design, development, and optimization for medical applications and toxicity evaluation of PLGA-based multiparticulate dosage form. In the present study, two models with comparable goodness of fit were proposed for the prediction of the macromolecule dissolution profile from PLGA micro- and nanoparticles. In both cases, heuristic techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), feature selection, and genetic programming were employed. Feature selection provided by fscaret package and sensitivity analysis performed by ANNs reduced the original input vector from a total of 300 input variables to 21, 17, 16, and eleven; to achieve a better insight into generalization error, two cut-off points for every method was proposed. The best ANNs model results were obtained by monotone multi-layer perceptron neural network (MON-MLP) networks with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 15.4, and the input vector consisted of eleven inputs. The complicated classical equation derived from a database consisting of 17 inputs was able to yield a better generalization error (RMSE) of 14.3. The equation was characterized by four parameters, thus feasible (applicable) to standard nonlinear regression techniques. Heuristic modeling led to the ANN model describing macromolecules release profiles from PLGA microspheres with good predictive efficiency. Moreover genetic programming technique resulted in classical equation with comparable predictability to the ANN model. PMID:24348037

  9. Heuristic modeling of macromolecule release from PLGA microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Szlęk, Jakub; Pacławski, Adam; Lau, Raymond; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Dissolution of protein macromolecules from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles is a complex process and still not fully understood. As such, there are difficulties in obtaining a predictive model that could be of fundamental significance in design, development, and optimization for medical applications and toxicity evaluation of PLGA-based multiparticulate dosage form. In the present study, two models with comparable goodness of fit were proposed for the prediction of the macromolecule dissolution profile from PLGA micro- and nanoparticles. In both cases, heuristic techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), feature selection, and genetic programming were employed. Feature selection provided by fscaret package and sensitivity analysis performed by ANNs reduced the original input vector from a total of 300 input variables to 21, 17, 16, and eleven; to achieve a better insight into generalization error, two cut-off points for every method was proposed. The best ANNs model results were obtained by monotone multi-layer perceptron neural network (MON-MLP) networks with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 15.4, and the input vector consisted of eleven inputs. The complicated classical equation derived from a database consisting of 17 inputs was able to yield a better generalization error (RMSE) of 14.3. The equation was characterized by four parameters, thus feasible (applicable) to standard nonlinear regression techniques. Heuristic modeling led to the ANN model describing macromolecules release profiles from PLGA microspheres with good predictive efficiency. Moreover genetic programming technique resulted in classical equation with comparable predictability to the ANN model. PMID:24348037

  10. Sustained release of VEGF from PLGA nanoparticles embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in full-thickness porcine bladder acellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongquan; Song, Hua; Qi, Jun; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    We fabricated a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine bladder acellular matrix allograft (BAMA) system, which is designed for achieving a sustained release of VEGF protein, and embedding the protein carrier into the BAMA. We identified and optimized various formulations and process parameters to get the preferred particle size, entrapment, and polydispersibility of the VEGF-NPs, and incorporated the VEGF-NPs into the (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®) F127 to achieve the preferred VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system. Then the thermal behavior of the system was proven by in vitro and in vivo study, and the kinetic-sustained release profile of the system embedded in porcine bladder acellular matrix was investigated. Results indicated that the bioactivity of the encapsulated VEGF released from the NPs was reserved, and the VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system can achieve sol-gel transmission successfully at appropriate temperature. Furthermore, the system can create a satisfactory tissue-compatible environment and an effective VEGF-sustained release approach. In conclusion, a novel VEGF-loaded PLGA NPs-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine BAMA system is successfully prepared, to provide a promising way for deficient bladder reconstruction therapy.

  11. Development of a nanostructured DNA delivery scaffold via electrospinning of PLGA and PLA-PEG block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Hsiao, B. S.; Chu, B.; Hadjiargyrou, M.; Hadjiargyou, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The present work utilizes electrospinning to fabricate synthetic polymer/DNA composite scaffolds for therapeutic application in gene delivery for tissue engineering. The scaffolds are non-woven, nano-fibered, membranous structures composed predominantly of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) random copolymer and a poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) block copolymer. Release of plasmid DNA from the scaffolds was sustained over a 20-day study period, with maximum release occurring at approximately 2 h. Cumulative release profiles indicated amounts released were approximately 68-80% of the initially loaded DNA. Variations in the PLGA to PLA-PEG block copolymer ratio vastly affected the overall structural morphology, as well as both the rate and efficiency of DNA release. Results indicated that DNA released directly from these electrospun scaffolds was indeed intact, capable of cellular transfection, and successfully encoded the protein beta-galactosidase. When tested under tensile loads, the electrospun polymer/DNA composite scaffolds exhibited tensile moduli of approximately 35 MPa, with approximately 45% strain initially. These values approximate those of skin and cartilage. Taken together, this work represents the first successful demonstration of plasmid DNA incorporation into a polymer scaffold using electrospinning.

  12. HDL-Mimetic PLGA Nanoparticle To Target Atherosclerosis Plaque Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E.; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E. M.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA–HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA–HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634

  13. NanoCipro Encapsulation in Monodisperse Large Porous PLGA Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Matthew M.; Gorman, Eric M.; Schieber, Loren J.; Munson, Eric J.; Berland, Cory

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery of controlled release formulations may provide an effective adjunct approach to orally delivered antibiotics for clearing persistent lung infections. Dry powder formulations for this indication should possess characteristics including; effective deposition to infected lung compartments, persistence at the infection site, and steady release of antibiotic. Large porous particles (∼10-15 μm) have demonstrated effective lung deposition and enhanced lung residence as a result of their large diameter and reduced clearance by macrophages in comparison to small microparticles (∼1-5 μm). In this report, Precision Particle Fabrication technology was used to create monodisperse large porous particles of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing oils as extractable porogens. After extraction, the resulting large porous PLGA particles exhibited a low density and a web-like or hollow interior depending on porogen concentration and type, respectively. Ciprofloxacin nanoparticles (nanoCipro) created by homogenization in dichloromethane, possessed a polymorph with a decreased melting temperature. Encapsulating nanoCipro in large porous PLGA particles resulted in a steady release of ciprofloxacin that was extended for larger particle diameters and for the solid particle morphology in comparison to large porous particles. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoCipro was quite low and factors impacting the entrapment of nanoparticles during particle formation were elucidated. A dry powder formulation with the potential to control particle deposition and sustain release to the lung was developed and insight to improve nanoparticle encapsulation is discussed. PMID:17604870

  14. Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced chemosensitivity for hypoxia-responsive tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Xue; Guo, Liting; Wang, Fei; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Baoan; Yin, HaiXiang; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an inseparable component of the solid tumor as well as the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of the novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NPs) modified by transferrin (Tf) loaded with daunorubicin (DNR) (DNR-Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA-NPs, abbreviated as DNR-Tf-NPs) on leukemia cells (K562) under hypoxia. In vitro and in vivo tests to determine the effect of the enhanced chemosensitivity were evaluated using the immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, 3,-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-tetrazoliumbromide assay, Western blot analysis, histopathological examination, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Under hypoxia, K562 cells were hypoxia-responsive with the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of DNR increased, resulting in chemotherapy insensitivity. By targeting the transferrin receptor (TfR) on the surface of K562 cells, DNR-Tf-NPs led to an increased intracellular DNR level, enhancing drug sensitivity of K562 cells to DNR with a decreased IC50, even under hypoxia. We further detected the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in K562 cells. The results indicated that DNR-Tf-NPs downregulated HIF-1α and induced apoptosis to overcome hypoxia. In the xenograft model, injection of DNR-Tf-NPs significantly suppressed tumor growth, and the immunosignals of Ki67 in DNR-Tf-NPs group was significantly lower than the other groups. It was therefore concluded that DNR-Tf-NPs could be a promising candidate for enhancing drug sensitivity under hypoxia in tumor treatment. PMID:27574446

  15. Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced chemosensitivity for hypoxia-responsive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Xue; Guo, Liting; Wang, Fei; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Baoan; Yin, HaiXiang; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an inseparable component of the solid tumor as well as the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of the novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NPs) modified by transferrin (Tf) loaded with daunorubicin (DNR) (DNR-Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA-NPs, abbreviated as DNR-Tf-NPs) on leukemia cells (K562) under hypoxia. In vitro and in vivo tests to determine the effect of the enhanced chemosensitivity were evaluated using the immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, 3,-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-tetrazoliumbromide assay, Western blot analysis, histopathological examination, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Under hypoxia, K562 cells were hypoxia-responsive with the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of DNR increased, resulting in chemotherapy insensitivity. By targeting the transferrin receptor (TfR) on the surface of K562 cells, DNR-Tf-NPs led to an increased intracellular DNR level, enhancing drug sensitivity of K562 cells to DNR with a decreased IC50, even under hypoxia. We further detected the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in K562 cells. The results indicated that DNR-Tf-NPs downregulated HIF-1α and induced apoptosis to overcome hypoxia. In the xenograft model, injection of DNR-Tf-NPs significantly suppressed tumor growth, and the immunosignals of Ki67 in DNR-Tf-NPs group was significantly lower than the other groups. It was therefore concluded that DNR-Tf-NPs could be a promising candidate for enhancing drug sensitivity under hypoxia in tumor treatment. PMID:27574446

  16. A novel paclitaxel-loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-Tween 80 copolymer nanoparticle overcoming multidrug resistance for lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xun; Ji, Wenxiang; Chen, Si; Bao, Yuling; Tan, Songwei; Lu, Shun; Wu, Kongming; Chu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance has become a main obstacle for the effective treatment of lung cancer. To address this problem, a novel biocompatible nanoscale package, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-Tween 80, was designed and synthesized to overcome paclitaxel (PTX) resistance in a PTX-resistant human lung cancer cell line. The poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-Tween 80 nanoparticles (NPs) could efficiently load PTX and release the drug gradually. There was an increased level of uptake of PLGA-Tween 80 in PTX-resistant lung cancer cell line A549/T, which achieved a significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than both PLGA NP formulation and Taxol®. The in vivo antitumor efficacy also showed that PLGA-Tween 80 NP was more effective than Taxol®, indicating that PLGA-Tween 80 copolymer was a promising carrier for PTX in resistant lung cancer. PMID:27307727

  17. Diabetes and Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... years, but may eventually need insulin to maintain glucose control. What are the different types of insulin? Different ... glulisine • Short-acting: regular human insulin Basal insulin. Controls blood glucose levels between meals and throughout the night. This ...

  18. Antiproliferative effect of ASC-J9 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Verderio, Paolo; Pandolfi, Laura; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Vanna, Renzo; Gramatica, Furio; Corsi, Fabio; Colombo, Miriam; Morasso, Carlo; Prosperi, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Among polymeric nanoparticles designed for cancer therapy, PLGA nanoparticles have become one of the most popular polymeric devices for chemotherapeutic-based nanoformulations against several kinds of malignant diseases. Promising properties, including long-circulation time, enhanced tumor localization, interference with "multidrug" resistance effects, and environmental biodegradability, often result in an improvement of the drug bioavailability and effectiveness. In the present work, we have synthesized 1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (ASC-J9) and developed uniform ASC-J9-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of about 120 nm, which have been prepared by a single-emulsion process. Structural and morphological features of the nanoformulation were analyzed, followed by an accurate evaluation of the in vitro drug release kinetics, which exhibited Fickian law diffusion over 10 days. The intracellular degradation of ASC-J9-bearing nanoparticles within estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells was correlated to a time- and dose-dependent activity of the released drug. A cellular growth inhibition associated with a specific cell cycle G2/M blocking effect caused by ASC-J9 release inside the cytosol allowed us to put forward a hypothesis on the action mechanism of this nanosystem, which led to the final cell apoptosis. Our study was accomplished using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, radical scavenging activity, and intracellular ROS evaluation. Moreover, the intracellular localization of nanoformulated ASC-J9 was confirmed by a Raman optical imaging experiment designed ad hoc. PLGA nanoparticles and ASC-J9 proved also to be safe for a healthy embryo fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1), suggesting a possible clinical translation of this potential nanochemotherapeutic to expand the inherently poor bioavailability of hydrophobic ASC-J9 that could be proposed for the treatment of malignant breast cancer. PMID:24945469

  19. Biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair using bFGF-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) fibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jingwen; Dong, Shikui; Huangfu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Clinically, rotator cuff tear (RCT) is among the most common shoulder pathologies. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques, the re-tear rate after rotator cuff (RC) repair remains high. Insufficient healing capacity is likely the main factor for reconstruction failure. This study reports on a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibrous membrane for repairing RCT. Implantable biodegradable bFGF-PLGA fibrous membranes were successfully fabricated using emulsion electrospinning technology and then characterized and evaluated with in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation assays and repairs of rat chronic RCTs. Emulsion electrospinning fabricated ultrafine fibers with a core-sheath structure which secured the bioactivity of bFGF in a sustained manner for 3 weeks. Histological observations showed that electrospun fibrous membranes have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after in vivo RCT repair surgery, electrospun fibrous membranes significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control group, and bFGF-PLGA significantly improved collagen organization, as measured by birefringence under polarized light at the healing enthesis compared with the control and PLGA groups. Biomechanical testing showed that the electrospun fibrous membrane groups had a greater ultimate load-to-failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks. The bFGF-PLGA membranes had the highest ultimate load-to-failure, stiffness, and stress of the healing enthesis, and their superiority compared to PLGA alone was significant. These results demonstrated that electrospun fibrous membranes aid in cell attachment and proliferation, as well as accelerating tendon-bone remodeling, and bFGF-loaded PLGA fibrous membranes have a more pronounced effect on tendon-bone healing. Therefore, augmentation using bFGF-PLGA electrospun fibrous

  20. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Adeyinka; Gupta, Manish; Boukari, Yamina; Morris, Andrew; Billa, Nashiru; Doughty, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture. PMID:27013917

  1. Concepts and practices used to develop functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Hongkee; Thoma, Laura A; Desu, Hari R; Sah, Edel; Wood, George C

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of bare polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles is limited to drug depot or drug solubilization in their hard cores. They have inherent weaknesses as a drug-delivery system. For instance, when administered intravenously, the nanoparticles undergo rapid clearance from systemic circulation before reaching the site of action. Furthermore, plain PLGA nanoparticles cannot distinguish between different cell types. Recent research shows that surface functionalization of nanoparticles and development of new nanoparticulate dosage forms help overcome these delivery challenges and improve in vivo performance. Immense research efforts have propelled the development of diverse functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate delivery systems. Representative examples include PEGylated micelles/nanoparticles (PEG, polyethylene glycol), polyplexes, polymersomes, core-shell–type lipid-PLGA hybrids, cell-PLGA hybrids, receptor-specific ligand-PLGA conjugates, and theranostics. Each PLGA-based nanoparticulate dosage form has specific features that distinguish it from other nanoparticulate systems. This review focuses on fundamental concepts and practices that are used in the development of various functional nanoparticulate dosage forms. We describe how the attributes of these functional nanoparticulate forms might contribute to achievement of desired therapeutic effects that are not attainable using conventional therapies. Functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems are expected to deliver chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, and imaging agents in a highly selective and effective manner. PMID:23459088

  2. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles: a nanomedicine approach to treat drug-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bharali, Dhruba J; Yalcin, Murat; Davis, Paul J; Mousa, Shaker A

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim was to evaluate tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a thyroid hormone analog of l-thyroxin, conjugated to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (T-PLGA-NPs) both in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of drug-resistant breast cancer. Materials & methods The uptake of tetrac and T-PLGA-NPs in doxorubicin-resistant MCF7 (MCF7-Dx) cells was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation assays and a chick chorioallantoic membrane model of FGF2-induced angiogenesis were used to evaluate the anticancer effects of T-PLGA-NPs. In vivo efficacy was examined in a MCF7-Dx orthotopic tumor BALBc nude mouse model. Results T-PLGA-NPs were restricted from entering into the cell nucleus, and T-PLGA-NPs inhibited angiogenesis by 100% compared with 60% by free tetrac. T-PLGA-NPs enhanced inhibition of tumor-cell proliferation at a low-dose equivalent of free tetrac. In vivo treatment with either tetrac or T-PLGA-NPs resulted in a three- to five-fold inhibition of tumor weight. Conclusion T-PLGA-NPs have high potential as anticancer agents, with possible applications in the treatment of drug-resistant cancer. PMID:23448245

  3. Biomimetic Porous PLGA Scaffolds Incorporating Decellularized Extracellular Matrix for Kidney Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lih, Eugene; Park, Ki Wan; Chun, So Young; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2016-08-24

    Chronic kidney disease is now recognized as a major health problem, but current therapies including dialysis and renal replacement have many limitations. Consequently, biodegradable scaffolds to help repairing injured tissue are emerging as a promising approach in the field of kidney tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a useful biomedical material, but its insufficient biocompatibility caused a reduction in cell behavior and function. In this work, we developed the kidney-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) incorporated PLGA scaffolds as a cell supporting material for kidney tissue regeneration. Biomimetic PLGA scaffolds (PLGA/ECM) with different ECM concentrations were prepared by an ice particle leaching method, and their physicochemical and mechanical properties were characterized through various analyses. The proliferation of renal cortical epithelial cells on the PLGA/ECM scaffolds increased with an increase in ECM concentrations (0.2, 1, 5, and 10%) in scaffolds. The PLGA scaffold containing 10% of ECM has been shown to be an effective matrix for the repair and reconstitution of glomerulus and blood vessels in partially nephrectomized mice in vivo, compared with only PLGA control. These results suggest that not only can the tissue-engineering techniques be an effective alternative method for treatment of kidney diseases, but also the ECM incorporated PLGA scaffolds could be promising materials for biomedical applications including tissue engineered scaffolds and biodegradable implants. PMID:27456613

  4. In vitro biocompatibility of polypyrrole/PLGA conductive nanofiber scaffold with cultured rat hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xue-Hui; Xu, Qian; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Xiao, Jiang-Qiang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Xi-Tai; Cao, Yang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2014-09-01

    To intruduce conductive biomaterial into liver tissue engineering, a conductive nanofiber scaffold, polypyrrole/poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid(PLGA), was designed and prepared via electro-spinning and oxidative polymerization. Effects of the scaffold on hepatocyte adhesion, viability and function were then investigated. SEM revealed pseudopodium formation and abundant extracellular matrix on the surface of PLGA membrane and polypyrrole/PLGA membrane. The adhesion rate, cellular activity, urea synthesis and albumin secretion of the hepatocytes cultured on polypyrrole/PLGA group were similar to those on the PLGA group, but were significantly higher than those on the control group. There were no significant differences in concentrations of LDH and TNF-α among three groups. These results suggested the potential application of this conductive nanofiber scaffold as a suitable substratum for hepatocyte culturing in liver tissue engineering.

  5. Gelatin/chitosan/hyaluronan scaffold integrated with PLGA microspheres for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaping; Wu, Jindan; Lao, Lihong; Gao, Changyou

    2009-01-01

    Poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) microspheres integrated into gelatin/chitosan/hyaluronan scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying and crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide. The effects of the microspheres on porosity, density, compressive modulus, phosphate-buffered saline uptake ratio and weight loss of the scaffolds were evaluated. Generally, a scaffold with a higher PLGA content had a lower porosity and weight loss, and a medium uptake ratio, but a larger apparent density and compressive modulus. When the PLGA content was lower than 50%, the PLGA-integrated scaffolds had a similar pore size (approximately 200microm) as that of the control, and as much as 90% of their porosity could be preserved. In vitro chondrocyte culture in the 50% PLGA-integrated scaffold demonstrated that the cells could proliferate and secrete extracellular matrix at the same level as in the control gelatin/chitosan/hyaluronan scaffold. PMID:18723417

  6. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Murtada A.; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.

    2012-08-01

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml-1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (˜200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( - 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations <250 μg ml -1 to eukaryotic cells (>95% viable cells) over a 24-72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (˜98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml -1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml-1) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml-1) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis.

