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Sample records for insulin receptors mediate

  1. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-mediated Hyperthermia Involves Anterior Hypothalamic Insulin Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Osborn, Olivia; Tabarean, Iustin V.; Holmberg, Kristina H.; Eberwine, James; Kahn, C. Ronald; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the regulation of core body temperature. Sequencing cDNA libraries from individual warm-sensitive neurons from the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus, a region involved in the central control of thermoregulation, identified neurons that express both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor transcripts. The effects of administration of IGF-1 into the POA was measured by radiotelemetry monitoring of core temperature, brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature, metabolic assessment, and imaging of BAT by positron emission tomography of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake combined with computed tomography. IGF-1 injection into the POA caused dose-dependent hyperthermia that could be blocked by pretreatment with the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PQ401. The IGF-1-evoked hyperthermia involved activation of brown adipose tissue and was accompanied by a switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation as a source of energy as shown by lowered respiratory exchange ratio. Transgenic mice that lack neuronal insulin receptor expression in the brain (NIRKO mice) were unable to mount the full hyperthermic response to IGF-1, suggesting that the IGF-1 mediated hyperthermia is partly dependent on expression of functional neuronal insulin receptors. These data indicate a novel thermoregulatory role for both IGF-1R and neuronal insulin receptors in IGF-1 activation of BAT and hyperthermia. These central effects of IGF-1 signaling may play a role in regulation of metabolic rate, aging, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330367

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 1-mediated hyperthermia involves anterior hypothalamic insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Osborn, Olivia; Tabarean, Iustin V; Holmberg, Kristina H; Eberwine, James; Kahn, C Ronald; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-04-29

    The objective is to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the regulation of core body temperature. Sequencing cDNA libraries from individual warm-sensitive neurons from the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus, a region involved in the central control of thermoregulation, identified neurons that express both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor transcripts. The effects of administration of IGF-1 into the POA was measured by radiotelemetry monitoring of core temperature, brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature, metabolic assessment, and imaging of BAT by positron emission tomography of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake combined with computed tomography. IGF-1 injection into the POA caused dose-dependent hyperthermia that could be blocked by pretreatment with the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PQ401. The IGF-1-evoked hyperthermia involved activation of brown adipose tissue and was accompanied by a switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation as a source of energy as shown by lowered respiratory exchange ratio. Transgenic mice that lack neuronal insulin receptor expression in the brain (NIRKO mice) were unable to mount the full hyperthermic response to IGF-1, suggesting that the IGF-1 mediated hyperthermia is partly dependent on expression of functional neuronal insulin receptors. These data indicate a novel thermoregulatory role for both IGF-1R and neuronal insulin receptors in IGF-1 activation of BAT and hyperthermia. These central effects of IGF-1 signaling may play a role in regulation of metabolic rate, aging, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330367

  3. A novel domain mediates insulin-induced proteasomal degradation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1).

    PubMed

    Boura-Halfon, Sigalit; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Beck, Avital; Petrovich, Katia; Gurevitch, Diana; Ronen, Denise; Zick, Yehiel

    2010-11-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) plays a pivotal role in insulin signaling, therefore its degradation is exquisitely regulated. Here, we show that insulin-stimulated degradation of IRS-1 requires the presence of a highly conserved Ser/Thr-rich domain that we named domain involved in degradation of IRS-1 (DIDI). DIDI (amino acids 386-430 of IRS-1) was identified by comparing the intracellular degradation rate of several truncated forms of IRS-1 transfected into CHO cells. The isolated DIDI domain underwent insulin-stimulated Ser/Thr phosphorylation, suggesting that it serves as a target for IRS-1 kinases. The effects of deletion of DIDI were studied in Fao rat hepatoma and in CHO cells expressing Myc-IRS-1(WT) or Myc-IRS-1(Δ386-430). Deletion of DIDI maintained the ability of IRS-1(Δ386-434) to undergo ubiquitination while rendering it insensitive to insulin-induced proteasomal degradation, which affected IRS-1(WT) (80% at 8 h). Consequently, IRS-1(Δ386-434) mediated insulin signaling (activation of Akt and glycogen synthesis) better than IRS-1(WT). IRS-1(Δ386-434) exhibited a significant greater preference for nuclear localization, compared with IRS-1(WT). Higher nuclear localization was also observed when cells expressing IRS-1(WT) were incubated with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. The sequence of DIDI is conserved more than 93% across species, from fish to mammals, as opposed to approximately 40% homology of the entire IRS-1. These findings implicate DIDI as a novel, highly conserved domain of IRS-1, which mediates its cellular localization, rate of degradation, and biological activity, with a direct impact on insulin signal transduction. PMID:20843941