  7. Fabrication of Core-Shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA Electrospun Scaffold for Gene Delivery to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiao; Jia, Lie-Ni; Xu, Hong-Yu; Hu, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Wei; Jia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is the most promising technology for enhancing bone regeneration. Scaffolds loaded with osteogenic factors improve the therapeutic effect. In this study, the bioactive PEI (polyethylenimine)/pBMP2- (bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid-) PLGA (poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)) core-shell scaffolds were prepared using coaxial electrospinning for a controlled gene delivery to hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament stem cells). The pBMP2 was encapsulated in the PEI phase as a core and PLGA was employed to control pBMP2 release as a shell. First, the scaffold characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated. Then the gene release behavior was analyzed. Our results showed that pBMP2 was released at high levels in the first few days, with a continuous release behavior in the next 28 days. At the same time, PEI/pBMP2 showed high transfection efficiency. Moreover, the core-shell electrospun scaffold showed BMP2 expression for a much longer time (more than 28 days) compared with the single axial electrospun scaffold, as evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot after culturing with hPDLSCs. These results suggested that the core-shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA scaffold fabricated by coaxial electrospinning had a good gene release behavior and showed a prolonged expression time with a high transfection efficiency. PMID:27313626

  8. Fabrication of Core-Shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA Electrospun Scaffold for Gene Delivery to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiao; Jia, Lie-ni; Xu, Hong-yu; Hu, Xiang-gang; Wang, Wei; Jia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is the most promising technology for enhancing bone regeneration. Scaffolds loaded with osteogenic factors improve the therapeutic effect. In this study, the bioactive PEI (polyethylenimine)/pBMP2- (bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid-) PLGA (poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)) core-shell scaffolds were prepared using coaxial electrospinning for a controlled gene delivery to hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament stem cells). The pBMP2 was encapsulated in the PEI phase as a core and PLGA was employed to control pBMP2 release as a shell. First, the scaffold characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated. Then the gene release behavior was analyzed. Our results showed that pBMP2 was released at high levels in the first few days, with a continuous release behavior in the next 28 days. At the same time, PEI/pBMP2 showed high transfection efficiency. Moreover, the core-shell electrospun scaffold showed BMP2 expression for a much longer time (more than 28 days) compared with the single axial electrospun scaffold, as evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot after culturing with hPDLSCs. These results suggested that the core-shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA scaffold fabricated by coaxial electrospinning had a good gene release behavior and showed a prolonged expression time with a high transfection efficiency. PMID:27313626

  9. Cationic PLGA/Eudragit RL nanoparticles for increasing retention time in synovial cavity after intra-articular injection in knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Positively surface-charged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Eudragit RL nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to increase retention time and sustain release profile in joints after intra-articular injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic aggregates with hyaluronic acid, an endogenous anionic polysaccharide found in high amounts in synovial fluid. The cationic NPs consisting of PLGA, Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by solvent evaporation technique. The NPs were 170.1 nm in size, with a zeta potential of 21.3 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Hyperspectral imaging (CytoViva®) revealed the formation of the micrometer-sized filamentous aggregates upon admixing, due to electrostatic interaction between NPs and the polysaccharides. NPs loaded with a fluorescent probe (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) displayed a significantly improved retention time in the knee joint, with over 50% preservation of the fluorescent signal 28 days after injection. When DiR solution was injected intra-articularly, the fluorescence levels rapidly decreased to 30% of the initial concentration within 3 days in mice. From these findings, we suggest that PLGA-based cationic NPs could be a promising tool for prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents in joints selectively. PMID:26345227

  10. Cationic PLGA/Eudragit RL nanoparticles for increasing retention time in synovial cavity after intra-articular injection in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Positively surface-charged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Eudragit RL nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to increase retention time and sustain release profile in joints after intra-articular injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic aggregates with hyaluronic acid, an endogenous anionic polysaccharide found in high amounts in synovial fluid. The cationic NPs consisting of PLGA, Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by solvent evaporation technique. The NPs were 170.1 nm in size, with a zeta potential of 21.3 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Hyperspectral imaging (CytoViva(®)) revealed the formation of the micrometer-sized filamentous aggregates upon admixing, due to electrostatic interaction between NPs and the polysaccharides. NPs loaded with a fluorescent probe (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) displayed a significantly improved retention time in the knee joint, with over 50% preservation of the fluorescent signal 28 days after injection. When DiR solution was injected intra-articularly, the fluorescence levels rapidly decreased to 30% of the initial concentration within 3 days in mice. From these findings, we suggest that PLGA-based cationic NPs could be a promising tool for prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents in joints selectively. PMID:26345227

  11. Evaluation of anti-HER2 scFv-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles on 3D tumor spheroids of BT474 and HCT116 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuy Duong Le, Thi; Pham, Thu Hong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Giang Ngo, Thi Hong; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Huan Le, Quang

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional culture cells (spheroids) are one of the multicellular culture models that can be applied to anticancer chemotherapeutic development. Multicellular spheroids more closely mimic in vivo tumor-like patterns of physiologic environment and morphology. In previous research, we designed docetaxel-loaded pegylated poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles conjugated with anti-HER2 single chain antibodies (scFv-Doc-PLGA-PEG) and evaluated them in 2D cell culture. In this study, we continuously evaluate the cellular uptake and cytotoxic effect of scFv-Doc-PLGA-PEG on a 3D tumor spheroid model of BT474 (HER2-overexpressing) and HCT116 (HER2-underexpressing) cancer cells. The results showed that the nanoparticle formulation conjugated with scFv had a significant internalization effect on the spheroids of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells as compared to the spheroids of HER2-underexpressing cancer cells. Therefore, cytotoxic effects of targeted nanoparticles decreased the size and increased necrotic score of HER2-overexpressing tumor spheroids. Thus, these scFv-Doc-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles have potential for active targeting for HER2-overexpressing cancer therapy. In addition, BT474 and HCT116 spheroids can be used as a tumor model for evaluation of targeting therapies.

  12. Site-specific Genome Editing in PBMCs With PLGA Nanoparticle-delivered PNAs Confers HIV-1 Resistance in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schleifman, Erica B; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Jackson, Andrew; Yamtich, Jennifer; Brehm, Michael A; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Kumar, Priti; Saltzman, W Mark; Glazer, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and donor DNAs for recombination-mediated editing of the CCR5 gene were synthesized for delivery into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). NPs containing the CCR5-targeting molecules efficiently entered PBMCs with low cytotoxicity. Deep sequencing revealed that a single treatment with the formulation resulted in a targeting frequency of 0.97% in the CCR5 gene and a low off-target frequency of 0.004% in the CCR2 gene, a 216-fold difference. NP-treated PBMCs efficiently engrafted immunodeficient NOD-scid IL-2rγ-/- mice, and the targeted CCR5 modification was detected in splenic lymphocytes 4 weeks posttransplantation. After infection with an R5-tropic strain of HIV-1, humanized mice with CCR5-NP–treated PBMCs displayed significantly higher levels of CD4+ T cells and significantly reduced plasma viral RNA loads compared with control mice engrafted with mock-treated PBMCs. This work demonstrates the feasibility of PLGA-NP–encapsulated PNA-based gene-editing molecules for the targeted modification of CCR5 in human PBMCs as a platform for conferring HIV-1 resistance. PMID:24253260

  13. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to A549 lung cancer cells by CXCR4 antagonist conjugated PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chittasupho, Chuda; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Kewsuwan, Prartana; Sarisuta, Narong

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin is used to treat a variety of cancers, but dose limiting toxicity or intrinsic and acquired resistance limits its application in many types of cancer. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor which implicates in metastasis of cancers including lung cancer. LFC131, a peptide inhibitor of CXCR4-ligand binding, is a linear type of low molecular weight CXCR4 antagonist. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using LFC131 conjugated nanoparticles for targeted delivering doxorubicin to CXCR4 expressing lung cancer cells. The LFC131 peptide was conjugated to sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose coated poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Binding and cellular uptake of doxorubicin-loaded LFC131 conjugated nanoparticles (LFC131-DOX NP) in adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells called A549 cells were higher and faster than that of untargeted nanoparticles. The specificity of CXCR4-mediated internalization of LFC131-DOX NPs was confirmed by using free LFC131 peptide or anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody. Cell studies suggested that sustained release of doxorubicin afforded by PLGA nanoparticles may enable LFC131-DOX NP as a targeted and controlled release drug delivery system. PMID:25119723

  14. Controlled surface modification with poly(ethylene)glycol enhances diffusion of PLGA nanoparticles in human cervical mucus

    PubMed Central

    Cu, Yen; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Drug delivery to mucosal epithelia is severely limited by the mucus gel, which is a physical diffusion barrier as well as an enzymatic barrier in some sites. Loading of drug into polymer particles can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their stability. To improve efficacy of nanoparticulate drug carriers, it has been speculated that polymers such as poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) incorporated on the particle surface will enhance transport in mucus. In the present study, we demonstrate the direct influence of PEG on surface properties of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (d = 170 ± 57 nm). PEG of various molecular weights (MW = 2, 5, 10 kDa) were incorporated at a range of densities from 5 – 100% on the particle surface. Our results indicate PEG addition improves dispersion, neutralize charge, and enhance particle diffusion in cervical mucus in a manner strongly dependent on polymer MW and density. Diffusion of PEGylated particles was 3 – 10× higher than unmodified PLGA particles. These findings improve the understanding of, and confirm a possible direction for, the rational design of effective carriers for mucosal drug/vaccine delivery. PMID:19053536

  15. Nanolayer encapsulation of insulin-chitosan complexes improves efficiency of oral insulin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lei; Zhi, Zheng-liang; Pickup, John C

    2014-01-01

    Current oral insulin formulations reported in the literature are often associated with an unpredictable burst release of insulin in the intestine, which may increase the risk for problematic hypoglycemia. The aim of the study was to develop a solution based on a nanolayer encapsulation of insulin-chitosan complexes to afford sustained release after oral administration. Chitosan/heparin multilayer coatings were deposited onto insulin-chitosan microparticulate cores in the presence of poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) in the precipitating and coating solutions. The addition of PEG improved insulin loading and minimized an undesirable loss of the protein resulting from redissolution. Nanolayer encapsulation and the formation of complexes enabled a superior loading capacity of insulin (>90%), as well as enhanced stability and 74% decreased solubility at acid pH in vitro, compared with nonencapsulated insulin. The capsulated insulin administered by oral gavage lowered fasting blood glucose levels by up to 50% in a sustained and dose-dependent manner and reduced postprandial glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice without causing hypoglycemia. Nanolayer encapsulation reduced the possibility of rapid and erratic falls of blood glucose levels in animals. This technique represents a promising strategy to promote the intestinal absorption efficiency and release behavior of the hormone, potentially enabling an efficient and safe route for oral insulin delivery of insulin in diabetes management. PMID:24833901

  16. Interaction of Mechanical Load with Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) on Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle and Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Exogenous humoral growth factors, combined with increased mechanical loading, reportedly induce hypertrophy of fast-, but not slow-twitch skeletal muscles, and have little effect in attenuating atrophy of slow-twitch muscle associated with exposure to microgravity in animals with intact neuroendocrine systems. These observations suggest that anabolic adjuvants and muscle tension do not interact to stimulate growth or maintenance of slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a chronic increase in mechanical loading (synergistic ablation) or hindlimb unweighting (hindlimb suspension) interact with exogenous GH and IGF-I (Genentech, So San Francisco, CA) in the slow-twitch soleus muscles of female rats (approx. 250 g). Bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles induced 38% and 40% increases in the absolute (mg/pair) and relative (mg/100 g body weight) weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory rats. GH and IGF-I interacted with chronic loading to increase absolute soleus mass an additional 20% (p less than or = 0.05), and mixed and myofibrillar protein contents an additional 12% and 7%, respectively (NS). In contrast, hindlimb suspension (HLS) resulted in 20% and 18% decreases in the absolute and relative weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05); GH and IGF-I did not spare loss of soleus mass or protein content in HLS rats. HLS decreased tibial plate thickness approx. 11% (p less than or = 0.05), but not weights of the tibia or femus. GH and IGF-I increased tibial plate thickness approx. 30% (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory and HLS rats, and increased femur and tibial weights 12% (p less than or = 0.05) and 8% (NS), respectively, in ambulatory rats, but had no effect in HLS rats. Results of the present investigation suggest that GH and IGF-I can stimulate hypertrophy of slow-twitch skeletal muscle when chronically overloaded, but can also stimulate

  17. Delivery of phytochemical thymoquinone using molecular micelle modified poly(D, L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganea, Gabriela M.; Fakayode, Sayo O.; Losso, Jack N.; van Nostrum, Cornelus F.; Sabliov, Cristina M.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2010-07-01

    Continuous efforts have been made in the development of potent benzoquinone-based anticancer drugs aiming for improved water solubility and reduced adverse reactions. Thymoquinone is a liposoluble benzoquinone-based phytochemical that has been shown to have remarkable antioxidant and anticancer activities. In the study reported here, thymoquinone-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for physico-chemical, antioxidant and anticancer properties. The nanoparticles were synthesized by an emulsion solvent evaporation method using anionic molecular micelles as emulsifiers. The system was optimized for maximum entrapment efficiency using a Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimum conditions were found for 100 mg PLGA, 15 mg TQ and 0.5% w/v poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-glycinate) (poly-SUG). In addition, other structurally related molecular micelles such as poly(sodium N-heptenyl-glycinate) (poly-SHG), poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-leucinate) (poly-SUL), and poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-valinate) (poly-SUV) were also examined as emulsifiers. All investigated molecular micelles provided excellent emulsifier properties, leading to maximum optimized TQ entrapment efficiency, and monodispersed particle sizes below 200 nm. The release of TQ from molecular micelle modified nanoparticles was investigated by dialysis and reached lower levels than the free drug. The antioxidant activity of TQ-loaded nanoparticles, indicated by IC50 (mg ml - 1 TQ for 50% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), was highest for poly-SUV emulsified nanoparticles (0.030 ± 0.002 mg ml - 1) as compared to free TQ. In addition, it was observed that TQ-loaded nanoparticles emulsified with poly-SUV were more effective than free TQ against MDA-MB-231 cancer cell growth inhibition, presenting a cell viability of 16.0 ± 5.6% after 96 h.

  18. Lecithin and PLGA-based self-assembled nanocomposite, Lecithmer: preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Seby Elsy; Fariya, Mayur K; Rajawat, Gopal Singh; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the drug delivery potential of polymer lipid hybrid nanocomposites (Lecithmer®) composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and soya lecithin. Core-shell structure of Lecithmer was evident from cryo-TEM images. Daunorubicin (DNR) and lornoxicam (LNX)-incorporated Lecithmer nanocomposites were evaluated for anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. DNR- and LNX-loaded Lecithmer had mean particle size of ∼335 and ∼282.7 nm, respectively. Lecithmer formulated with different cationic lipids resulted in lower particle size (∼120 nm) and positive zeta potential. Entrapment efficiency of DNR and LNX was 93.16 and 88.59 %, respectively. In vitro release of DNR from Lecithmer was slower compared to PLGA nanoparticles. DNR release from Lecithmer was significantly higher at pH 5.5 (80.96 %) as compared to pH 7.4 (55.95 %), providing advantage for selective tumor therapy. Similarly, sustained release of LNX (30 % in 10 h) was observed at pH 7.4. DNR in Lecithmer showed superior cytotoxicity on human erythroleukemic K562 cells. Pharmacokinetic study in Wistar rats with i.v. administered DNR-loaded Lecithmer showed higher volume of distribution, lower elimination rate constant, and longer half-life (81.68 L, 0.3535 h(-1), 1.96 h) as compared to DNR solution (57.46 L, 0.4237 h(-1), 1.635 h). Pharmacodynamic evaluation of orally administered LNX-loaded Lecithmer showed superior anti-inflammatory activity with maximum inhibition of 81.2 % vis-à-vis 53.57 % in case of LNX suspension. In light of these results, Lecithmer can be envisaged as a promising nanosystem for parenteral as well as oral drug delivery. PMID:27371394

  19. Technosphere insulin: an inhaled prandial insulin product.

    PubMed

    Neumiller, Joshua J; Campbell, R Keith

    2010-06-01

    Given the important role of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in light of common barriers to insulin use, new strategies for insulin delivery by routes other than intravenous and subcutaneous injection have been investigated since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s. Most companies researching and developing pulmonary administration systems for the use of insulin announced the termination of product development following the failure of the first US FDA-approved inhaled insulin product, Exubera. One company in particular continued their pursuit of a useful inhaled insulin product. MannKind Corporation has developed a powder formulation of insulin that allows for a high percentage of the administered insulin to be absorbed via the lung. Their product, AFREZZA (Technosphere insulin), is currently under review by the FDA for use in patients with diabetes. Technosphere insulin appears to overcome some of the barriers that contributed to the market withdrawal of Exubera by the manufacturer. Studies with Technosphere insulin have shown it to be a unique insulin formulation in that it is very rapid acting, has a relatively short duration of action, and is efficacious in terms of improved glycemic control without contributing to increased weight gain or the incidence of hypoglycemia when compared with other prandial insulin products. Additionally, Technosphere insulin has demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies to date. PMID:20462282

  20. Development of hematin conjugated PLGA nanoparticle for selective cancer targeting.

    PubMed

    Amin, Md Lutful; Kim, Dami; Kim, SeJin

    2016-08-25

    Targeted nanomedicine for cancer therapy has gained widespread popularity and is being extensively explored. Porphyrins have intrinsic tumor localizing ability and have been studied for photodynamic therapy. However, they have not been used as cancer targeting agents for nanomedicines. In this study, PLGA nanoparticles were formulated and an iron-containing blood porphyrin, hematin was conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles to investigate selectivity towards cancer cell and cellular internalization. Hematin was previously shown to facilitate growth and proliferation of cancer cells. PLGA nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, DLS, and Zeta potential analyzer. The conjugation of hematin was confirmed by FTIR. HeLa cells were used to study tumor selectivity and uptake. Hematin conjugated particles (ζ potential: -15.19mV) showed higher affinity towards the cancer cells than the control particles. The result indicated that the particles were internalized by heme carrier protein-1. Together these data suggest that hematin is a promising cancer targeting material for nanotherapeutics. PMID:27260086

  1. PLGA Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery to Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Marxa; Esenaliev, Rinat

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound) composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene) or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles). The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a) echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b) PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery. PMID:22506124

  2. PLGA-Mesoporous Silicon Microspheres for the in Vivo Controlled Temporospatial Delivery of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Pandolfi, Laura; Taraballi, Francesca; De Rosa, Enrica; Yazdi, Iman K; Liu, Xeuwu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2015-08-01

    In regenerative medicine, the temporospatially controlled delivery of growth factors (GFs) is crucial to trigger the desired healing mechanisms in the target tissues. The uncontrolled release of GFs has been demonstrated to cause severe side effects in the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to optimize a translational approach for the fine temporal and spatial control over the release of proteins, in vivo. Hence, we proposed a newly developed multiscale composite microsphere based on a core consisting of the nanostructured silicon multistage vector (MSV) and a poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) outer shell. Both of the two components of the resulting composite microspheres (PLGA-MSV) can be independently tailored to achieve multiple release kinetics contributing to the control of the release profile of a reporter protein in vitro. The influence of MSV shape (hemispherical or discoidal) and size (1, 3, or 7 μm) on PLGA-MSV's morphology and size distribution was investigated. Second, the copolymer ratio of the PLGA used to fabricate the outer shell of PLGA-MSV was varied. The composites were fully characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ζ potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry, and their release kinetics over 30 days. PLGA-MSV's biocompatibility was assessed in vitro with J774 macrophages. Finally, the formulation of PLGA-MSV was selected, which concurrently provided the most consistent microsphere size and allowed for a zero-order release kinetic. The selected PLGA-MSVs were injected in a subcutaneous model in mice, and the in vivo release of the reporter protein was followed over 2 weeks by intravital microscopy, to assess if the zero-order release was preserved. PLGA-MSV was able to retain the payload over 2 weeks, avoiding the initial burst release typical of most drug delivery systems. Finally, histological evaluation assessed the

  3. Osteointegration of PLGA implants with nanostructured or microsized β-TCP particles in a minipig model.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Suokas, Esa O; Strandberg, Niko; Leino, Kari A; Laitio, Timo T; Aro, Hannu T

    2014-12-01

    Bioresorbable suture anchors and interference screws have certain benefits over equivalent titanium-alloy implants. However, there is a need for compositional improvement of currently used bioresorbable implants. We hypothesized that implants made of poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) compounded with nanostructured particles of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) would induce stronger osteointegration than implants made of PLGA compounded with microsized β-TCP particles. The experimental nanostructured self-reinforced PLGA (85L:15G)/β-TCP composite was made by high-energy ball-milling. Self-reinforced microsized PLGA (95L:5G)/β-TCP composite was prepared by melt-compounding. The composites were characterized by gas chromatography, Ubbelohde viscometry, scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, and standard mechanical tests. Four groups of implants were prepared for the controlled laboratory study employing a minipig animal model. Implants in the first two groups were prepared from nanostructured and microsized PLGA/β-TCP composites respectively. Microroughened titanium-alloy (Ti6Al4V) implants served as positive intra-animal control, and pure PLGA implants as negative control. Cone-shaped implants were inserted in a random order unilaterally in the anterior cortex of the femoral shaft. Eight weeks after surgery, the mechanical strength of osteointegration of the implants was measured by a push-out test. The quality of new bone surrounding the implant was assessed by microcomputed tomography and histology. Implants made of nanostructured PLGA/β-TCP composite did not show improved mechanical osteointegration compared with the implants made of microsized PLGA/β-TCP composite. In the intra-animal comparison, the push-out force of two PLGA/β-TCP composites was 35-60% of that obtained with Ti6Al4V implants. The implant materials did not result in distinct differences in quality of new bone surrounding the implant. PMID:25241283

  4. Porous magnesium/PLGA composite scaffolds for enhanced bone regeneration following tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew; Zaky, Samer; Ray, Herbert; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of implant-supported dental prostheses require bone grafting to enhance bone quantity and quality prior to implant placement. We have developed a metallic magnesium particle/PLGA composite scaffold to overcome the limitations of currently used dental bone grafting materials. This is the first report of porous metallic magnesium/PLGA scaffolds synthesized using a solvent casting, salt leaching method. We found that incorporation of varying amounts of magnesium into the PLGA scaffolds increased the compressive strength and modulus, as well as provided a porous structure suitable for cell infiltration, as measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Additionally, combining basic-degrading magnesium with acidic-degrading PLGA led to an overall pH buffering effect and long-term release of magnesium over the course of a 10-week degradation assay, as measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Using an indirect proliferation assay adapted from ISO 10993:5, it was found that extracts of medium from degrading magnesium/PLGA scaffolds increased bone marrow stromal cell proliferation in vitro, a phenomenon observed by other groups investigating magnesium's impact on cells. Finally, magnesium/PLGA scaffold biocompatibility was assessed in a canine socket preservation model. Micro-computed tomography and histological analysis showed the magnesium/PLGA scaffolds to be safer and more effective at preserving bone height than empty controls. Three-dimensional magnesium/PLGA composite scaffolds show promise for dental socket preservation and also, potentially, orthopedic bone regeneration. These scaffolds could decrease inflammation observed with clinically used PLGA devices, as well as enhance osteogenesis, as observed with previously studied magnesium devices. PMID:25234156

  5. The chemotherapeutic potential of PEG-b-PLGA copolymer micelles that combine chloroquine as autophagy inhibitor and docetaxel as an anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liang, Xin; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Hongbo; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-11-01

    Micelles may be the nanocarrier that is used most often in the area of nanomedicine due to its promising performance and technical simplicity. However, like the original drugs, micellar formulation may arouse intracellular autophagy that deteriorates their advantages for efficient drug delivery. There has been no report in the literature that involves the fate of micelles after successfully internalized into the cancer cells. In this study, we show by using docetaxel-loaded PEG-b-PLGA micelles as a micellar model that the micelles do arouse intracellular autophagy and are thus subject to degradation through the endo-lysosome pathway. Moreover, we show that co-administration of the micellar formulation with autophagy inhibitor such as chloroquine (CQ) could significantly enhance their therapeutic effects. The docetaxel-loaded PEG-b-PLGA micelles are formulated by the membrane dialysis method, which are of 7.1% drug loading and 72.8% drug encapsulation efficiency in a size range of around 40 nm with narrow size distribution. Autophagy degradation and inhibition are investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy with various biological makers. We show that the IC50 values of the drug formulated in the PEG-b-PLGA micelles after 24 h treatment MCF-7 cancer cells with no autophagy inhibitor or in combination with CQ were 22.30 ± 1.32 and 1.75 ± 0.43 μg/mL respectively, which indicated a 12-fold more efficient treatment with CQ. The in vivo investigation further confirmed the advantages of such a strategy. The findings may provide advanced knowledge for development of nanomedicine for clinical application. PMID:25109439

  6. Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as Biodegradable Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Makadia, Hirenkumar K.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In past two decades poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been among the most attractive polymeric candidates used to fabricate devices for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PLGA is biocompatible and biodegradable, exhibits a wide range of erosion times, has tunable mechanical properties and most importantly, is a FDA approved polymer. In particular, PLGA has been extensively studied for the development of devices for controlled delivery of small molecule drugs, proteins and other macromolecules in commercial use and in research. This manuscript describes the various fabrication techniques for these devices and the factors affecting their degradation and drug release. PMID:22577513

  7. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Sebastian, Víctor; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Blanco-Prieto, María J.; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography.A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading

  8. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  9. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ... syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  10. Insulin Lispro Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a short-acting, man-made version of human insulin. Insulin lispro works by replacing the insulin ... niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, in Advicor); certain medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the encapsulation of new antidiabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives using PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F. N.; Ibiapino, A. L.; de Figueiredo, L. P.; Barreiro, E. J.; Lima, L. M.; do Amaral, D. N.; de Castro, C. E.; Giacomelli, F. C.; Ferreira, F. F.

    2015-05-01

    It has been demonstrated the feasibly of using PLGA nanoparticles to promote the encapsulation of novel anti-diabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives. The motivation is to further demonstrate the possibility of long-term release of anti-diabetic as well as higher accumulation of the antitumor derivative by using the nanotechnology-based production. The produced nanoparticles were obtained by the nanoprecipitation method, which revealed to be effective in the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds. The determined sizes were in the range of ∼100 nm, which are supposed to be suitable for both potential applications. The preliminary experimental data demonstrated the formation of stable nanosystems and further experiments are underway in order to determine the loading content, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of the hydrophobic bioactive compounds.

  12. Investigation of imatinib loaded surface decorated biodegradable nanocarriers against glioblastoma cell lines: Intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abrar M; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Panda, Amulya K; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2016-06-30

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter in glioma cells thwarts the build-up of therapeutic concentration of drugs usually resulting into poor therapeutic outcome. To surmount aforesaid challenge, Imatinib (IMM) loaded Poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (IMM-PLGA-NPs) were developed and optimized by Box Behnken Design as a new treatment stratagem in malignant glioma. Optimized NPs were functionalized with Pluronic(®) P84, P-gp inhibitor (IMM-PLGA-P84-NPs) which showed size, PDI, zeta potential, drug loading, 182.63±13.56nm, 0.196±0.021, -15.2±1.49mV, 40.63±2.04μg/mg, respectively. Intracellular uptake study conducted on A172, U251MG and C6 glioma cells demonstrated significantly high uptake of IMM through NPs when compared with IMM solution (IMM-S), p<0.001. IMM-PLGA-P84-NPs showed better uptake in P-gp expressing cell line (U251MG and C6) while uncoated NPs showed higher uptake in non-P-gp expressing cell line (A-172). Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated significantly low IC50 for both IMM-PLGA-NPs and IMM-PLGA-P84-NPs when compared with IC50 of IMM-S. IMM-PLGA-P84-NPs showed a significantly low IC50 against P-gp overexpressing cell lines when compared with IC50 of IMM-PLGA-NPs. In contrary, IMM-PLGA-NPs showed lower IC50 against non P-gp expressing cell line. This study demonstrated the feasibility of targeting surface decorated NPs to multidrug resistant gliomas. However, to address its clinical utility extensive in vivo studies are required. PMID:27154254

  13. Cellobiose-coated poly (lactide-co-glycolide) particles loaded with diphtheria toxoid for per os immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chudina, Tetiana; Labyntsev, Andrii; Manoilov, Kyrylo; Kolybo, Denys; Komisarenko, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the dose-dependent immunogenic properties of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles coated with cellobiose as antigen carriers for oral immunization. Methods Two types of PLGA-cellobiose particles (PLGA-cellobiose-1, ~ 0.8 μm and PLGA-cellobiose-2, ~ 1.2 μm) containing non-toxic recombinant subunit B (SbB) of diphtheria toxin fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein were characterized in vitro for their size, shape, antigen loading, and ability to induce phagocytosis. Different doses of antigen, immobilized on the particles (2.5 μg, 25 μg, 250 μg, and 2500 μg per 1 kg of body weight), were administered per os 3 times with intervals of 2 weeks to BALB/c female mice. The antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were estimated in serum by ELISA. Results After the first immunization, increase in concentration of blood antitoxic antibodies was detected. Antigen dose 250 μg/kg was the most immunogenic for IgG antibodies induction for both types of PLGA-cellobiose particles. Antigen doses 25 μg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg were the most immunogenic for IgA antibodies induction by PLGA-cellobiose 1 and 2 particles, respectively. The second and the third treatment had no significant effect on the immune response or even reduced it, which could be explained by immune tolerance induction by the antigens delivered per os. Conclusion Our results suggest that the correct dose of PLGA-cellobiose particles loaded with antigen could significantly increase the humoral immune response against the introduced antigen already after the first immunization. Thus, PLGA particles can be considered as a potent component of oral vaccines. PMID:25891867

  14. Uptake and transport of insulin across intestinal membrane model using trimethyl chitosan coated insulin niosomes.

    PubMed

    Moghassemi, Saeid; Parnian, Ehsan; Hakamivala, Amirhossien; Darzianiazizi, Maedeh; Vardanjani, Marzieh Mowlavi; Kashanian, Susan; Larijani, Bagher; Omidfar, Kobra

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development of a highly stable niosomal nanostructure based on Span 60/cholesterol (CH)/N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) system and its potential application for oral delivery of insulin. Insulin loaded niosomes were prepared by reversed-phase evaporation and TMC coating was performed by incubation of niosomal suspensions with TMC solution. The efficiency of nanoparticulate delivery system in enhancement of insulin permeation was evaluated by Caco-2 cell monolayer as intestinal membrane models. The prepared niosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, zeta potential and stability. The particles were between 100 and 180 nm in diameter, and they were stable for over 60 days at 4 °C. Insulin permeability through Caco-2 cell monolayer was enhanced 4-fold by niosomal nanoparticles, compared with insulin alone. Further work is demanded to optimize this formulation with the object of maximizing its potential to facilitate oral delivery of insulin. PMID:25491995

  15. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Altunbas, Hasan Ali; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by autoimmune, genetic and metabolic abnormalities. While insulin deficiency manifested as hyperglycemia is a common sequel of both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), it does not result from a single genetic defect—rather insulin deficiency results from the functional loss of pancreatic β cells due to multifactorial mechanisms. Since pancreatic β cells of patients with T1DM are destroyed by autoimmune reaction, these patients require daily insulin injections. Insulin resistance followed by β cell dysfunction and β cell loss is the characteristics of T2DM. Therefore, most patients with T2DM will require insulin treatment due to eventual loss of insulin secretion. Despite the evidence of early insulin treatment lowering macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) complications of T2DM, controversy exists among physicians on how to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. The slow acting nature of regular human insulin makes its use ineffective in counteracting postprandial hyperglycemia. Instead, recombinant insulin analogs have been generated with a variable degree of specificity and action. Due to the metabolic variability among individuals, optimum blood glucose management is a formidable task to accomplish despite the presence of novel insulin analogs. In this article, we present a recent update on insulin analog structure and function with an overview of the evidence on the various insulin regimens clinically used to treat diabetes. PMID:23584214

  16. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer conjugated PEG-PLGA nanopolymersomes for targeted delivery of doxorubicin to human breast adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Ramezani, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Abnous, Khalil; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-02-01

    Targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents exclusively to tumor cells introduces an attractive strategy because it increases the therapeutic index compared with untargeted drugs. Aptamer conjugated nanoparticles that can specifically bind to the proteins on a tumor cell surface are capable nanoscale delivery systems for enhancing cellular uptake of chemotherapeutic agents. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as a cancer stem cell marker emerges as a versatile target for aptamer-based cancer therapy due to its high expression level in various adenocarcinoma cell lines and its very low expression level in normal cells. We developed EpCAM-targeted PEG-PLGA nanopolymersomes by covalently coupling the EpCAM aptamer to the surface of nanopolymersomes loaded with the anticancer agent doxorubicin via pH gradient method. The results indicated that doxorubicin was entrapped in PEG-PLGA nanopolymersomes with encapsulation efficiency and loading content of 91.25±4.27% and 7.3±0.34%, respectively. Over a period of 5 days, up to 8% of the DOX was released through this system. The doxorubicin-loaded aptamer conjugated nanopolymersomes exhibited efficient cell uptake and internalization, and were significantly more cytotoxic (P<0.01) toward EpCAM-positive tumor cells (MCF-7) than non-targeted nanopolymersomes. Our data suggest that EpCAM-targeted nanopolymersomes will lead to an improved therapeutic index of doxorubicin to EpCAM positive cancer cells. PMID:25529433

  17. Raloxifene-/raloxifene-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate-loaded microspheres: A novel strategy for drug delivery to bone forming cells.

    PubMed

    Kavas, Ayşegül; Keskin, Dilek; Altunbaş, Korhan; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2016-08-20

    Raloxifene (Ral)- or Ral-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate-loaded microspheres were prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) alone or with the blend of PCL and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to provide controlled and sustained Ral release systems. Benefits of these formulations were evaluated on bone regeneration. Ral-loaded PCL microspheres had the highest encapsulation efficiency (70.7±5.0%) among all groups owing to high hydrophobic natures of both Ral and PCL. Cumulative amount of Ral released from Ral-PEG (1:2) conjugate-loaded PCL:PLGA (1:1) microspheres (26.9±8.8%) after 60days was significantly higher relative to other microsphere groups. This finding can be ascribed to two factors: i) Ral-PEG conjugation, resulting in increased water-solubility of Ral and increased degradation rates of PCL and PLGA with enhanced water penetration into the polymer matrix, and ii) usage of PLGA besides PCL in the carrier composition to benefit from less hydrophobic and faster degradable nature of PLGA in comparison to PCL. In vitro cytotoxicity studies performed using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) demonstrated that all microspheres were non-toxic. Evaluation of intensities of Alizarin red S staining conducted after 7 and 14days of incubation of ASCs in the release media of the different microsphere groups was performed with Image J analysis software. At day 7, it was observed that the matrix deposited by the cells cultivated in the release medium of Ral-PEG (1:2) conjugate-loaded PCL:PLGA (1:1) microspheres had significantly higher mineral content (26.78±6.23%) than that of the matrix deposited by the cells cultivated in the release media of the other microsphere groups except Ral-loaded PCL:PLGA (1:1) microsphere group. At day 14, Ral release from Ral-PEG (1:2) conjugate-loaded PCL:PLGA (1:1) microsphere group resulted with significantly higher mineralization of the matrix (32.31±1.85%) deposited by ASCs in comparison to all other microsphere

  18. Current advances in research and clinical applications of PLGA-based nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Wang, Xinwen; Marin-Muller, Christian; Wang, Hao; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanotechnology has been developed for many years and has been approved by the US FDA for the use of drug delivery, diagnostics and other applications of clinical and basic science research, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, vaccine and tissue engineering. This article presents the more recent successes of applying PLGA-based nanotechnologies and tools in these medicine-related applications. It focuses on the possible mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment effects of PLGA preparations and devices. This updated information will benefit to both new and established research scientists and clinical physicians who are interested in the development and application of PLGA nanotechnology as new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for many diseases. PMID:19435455

  19. Fabrication of PLGA polymer microspheres for U. S. mediated gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Saltzman, William M.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2001-05-01

    The promises of gene therapy remain unfulfilled because of the lack of a safe and efficient method for transfecting DNA into cells. PLGA has been used as a vehicle for protein, drug, and gene delivery applications because of its biocompatibility and sustained release properties. PLGA polymer microspheres offer advantages of safety and the possibility of sustained intracytoplasmic delivery. The PLGA also protects the plasmid from degradation. Using the double-emulsion microsphere fabrication technique, a new DNA delivery vehicle, comprising of plasmid DNA and octafluoropropane gas encapsulated in PLGA polymer and PVA stabilizer (Sonospheres) was made. The encapsulated gas offers acoustic activity to the microspheres, which enables them to undergo cavitation in an acoustic field. The goal is to lead to increased DNA transfection when these Sonospheres are subjected to an acoustic field in the MHz frequency range. A summary of the fabrication methods and some initial in vitro studies will be presented.

  20. Measurement of PLGA-NP interaction with single smooth muscle cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling; Mondal, Argha; Homayoni, Homa; Nguyen, Kytai; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-10-01

    For intervention of cardiovascular diseases, biodegradable and biocompatible, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) are emerging as agents of choice for controlled and targeted drug delivery. Therefore development of PLGA-NP with optimal physico-chemical properties will allow efficient binding and thus delivery of drug to targeted cells under various patho-physiological conditions. The force kinetics and its dependence on size of the NPs will be crucial for designing the NPs. Since optical tweezers allow non-contact, highly sensitive force measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution, we utilized it for studying interaction forces between magnetic PLGA nanoparticles with smooth muscle cells (SMC). In order to investigate effect of size, interaction force for 200 to 1100nm PLGA NP was measured. For similar interaction duration, the force was found to be higher with increase in size. The rupture force was found to depend on time of interaction of SMC with NPs.

  1. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Elizabeth M; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration. PMID:27022271

  2. In-vitro anticancer and antimicrobial activities of PLGA/silver nanofiber composites prepared by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Fouad, H; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Awad, Hanem M; Mohamed, Sahar H S; Elsarnagawy, T; Albarrag, Ahmed M; Al-Jassir, Fawzi F; Abdo, Hany S

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, a series of 0, 1 and 7 wt% silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) incorporated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nano-fibers were synthesized by the electrospinning process. The PLGA/Ag nano-fibers sheets were characterized using SEM, TEM and DSC analyses. The three synthesized PLGA/silver nano-fiber composites were screened for anticancer activity against liver cancer cell line using MTT and LDH assays. The anticancer activity of PLGA nano-fibers showed a remarkable improvement due to increasing the concentration of the Ag NPs. In addition to the given result, PLGA nano-fibers did not show any cytotoxic effect. However, PLGA nano-fibers that contain 1 % nano silver showed anticancer activity of 8.8 %, through increasing the concentration of the nano silver to 7 % onto PLGA nano-fibers, the anticancer activity was enhanced to a 67.6 %. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of these three nano-fibers, against the five bacteria strains namely; E.coli o157:H7 ATCC 51659, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565, Bacillus cereus EMCC 1080, Listeria monocytogenes EMCC 1875 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC25566 using the disc diffusion method, were evaluated. Sample with an enhanced inhibitory effect was PLGA/Ag NPs (7 %) which inhibited all strains (inhibition zone diameter 10 mm); PLGA/Ag NPs (1 %) sample inhibited only one strain (B. cereus) with zone diameter 8 mm. The PLGA nano-fiber sample has not shown any antimicrobial activity. Based on the anticancer as well as the antimicrobial results in this study, it can be postulated that: PLGA nanofibers containing 7 % nano silver are suitable as anticancer- and antibiotic-drug delivery systems, as they will increase the anticancer as well as the antibiotic drug potency without cytotoxicity effect on the normal cells. These findings also suggest that Ag NPs, of the size (5-10 nm) evaluated in the present study, are appropriate for therapeutic application from a safety standpoint. PMID:24375170

  3. Chitosan-poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (CS-PLGA) nanoparticles containing metformin HCl: preparation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Nuran; Cetin, Meltem

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the preparation and in vitro characterisation of metformin HCl-loaded CS-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were aimed. The prepared nanoparticles (blank nanoparticles (C-1), 50 mg of metformin HCl loaded nanoparticles (C-2) and 75 mg of metformin HCl loaded nanoparticles (C-3) ranged in size from 506.67±13.61 to 516.33±16.85 nm and had surface charges of 22.57±1.21 to 32.37±0.57 mV. Low encapsulation efficiency was observed for both nanoparticle formulations due to the leakage of metformin HCl to the external medium during preparation of nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formulations showed highly reproducible drug release profiles. ~20% of metformin HCl was released within 30 minutes and approximately 98% of the loaded metformin HCl was released at 144 hours in a phosphate buffer (PB; pH 6.8). No statistically significant difference was noted between the in vitro release profiles of the nanoparticles (C-2 and C-3) containing metformin HCl. Also, nanoparticles were characterised using FT-IR and DSC. PMID:25362616

  4. Mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite-PLGA-collagen biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Middleton, John C; Tannenbaum, Rina; Wick, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    A bone graft is a complicated structure that provides mechanical support and biological signals that regulate bone growth, reconstruction, and repair. A single-component material is inadequate to provide a suitable combination of structural support and biological stimuli to promote bone regeneration. Multicomponent composite biomaterials lack adequate bonding among the components to prevent phase separation after implantation. We have previously developed a novel multistep polymerization and fabrication process to construct a nano-hydroxyapatite-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-collagen biomaterial (abbreviated nHAP-PLGA-collagen) with the components covalently bonded to each other. In the present study, the mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of nHAP-PLGA-collagen are characterized to assess the material's suitability to support bone regeneration. nHAP-PLGA-collagen films exhibit tensile strength very close to that of human cancellous bone. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are viable on 2D nHAP-PLGA-collagen films with a sevenfold increase in cell population after 7 days of culture. Over 5 weeks of culture, hMSCs deposit matrix and mineral consistent with osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. As a result of matrix deposition, nHAP-PLGA-collagen films cultured with hMSCs exhibit 48% higher tensile strength and fivefold higher moduli compared to nHAP-PLGA-collagen films without cells. More interestingly, secretion of matrix and minerals by differentiated hMSCs cultured on the nHAP-PLGA-collagen films for 5 weeks mitigates the loss of mechanical strength that accompanies PLGA hydrolysis. PMID:27120980

  5. Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin/PLGA/HAp microspheres enhances bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Tai, I-Chun; Fu, Yin-Chih; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Statins are used clinically for reduction of cholesterol synthesis to prevent cardiovascular disease. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that statins stimulate bone formation. However, orally administered statins may be degraded during first-pass metabolism in the liver. This study aimed to prevent this degradation by developing a locally administered formulation of simvastatin that is encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite (SIM/PLGA/HAp) microspheres with controlled-release properties. The effect of this formulation of simvastatin on bone repair was tested using a mouse model of gap fracture bridging with a graft of necrotic bone. The simvastatin released over 12 days from 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp was 0.03–1.6 μg/day and 0.05–2.6 μg/day, respectively. SIM/PLGA/HAp significantly stimulated callus formation around the repaired area and increased neovascularization and cell ingrowth in the grafted necrotic bone at week 2 after surgery. At week 4, both 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp increased neovascularization, but only 5 mg SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced cell ingrowth into the necrotic bone. The low dose of simvastatin released from SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced initial callus formation, neovascularization, and cell ingrowth in the grafted bone, indicating that SIM/PLGA/HAp facilitates bone regeneration. We suggest that SIM/PLGA/HAp should be developed as an osteoinductive agent to treat osteonecrosis or in combination with an osteoconductive scaffold to treat severe bone defects. PMID:24143094