  4. Autophagy downregulation contributes to insulin resistance mediated injury in insulin receptor knockout podocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Wei; Li, Zhaoping; Chen, Liyong

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether autophagy activity is altered in insulin resistant podocytes and whether autophagy could be a therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here we used shRNA transfection to knockdown the insulin receptor (IR) gene in cultured human immortalized podocytes as an in vitro insulin resistant model. Autophagy related proteins LC3, Beclin, and p62 as well as nephrin, a podocyte injury marker, were assessed using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Our results show that autophagy is suppressed when podocytes lose insulin sensitivity and that treatment of rapamycin, an mTOR specific inhibitor, could attenuate insulin resistance induced podocytes injury via autophagy activation. The present study deepens our understanding of the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:27077005

  5. Novel method demonstrates differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation of insulin receptor tyrosine-specific phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cieniewicz, Anne M; Cooper, Philip R; McGehee, Jennifer; Lingham, Russell B; Kihm, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor signaling is a complex cascade leading to a multitude of intracellular functional responses. Three natural ligands, insulin, IGF1 and IGF2, are each capable of binding with different affinities to the insulin receptor, and result in variable biological responses. However, it is likely these affinity differences alone cannot completely explain the myriad of diverse cellular outcomes. Ligand binding initiates activation of a signaling cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the IR itself and other intracellular proteins. The direct catalytic activity along with the temporally coordinated assembly of signaling proteins is critical for insulin receptor signaling. We hypothesized that determining differential phosphorylation among individual tyrosine sites activated by ligand binding or dephosphorylation by phosphatases could provide valuable insight into insulin receptor signaling. Here, we present a sensitive, novel immunoassay adapted from Meso Scale Discovery technology to quantitatively measure changes in site-specific phosphorylation levels on endogenous insulin receptors from HuH7 cells. We identified insulin receptor phosphorylation patterns generated upon differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation. The data demonstrate that insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 elicit different insulin receptor phosphorylation kinetics and potencies that translate to downstream signaling. Furthermore, we show that insulin receptor deactivation, regulated by tyrosine phosphatases, occurs distinctively across specific tyrosine residues. In summary, we present a novel, quantitative and high-throughput assay that has uncovered differential ligand activation and site-specific deactivation of the insulin receptor. These results may help elucidate some of the insulin signaling mechanisms, discriminate ligand activity and contribute to a better understanding of insulin receptor signaling. We propose this methodology as a powerful approach to characterize

  6. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  7. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia - even prior to antipsychotic use - seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal insulin

  8. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis selectively attenuates specific insulin receptor signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, B P; Kao, A W; Santeler, S R; Pessin, J E

    1998-07-01

    To examine the role of clathrin-dependent insulin receptor internalization in insulin-stimulated signal transduction events, we expressed a dominant-interfering mutant of dynamin (K44A/dynamin) by using a recombinant adenovirus in the H4IIE hepatoma and 3T3L1 adipocyte cell lines. Expression of K44A/dynamin inhibited endocytosis of the insulin receptor as determined by both cell surface radioligand binding and trypsin protection analysis. The inhibition of the insulin receptor endocytosis had no effect on either the extent of insulin receptor autophosphorylation or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast, expression of K44A/dynamin partially inhibited insulin-stimulated Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and -2. Although there was an approximately 50% decrease in the insulin-stimulated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase associated with IRS1, insulin-stimulated Akt kinase phosphorylation and activation were unaffected. The expression of K44A/dynamin increased the basal rate of amino acid transport, which was additive with the effect of insulin but had no effect on the basal or insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, expression of K44A/dynamin increased the basal rate of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis without any significant effect on insulin stimulation. Together, these data demonstrate that the acute actions of insulin are largely independent of insulin receptor endocytosis and are initiated by activation of the plasma membrane-localized insulin receptor. PMID:9632770

  9. Inhibition of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Selectively Attenuates Specific Insulin Receptor Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ceresa, Brian P.; Kao, Aimee W.; Santeler, Scott R.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the role of clathrin-dependent insulin receptor internalization in insulin-stimulated signal transduction events, we expressed a dominant-interfering mutant of dynamin (K44A/dynamin) by using a recombinant adenovirus in the H4IIE hepatoma and 3T3L1 adipocyte cell lines. Expression of K44A/dynamin inhibited endocytosis of the insulin receptor as determined by both cell surface radioligand binding and trypsin protection analysis. The inhibition of the insulin receptor endocytosis had no effect on either the extent of insulin receptor autophosphorylation or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast, expression of K44A/dynamin partially inhibited insulin-stimulated Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and -2. Although there was an approximately 50% decrease in the insulin-stimulated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase associated with IRS1, insulin-stimulated Akt kinase phosphorylation and activation were unaffected. The expression of K44A/dynamin increased the basal rate of amino acid transport, which was additive with the effect of insulin but had no effect on the basal or insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, expression of K44A/dynamin increased the basal rate of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis without any significant effect on insulin stimulation. Together, these data demonstrate that the acute actions of insulin are largely independent of insulin receptor endocytosis and are initiated by activation of the plasma membrane-localized insulin receptor. PMID:9632770

  10. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15/sup 0/C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37/sup 0/C. Biochemical experiments utilizing /sup 125/I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that approx. = 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis.

  11. Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc A.; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Oh, Annabell S.; Fagan, Dedra H.; Byron, Sara A.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles M.; Yee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26991655

  12. Cross-talk between insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the cortical collecting duct principal cells: implication for ENaC-mediated Na+ reabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Brands, Michael W.; Pavlov, Tengis S.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-1 are recognized as powerful regulators of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. As previously described, these hormones both acutely increase ENaC activity in freshly isolated split open tubules and cultured principal cortical collecting duct cells. The present study was aimed at differentiating the effects of insulin and IGF-1 on Na+ transport in immortalized mpkCCDcl4 cells and defining their interrelations. We have shown that both insulin and IGF-1 applied basolaterally, but not apically, enhanced transepithelial Na+ transport in the mpkCCDcl4 cell line with EC50 values of 8.8 and 14.5 nM, respectively. Insulin treatment evoked phosphorylation of both insulin and IGF-1 receptors, whereas the effects of IGF-1 were more profound on its own receptor rather than the insulin receptor. AG-1024 and PPP, inhibitors of IGF-1 and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, diminished insulin- and IGF-1-stimulated Na+ transport in mpkCCDcl4 cells. The effects of insulin and IGF-1 on ENaC-mediated currents were found to be additive, with insulin likely stimulating both IGF-1 and insulin receptors. We hypothesize that insulin activates IGF-1 receptors in addition to its own receptors, making the effects of these hormones interconnected. PMID:25651558

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates high-fat diet-induced impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hae-Suk; Hwang, Daniel H.; Quon, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a chronic proinflammatory state that leads to endothelial dysfunction. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) stimulate Toll-like receptors (TLR) that promote metabolic insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether TLR2 mediates impairment of vascular actions of insulin in response to high-fat diet (HFD) to cause endothelial dysfunction. siRNA knockdown of TLR2 in primary endothelial cells opposed palmitate-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and splicing of X box protein 1 (XBP-1). Inhibition of unfolding protein response (UPR) reduced SFA-stimulated expression of TNFα. Thus, SFA stimulates UPR and proinflammatory response through activation of TLR2 in endothelial cells. Knockdown of TLR2 also opposed impairment of insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS and subsequent production of NO. Importantly, insulin-stimulated vasorelaxation of mesenteric arteries from TLR2 knockout mice was preserved even on HFD (in contrast with results from arteries examined in wild-type mice on HFD). We conclude that TLR2 in vascular endothelium mediates HFD-stimulated proinflammatory responses and UPR that accompany impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin, leading to endothelial dysfunction. These results are relevant to understanding the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular complications of diabetes and obesity. PMID:23531618