  6. Biofabrication of a PLGA-TCP-based porous bioactive bone substitute with sustained release of icaritin.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Xin-Luan; Zhang, Ge; He, Yi-Xin; Leng, Yang; Tang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Xiaohua; Qin, Ling

    2015-08-01

    A phytomolecule, icaritin, has been identified and shown to be osteopromotive for the prevention of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. This study aimed to produce a bioactive poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide)-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA-TCP)-based porous scaffold incorporating the osteopromotive phytomolecule icaritin, using a fine spinning technology. Both the structure and the composition of icaritin-releasing PLGA-TCP-based scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity was quantified by both water absorption and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The mechanical properties were evaluated using a compression test. In vitro release of icaritin from the PLGA-TCP scaffold was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the composite scaffold were evaluated. Both an in vitro cytotoxicity test and an in vivo test via muscular implantation were conducted to confirm the scaffold's biocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA-TCP-icaritin composite scaffold was porous, with interconnected macro- (about 480 µm) and micropores (2-15 µm). The mechanical properties of the PLGA-TCP-icaritin scaffold were comparable with those of the pure PLGA-TCP scaffold, yet was spinning direction-dependent. Icaritin content was detected in the medium and increased with time. The PLGA-TCP-icaritin scaffold facilitated the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In vitro cytotoxicity test and in vivo intramuscular implantation showed that the composite scaffold had no toxicity with good biocompatibility. In conclusion, an osteopromotive phytomolecule, icaritin, was successfully incorporated into PLGA-TCP to form an innovative porous composite scaffold with sustained release of osteopromotive icaritin, and this scaffold had good biocompatibility and osteopromotion, suggesting its potential for orthopaedic

  7. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles by carbopol to enhance mucoadhesion and cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Surassmo, Suvimol; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Suktham, Kunat; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2015-06-01

    Mucoadhesive poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles having a modified shell-matrix derived from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Carbopol (CP), a biodegradable polymer coating, to improve the adhesion and cell transfection properties were developed. The optimum formulations utilized a CP concentration in the range of 0.05-0.2%w/v, and were formed using modified emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The resulting CP-PLGA nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. The absorbed CP on the PLGA shell-matrix was found to affect the particle size and surface charge, with 0.05% CP giving rise to smooth spherical particles (0.05CP-PLGA) with the smallest size (285.90 nm), and strong negative surface charge (-25.70 mV). The introduction of CP results in an enhancement of the mucoadhesion between CP-PLGA nanoparticles and mucin particles. In vitro cell internalization studies highlighted the potential of 0.05CP-PLGA nanoparticles for transfection into SiHa cells, with uptake being time dependent. Additionally, cytotoxicity studies of CP-PLGA nanoparticles against SiHa cancer cells indicated that low concentrations of the nanoparticles were non-toxic to cells (cell viability >80%). From the various formulations studied, 0.05CP-PLGA nanoparticles proved to be the optimum model carrier having the required mucoadhesive profile and could be an alternative therapeutic efficacy carrier for targeted mucosal drug delivery systems with biodegradable polymer. PMID:25937384

  8. Multifunctional poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)/montmorillonite (PLGA/MMT) nanoparticles decorated by Trastuzumab for targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingfeng; Ranganathan, Balu; Feng, Si-Shen

    2008-02-01

    This paper continued our earlier work on the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)/montmorillonite nanoparticles (PLGA/MMT NPs), which were further decorated by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) antibody Trastuzumab for targeted breast cancer chemotherapy with paclitaxel as a model anticancer drug. Such a NP system is multifunctional, which formulates anticancer drugs with no harmful adjuvant, reduces the side effects of the formulated anticancer drug, promotes synergistic therapeutic effects, and achieves targeted delivery of the therapy. The paclitaxel-loaded PLGA/MMT NPs were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique, which were then decorated with Trastuzumab. The effects of the surface decoration on particle size and size distribution, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, as well as the drug release kinetics, were investigated. The NP formulation exhibited a biphasic drug release with a moderate initial burst followed by a sustained release profile. The surface decoration speeded the drug release. Surface chemistry analysis was conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed the presence of Trastuzumab on the NP surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed the stability of the antibody in the NP preparation process. Internalization of the coumarin-6-loaded PLGA/MMT NPs with or without the antibody decoration by both of Caco-2 colon adeno carcinoma cells and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitatively analyzed, which shows that the antibody decoration achieved significantly higher cellular uptake of the NPs. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity experiment on SK-BR-3 cells further proved the targeting effects of the antibody decoration. Judged by IC50 after 24h culture, the therapeutic effects of the drug formulated in the NPs with surface decoration could be 12.74 times higher than that of the

  9. BMP-2 Grafted nHA/PLGA Hybrid Nanofiber Scaffold Stimulates Osteoblastic Cells Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adnan; Kim, Sukyoung; Huh, Man-Woo; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/degenerated tissues or organs. Natural bone is a hierarchical structure, comprised of various cells having specific functions that are regulated by sophisticated mechanisms. However, the regulation of the normal functions in damaged or injured cells is disrupted. In order to address this problem, we attempted to artificially generate a scaffold for mimicking the characteristics of the extracellular matrix at the nanoscale level to trigger osteoblastic cell growth. For this purpose, we have chemically grafted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) onto the surface of L-glutamic acid modified hydroxyapatite incorporated into the PLGA nanofiber matrix. After extensive characterization using various spectroscopic techniques, the BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to various in vitro cytocompatibility tests. The results indicated that BMP-2 on BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds greatly stimulated osteoblastic cells growth, contrary to the nHA/PLGA and pristine PLGA nanofiber scaffold, which are used as control. These results suggest that BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffold can be used as a nanodrug carrier for the controlled and targeted delivery of BMP-2, which will open new possibilities for enhancing bone tissue regeneration and will help in the treatment of various bone-related diseases in the future. PMID:26539477

  10. Multifunctional Bi2S3/PLGA nanocapsule for combined HIFU/radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ming-hua; Ma, Ming; Chen, Yu; Jia, Xiao-qing; Xu, Guang; Xu, Hui-xiong; Chen, Hang-rong; Wu, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid nanocapsule based on Bi2S3-embedded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsule has been elaborately designed to combine the merits of both polymeric shell structure and Bi2S3 nanoparticles. Hydrophobic Bi2S3 nanoparticles were successfully introduced into the PLGA nanocapsules via a facile and efficient water/oil/water (W/O/W) emulsion strategy. The elastic polymeric PLGA shell provides the excellent capability of ultrasound contrast imaging to the Bi2S3/PLGA. Meanwhile, the potential of these microcapsules to enhance the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy was demonstrated. Importantly, this research provided the first example of both in vitro and in vivo to demonstrate the radiosensitization effect of Bi2S3-embedded PLGA hybrid nanocapsules against prostate cancer under external X-ray irradiation. Thus, the successful integration of the Bi2S3 and PLGA nanocapsules provided an alternative strategy for the highly efficient ultrasound guided HIFU/RT synergistic therapy. PMID:24973300

  11. PLGA nanoparticle formulation of RK-33: an RNA helicase inhibitor against DDX3

    PubMed Central

    Bol, Guus Martinus; Khan, Raheela; van Voss, Marise Rosa Heerma; Tantravedi, Saritha; Korz, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    Background The DDX3 helicase inhibitor RK-33 is a newly developed anticancer agent that showed promising results in preclinical research (Bol et al. EMBO Mol Med, 7(5):648–649, 2015). However, due to the physicochemical and pharmacological characteristics of RK-33, we initiated development of alternative formulations of RK-33 by preparing sustained release nanoparticles that can be administered intravenously. Methods In this study, RK-33 was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), one of the most well-developed biodegradable polymers, using the emulsion solvent evaporation method. Results Hydrodynamic diameter of RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles was about 245 nm with a negative charge, and RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles had a payload of 1.4 % RK-33. RK-33 was released from the PLGA nanoparticles over 7 days (90 ± 5.7 % released by day 7) and exhibited cytotoxicity to human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, RK-33-PLGA nanoparticles were well tolerated, and systemic retention of RK-33 was markedly improved in normal mice. Conclusions PLGA nanoparticles have a potential as a parenteral formulation of RK-33. PMID:26330329

  12. The fabrication of PLGA microvessel scaffolds with nano-patterned inner walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2010-10-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most commonly used biodegradable, biocompatible materials. Nanostructured PLGA has immense potential for application in tissue engineering. In this article we discuss a novel approach for the fabrication of PLGA microvessel scaffolds with nanostructured inner walls. In this novel nano-patterning approach, the thermal reflow technique is first adapted to fabricate a semi-cylindrical photoresist master mold. A thin film of titanium and a thin film of aluminum are sputtered in sequence on the semi-cylindrical microvessel network. Aluminum foil anodization is then executed to transform the aluminum thin film into a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film. During the casting process a PLGA solution is cast on the AAO film to build up semi-cylindrical PLGA microstructures with nanostructured inner walls after which inductive coupled plasma (ICP) is implemented to assist bonding of the two PLGA structures. The result is the building of a network of microchannels with nano-patterned inner walls. Bovine endothelial cells (BECs) are carefully cultured in the scaffold via semi-dynamic seeding for 7 days. Observations show that the BECs grew more separately in a nano-patterned microvessel scaffold than they did in a smooth surface scaffold. PMID:20532635

  13. Biomimetic Hybrid Nanofiber Sheets Composed of RGD Peptide-Decorated PLGA as Cell-Adhesive Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Min Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Su; Oh, Jin-Woo; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical applications, there is a need for tissue engineering scaffolds to promote and control cellular behaviors, including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In particular, the initial adhesion of cells has a great influence on those cellular behaviors. In this study, we concentrate on developing cell-adhesive substrates applicable for tissue engineering scaffolds. The hybrid nanofiber sheets were prepared by electrospinning poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and M13 phage, which was genetically modified to enhance cell adhesion thru expressing RGD peptides on their surface. The RGD peptide is a specific motif of extracellular matrix (ECM) for integrin receptors of cells. RGD peptide-decorated PLGA (RGD-PLGA) nanofiber sheets were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, contact angle measurement and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the initial adhesion and proliferation of four different types of mammalian cells were determined in order to evaluate the potential of RGD-PLGA nanofiber sheets as cell-adhesive substrates. Our results showed that the hybrid nanofiber sheets have a three-dimensional porous structure comparable to the native ECM. Furthermore, the initial adhesion and proliferation of cells were significantly enhanced on RGD-PLGA sheets. These results suggest that biomimetic RGD-PLGA nanofiber sheets can be promising cell-adhesive substrates for application as tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26034884

  14. BMP-2 Grafted nHA/PLGA Hybrid Nanofiber Scaffold Stimulates Osteoblastic Cells Growth.

    PubMed

    Haider, Adnan; Kim, Sukyoung; Huh, Man-Woo; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/degenerated tissues or organs. Natural bone is a hierarchical structure, comprised of various cells having specific functions that are regulated by sophisticated mechanisms. However, the regulation of the normal functions in damaged or injured cells is disrupted. In order to address this problem, we attempted to artificially generate a scaffold for mimicking the characteristics of the extracellular matrix at the nanoscale level to trigger osteoblastic cell growth. For this purpose, we have chemically grafted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) onto the surface of L-glutamic acid modified hydroxyapatite incorporated into the PLGA nanofiber matrix. After extensive characterization using various spectroscopic techniques, the BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to various in vitro cytocompatibility tests. The results indicated that BMP-2 on BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds greatly stimulated osteoblastic cells growth, contrary to the nHA/PLGA and pristine PLGA nanofiber scaffold, which are used as control. These results suggest that BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffold can be used as a nanodrug carrier for the controlled and targeted delivery of BMP-2, which will open new possibilities for enhancing bone tissue regeneration and will help in the treatment of various bone-related diseases in the future. PMID:26539477

  15. [Relation between drug release and the drug status within curcumin-loaded microsphere].

    PubMed

    Chen, De; Liu, Yi; Fan, Kai-yan; Xie, Yi-qiao; Yu, An-an; Xia, Zi-hua; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    To study the relation between drug release and the drug status within curcumin-loaded microsphere, SPG (shirasu porous glass) membrane emulsification was used to prepare the curcumin-PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres with three levels of drug loading respectively, and the in vitro release was studied with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The morphology of microspheres was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the drug status was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared analysis (IR). The drug loading of microspheres was (5.85 ± 0.21)%, (11.71 ± 0.39)%, (15.41 ± 0.40)%, respectively. No chemical connection was found between curcumin and PLGA. According to the results of XRD, curcumin dispersed in PLGA as amorphous form within the microspheres of the lowest drug loading, while (2.12 ± 0.64)% and (5.66 ± 0.07)% curcumin crystals was detected in the other two kinds of microspheres, respectively, indicating that the drug status was different within three kinds of microspheres. In the data analysis, we found that PLGA had a limited capacity of dissolving curcumin. When the drug loading exceeded the limit, the excess curcumin would exist in the form of crystals in microspheres independently. Meanwhile, this factor contributes to the difference in drug release behavior of the three groups of microspheres. PMID:27405176

  16. Nanofibrous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) membranes loaded with diamond nanoparticles as promising substrates for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Parizek, Martin; Douglas, Timothy EL; Novotna, Katarina; Kromka, Alexander; Brady, Mariea A; Renzing, Andrea; Voss, Eske; Jarosova, Marketa; Palatinus, Lukas; Tesarek, Pavel; Ryparova, Pavla; Lisa, Věra; dos Santos, Ana M; Bacakova, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with bioactive nanoparticles are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Methods In this study, composite nanofibrous membranes containing a copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide (PLGA) and diamond nanoparticles were fabricated by an electrospinning technique. PLGA was dissolved in a mixture of methylene chloride and dimethyl formamide (2:3) at a concentration of 2.3 wt%, and nanodiamond (ND) powder was added at a concentration of 0.7 wt% (about 23 wt% in dry PLGA). Results In the composite scaffolds, the ND particles were either arranged like beads in the central part of the fibers or formed clusters protruding from the fibers. In the PLGA-ND membranes, the fibers were thicker (diameter 270 ± 9 nm) than in pure PLGA meshes (diameter 218 ± 4 nm), but the areas of pores among these fibers were smaller than in pure PLGA samples (0.46 ± 0.02 μm2 versus 1.28 ± 0.09 μm2 in pure PLGA samples). The PLGA-ND membranes showed higher mechanical resistance, as demonstrated by rupture tests of load and deflection of rupture probe at failure. Both types of membranes enabled the attachment, spreading, and subsequent proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells to a similar extent, although these values were usually lower than on polystyrene dishes. Nevertheless, the cells on both types of membranes were polygonal or spindle-like in shape, and were distributed homogeneously on the samples. From days 1–7 after seeding, their number rose continuously, and at the end of the experiment, these cells were able to create a confluent layer. At the same time, the cell viability, evaluated by a LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, ranged from 92% to 97% on both types of membranes. In addition, on PLGA-ND membranes, the cells formed well developed talin-containing focal adhesion plaques. As estimated by the determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the culture medium and concentration of intercellular adhesion

  17. The effects of technical and compositional variables on the size and release profile of bovine serum albumin from PLGA based particulate systems

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, B.; Yakhchali, M.; Haririan, I.; Tamaddon, A.M.; Samani, S. Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Double emulsion solvent evaporation technique is one of the most attractive methods used to prepare micro and nanoparticles in pharmaceutical areas of interest, but because of the effects of many formulation factors on the size and release behavior of the fabricated particles, optimization of the formulation factors is needed. In this study various parameters including technical and compositional variables were considered to achieve an optimized formulation with desire characteristics especially size and the release profiles, using high shear homogenizer. In this regard, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein and double emulsion was formed with the addition of Tween 80 and Span 80 as surfactants for inner aqueous phase and oil phase, respectively. Hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin was used as protein stabilizer. After optimization steps, composite nanoparticles (core-shell) were made based on optimized formulation by hyaluronic acid as shell and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as core material. Formulation of the BSA loaded PLGA nanoparticles using core shell strategy improved the release pattern of the BSA and diminished burst release. The final composite nanoparticles had the particle size of about 160 nm and 70 % of the loaded BSA was released during 14 days and the release data was better fitted to zero order release kinetics. PMID:26339256

  18. The effects of technical and compositional variables on the size and release profile of bovine serum albumin from PLGA based particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, B; Yakhchali, M; Haririan, I; Tamaddon, A M; Samani, S Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Double emulsion solvent evaporation technique is one of the most attractive methods used to prepare micro and nanoparticles in pharmaceutical areas of interest, but because of the effects of many formulation factors on the size and release behavior of the fabricated particles, optimization of the formulation factors is needed. In this study various parameters including technical and compositional variables were considered to achieve an optimized formulation with desire characteristics especially size and the release profiles, using high shear homogenizer. In this regard, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein and double emulsion was formed with the addition of Tween 80 and Span 80 as surfactants for inner aqueous phase and oil phase, respectively. Hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin was used as protein stabilizer. After optimization steps, composite nanoparticles (core-shell) were made based on optimized formulation by hyaluronic acid as shell and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as core material. Formulation of the BSA loaded PLGA nanoparticles using core shell strategy improved the release pattern of the BSA and diminished burst release. The final composite nanoparticles had the particle size of about 160 nm and 70 % of the loaded BSA was released during 14 days and the release data was better fitted to zero order release kinetics. PMID:26339256

  19. Attenuated insulin response and normal insulin sensitivity in lean patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Dedik, L; Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Vigas, M; Imrich, R

    2005-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine insulin response to intravenous glucose load and insulin sensitivity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Fourteen nonobese male patients with AS and 14 matched healthy controls underwent frequent-sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were calculated using the computer-minimal and homeostasis-model assessment 2 (HOMA2) models. Fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, HOMA2, glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity and insulin response to FSIVGTT did not differ between patients and controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations tended to be higher in AS patients than in controls. Second-phase beta-cell responsiveness was 37% lower (p = 0.05) in AS patients than in controls. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of beta-cell secretion and IL-6 in all subjects (r = -0.54, p = 0.006). We found normal insulin sensitivity but attenuated glucose utilization in the second phase of FSIVGTT in AS patients. Our results indicate that elevated IL-6 levels may play a pathophysiological role in attenuating beta-cell responsiveness, which may explain the association between elevated IL-6 levels and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:16366418

  20. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity.

  1. Smart multifunctional core-shell nanospheres with drug and gene co-loaded for enhancing the therapeutic effect in a rat intracranial tumor model.

    PubMed

    Wang, HanJie; Su, Wenya; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Xiaomin; Liao, Zhenyu; Kang, Chunsheng; Han, Lei; Chang, Jin; Wang, Guangxiu; Pu, Peiyu

    2012-10-21

    Glioblastoma with high mortality has been one of the most serious cancers threatening human health. Because of the present treatment limitations, there is an urgent need to construct a multifunctional vesicle for enhancing the treatment of in situ malignant glioblastoma. In our study, drug and gene co-loaded magnetic PLGA/multifunctional polymeric liposome (magnetic PLGA/MPLs) core-shell nanospheres were constructed. They were mainly self-assembled from two parts: hydrophobic PLGA cores that can load drugs and magnetic nanocrystals; and polymeric lipid shells anchored with functional molecules such as PEG chains, TAT peptides and RGD peptides that can help the vectors to condense the gene, prolong the circulation time, cross the blood brain barrier and target delivery to the cancer tissue. The results showed that the magnetic PLGA/MPLs nanosphere has a nanosized core-shell structure, can achieve sustained drug release and has good DNA binding abilities. Importantly, compared with the control group and other groups with single functionality, it can co-deliver the drug and gene into the same cell in vitro and show the strongest inhibiting effect on the growth of the in situ malignant glioblastoma in vivo. All of these results indicated that the different functional components of magnetic PLGA/MPLs, can form an organic whole and none of them can be dispensed with. The magnetic PLGA/MPLs nanosphere may be another option for treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:22961067

  2. A novel study on the mechanisms of drug release in PLGA-mPEG microspheres with fluorescent drug.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen; Feng, Shuibin; Liu, Ping; Liu, Xianzhe; Feng, Xiaobo; Fu, Dehao

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to proof the microspheres release mechanism by a novel method-detecting and comparing the drugs fluorescent changes on the microspheres surface. Fluorescein sodium (FS, 0.4 kDa) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA, 66.8 kDa) were employed as model drugs. FS and FITC-BSA were encapsulated into PLGA-mPEG microspheres through double emulsion evaporation method, and the drug-loaded microspheres in vitro degradation and release behaviors were evaluated by scanning electron microscope, gel permeation chromatography, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), BCA assay kit, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. FS-loaded microspheres revealed a severe initial burst release, followed by a sustained release, and we could observe a bright fluorescent on the microspheres surface during the early release period under the CLSM. The bright fluorescent gradually faded out in the later period as only 1~2% FS was remained after 14 days release. FITC-BSA-loaded microspheres revealed a typical tri-phase release profile, and we observed a weak fluorescent on the microspheres surface after the initial burst release, and the fluorescent came bright again after an obvious erosion appeared on the microspheres surface. In the later release stage, the fluorescent gradually faded out as the fast release of FITC-BSA. PMID:26980344

  3. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load.