  14. The Novel Functions of High-Molecular-Mass Complexes Containing Insulin Receptor Substrates in Mediation and Modulation of Insulin-Like Activities: Emerging Concept of Diverse Functions by IRS-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hakuno, Fumihiko; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoneyama, Yosuke; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Ozoe, Atsufumi; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Shibano, Takashi; Sone-Yonezawa, Meri; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chida, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like peptides, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin, induce a variety of bioactivities, such as growth, differentiation, survival, increased anabolism, and decreased catabolism in many cell types and in vivo. In general, IGFs or insulin bind to IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) or insulin receptor (IR), activating the receptor tyrosine kinase. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are known to be major substrates of receptor kinases, mediating IGF/insulin signals to direct bioactivities. Recently, we discovered that IRSs form high-molecular-mass complexes (referred to here as IRSomes) even without IGF/insulin stimulation. These complexes contain proteins (referred to here as IRSAPs; IRS-associated proteins), which modulate tyrosine phosphorylation of IRSs by receptor kinases, control IRS stability, and determine intracellular localization of IRSs. In addition, in these complexes, we found not only proteins that are involved in RNA metabolism but also RNAs themselves. Thus, IRSAPs possibly contribute to modulation of IGF/insulin bioactivities. Since it is established that disorder of modulation of insulin-like activities causes various age-related diseases including cancer, we could propose that the IRSome is an important target for treatment of these diseases. PMID:26074875

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  16. CK2 acts as a potent negative regulator of receptor-mediated insulin release in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mario; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Barella, Luiz F; Sakamoto, Wataru; Zhu, Lu; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Rebholz, Heike; Matschinsky, Franz M; Doliba, Nicolai M; Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Wess, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all physiological functions including the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. β-Cell M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs) are known to play an essential role in facilitating insulin release and maintaining proper whole-body glucose homeostasis. As is the case with other GPCRs, M3R activity is regulated by phosphorylation by various kinases, including GPCR kinases and casein kinase 2 (CK2). At present, it remains unknown which of these various kinases are physiologically relevant for the regulation of β-cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that inhibition of CK2 in pancreatic β-cells, knockdown of CK2α expression, or genetic deletion of CK2α in β-cells of mutant mice selectively augmented M3R-stimulated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that this effect was associated with an M3R-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of mouse pancreatic islets with CX4945, a highly selective CK2 inhibitor, greatly reduced agonist-induced phosphorylation of β-cell M3Rs, indicative of CK2-mediated M3R phosphorylation. We also showed that inhibition of CK2 greatly enhanced M3R-stimulated insulin secretion in human islets. Finally, CX4945 treatment protected mice against diet-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in an M3R-dependent fashion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the physiological relevance of CK2 phosphorylation of a GPCR and suggest the novel concept that kinases acting on β-cell GPCRs may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26598688

  17. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin in lower vertebrates: internalization and intracellular processing of 125I-insulin in isolated hepatocytes of lamprey and frog.

    PubMed

    Lappova, Y L; Leibush, B N

    1995-10-01

    The binding of 125I-insulin to cellular insulin receptors and the internalization of insulin-receptor complexes have been studied in isolated hepatocytes of frog and lamprey. Two classes of binding sites (Kd 10(-9) and 10(-8) M) were found in cells of both species. The molecular weight of the insulin receptor alpha-subunit was 130 kDa in both species. Internalization of bound 125I-insulin in both species was found in the temperature range 0 to 20 degrees. Cells "loaded" with 125I-insulin were used to estimate the fate of the internalized ligand. Release of internalized ligand from frog cells increased at temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees. At 0 degrees the degraded 125I-insulin was 5%, at 5 degrees 7%, and at 20 degrees 17% of total radioactivity accumulated in the medium. In lamprey hepatocytes there was neither radioactivity accumulation in the incubation medium nor release from cells at all temperatures studied. The intracellular degradation of internalized 125I-insulin in frog hepatocytes was much lower than that in lamprey cells. In frog hepatocytes the specific binding of 125I-insulin was increased twofold in the presence of the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine. In contrast no increase was found in lamprey hepatocytes. In conclusion, the processing pathways of internalized insulin in the cells of ectothermal and endothermal vertebrates are generally similar but in ectothermal animals all events take place at lower temperatures and at lower rates. The peculiarities of insulin processing in lamprey hepatocytes most likely result from the transformation of hepatocytes during the nonfeeding prespawning period. PMID:8575649