    PubMed

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Sebastian, Víctor; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Blanco-Prieto, María J; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-03-28

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  4. Insulin pumps.

    PubMed

    Pickup, J

    2011-02-01

    The last year has seen a continued uptake of insulin pump therapy in most countries. The USA is still a leader in pump use, with probably some 40% of type 1 diabetic patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), but the large variation in usage within Europe remains, with relatively high use (> 15%) in, for example, Norway, Austria, Germany and Sweden and low use (< 5%) in Spain, the UK, Finland and Portugal. There is much speculation on the factors responsible for this variation, and the possibilities include physician attitudes to CSII and knowledge about its benefits and indications for its use (and inappropriate beliefs about dangers), the availability of reimbursement from insurance companies or funding from national health services, the availability of sufficient diabetes nurse educators and dietitians trained in pump procedures, and clear referral pathways for the pump candidate from general practitioner or general hospital to specialist pump centre. There are now several comprehensive national guidelines on CSII use (see ATTD Yearbook 2009) but more work needs to be done in unifying uptake and ensuring all those who can benefit do so. Technology developments recently include increasing use of pumps with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) connectivity (see elsewhere in this volume) and the emergence of numerous manufacturers developing so-called 'patch pumps', often for the type 2 diabetes market. Interestingly, the evidence base for CSII in this group is not well established, and for this reason the selected papers on CSII in this section include several in this area. The use of CSII in diabetic pregnancy is a long-established practice, in spite of the lack of evidence that it is superior to multiple daily injections (MDI), and few randomised controlled trials have been done in recent years. Several papers in this field this year continue the debate about the usefulness of CSII in diabetic pregnancy and are reviewed here. It is pleasing

  5. Micro/Nano Multilayered Scaffolds of PLGA and Collagen by Alternately Electrospinning for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sanghwa; Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kim, Sukyoung; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    The dual extrusion electrospinning technique was used to fabricate multilayered 3D scaffolds by stacking microfibrous meshes of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in alternate fashion to micro/nano mixed fibrous meshes of PLGA and collagen. To fabricate the multilayered scaffold, 35 wt% solution of PLGA in THF-DMF binary solvent (3:1) and 5 wt% solution of collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) with and without hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA) were used. The dual and individual electrospinning of PLGA and collagen were carried out at flow rates of 1.0 and 0.5 mL/h, respectively, at an applied voltage of 20 kV. The density of collagen fibers in multilayered scaffolds has controlled the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The homogeneous dispersion of glutamic acid-modified hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA-GA) in collagen solution has improved the osteogenic properties of fabricated multilayered scaffolds. The fabricated multilayered scaffolds were characterized using FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to evaluate the adhesion and spreads of MC3T3-E1 cells on multilayered scaffolds. The activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on the multilayered scaffolds was evaluated by applying MTT, alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin Red, von Kossa, and cytoskeleton F-actin assaying protocols. The micro/nano fibrous PLGA-Col-HA scaffolds were found to be highly bioactive in comparison to pristine microfibrous PLGA and micro/nano mixed fibrous PLGA and Col scaffolds. PMID:27376895

  6. Micro/Nano Multilayered Scaffolds of PLGA and Collagen by Alternately Electrospinning for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sanghwa; Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kim, Sukyoung; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    The dual extrusion electrospinning technique was used to fabricate multilayered 3D scaffolds by stacking microfibrous meshes of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in alternate fashion to micro/nano mixed fibrous meshes of PLGA and collagen. To fabricate the multilayered scaffold, 35 wt% solution of PLGA in THF-DMF binary solvent (3:1) and 5 wt% solution of collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) with and without hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA) were used. The dual and individual electrospinning of PLGA and collagen were carried out at flow rates of 1.0 and 0.5 mL/h, respectively, at an applied voltage of 20 kV. The density of collagen fibers in multilayered scaffolds has controlled the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The homogeneous dispersion of glutamic acid-modified hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA-GA) in collagen solution has improved the osteogenic properties of fabricated multilayered scaffolds. The fabricated multilayered scaffolds were characterized using FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to evaluate the adhesion and spreads of MC3T3-E1 cells on multilayered scaffolds. The activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on the multilayered scaffolds was evaluated by applying MTT, alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin Red, von Kossa, and cytoskeleton F-actin assaying protocols. The micro/nano fibrous PLGA-Col-HA scaffolds were found to be highly bioactive in comparison to pristine microfibrous PLGA and micro/nano mixed fibrous PLGA and Col scaffolds.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Novel PBAE/PLGA Polymer Blend Microparticles for DNA Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Meenashi Vanathi; Nagarethinam, Sivagurunathan; Jagani, Hitesh; Josyula, Venkata Rao; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2014-01-01

    Context. Poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) with its pH sensitiveness and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with huge DNA cargo capacity in combination prove to be highly efficient as DNA delivery system. Objective. To study the effectiveness of novel synthesized PBAE polymer with PLGA blend at different ratios in DNA vaccine delivery. Methods. In the present study, multifunctional polymer blend microparticles using a combination of PLGA and novel PBAE polymers A1 (bis(3-(propionyloxy)propyl)3,3′-(propane-1,3-diyl-bis(methylazanediyl))dipropanoate) and A2 (bis(4-(propionyloxy)butyl)3,3′-(ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(isopropylazanediyl))dipropanoate) at different ratios (85 : 15, 75 : 25, and 50 : 50) were prepared by double emulsion solvent removal method. The microparticles were characterized for cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and DNA encapsulation efficiency. Result. It was evident from results that among the microparticles prepared with PLGA/PBAE blend the PLGA : PBAE at 85 : 15 ratio was found to be more effective combination than the microparticles prepared with PLGA alone in terms of transfection efficiency and better DNA integrity. Microparticles made of PLGA and PBAE A1 at 85 : 15 ratio, respectively, were found to be less toxic when compared with microparticles prepared with A2 polymer. Conclusion. The results encourage the use of the synthesized PBAE polymer in combination with PLGA as an effective gene delivery system. PMID:25401137

  8. The effect of cross-linking on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone-gelatin/PLGA-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2012-06-01

    In this study, multilayered scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan artificial blood vessels were fabricated using a double-ejection electrospinning system. The mixed fibers from individual materials were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the cross-linking process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the fibers were examined. The tensile stress and liquid strength of the cross-linked artificial blood vessels were 2.3 MPa and 340 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly higher than for the non-cross-linked vessel (2.0 MPa and 120 mmHg). The biocompatibility of the cross-linked artificial blood vessel scaffold was examined using the MTT assay and by evaluating cell attachment and cell proliferation. The cross-linked PCL-gelatin/PLGA-gelatin/PLGA-chitosan artificial blood vessel scaffold displayed excellent flexibility, was able to withstand high pressures and promoted cell growth; thus, this novel material holds great promise for eventual use in artificial blood vessels.

  9. Auranofin-loaded nanoparticles as a new therapeutic tool to fight streptococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; García-Fernández, Esther; Manzano, Miguel; Martínez, Ángel; Domenech, Mirian; Vallet-Regí, María; García, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) can improve infection treatment by ensuring drug concentration at the right place within the therapeutic window. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs are able to enhance drug localization in target site and to sustainably release the entrapped molecule, reducing the secondary effects caused by systemic antibiotic administration. We have loaded auranofin, a gold compound traditionally used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, into PLGA NPs and their efficiency as antibacterial agent against two Gram-positive pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. Auranofin-PLGA NPs showed a strong bactericidal effect as cultures of multiresistant pneumococcal strains were practically sterilized after 6 h of treatment with such auranofin-NPs at 0.25 μM. Moreover, this potent bactericidal effect was also observed in S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes biofilms, where the same concentration of auranofin-NPs was capable of decreasing the bacterial population about 4 logs more than free auranofin. These results were validated using a zebrafish embryo model demonstrating that treatment with auranofin loaded into NPs achieved a noticeable survival against pneumococcal infections. All these approaches displayed a clear superiority of loaded auranofin PLGA nanocarriers compared to free administration of the drug, which supports their potential application for the treatment of streptococcal infections. PMID:26776881

  10. Auranofin-loaded nanoparticles as a new therapeutic tool to fight streptococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; García-Fernández, Esther; Manzano, Miguel; Martínez, Ángel; Domenech, Mirian; Vallet-Regí, María; García, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) can improve infection treatment by ensuring drug concentration at the right place within the therapeutic window. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs are able to enhance drug localization in target site and to sustainably release the entrapped molecule, reducing the secondary effects caused by systemic antibiotic administration. We have loaded auranofin, a gold compound traditionally used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, into PLGA NPs and their efficiency as antibacterial agent against two Gram-positive pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. Auranofin-PLGA NPs showed a strong bactericidal effect as cultures of multiresistant pneumococcal strains were practically sterilized after 6 h of treatment with such auranofin-NPs at 0.25 μM. Moreover, this potent bactericidal effect was also observed in S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes biofilms, where the same concentration of auranofin-NPs was capable of decreasing the bacterial population about 4 logs more than free auranofin. These results were validated using a zebrafish embryo model demonstrating that treatment with auranofin loaded into NPs achieved a noticeable survival against pneumococcal infections. All these approaches displayed a clear superiority of loaded auranofin PLGA nanocarriers compared to free administration of the drug, which supports their potential application for the treatment of streptococcal infections. PMID:26776881

  11. Human insulin genome sequence map, biochemical structure of insulin for recombinant DNA insulin.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mungantiwar, Ashish A

    2003-08-01

    Insulin is a essential molecule for type I diabetes that is marketed by very few companies. It is the first molecule, which was made by recombinant technology; but the commercialization process is very difficult. Knowledge about biochemical structure of insulin and human insulin genome sequence map is pivotal to large scale manufacturing of recombinant DNA Insulin. This paper reviews human insulin genome sequence map, the amino acid sequence of porcine insulin, crystal structure of porcine insulin, insulin monomer, aggregation surfaces of insulin, conformational variation in the insulin monomer, insulin X-ray structures for recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin in Escherichia coli. PMID:12769691

  12. Insulin during pregnancy, labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Harold W; Visser, Gerard H A

    2011-02-01

    Optimal glycaemic control is of the utmost importance to achieve the best possible outcome of a pregnancy complicated by diabetes. This holds for pregnancies in women with preconceptional type 1 or type 2 diabetes as well as for pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. Glycaemic control is conventionally expressed in the HbA1c value but the HbA1c value does not completely capture the complexity of glycaemic control. The daily glucose profile measured by the patients themselves through measurements performed in capillary blood obtained by finger stick provides valuable information needed to adjust insulin therapy. Hypoglycaemia is the major threat to the pregnant woman or the woman with tight glycaemic control in the run-up to pregnancy. Repetitive hypoglycaemia can lead to hypoglycaemia unawareness, which is reversible with prevention of hypoglycaemia. A delicate balance should be struck between preventing hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia. Insulin requirements are not uniform across the day: it is low during the night with a more or less pronounced rise at dawn, followed by a gradual decrease during the remainder of the day. A basal amount of insulin is needed to regulate the endogenous glucose production, short-acting insulin shots are needed to handle exogenous glucose loads. Insulin therapy means two choices: the type of insulin used and the method of insulin administration. Regarding the type of insulin, the choice is between human and analogue insulins. The analogue short-acting insulin aspart has been shown to be safe during pregnancy in a randomised trial and has received registration for this indication; the short-acting analogue insulin lispro has been shown to be safe in observational studies. No such information is available on the long-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine and both are prescribed off-label with human long-acting insulin as obvious alternatives. Randomised trials have not been able to show superiority of continuous

  13. Bioconjugated PLGA-4-arm-PEG branched polymeric nanoparticles as novel tumor targeting carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Wu, Fang; Zhao, Lingling; Law, Wing-Cheung; Zhao, Weiwei; Ji, Wei; Liu, Liwei; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a novel carrier, micelle-type bioconjugated PLGA-4-arm-PEG branched polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), for the detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer. These NPs contained 4-arm-PEG as corona, and PLGA as core, the particle surface was conjugated with cyclo(arginine-glycine-aspartate) (cRGD) as ligand for in vivo tumor targeting. The hydrodynamic size of the NPs was determined to be 150-180 nm and the critical micellar concentration (CMC) was estimated to be 10.5 mg l - 1. Our in vitro study shows that these NPs by themselves had negligible cytotoxicity to human pancreatic cancer (Panc-1) and human glioblastoma (U87) cell lines. Near infrared (NIR) microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that the cRGD conjugated PLGA-4-arm-PEG polymeric NPs were taken up more efficiently by U87MG glioma cells, over-expressing the αvβ3 integrin, when compared with the non-targeted NPs. Whole body imaging showed that the cRGD conjugated PLGA-4-arm-PEG branched polymeric NPs had the highest accumulation in the pancreatic tumor site of mice at 48 h post-injection. Physical, hematological, and pathological assays indicated low in vivo toxicity of this NP formulation. These studies on the ability of these bioconjugated PLGA-4-arm-PEG polymeric NPs suggest that the prepared polymeric NPs may serve as a promising platform for detection and targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancer.

  14. Triple-layered PLGA/nanoapatite/lauric acid graded composite membrane for periodontal guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jamuna-Thevi, Kalitheertha; Saarani, Nur Najiha; Abdul Kadir, Mohamed Rafiq; Hermawan, Hendra

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the successful fabrication of a novel triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based composite membrane using only a single step that combines the techniques of solvent casting and thermally induced phase separation/solvent leaching. The resulting graded membrane consists of a small pore size layer-1 containing 10 wt% non-stoichiometric nanoapatite (NAp)+1-3 wt% lauric acid (LA) for fibroblastic cell and bacterial inhibition, an intermediate layer-2 with 20-50 wt% NAp+1 wt% LA, and a large pore size layer-3 containing 30-100 wt% NAp without LA to allow bone cell growth. The synergic effects of 10-30 wt% NAp and 1 wt% LA in the membrane demonstrated higher tensile strength (0.61 MPa) and a more elastic behavior (16.1% elongation at break) in 3 wt% LA added membrane compared with the pure PLGA (0.49 MPa, 9.1%). The addition of LA resulted in a remarkable plasticizing effect on PLGA at 3 wt% due to weak intermolecular interactions in PLGA. The pure and composite PLGA membranes had good cell viability toward human skin fibroblast, regardless of LA and NAp contents. PMID:25175212

  15. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

  16. Targeted Delivery of Antibiotics to Intracellular Chlamydial Infections using PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Toti, Udaya S.; Guru, Bharath R.; Hali, Mirabela; McPharlin, Christopher; Wykes, Susan M.; Panyam, Jayanth; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and C pneumoniae are intracellular bacterial pathogens that have been shown to cause, or are strongly associated with, diverse chronic diseases. Persistent infections by both organisms are refractory to antibiotic therapy. The lack of therapeutic efficacy results from the attenuated metabolic rate of persistently infecting chlamydiae in combination with the modest intracellular drug concentrations achievable by normal delivery of antibiotics to the inclusions within which chlamydiae reside in the host cell cytoplasm. In this research, we evaluated whether nanoparticles formulated using the biodegradable poly(d-L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer can enhance the delivery of antibiotics to the chlamydial inclusion complexes. We initially studied the trafficking of PLGA nanoparticles in Chlamydia-infected cells. We then evaluated nanoparticles for the delivery of antibiotics to the inclusions. Intracellular trafficking studies show that PLGA nanoparticles efficiently concentrate in inclusions in both acutely and persistently infected cells. Further, encapsulation of rifampin and azithromycin antibiotics in PLGA nanoparticles enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotics in reducing microbial burden. Combination of rifampin and azithromycin was more effective than the individual drugs. Overall, our studies show that PLGA nanoparticles can be effective carriers for targeted delivery of antibiotics to intracellular chlamydial infections. PMID:21652065

  17. Ozone Gas as a Benign Sterilization Treatment for PLGA Nanofiber Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rediguieri, Carolina Fracalossi; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Bou-Chacra, Nadia Araci; Galante, Raquel; de Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros; do Nascimento Pedrosa, Tatiana; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; De Bank, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    The use of electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications is a growing trend as they provide improved support for cell proliferation and survival due, in part, to their morphology mimicking that of the extracellular matrix. Sterilization is a critical step in the fabrication process of implantable biomaterial scaffolds for clinical use, but many of the existing methods used to date can negatively affect scaffold properties and performance. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used as a biodegradable polymer for 3D scaffolds and can be significantly affected by current sterilization techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate pulsed ozone gas as an alternative method for sterilizing PLGA nanofibers. The morphology, mechanical properties, physicochemical properties, and response of cells to PLGA nanofiber scaffolds were assessed following different degrees of ozone gas sterilization. This treatment killed Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, the most common biological indicator used for validation of sterilization processes. In addition, the method preserved all of the characteristics of nonsterilized PLGA nanofibers at all degrees of sterilization tested. These findings suggest that ozone gas can be applied as an alternative method for sterilizing electrospun PLGA nanofiber scaffolds without detrimental effects. PMID:26757850

  18. Biodegradable polymer (PLGA) coatings featuring cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol mitigate biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Although infections may be treated with antibiotics, the overuse of antibiotics has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many natural antimicrobial compounds derived from edible plants are safe for human use and target bacteria nonspecifically. Therefore, they may impair biofilm formation with less evolutionary pressure on pathogens. Here, we explore the use of two natural antimicrobial compounds, cinnamaldehyde (CA, from cinnamon) and carvacrol (CARV, from oregano), for biofilm prevention. We have fabricated and characterized films that incorporate CA and CARV into the biodegradable, FDA-approved polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA. The addition of CA and CARV to PLGA films not only adds antimicrobial activity but also changes the surface properties of the films, making them more hydrophilic and therefore more resistant to bacterial attachment. An addition of 0.1% CA to a PLGA film significantly impairs biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus, and 0.1% CARV in PLGA significantly decreases biofilm formation by both Escherichia coli and S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is less susceptible to CA and CARV, was not affected by the addition of 0.1% CA or CARV to the PLGA coatings; however, P. aeruginosa biofilm was significantly reduced by 1.0% CA. These results indicate that both CA and CARV could potentially be used in low concentrations as natural additives in polymer coatings for indwelling devices to delay colonization by bacteria. PMID:22937881

  19. Thermogelling Biodegradable Polymers with Hydrophilic Backbones: PEG-g-PLGA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Byeongmoon; Kibbey, Merinda R.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Won, You-Yeong; Gutowska, Anna

    2000-10-31

    The aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol)grafted with poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) flow freely at room temperature but form gels at higher temperature. The existence of micelles in water at low polymer concentration was confirmed by Cro-transmission electron microscopy and dye solubilization studies. The micellar diameter and critical micelle concentration are about 9 nm and 0.47 wt.% respectively. The critical gel concentration, above which a gel phase appears was 16 wt.% and sol-to-gel transition temperature was slightly affected by the concentration in the range of 16 {approx} 25 wt.%. At sol-to-gel transition, viscosity increased abruptly and C-NMR showed molecular motion of hydrophilic poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) side-chains increased. The hydrogel of PEG-g-PLGA with hydrophilic backbones was transparent during degradation and remained a gel for one week, suggesting a promising material for short-term drug delivery.

  20. Endocytosis of Nanomedicines: The Case of Glycopeptide Engineered PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vilella, Antonietta; Ruozi, Barbara; Belletti, Daniela; Pederzoli, Francesca; Galliani, Marianna; Semeghini, Valentina; Forni, Flavio; Zoli, Michele; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Tosi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The success of nanomedicine as a new strategy for drug delivery and targeting prompted the interest in developing approaches toward basic and clinical neuroscience. Despite enormous advances on brain research, central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain the world’s leading cause of disability, in part due to the inability of the majority of drugs to reach the brain parenchyma. Many attempts to use nanomedicines as CNS drug delivery systems (DDS) were made; among the various non-invasive approaches, nanoparticulate carriers and, particularly, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) seem to be the most interesting strategies. In particular, the ability of poly-lactide-co-glycolide NPs (PLGA-NPs) specifically engineered with a glycopeptide (g7), conferring to NPs’ ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) in rodents at a concentration of up to 10% of the injected dose, was demonstrated in previous studies using different routes of administrations. Most of the evidence on NP uptake mechanisms reported in the literature about intracellular pathways and processes of cell entry is based on in vitro studies. Therefore, beside the particular attention devoted to increasing the knowledge of the rate of in vivo BBB crossing of nanocarriers, the subsequent exocytosis in the brain compartments, their fate and trafficking in the brain surely represent major topics in this field. PMID:26102358

  1. Preparation and evaluation of 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Choi, Im Soon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we developed the novel 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and poloxamer 407 as the anionic and non-ionic surfactant for stabilization. The PLGA NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Both the drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 1:10 (w/w). The optimized formulation of 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 151.6 ± 2.0 and 0.152 ± 0.010 nm, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity were 69.9 and 7.0%, respectively. In vitro release study showed sustained release. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.468, which suggested that the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 60% cell viability reduction at 10 µg/ml 17-AAG concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of 17-AAG into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24824337

  2. Osteogenic activity of cyclodextrin-encapsulated doxycycline in a calcium phosphate PCL and PLGA composite.

    PubMed

    Trajano, V C C; Costa, K J R; Lanza, C R M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortés, M E

    2016-07-01

    Composites of biodegradable polymers and calcium phosphate are bioactive and flexible, and have been proposed for use in tissue engineering and bone regeneration. When associated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), they could favor antimicrobial action and enhance the action of osteogenic composites. Composites of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and a bioceramic of biphasic calcium phosphate Osteosynt® (BCP) were loaded with DOX encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and were evaluated for effects on osteoblastic cell cultures. The DOX/βCD composite was prepared with a double mixing method. Osteoblast viability was assessed with methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays after 1day, 7day, and 14days of composite exposure; alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and collagen production were evaluated after 7days and 14days, and mineral nodule formation after 14days. Composite structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts exposed to the composite containing 25μg/mL DOX/βCD had increased cell proliferation (p<0.05) compared to control osteoblast cultures at all experimental time points, reaching a maximum in the second week. AP activity and collagen secretion levels were also elevated in osteoblasts exposed to the DOX/βCD composite (p<0.05 vs. controls) and reached a maximum after 14days. These results were corroborated by Von Kossa test results, which showed strong formation of mineralization nodules during the same time period. SEM of the composite material revealed a surface topography with pore sizes suitable for growing osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that osteoblasts are viable, proliferative, and osteogenic in the presence of a DOX/βCD-containing BCP ceramic composite. PMID:27127066

  3. Targeting hepatocellular carcinoma with aptamer-functionalized PLGA/PLA-PEG nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigum, Shannon E.; Sutton, Melissa; Barnes, Eugenia; Miller, Sarah; Betancourt, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, particularly in regions where chronic Hepatitis B and C infections are common. Nanoparticle assemblies that incorporate high-affinity aptamers which specifically bind malignant hepatocellular carcinoma cells could be useful for targeted drug delivery or enhancing contrast with existing ablation therapies. The in vitro interactions of a tumor-specific aptamer, TLS11a, were characterized in a hepatoma cell line via live-cell fluorescence imaging, SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting techniques. Cell surface binding of the aptamer-AlexaFluor®546 conjugate was found to occur within 20 minutes of initial exposure, followed by internalization and localization to late endosomes or lysosomes using a pH-sensitive LysoSensor™ Green dye and confocal microscopy. Aptamer-functionalized polymer nanoparticles containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) were then prepared by nanoprecipitation and passively loaded with the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, yielding spherical nanoparticles approximately 50 nm in diameter. Targeted drug delivery and cytotoxicity was assessed using live/dead fluorescent dyes and a MTT colorimetric viability assay with elevated levels of cell death found in cultures treated with either the aptamer-coated and uncoated polymer nanoparticles. Identification and characterization of the cell surface protein epitope(s) recognized by the TLS11a aptamer are ongoing along with nanoparticle optimization, but these preliminary studies support continued investigation of this aptamer and functionalized nanoparticle conjugates for targeted labeling and drug delivery within malignant hepatocellular carcinomas.

  4. Development of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine milling process to reduce initial burst release from PLGA microparticles.

    PubMed

    Gèze, A; Venier-Julienne, M C; Mathieu, D; Filmon, R; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Benoit, J P

    1999-02-15

    The aim of this study was to prepare 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdUrd) loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres with a reduced initial burst in the in vitro release profile, by modifying the drug grinding conditions. IdUrd particle size reduction has been performed using spray-drying or ball milling. Spray-drying significantly reduced drug particle size with a change of the initial crystalline form to an amorphous one and led to a high initial burst. Conversely, ball milling did not affect the initial IdUrd crystallinity. Therefore, the grinding process was optimized to emphasize the initial burst reduction. A first step allowed us to set qualitative parameters such as ball number (7) and cooling with liquid nitrogen to obtain a mean size reduction and a narrow distribution. In a second step, three parameters including milling speed, drug amount and time were studied by a response surface analysis. The interrelationship between drug amount and milling speed was the most significant factor. To reduce particle size it should be necessary to use a moderate speed associated with a sufficient drug amount (400-500 mg). IdUrd release from microparticles prepared by the o/w emulsion/extraction solvent evaporation process with the lowest crystalline particle size (15.3 microns) was studied. Burst effect could be reduced significantly. Concerning the first phase of drug release, the burst was 8.7% for 15.3 microns compared to 19% for 19.5 microns milled drug particles. PMID:10205645

  5. Self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery: preparation and functional evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyao; Zhou, Cuiping; Xia, Xuejun; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Here, we investigated the formation and functional properties of self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (L/C NPs) loaded with insulin following insulin–phospholipid complex preparation, with the aim of developing a method for oral insulin delivery. Methods Using a modified solvent-injection method, insulin-loaded L/C NPs were obtained by combining insulin–phospholipid complexes with L/C NPs. The nanoparticle size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering, and morphologies were analyzed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to disclose the molecular mechanism of prepared insulin-loaded L/C NPs. Fast ultrafiltration and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay were used to separate free insulin from insulin entrapped in the L/C NPs, as well as to measure the insulin-entrapment and drug-loading efficiencies. The in vitro release profile was obtained, and in vivo hypoglycemic effects were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results Our results indicated that insulin-containing L/C NPs had a mean size of 180 nm, an insulin-entrapment efficiency of 94%, and an insulin-loading efficiency of 4.5%. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy observations of insulin-loaded L/C NPs revealed multilamellar structures with a hollow core, encircled by several bilayers. In vitro analysis revealed that insulin release from L/C NPs depended on the L/C ratio. Insulin-loaded L/C NPs orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exerted a significant hypoglycemic effect. The relative pharmacological bioavailability following oral administration of L/C NPs was 6.01%. Conclusion With the aid of phospholipid-complexation techniques, some hydrophilic peptides, such as insulin, can be successfully entrapped into L/C NPs, which could improve oral bioavailability, time-dependent release, and therapeutic activity. PMID:26966360

  6. Enhanced Biological Functions of Human Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Aggregates Incorporating E-Cadherin-Modified PLGA Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Hongli; Gao, Chao; Li, Suhua; Shuai, Qizhi; Xu, Jianbin; Xu, Ke; Cao, Lei; Lang, Ren; Gu, Zhongwei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising source of multipotent cells for various cell-based therapies due to their unique properties, and formation of 3D MSC aggregates has been explored as a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with human E-cadherin fusion protein (hE-cad-PLGA microparticles) have been fabricated and integrated with human MSCs to form 3D cell aggregates. The results show that, compared with the plain PLGA, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles distribute within the aggregates more evenly and further result in a more significant improvement of cellular proliferation and secretion of a series of bioactive factors due to the synergistic effects from the bioactive E-cadherin fragments and the PLGA microparticles. Meanwhile, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles incorporated in the aggregates upregulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the MSCs. Additionally, the E-cadherin/β-catenin cellular membrane complex in the MSCs is markedly stimulated by the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles. Therefore, engineering 3D cell aggregates with hE-cad-PLGA microparticles can be a promising method for ex vivo multipotent stem-cell expansion with enhanced biological functions and may offer a novel route to expand multipotent stem-cell-based clinical applications. PMID:27245478

  7. PLGA-PEG-PLGA microspheres as a delivery vehicle for antisense oligonucleotides to CTGF: Implications on post-surgical peritoneal adhesion prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeke, John Imuetinyan-Jesu, Jr.

    , while both cytokines are over-expressed within the first day following injury, CTGF protein levels could not be correlated with observed adhesion development. In addition, we synthesized linear triblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), two of the most widely studied biodegradable polymers in use today. Bulk gels and microparticles of the copolymers were then evaluated for gelling behavior, temperature stability, and drug loading and release kinetics in order assess their suitability as potential carriers of antisense therapeutics. A novel approach to affecting the antisense oligonucleotide release kinetics by varying the relative concentrations of co-encapsulated cationic lipid transfection agents was also presented.

  8. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... room temperature for a month. Gather your supplies: insulin, needles, syringes, alcohol wipes, and a container for used needles ... the plunger to get the right dose of insulin into the syringe. Check the syringe for air bubbles. If there ...

  9. Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    de Luca, Carl; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the Metabolic syndrome. In this review, we focus on the interconnection between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause insulin resistance in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver by inhibiting insulin signal transduction. The sources of cytokines in insulin resistant states are the insulin target tissue themselves, primarily fat and liver, but to a larger extent the activated tissue resident macrophages. While the initiating factors of this inflammatory response remain to be fully determined, chronic inflammation in these tissues could cause localized insulin resistance via autocrine/paracrine cytokine signaling and systemic insulin resistance via endocrine cytokine signaling all of which contribute to the abnormal metabolic state. PMID:18053812

  10. High-mix insulins

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Farooqi, Mohammad Hamed; El-Houni, Ali E.

    2015-01-01

    Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use. PMID:26425485

  11. Insulin pump (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  12. In vitro performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system: lipid composition matters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to the many beneficial properties combined from both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes, lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems, bio-imaging agent carriers, as well as antigen delivery vehicles. However, the impact of lipid composition on the performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs as a delivery system has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of lipid composition on the stability of the hybrid NPs and in vitro antigen release from NPs under different conditions was examined. The uptake of hybrid NPs with various surface charges by dendritic cells (DCs) was carefully studied. The results showed that PLGA NPs enveloped by a lipid shell with more positive surface charges could improve the stability of the hybrid NPs, enable better controlled release of antigens encapsulated in PLGA NPs, as well as enhance uptake of NPs by DC. PMID:25232295

  13. In vitro performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system: lipid composition matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun; Ehrich, Marion; Fuhrman, Kristel; Zhang, Chenming

    2014-08-01

    Due to the many beneficial properties combined from both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes, lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems, bio-imaging agent carriers, as well as antigen delivery vehicles. However, the impact of lipid composition on the performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs as a delivery system has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of lipid composition on the stability of the hybrid NPs and in vitro antigen release from NPs under different conditions was examined. The uptake of hybrid NPs with various surface charges by dendritic cells (DCs) was carefully studied. The results showed that PLGA NPs enveloped by a lipid shell with more positive surface charges could improve the stability of the hybrid NPs, enable better controlled release of antigens encapsulated in PLGA NPs, as well as enhance uptake of NPs by DC.

  14. Injectable PLGA/Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Microcapsules Produced by Supercritical Emulsion Extraction Technology: An In Vitro Study on Teriparatide/Gentamicin Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Campardelli, Roberta; Cricchio, Vincenzo; Oliva, Francesco; Maffulli, Nicola; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    Supercritical emulsion extraction (SEE) is proposed as a green and effective strategy for the fabrication of chitosan-covered poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (chi-PLGA) injectable microcapsules for the controlled release of teriparatide (THA) and teriparatide/gentamicin sulfate (THA/Gen). These formulations can be used for locally bone pathologies treatment or in complex fracture healing of aged patients. Several oil-water (o-w) and water-oil-water (w-o-w) emulsions were processed by SEE to produce multifunctional microcapsules containing hydroxyapatite (HA) within a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrix (up to 24 mg/g) and with both THA (0.45 mg/g) and Gen (up to 9 mg/g). Chitosan coating was also successfully added, as external layer (0.4 μm). SEE-fabricated microcapsules showed good encapsulation efficiency (up to 90%) for all the drugs tested and a mean size ranging between 1.4 (±0.4) μm and 2.2 (±0.5) μm. Different drug amounts loaded and microcapsules compositions assured a controlled drug release over a wide range of times and concentrations, as in vitro monitored in PBS medium at 37°C for 15/20 days. HA embedded into the biopolymer structure delayed the THA release profile; chitosan coating strongly reduced the initial drug "burst" release. In addition, the coencapsulation of both THA and Gen, which have very different water solubility, accelerated the release profile of the less water-soluble drug. No drugs degradation was also monitored after the SEE manufacturing. Apparent drug diffusivities (D) were calculated by fitting of the release profiles. In the case of Gen, D ranged between 2.9 × 10(-8) and 1.6 × 10(-9) cm(2)s(-1) if the drug was entrapped in simple PLGA or in the chitosan-coated microcapsules, respectively. In the case of THA, the calculated values ranged between 8.1 × 10(-9) and 7.4 × 10(-10) cm(2)s(-1) when the drug was entrapped in PLGA/HA microcapsules or in the chitosan-coated ones, respectively. These mass transfer values

  15. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin’s mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling. PMID:26744842

  16. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling. PMID:26744842

  17. Adherence to Insulin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarbacker, G Blair; Urteaga, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF Six million people with diabetes use insulin either alone or in combination with an oral medication. Many barriers exist that lead to poor adherence with insulin. However, there is an underwhelming amount of data on interventions to address these barriers and improve insulin adherence. Until pharmacological advancements create easier, more acceptable insulin regimens, it is imperative to involve patients in shared decision-making. PMID:27574371

  18. Convection-enhanced delivery of camptothecin-loaded polymer nanoparticles for treatment of intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Booth, Carmen J.; Liu, Jie; Patel, Toral; Piepmeier, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Direct delivery of chemotherapy agents to the brain via degradable polymer delivery systems—such as Gliadel®—is a clinically proven method for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, but there are important limitations with the current technology—including the requirement for surgery, profound local tissue toxicity, and limitations in diffusional penetration of agents—that limit its application and effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate another technique for direct, controlled delivery of chemotherapy to the brain that provides therapeutic benefit with fewer limitations. In our new approach, camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles are infused via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to a stereotactically defined location in the brain, allowing simultaneous control of location, spread, and duration of drug release. To test this approach, CPT-PLGA nanoparticles (~100 nm in diameter) were synthesized with 25% drug loading. When these nanoparticles were incubated in culture with 9L gliosarcoma cells, the IC50 of CPT-PLGA nanoparticles was 0.04 µM, compared to 0.3 µM for CPT alone. CPT-PLGA nanoparticles stereotactically delivered by CED improved survival in rats with intracranial 9L tumors: the median survival for rats treated with CPT-PLGA nanoparticles (22 days) was significantly longer than unloaded nanoparticles (15 days) and free CPT infusion (17 days). CPT-PLGA nanoparticle treatment also produced significantly more long-term survivors (30% of animals were free of disease at 60 days) than any other treatment. CPT was present in tissues harvested up to 53 days post-infusion, indicating prolonged residence at the local site of administration. These are the first results to demonstrate the effectiveness of combining polymer-controlled release nanoparticles with CED in treating fatal intracranial tumors. PMID:21691426

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the antitubercular phenazine lapazine and development of PLGA and PCL nanoparticles for its entrapment.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Narjara; Longuinho, Mariana M; Leitão, Suzana G; Silva, Raphael S F; Lourenço, Maria C; Silva, Pedro E A; Pinto, Maria do Carmo F R; Abraçado, Leida G; Finotelli, Priscilla V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterize nanoparticles as carriers of lapazine, a phenazine derived from β-lapachone; its antimycobacterial activity is described for the first time as a potential treatment for tuberculosis. The lapazine was synthesized, and by using gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector, it was possible to evaluate its purity degree of almost 100%. For better elucidation of the molecular structure, mass spectroscopy and 1H NMR were carried out and compared to the literature values. Lapazine was assayed in vitro against H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a rifampicin-resistant strain, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 3.00 and 1.56 μg mL(-1), respectively. The nanoparticles showed a polydispersity index of 0.16,mean diameter of 188.5 ± 1.7 mm, zeta potential of -15.03 mV, and drug loading of 54.71 mg g(-1) for poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles and a polydispersity index of 0.318,mean diameter of 197.4 ± 2.7 mm, zeta potential of -13.43 mV and drug loading of 137.07 mg g(-1) for poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. These results indicate that both polymeric formulations have good characteristics as potential lapazine carriers in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:26478333

  20. Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Stoakes, Sara K; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Horst, Erin A; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Proper insulin homeostasis appears critical for adapting to and surviving a heat load. Further, heat stress (HS) induces phenotypic changes in livestock that suggest an increase in insulin action. The current study objective was to evaluate the effects of HS on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Female pigs (57 ± 4 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 21°C) and were fed ad libitum. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (i) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 6), or (ii) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 6) to eliminate the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) was conducted on d3 of both periods; and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were collected prior to and after an insulin tolerance test (ITT) on d5 of period 2. During the HEC, insulin infusion increased circulating insulin and decreased plasma C-peptide and nonesterified fatty acids, similarly between treatments. From period 1 to 2, the rate of glucose infusion in response to the HEC remained similar in HS pigs while it decreased (36%) in PFTN controls. Prior to the ITT, HS increased (41%) skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 protein abundance, but did not affect protein kinase B or their phosphorylated forms. In adipose tissue, HS did not alter any of the basal or stimulated measured insulin signaling markers. In summary, HS increases whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:26243213

  1. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Matuszek, Maria A.; Anton, Angelyn; Thillainathan, Sobana; Armstrong, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities. Method Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians. Results There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15–120 min), in South East/East Asians (60–120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B. Conclusions Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of

  2. Insulin therapy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jawad, Fatema

    2016-09-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of pharmacotherapy in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. This review covers the various insulin regimes and preparations, explaining how to use them, and decide appropriate doses in pregnancy. It approaches insulin treatment from a patient - centred, as well as physician and obstetrician friendly viewpoint, providing pragmatic guidance for management of diabetes in pregnancy. PMID:27582152

  3. Electrospun PLGA fibers incorporated with functionalized biomolecules for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiashing; Lee, An-Rei; Lin, Wei-Han; Lin, Che-Wei; Wu, Yuan-Kun; Tsai, Wei-Bor

    2014-07-01

    Structural similarity of electrospun fibers (ESFs) to the native extracellular matrix provides great potential for the application of biofunctional ESFs in tissue engineering. This study aimed to synthesize biofunctionalized poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) ESFs for investigating the potential for cardiac tissue engineering application. We developed a simple but novel strategy to incorporate adhesive peptides in PLGA ESFs. Two adhesive peptides derived from laminin, YIGSR, and RGD, were covalently conjugated to poly-L-lysine, and then mingled with PLGA solution for electrospinning. Peptides were uniformly distributed on the surface and in the interior of ESFs. PLGA ESFs incorporated with YIGSR or RGD or adsorbed with laminin significantly enhanced the adhesion of cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats. Furthermore, the cells were found to adhere better on ESFs compared with flat substrates after 7 days of culture. Immunofluorescent staining of F-actin, vinculin, a-actinin, and N-cadherin indicated that cardiomyocytes adhered and formed striated α-actinin better on the laminin-coated ESFs and the YIGSR-incorporated ESFs compared with the RGD-incorporated ESFs. The expression of α-myosin heavy chain and β-tubulin on the YIGSR-incorporated ESFs was significantly higher compared with the expression level on PLGA and RGD-incorporated samples. Furthermore, the contraction of cardiomyocytes was faster and lasted longer on the laminin-coated ESFs and YIGSR-incorporated ESFs. The results suggest that aligned YIGSR-incorporated PLGA ESFs is a better candidate for the formation of cardiac patches. This study demonstrated the potential of using peptide-incorporated ESFs as designable-scaffold platform for tissue engineering. PMID:24471778

  4. Synthesis and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles containing mixture of curcuminoids for optimization of photodynamic inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Isabella L.; Inada, Natália M.; Marangoni, Valéria S.; Corrêa, Thaila Q.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Because of excessive use of antibiotics there is a growth in the number of resistant strains. Due to this growth of multiresistant bacteria, the number of searches looking for alternatives antibacterial therapeutic has increased, and among them is the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI). The photodynamic inactivation involves the action of a photosensitizer (PS), activated by a specific wavelength, in the present of oxygen, resulting in cytotoxic effect. Natural curcumin, consists of a mixture of three curcuminoids: curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin. Curcumin has various pharmacological properties, however, has extremely low solubility in aqueous solutions, which difficult the use as therapeutic agent. The present study aims to develop polymeric PLGA nanoparticles containing curcuminoids to improve water solubility, increase bioavailability providing protection from degradation (chemistry and physics), and to verify the efficacy in photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms. The PLGA-CURC were synthesized by nanoprecipitation, resulting in two different systems, with an average size of 172 nm and 70% encapsulation efficiency for PLGA-CURC1, and 215 nm and 80% for PLGA-CURC2. Stability tests showed the polymer protected the curcuminoids against premature degradation. Microbiological tests in vitro with curcuminoids water solution and both suspension of PLGA-CURC were efficient in Gram-positive bacterium and fungus. However, the solution presented dark toxicity at high concentrations, unlike the nanoparticles. Thus, it was concluded that it was possible to let curcuminoids water soluble by encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles, to ensure improved stability in aqueous medium (storage), and to inactivate bacteria and fungus.

  5. Co-delivery of VEGF and bFGF via a PLGA nanoparticle-modified BAM for effective contracture inhibition of regenerated bladder tissue in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xincheng; Lin, Houwei; Jiang, Dapeng; Xu, Guofeng; Fang, Xiaoliang; He, Lei; Xu, Maosheng; Tang, Bingqiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Fang; Geng, Hongquan

    2016-02-01

    Graft contracture is a common problem associated with the regeneration processes of tissue-engineered bladders. Currently, most strategies used for incorporating bioactive molecules into biomaterial designs do not work during all phases of tissue regeneration. In this study, we used a growth factor-PLGA nanoparticle thermo-sensitive gel system (i.e., BAM with incorporated VEGF and bFGF-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and mixed with a hydrophilic gel) to promote bladder tissue regeneration in a rabbit model. At 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, contracture rate assessment and histological examination were conducted to evaluate bladder tissue regeneration. The results indicated that the functional composite scaffold continuously and effectively released VEGF and bFGF and promoted bladder reconstruction with a significant decrease in graft contracture. In addition, the number and arrangement of regenerated urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as microvascular density and maturity were improved in the VEGF/bFGF nanoparticle group compared with the single factor VEGF or bFGF nanoparticle group and BAM alone. The nanoparticle thermo-sensitive gel system, which exhibited favourable performance, may effectively inhibit graft contracture and promote bladder tissue regeneration in rabbits.

  6. Combination of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and polyethylenimine/p53 gene therapy for the treatment of lung cancer using porous PLGA microparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaozheng; Li, Chunjie; Gao, Sai; Zhang, Lingfei; Han, Haobo; Zhang, Jianxu; Shi, Wei; Li, Quanshun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, porous PLGA microparticles for the co-delivery of doxorubicin and PEI25K/p53 were successfully prepared by the water-oil-water emulsion solvent evaporation method, using ammonium bicarbonate as a porogen. The porous microparticles were obtained with a mean diameter of 22.9±11.8μm as determined by laser scattering particle size analysis. The particles' surface porous morphology and distributions of doxorubicin and p53 were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, revealing that doxorubicin and the plasmid were successfully co-encapsulated. Encapsulation efficiencies of 88.2±1.7% and 36.5±7.5% were achieved for doxorubicin and the plasmid, respectively, demonstrating that the porous structure did not adversely affect payload encapsulation. Microparticles harboring both doxorubicin and PEI25K/p53 exhibited enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis induction compared to those loaded with either agent alone in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Overall, the porous PLGA microparticles provide a promising anticancer delivery system for combined chemotherapy and gene therapy, and have great potential as a tool for sustained local drug delivery by inhalation. PMID:25082753

  7. Co-delivery of VEGF and bFGF via a PLGA nanoparticle-modified BAM for effective contracture inhibition of regenerated bladder tissue in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xincheng; Lin, Houwei; Jiang, Dapeng; Xu, Guofeng; Fang, Xiaoliang; He, Lei; Xu, Maosheng; Tang, Bingqiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Fang; Geng, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    Graft contracture is a common problem associated with the regeneration processes of tissue-engineered bladders. Currently, most strategies used for incorporating bioactive molecules into biomaterial designs do not work during all phases of tissue regeneration. In this study, we used a growth factor-PLGA nanoparticle thermo-sensitive gel system (i.e., BAM with incorporated VEGF and bFGF-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and mixed with a hydrophilic gel) to promote bladder tissue regeneration in a rabbit model. At 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, contracture rate assessment and histological examination were conducted to evaluate bladder tissue regeneration. The results indicated that the functional composite scaffold continuously and effectively released VEGF and bFGF and promoted bladder reconstruction with a significant decrease in graft contracture. In addition, the number and arrangement of regenerated urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as microvascular density and maturity were improved in the VEGF/bFGF nanoparticle group compared with the single factor VEGF or bFGF nanoparticle group and BAM alone. The nanoparticle thermo-sensitive gel system, which exhibited favourable performance, may effectively inhibit graft contracture and promote bladder tissue regeneration in rabbits. PMID:26854200

  8. Release of PLGA-encapsulated dexamethasone from microsphere loaded porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dawes, G J S; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Necula, B S; Apachitei, I; Witkamp, G J; Duszczyk, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology and function of a drug eluting metallic porous surface produced by the immobilization of poly lactide-co-glycolide microspheres bearing dexamethasone onto plasma electrolytically oxidized Ti-6Al-7Nb medical alloy. Spheres of 20 microm diameter were produced by an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method and thermally immobilized onto titanium discs. The scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed that the size distribution and morphology of the attached spheres had not changed significantly. The drug release profiles following degradation in phosphate buffered saline for 1000 h showed that, upon immobilisation, the spheres maintained a sustained release, with a triphasic profile similar to the non-attached system. The only significant change was an increased release rate during the first 100 h. This difference was attributed to the effect of thermal attachment of the spheres to the surface. PMID:19669866

  9. Activity and in vivo tracking of Amphotericin B loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Souza, A C O; Nascimento, A L; de Vasconcelos, N M; Jerônimo, M S; Siqueira, I M; R-Santos, L; Cintra, D O S; Fuscaldi, L L; Pires Júnior, O R; Titze-de-Almeida, R; Borin, M F; Báo, S N; Martins, O P; Cardoso, V N; Fernandes, S O; Mortari, M R; Tedesco, A C; Amaral, A C; Felipe, M S S; Bocca, A L

    2015-05-01

    The development of biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles has become an important strategy for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of many classical drugs, as it may expand their activities, reduce their toxicity, increase their bioactivity and improve biodistribution. In this study, nanoparticles of Amphotericin B entrapped within poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid and incorporated with dimercaptosuccinic acid (NANO-D-AMB) as a target molecule were evaluated for their physic-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics, biocompatibility and antifungal activity. We found high plasma concentrations of Amphotericin B upon treatment with NANO-D-AMB and a high uptake of nanoparticles in the lungs, liver and spleen. NANO-D-AMB exhibited antifungal efficacy against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and induced much lower cytotoxicity levels compared to D-AMB formulation in vivo and in vitro. Together, these results confirm that NANO-D-AMB improves Amphotericin B delivery and suggest this delivery system as a potential alternative to the use of Amphotericin B sodium deoxycholate. PMID:25827397

  10. Oral insulin delivery by means of solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Bruno; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Souto, Eliana B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce and characterize cetyl palmitate-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing insulin, and to evaluate the potential of these colloidal carriers for oral administration. SLN were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification-evaporation method based on a w/o/w double emulsion. The particle size, zeta potential and association efficiency of unloaded and insulin-loaded SLN were determined and were found to be around 350 nm, negatively charged and the insulin association efficiency was over 43%. After oral administration of insulin-loaded SLN to diabetic rats, a considerable hypoglycemic effect was observed during 24 hours. These results demonstrated that SLN promote the oral absorption of insulin. PMID:18203440

  11. Pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhuo; Ji, Yan-Li; Ma, Xiang; Wen, Jian-Guo; Wei, Wei; Huang, Shu-Man

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of prepared bevacizumab-poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in rabbits, to provide evidence for clinical application of this kind of bevacizumab sustained release dosage form. METHODS Bevacizumab was encapsulated into PLGA microsphere via the solid-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil (S/O/hO) method. Fifteen healthy New Zealand albino-rabbits were used in experiments. The eyes of each rabbit received an intravitreal injection. The left eyes were injected with prepared bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres and the right eyes were injected with bevacizumab solution. After intravitreal injection, rabbits were randomly selected at days 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 respectively, three animals each day. Then we used immunofluorescence staining to observe the distribution and duration of bevacizumab in rabbit eye tissues, and used the sandwich ELISA to quantify the concentration of free bevacizumab from the rabbit aqueous humor and vitreous after intravitreal injection. RESULTS The results show that the concentration of bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor after administration of PLGA formulation was higher than that of bevacizumab solution. The T1/2 of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres is 9.6d in vitreous and 10.2d in aqueous humor, and the T1/2 of intravitreal injection of soluble bevacizumab is 3.91d in vitreous and 4.1d in aqueous humor. There were statistical significant difference for comparison the results of the bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor between the left and right eyes (P<0.05). The AUC0-t of the sustained release dosage form was 1-fold higher than that of the soluble form. The relative bioavailability was raised significantly. The immunofluorescence staining of PLGA-encapsulated bevacizumab (b-PLGA) in rabbit eye tissues was still observed up to 42d. It was longer than that of the soluble form. CONCLUSION The result of this study

  12. Hollow superparamagnetic PLGA/Fe 3O 4 composite microspheres for lysozyme adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qi; Wu, Yao; Lan, Fang; Ma, Shaohua; Xie, Liqin; He, Bin; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-02-01

    Uniform hollow superparamagnetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Fe3O4 composite microspheres composed of an inner cavity, PLGA inner shell and Fe3O4 outer shell have been synthesized by a modified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier. The obtained composite microspheres with an average diameter of 2.5 μm showed excellent monodispersity and stability in aqueous medium, strong magnetic responsiveness, high magnetite content (>68%), high saturation magnetization (58 emu g-1) and high efficiency in lysozyme adsorption.

  13. Hollow superparamagnetic PLGA/Fe3O4 composite microspheres for lysozyme adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Wu, Yao; Lan, Fang; Ma, Shaohua; Xie, Liqin; He, Bin; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-02-28

    Uniform hollow superparamagnetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Fe(3)O(4) composite microspheres composed of an inner cavity, PLGA inner shell and Fe(3)O(4) outer shell have been synthesized by a modified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method using Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier. The obtained composite microspheres with an average diameter of 2.5 μm showed excellent monodispersity and stability in aqueous medium, strong magnetic responsiveness, high magnetite content (>68%), high saturation magnetization (58 emu g(-1)) and high efficiency in lysozyme adsorption. PMID:24492410

  14. Silver ion beam irradiation effects on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Surinder; Mehta, Rajeev

    2014-12-01

    Swift heavy ions induced modification of thin films of blends of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) (50:50) with organically modified nanoclay (Cloisite® 30B) has been studied, using optical, structural and surface morphological analysis. Presence of nanoclay is found to enhance the properties of this degradable copolymer by reducing the rate of degradation even at high irradiation fluence. Optical and structural analysis of the polymer nanocomposites suggests that both the cross-linking and chain scission phenomenon are caused by swift heavy ion irradiation. XRD measurements show intercalation of PLGA in the clay galleries. Surface morphology of a nanocomposite indicates significant changes after irradiation at various fluences.

  15. Insulin Degludec (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... man-made version of human insulin. Insulin degludec works by replacing the insulin that is normally produced ... insulin label to make sure you received the right type of insulin from the pharmacy.Insulin degludec ...

  16. Chelation of intracellular calcium blocks insulin action in the adipocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Pershadsingh, H.A.; Shade, D.L.; Delfert, D.M.; McDonald, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    The hypothesis that intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ is an essential component of the intracellular mechanism of insulin action in the adipocyte was evaluated. Cells were loaded with the Ca/sup 2 +/ chelator quin-2, by preincubating them with quin-2 AM, the tetrakis(acetoxymethyl) ester of quin-2. Quin-2 loading inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport without affecting basal activity. The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in quin-2-loaded cells could be partially restored by preincubating cells with buffer supplemented with 1.2 mM CaCl/sub 2/ and the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187. These conditions had no effect on basal activity and omission of CaCl/sub 2/ from the buffer prevented the restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by A23187. Quin-2 loading also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and the ability of insulin to inhibit cAMP-stimulated lipolysis without affecting their basal activities. Incubation of cells with 100 ..mu..M quin-2 or quin-2 AM had no effect on intracellular ATP concentration or the specific binding of /sup 125/I=labeled insulin to adipocytes. These findings suggest that intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ is an essential component in the coupling of the insulin-activated receptor complex to cellular physiological/metabolic machinery. Furthermore, differing quin-2 AM dose-response profiles suggest the presence of dual Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent pathways in the adipocyte. One involves insulin stimulation of glucose transport and oxidation, whereas the other involves the antilipolytic action of insulin.

  17. Encapsulation of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: In Vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT) belongs to the superfamily of serpins and inhibits different proteases. α1AT protects the lung from cellular inflammatory enzymes. In the absence of α1AT, the degradation of lung tissue results to pulmonary complications. The pulmonary route is a potent noninvasive route for systemic and local delivery. The aerosolized α1AT not only affects locally its main site of action but also avoids remaining in circulation for a long period of time in peripheral blood. Poly (D, L lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer approved for sustained controlled release of peptides and proteins. The aim of this work was to prepare a wide range of particle size as a carrier of protein-loaded nanoparticles to deposit in different parts of the respiratory system especially in the deep lung. Various lactide to glycolide ratio of the copolymer was used to obtain different release profile of the drug which covers extended and rapid drug release in one formulation. Results Nonaqueous and double emulsion techniques were applied for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of surface morphology, size distribution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To evaluate the nanoparticles cytotoxicity, cell cytotoxicity test was carried out on the Cor L105 human epithelial lung cancer cell line. Nanoparticles were spherical with an average size in the range of 100 nm to 1μ. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher when the double emulsion technique was applied. XRD and DSC results indicated that α1AT encapsulated in the nanoparticles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio affects the release profile of α1AT. Hence, PLGA with a 50:50 ratios exhibited the ability to release %60 of the drug within 8

  18. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    The breath figure method is a versatile and facile approach of generating ordered micro and nanoporous structures in polymeric materials. When a polymer solution (dissolved in a high vapor pressure organic solvent) is evaporated out in the presence of a moist air stream, the evaporative cooling effect causes the condensation and nucleation of water droplets onto the polymer solution surface. This leads to the formation of an imprinted porous structure upon removal of the residual solvent and water. The facile removal of the water droplet template leaving its structural imprint is a specifically appealing aspect of the breath figure film technology. The first part of the dissertation work involves the fabrication of drug loaded breath figure thin films and its utilization as a controlled drug release carrier and biomaterial scaffold. In a single fabrication step, single layer/multilayer porous thin films were designed and developed by combining the breath figure process and a modified spin or dip coating technique. Using biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG), drug loaded films were fabricated onto FDA approved medical devices (the Glaucoma drainage device and the Surgical hernia mesh). The porosity of the films is in the range of 2-4 microm as characterized by scanning electron microscope. The drug coated medical implants were characterized for their surface and bulk morphology, the degradation rate of the film, drug release rate and cell cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the use of breath figure morphologies in biodegradable polymer films adds an additional level of control to drug release. In comparison to non-porous films, the breath figure films showed an increased degradation and enhanced drug release. Furthermore, the porous nature of the film was investigated as a biomaterial scaffold to construct three dimensional in vitro tissue model systems. The breath figure film with interconnected

  19. Release of a Wound-Healing Agent from PLGA Microspheres in a Thermosensitive Gel

    PubMed Central

    Machado, H. A.; Abercrombie, J. J.; You, T.; DeLuca, P. P.; Leung, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a topical microsphere delivery system in a thermosensitive 20% poloxamer 407 gel (Pluronic F127) to control release of KSL-W, a cationic antimicrobial decapeptide, for a period of 4–7 days for potential application in combat related injuries. KSL-W loaded microsphere formulations were prepared by a solvent extraction-evaporation method (water-oil-water), with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50 : 50, low-weight, and hydrophilic end) as the polymeric system. After optimization of the process, three formulations (A, B, and C) were prepared with different organic to water ratio of the primary emulsion while maintaining other components and manufacturing parameters constant. Formulations were characterized for surface morphology, porous nature, drug loading, in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity. Microspheres containing 20% peptide with porous surfaces and internal structure were prepared in satisfactory yields and in sizes varying from 25 to 50 μm. Gels of 20% Pluronic F127, which were liquid at or below 24.6°C and formed transparent films at body temperature, were used as carriers for the microspheres. Rheological studies showed a gelation temperature of 24.6°C for the 20% Pluronic F127 gel alone. Gelation temperature and viscosity of formulations A, B, and C as a function of temperature were very close to those of the carrier. A Franz diffusion cell system was used to study the release of peptide from the microspheres suspended in both, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and a 20% Pluronic F127 gel. In vitro release of greater than 50% peptide was found in all formulations in both PBS and the gel, and in one formulation there was a release of 75% in both PBS and the gel. Fractions collected from the release process were also tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis using the broth microdilution method and found to provide effective antimicrobial activity to warrant

  20. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  1. Protective Effects of Indole-3-Carbinol-Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles Against Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Heun; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Bak, Dong Ho; Yu, Kwang Sik; Lee, Je Hun; Lee, Nam Seob; Jeong, Young Gil; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Han, Seung-Yun

    2015-10-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, the potential of I3C to treat neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear because of its poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because polymer-based drug delivery systems stabilized by surfactants have been intensively utilized as a strategy to cross the blood-brain barrier, we prepared I3C-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) that were stabilized by Tween 80 (T80) (I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs) and examined their neuroprotective potential in vitro. We prepared I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs with an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique and confirmed their successful synthesis with both transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs were then used to treat PC12 neuronal cells injured by glutamate excitotoxicity (GE) and examined the resulting survival rates compared with PC12 cells treated with I3C only. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed higher survival rates in I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs-treated cells after GE injury compared with those treated with I3C only. Furthermore, I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related enzymes (Caspase-3 and -8) in GE-damaged neuronal cells. Taken together, I3C-PLGA-T80-NPs might possess neuroprotective effects against GE through ROS scavenging and subsequent apoptosis blockage. PMID:26726441

  2. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Cationic Lipid-PLGA Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Nanovaccine Induce Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanxia; Cao, Fengqiang; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Hongfan; Wang, Chun; Leng, Xigang; Song, Cunxian; Kong, Deling; Ma, Guilei

    2016-05-18

    Here, we investigated the use of hyaluronic acid (HA)-decorated cationic lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticles (HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs) as vaccine delivery vehicles, which were originally developed for the cytosolic delivery of genes. Our results demonstrated that after the NPs uptake by dendritic cells (DCs), some of the antigens that were encapsulated in HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs escaped to the cytosolic compartment, and whereas some of the antigens remained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment, where both MHC-I and MHC-II antigen presentation occurred. Moreover, HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs led to the up-regulation of MHC, costimulatory molecules, and cytokines. In vivo experiments further revealed that more powerful immune responses were induced from mice immunized with HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs when compared with cationic lipid-PLGA nanoparticles and free ovalbumin (OVA); the responses included antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, the production of antigen-specific IgG antibodies and the generation of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overall, these data demonstrate the high potential of HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs for use as vaccine delivery vehicles to elevate cellular and humoral immune responses. PMID:27088457

  3. An endothelial cultured condition medium embedded porous PLGA scaffold for the enhancement of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Wen; Pan, Wei-Ting; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a microporous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold that combines a continuous release property and a three-dimensional (3D) scaffolding technique for the precise and efficient formation of endothelial cell lineage from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Eight PLGA scaffolds (14.29%, 16.67%, 20% and 25% concentrations of PLGA solutions) mixed with two crystal sizes of sodium chloride (NaCl) were fabricated by leaching. Then, vascular endothelial cell conditioned medium (ECCM) mixed with gelatin was embedded into the scaffold for culturing of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The 14.29% PLGA scaffolds fabricated using non-ground NaCl particles (NG-PLGA) and the 25% PLGA containing scaffolds fabricated using ground NaCl particles (G-PLGA) possessed minimum and maximum moisture content and bovine serum albumin (BSA) content properties, respectively. These two groups of scaffolds were used for future experiments in this study. Cell culture results demonstrated that the proposed porous scaffolds without growth factors were sufficient to induce mouse ESCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells in the early culture stages, and combined with embedded ECCM could provide a long-term inducing system for ESC differentiation. PMID:27068738

  4. Characterization of ciclosporin A loaded poly (D,L lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Passerini, N; Craig, D Q M

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical structure of poly (D,L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with ciclosporin A in terms of the amorphous properties of the individual components and the phase separation characteristics of the binary systems. Microspheres were prepared using a standard oil-in-water emulsion technique. The thermal properties of the PLGA, ciclosporin A and loaded spheres were investigated using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) using a TA Instruments MTDSC 2920, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-performance liquid chromatography used as supportive techniques. MTDSC indicated a glass transition for ciclosporin A in the reversing heat flow signal at 107 degrees C, supported by temperature cycling studies, while XRD showed clear evidence for diffraction peaks, thereby indicating that the material as received is semi-crystalline. The unloaded PLGA spheres showed a glass transition (Tg) at 43 degrees C, with no reduction in Tg being observed on loading the peptide up to 50%, w/w. Similarly, no evidence for diffraction peaks were seen for the drug-loaded systems, although the glass transition corresponding to the peptide was observed for the loaded microspheres, suggesting that the drug is present as a separate amorphous phase. Similarly, SEM studies showed the appearance of distinct "islands" on the surface of the spheres that are suggested to correspond to the drug phase, with the size of the islands increasing with drug loading. Evidence is therefore presented that ciclosporin A may exist in a range of solid states, with the degree of crystallinity being altered by processing. In addition, there appears to be little or no miscibility between the drug and PLGA using the manufacturing protocol employed here. These findings may have implications for the choice of manufacturing protocol, the release of peptide drugs from PLGA microspheres and the

  5. Continuing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and induced chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages in electrospun PLGA nanofiber scaffold.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xuejun; Hussain, Mohammad; Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-01-01

    Nanofibers have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to determine whether electrospun nanofibers accommodate the viability, growth, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as well as their osteogenic (hMSC-Ob) and chondrogenic (hMSC-Ch) derivatives. Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) beads with a PLA:PGA ratio of 85:15 were electrospun into non-woven fibers with an average diameter of 760+/-210 nm. The average Young's modulus of electrospun PLGA nanofibers was 42+/-26 kPa, per nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human MSCs were seeded 1-4 weeks at a density of 2 x 10(6)cells/mL in PLGA nanofiber sheets. After 2 week culture on PLGA nanofiber scaffold, hMSCs remained as precursors upon immunoblotting with hKL12 antibody. SEM taken up to 7 days after cell seeding revealed that hMSCs, hMSC-Ob and hMSC-Ch apparently attached to PLGA nanofibers. The overwhelming majority of hMSCs was viable and proliferating in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds up to the tested 14 days, as assayed live/dead tests, DNA assay and BrdU. In a separate experiment, hMSCs seeded in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds were differentiated into chodrogenic and osteogenic cells. Histological assays revealed that hMSCs continuously differentiated into chondrogenic cells and osteogenic cells after 2 week incubation in PLGA nanofibers. Taken together, these data represent an original investigation of continuous differentiation of hMSCs into chondrogenic and osteogenic cells in PLGA nanofiber scaffold. Consistent with previous work, these findings also suggest that nanofibers may serve as accommodative milieu for not only hMSCs, but also as a 3D carrier vehicle for lineage specific cells. PMID:17010425

  6. Continuing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and induced chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages in electrospun PLGA nanofiber scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xuejun; Hussain, Mohammad; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    Nanofibers have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to determine whether electrospun nanofibers accommodate the viability, growth, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as well as their osteogenic (hMSC-Ob) and chondrogenic (hMSC-Ch) derivatives. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) beads with a PLA:PGA ratio of 85:15 were electrospun into non-woven fibers with an average diameter of 760±210 nm. The average Young’s modulus of electrospun PLGA nanofibers was 42±26 kPa, per nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human MSCs were seeded 1–4 weeks at a density of 2×106 cells/mL in PLGA nanofiber sheets. After 2 week culture on PLGA nanofiber scaffold, hMSCs remained as precursors upon immunoblotting with hKL12 antibody. SEM taken up to 7 days after cell seeding revealed that hMSCs, hMSC-Ob and hMSC-Ch apparently attached to PLGA nanofibers. The overwhelming majority of hMSCs was viable and proliferating in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds up to the tested 14 days, as assayed live/dead tests, DNA assay and BrdU. In a separate experiment, hMSCs seeded in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds were differentiated into chodrogenic and osteogenic cells. Histological assays revealed that hMSCs continuously differentiated into chondrogenic cells and osteogenic cells after 2 week incubation in PLGA nanofibers. Taken together, these data represent an original investigation of continuous differentiation of hMSCs into chondrogenic and osteogenic cells in PLGA nanofiber scaffold. Consistent with previous work, these findings also suggest that nanofibers may serve as accommodative milieu for not only hMSCs, but also as a 3D carrier vehicle for lineage specific cells. PMID:17010425

  7. Electrospun PDLLA/PLGA composite membranes for potential application in guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ershuai; Zhu, Chuanshun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Suhua; Wang, Yonglan; Sun, Lu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to explore a membrane system with appropriate degradation rate and excellent cell-occlusiveness for guided tissue regeneration (GTR), a series of poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA)/poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 0/100, w/w) composite membranes were fabricated via electrospinning. The fabricated membranes were evaluated by morphological characterization, water contact angle measurement and tensile test. In vitro degradation was characterized in terms of the weight loss and the morphological change. Moreover, in vitro cytologic research revealed that PDLLA/PLGA composite membranes could efficiently inhibit the infiltration of 293 T cells. Finally, subcutaneous implant test on SD rat in vivo showed that PDLLA/PLGA (70/30, 50/50) composite membranes could function well as a physical barrier to prevent cellular infiltration within 13 weeks. These results suggested that electrospun PDLLA/PLGA (50/50) composite membranes could serve as a promising barrier membrane for guided tissue regeneration due to suitable biodegradability, preferable mechanical properties and excellent cellular shielding effects. PMID:26478312

  8. Quantitative multi-agent models for simulating protein release from PLGA bioerodible nano- and microspheres.

    PubMed

    Barat, Ana; Crane, Martin; Ruskin, Heather J

    2008-09-29

    Using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles for drug encapsulation and delivery has recently gained considerable popularity for a number of reasons. An advantage in one sense, but a drawback of PLGA use in another, is that drug delivery systems made of this material can provide a wide range of dissolution profiles, due to their internal structure and properties related to particles' manufacture. The advantages of enriching particulate drug design experimentation with computer models, are evident with simulations used to predict and optimize design, as well as indicate choice of best manufacturing parameters. In the present work, we seek to understand the phenomena observed for PLGA micro- and nanospheres, through Cellular Automata (CA) agent-based Monte Carlo (MC) models. Systems are studied both over large temporal scales (capturing slow erosion of PLGA) and for various spatial configurations (capturing initial as well as dynamic morphology). The major strength of this multi-agent approach is to observe dissolution directly, by monitoring the emergent behaviour: the dissolution profile manifested, as a sphere erodes. Different problematic aspects of the modelling process are discussed in details in this paper. The models were tested on experimental data from literature, demonstrating very good performance. Quantitative discussion is provided throughout the text in order to make a demonstration of the use in practice of the proposed model. PMID:18436414

  9. Strong and Tough Mineralized PLGA Nanofibers for Tendon-to-bone Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Pavan V.; Lipner, Justin; Liu, Wenying; Xia, Younan; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M.; Chasiotis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues such as the tendon-to-bone insertion sites require a strong and tough biomimetic material system that incorporates both mineralized and unmineralized tissues with different strengths and stiffnesses. However, increasing strength without degrading toughness is a fundamental challenge in materials science. Here, we demonstrate a promising nanofibrous polymer-hydroxyapatite system in which, a continuous fibrous network must function as a scaffold for both mineralized and unmineralized tissues. It is shown that the high toughness of this material system could be maintained without compromising on the strength with the addition of hydroxyapatite mineral. Individual electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibers demonstrated outstanding strain-hardening behavior and ductility when stretched uniaxially, even in the presence of surface mineralization. This highly desirable hardening behavior which results in simultaneous nanofiber strengthening and toughening was shown to depend on the initial cross-sectional morphology of the PLGA nanofibers. For pristine PLGA nanofibers, it was shown that ellipsoidal cross-sections provide the largest increase in fiber strength by almost 200% compared to bulk PLGA. This exceptional strength accompanied by 100% elongation was shown to be retained for thin and strongly bonded conformal mineral coatings, which were preserved on the nanofiber surface even for such very large extensions. PMID:23933048

  10. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown) with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling. PMID:27537838

  11. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown) with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling. PMID:27537838

  12. Effect of n-HA content on the isothermal crystallization, morphology and mechanical property of n-HA/PLGA composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liuyun, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lixin, Jiang; Dongliang, Chen; Qing, Li

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Effect of n-HA content on the isothermal crystallization, morphology and mechanical property of n-HA/PLGA composites was studied in details. The results showed that the addition of higher content of g-n-HA was favorable to promote the crystallization better in g-n-HA/PLGA composites, but it could also cause more agglomeration in PLGA matrix, as a result of worse mechanical properties, and the addition content of 3 wt% g-n-HA to PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which had the highest bending strength among these g-n-HA/PLGA composites, and it might be potential to be used in biomedical fields in future. Highlights: ► The effect of n-HA content on the n-HA/PLGA composites was studied in detail. ► Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. ► The relation between n-HA content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. ► An appropriate proportion of n-HA in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained. - Abstract: A serials of g-n-HA/PLGA composites with surface-modified g-n-HA of 1%, 3%, 6%, 10% and 15% in weight were prepared by solution mixing. The isothermal crystallization, morphology and mechanical property of g-n-HA/PLGA composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electromechanical universal tester. The results showed that Avrami equation was suitable for describing the isothermal crystallization process in this system, and the crystallization rate of g-n-HA/PLGA composites containing more than 3 wt% g-n-HA was basically accord with the relational expression of T{sub 110} {sub °C} > T{sub 105°C} > T{sub 115°C} > T{sub 120°C}. Moreover, at the same Tc, crystallization rate was greatly enhanced with the increasing of g-n-HA acting as nucleate. However, the addition of higher content of g-n-HA would cause more agglomeration in PLGA matrix, so that the mechanical properties of g-n-HA/PLGA composites would gradually decrease. In

  13. Computational Intelligence Modeling of the Macromolecules Release from PLGA Microspheres—Focus on Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zawbaa, Hossam M.; Szlȩk, Jakub; Grosan, Crina; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) is a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid. Drug release from PLGA microspheres depends not only on polymer properties but also on drug type, particle size, morphology of microspheres, release conditions, etc. Selecting a subset of relevant properties for PLGA is a challenging machine learning task as there are over three hundred features to consider. In this work, we formulate the selection of critical attributes for PLGA as a multiobjective optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the error of predicting the dissolution profile while reducing the number of attributes selected. Four bio-inspired optimization algorithms: antlion optimization, binary version of antlion optimization, grey wolf optimization, and social spider optimization are used to select the optimal feature set for predicting the dissolution profile of PLGA. Besides these, LASSO algorithm is also used for comparisons. Selection of crucial variables is performed under the assumption that both predictability and model simplicity are of equal importance to the final result. During the feature selection process, a set of input variables is employed to find minimum generalization error across different predictive models and their settings/architectures. The methodology is evaluated using predictive modeling for which various tools are chosen, such as Cubist, random forests, artificial neural networks (monotonic MLP, deep learning MLP), multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression tree, and hybrid systems of fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations (fugeR). The experimental results are compared with the results reported by Szlȩk. We obtain a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 15.97% versus 15.4%, and the number of selected input features is smaller, nine versus eleven. PMID:27315205

  14. Effect of different sintering methods on bioactivity and release of proteins from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Dormer, Nathan H; Gupta, Vineet; Scurto, Aaron M; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Macromolecule release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been well-characterized, and is a popular approach for delivering bioactive signals from tissue-engineered scaffolds. However, the effect of some processing solvents, sterilization, and mineral incorporation (when used in concert) on long-term release and bioactivity has seldom been addressed. Understanding these effects is of significant importance for microsphere-based scaffolds, given that these scaffolds are becoming increasingly more popular, yet growth factor activity following sintering and/or sterilization is heretofore unknown. The current study evaluated the 6-week release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from PLGA and PLGA/hydroxyapatite (HAp) microspheres following exposure to ethanol (EtOH), dense phase carbon dioxide (CO2), or ethylene oxide (EtO). EtO was chosen based on its common use in scaffold sterilization, whereas EtOH and CO2 were chosen given their importance in sintering microspheres together to create scaffolds. Release supernatants were then used in an accelerated cell stimulation study with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) with monitoring of gene expression for major chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. Results indicated that in microspheres without HAp, EtOH exposure led to the greatest amount of delivery, while those treated with CO2 delivered the least growth factor. In contrast, formulations with HAp released almost half as much protein, regardless of EtOH or CO2 exposure. Notably, EtO exposure was not found to significantly affect the amount of protein released. Cell stimulation studies demonstrated that eluted protein samples performed similarly to positive controls in PLGA-only formulations, and ambiguously in PLGA/HAp composites. In conclusion, the use of EtOH, subcritical CO2, and EtO in microsphere-based scaffolds may have only slight adverse effects, and possibly even desirable effects in some

  15. Hybrid scaffolds based on PLGA and silk for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faheem A; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Ji Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-03-01

    Porous silk scaffolds, which are considered to be natural polymers, cannot be used alone because they have a long degradation rate, which makes it difficult for them to be replaced by the surrounding tissue. Scaffolds composed of synthetic polymers, such as PLGA, have a short degradation rate, lack hydrophilicity and their release of toxic by-products makes them difficult to use. The present investigations aimed to study hybrid scaffolds fabricated from PLGA, silk and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Hap NPs) for optimized bone tissue engineering. The results from variable-pressure field emission scanning electron microscopy (VP-FE-SEM), equipped with EDS, confirmed that the fabricated scaffolds had a porous architecture, and the location of each component present in the scaffolds was examined. Contact angle measurements confirmed that the introduction of silk and HAp NPs helped to change the hydrophobic nature of PLGA to hydrophilic, which is the main constraint for PLGA used as a biomaterial. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed thermal decomposition and different vibrations caused in functional groups of compounds used to fabricate the scaffolds, which reflected improvement in their mechanical properties. After culturing osteoblasts for 1, 7 and 14 days in the presence of scaffolds, their viability was checked by MTT assay. The fluorescent microscopy results revealed that the introduction of silk and HAp NPs had a favourable impact on the infiltration of osteoblasts. In vivo experiments were conducted by implanting scaffolds in rat calvariae for 4 weeks. Histological examinations and micro-CT scans from these experiments revealed beneficial attributes offered by silk fibroin and HAp NPs to PLGA-based scaffolds for bone induction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25628059

  16. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of PLGA-PEO nanoparticles in human blood cell model.

    PubMed

    Tulinska, Jana; Kazimirova, Alena; Kuricova, Miroslava; Barancokova, Magdalena; Liskova, Aurelia; Neubauerova, Eva; Drlickova, Martina; Ciampor, Fedor; Vavra, Ivo; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Staruchova, Marta; Horvathova, Mira; Jahnova, Eva; Volkovova, Katarina; Bartusova, Maria; Cagalinec, Michal; Dusinska, Maria

    2015-05-01

    A human blood cell model for immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing was used to measure the response to polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-PEO) nanoparticle (NP) (0.12, 3, 15 and 75 μg/cm(2) exposure in fresh peripheral whole blood cultures/isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from human volunteers (n = 9-13). PLGA-PEO NPs were not toxic up to dose 3 μg/cm(2); dose of 75 μg/cm(2) displays significant decrease in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of proliferating cells after 4 h (70% of control) and 48 h (84%) exposure to NPs. In non-cytotoxic concentrations, in vitro assessment of the immunotoxic effects displayed moderate but significant suppression of proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes and T-dependent B-cell response in cultures stimulated with PWM > CON A, and no changes in PHA cultures. Decrease in proliferative function was the most significant in T-cells stimulated with CD3 antigen (up to 84%). Cytotoxicity of natural killer cells was suppressed moderately (92%) but significantly in middle-dosed cultures (4 h exposure). On the other hand, in low PLGA-PEO NPs dosed cultures, significant stimulation of phagocytic activity of granulocytes (119%) > monocytes (117%) and respiratory burst of phagocytes (122%) was recorded. Genotoxicity assessment revealed no increase in the number of micronucleated binucleated cells and no induction of SBs or oxidised DNA bases in PLGA-PEO-treated cells. To conclude on immuno- and genotoxicity of PLGA-PEO NPs, more experiments with various particle size, charge and composition need to be done. PMID:23859252

  17. Apatite coating of electrospun PLGA fibers using a PVA vehicle system carrying calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A novel method to coat electrospun poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber surfaces evenly and efficiently with low-crystalline carbonate apatite crystals using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) vehicle system carrying calcium ions was presented. A non-woven PLGA fabric was prepared by electrospinning: a 10 wt% PLGA solution was prepared using 1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol as a solvent and electrospun under a electrical field of 1 kV/cm using a syringe pump with a flowing rate of 3 ml/h. The non-woven PLGA fabric, 12 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness, was cut and then coated with a PVA solution containing calcium chloride dihydrate (specimen PPC). As controls, pure non-woven PLGA fabric (specimen P) and fabric coated with a calcium chloride dihydrate solution without PVA (specimen PC) were also prepared. Three specimens were exposed to simulated body fluid for 1 week and this exposure led to form uniform and complete apatite coating layer on the fiber surfaces of specimen PPC. However, no apatite had formed to the fiber surfaces of specimen P and only inhomogeneous coating occurred on the fiber surfaces of specimen PC. These results were explained in terms of the calcium chelating and adhesive properties of PVA vehicle system. The practical implication of the results is that this method provides a simple but efficient technique for coating the fiber surface of an initially non-bioactive material with low-crystalline carbonate apatite. PMID:20507712

  18. In vivo uptake and acute immune response to orally administered chitosan and PEG coated PLGA nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Semete, B.; Booysen, L.I.J.; Kalombo, L.; Venter, J.D.; Katata, L.; Ramalapa, B.; Verschoor, J.A.; Swai, H.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems offer great promise in addressing challenges of drug toxicity, poor bioavailability and non-specificity for a number of drugs. Much progress has been reported for nano drug delivery systems for intravenous administration, however very little is known about the effects of orally administered nanoparticles. Furthermore, the development of nanoparticulate systems necessitates a thorough understanding of the biological response post exposure. This study aimed to elucidate the in vivo uptake of chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Poly, DL, lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and the immunological response within 24 h of oral and peritoneal administration. These PLGA nanoparticles were administered orally and peritoneally to female Balb/C mice, they were taken up by macrophages of the peritoneum. When these particles were fluorescently labelled, intracellular localisation was observed. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNF-{alpha} in plasma and peritoneal lavage was found to remain at low concentration in PLGA nanoparticles treated mice as well as ZnO nanoparticles during the 24 hour period. However, these were significantly increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mice. Of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-12p70 were produced at the highest concentration in the positive control group. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and chemokines INF-{gamma}, IL-4, IL-5 remained at normal levels in PLGA treated mice. IL-10 and INF-{gamma} were significantly increased in LPS treated mice. MCP-1 was found to be significantly produced in all groups in the first hours, except the saline treated mice. These results provide the first report to detail the induction of cytokine production by PLGA nanoparticles engineered for oral applications.

  19. Computational Intelligence Modeling of the Macromolecules Release from PLGA Microspheres-Focus on Feature Selection.

    PubMed

    Zawbaa, Hossam M; Szlȩk, Jakub; Grosan, Crina; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) is a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid. Drug release from PLGA microspheres depends not only on polymer properties but also on drug type, particle size, morphology of microspheres, release conditions, etc. Selecting a subset of relevant properties for PLGA is a challenging machine learning task as there are over three hundred features to consider. In this work, we formulate the selection of critical attributes for PLGA as a multiobjective optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the error of predicting the dissolution profile while reducing the number of attributes selected. Four bio-inspired optimization algorithms: antlion optimization, binary version of antlion optimization, grey wolf optimization, and social spider optimization are used to select the optimal feature set for predicting the dissolution profile of PLGA. Besides these, LASSO algorithm is also used for comparisons. Selection of crucial variables is performed under the assumption that both predictability and model simplicity are of equal importance to the final result. During the feature selection process, a set of input variables is employed to find minimum generalization error across different predictive models and their settings/architectures. The methodology is evaluated using predictive modeling for which various tools are chosen, such as Cubist, random forests, artificial neural networks (monotonic MLP, deep learning MLP), multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression tree, and hybrid systems of fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations (fugeR). The experimental results are compared with the results reported by Szlȩk. We obtain a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 15.97% versus 15.4%, and the number of selected input features is smaller, nine versus eleven. PMID:27315205

  20. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  1. Flexibility in insulin prescription.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  2. Targeted and controlled drug delivery system loading artersunate for effective chemotherapy on CD44 overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Nguyen, Tuan Duc; Van Nguyen, Han; Nguyen, Hanh Thuy; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Nguyen, Chien Ngoc

    2016-05-01

    Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with negative surface charge were reversed to positive by cationic surfactant-DDAB before being coated with an anionic polymer, hyaluronic acid, to improve their site-specific intracellular delivery against CD44 receptor overexpressing cancer cells. Incorporating artesunate (ART)-a promising anticancer drug into PLGA/HA nanoparticles, is expected not only to overcome its poor aqueous solubility and stability but also enhance the activities. The obtained particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cancer cell internalization of the NPs was evaluated by flow cytometry and cytotoxicity of the NPs was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. PLGA/HA nanoparticles showed greater extent of cellular uptake to SCC-7 and MCF-7 cells, indicating their affinity with CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis. Almost 60 % of ART was released into the outer media after 48 h. In vitro fluorescence sorting demonstrated that PLGA/HA had highly efficient targeting and accumulation into CD44 receptor overexpression cells. The significant reduction in cell viability as well as greater induction of apoptosis suggested a potential in anticancer therapy of ART loaded PLGA/HA. PMID:27015824

  3. Delivery of miR-34a by chitosan/PLGA nanoplexes for the anticancer treatment of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cosco, Donato; Cilurzo, Felisa; Maiuolo, Jessica; Federico, Cinzia; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Cristiano, Maria Chiara; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The encapsulation of miR-34a into chitosan/PLGA nanoparticles in order to obtain nanoplexes useful for the modulation of the biopharmaceutical features of the active compound was studied. The nanoplexes were obtained through nanoprecipitation and were characterized by a mean diameter of ~160 nm, a good size distribution and a positive surface charge. The structure of the nanoparticles allowed a high level of entrapment efficiency of the miR-34a and provided protection of the genetic material from the effects of RNase. A high degree of transfection efficiency of the nanoplexes and a significant in vitro antitumor effect against multiple myeloma cells was demonstrated. The therapeutic properties of the nanoplexes were evaluated in vivo against human multiple myeloma xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. The systemic injection of miR-34a mimic-loaded nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth and translated into improved survival of the laboratory mice. RT-PCR analysis carried out on retrieved tumors demonstrated the presence of a high concentration of miR-34a mimics. The integrity of the nanoplexes remained intact and no organ toxicity was observed in treated animals. PMID:26620594

  4. CXCR4-targeted lipid-coated