  18. The gut microbiota suppresses insulin-mediated fat accumulation via the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ikuo; Ozawa, Kentaro; Inoue, Daisuke; Imamura, Takeshi; Kimura, Kumi; Maeda, Takeshi; Terasawa, Kazuya; Kashihara, Daiji; Hirano, Kanako; Tani, Taeko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Shioi, Go; Inoue, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2013-01-01

    The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host, and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. During feeding, gut microbes produce short-chain fatty acids, which are important energy sources for the host. Here we show that the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 links the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota with host body energy homoeostasis. We demonstrate that GPR43-deficient mice are obese on a normal diet, whereas mice overexpressing GPR43 specifically in adipose tissue remain lean even when fed a high-fat diet. Raised under germ-free conditions or after treatment with antibiotics, both types of mice have a normal phenotype. We further show that short-chain fatty acid-mediated activation of GPR43 suppresses insulin signalling in adipocytes, which inhibits fat accumulation in adipose tissue and promotes the metabolism of unincorporated lipids and glucose in other tissues. These findings establish GPR43 as a sensor for excessive dietary energy, thereby controlling body energy utilization while maintaining metabolic homoeostasis. PMID:23652017

  19. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 impair insulin-mediated brain activity by interleukin-6 and osteopontin and alter sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Lutz, Stefan Z; Hoene, Miriam; Waak, Jens; Peter, Andreas; Weigert, Cora; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Kahle, Philipp J; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2012-05-01

    Impaired insulin action in the brain represents an early step in the progression toward type 2 diabetes, and elevated levels of saturated free fatty acids are known to impair insulin action in prediabetic subjects. One potential mediator that links fatty acids to inflammation and insulin resistance is the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Therefore, C3H/HeJ/TLR2-KO (TLR2/4-deficient) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and insulin action in the brain as well as cortical and locomotor activity was analyzed by using telemetric implants. TLR2/4-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the brain and displayed an improvement in cortical and locomotor activity that was not observed in C3H/HeJ mice. Sleep recordings revealed a 42% increase in rapid eye movement sleep in the deficient mice during daytime, and these mice spent 41% more time awake during the night period. Treatment of control mice with a neutralizing IL-6 antibody improved insulin action in the brain as well as cortical activity and diminished osteopontin protein to levels of the TLR2/4-deficient mice. Together, our data suggest that the lack of functional TLR2/4 protects mice from a fat-mediated impairment in insulin action, brain activity, locomotion, and sleep architecture by an IL-6/osteopontin-dependent mechanism. PMID:22278939

  20. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2-mediated Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Signaling Selectively Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β to Regulate Aerobic Glycolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Justine; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that mediate the activation of signaling pathways in response to ligand stimulation of upstream cell surface receptors. Despite sharing a high level of homology and the ability to activate PI3K, only Irs-2 positively regulates aerobic glycolysis in mammary tumor cells. To determine the contribution of Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling to this selective regulation, we generated an Irs-2 mutant deficient in the recruitment of PI3K. We identified four tyrosine residues (Tyr-649, Tyr-671, Tyr-734, and Tyr-814) that are essential for the association of PI3K with Irs-2 and demonstrate that combined mutation of these tyrosines inhibits glucose uptake and lactate production, two measures of aerobic glycolysis. Irs-2-dependent activation of PI3K regulates the phosphorylation of specific Akt substrates, most notably glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk-3β). Inhibition of Gsk-3β by Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling promotes glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis. The regulation of unique subsets of Akt substrates by Irs-1 and Irs-2 may explain their non-redundant roles in mammary tumor biology. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which Irs-2 signaling preferentially regulates tumor cell metabolism and adds to our understanding of how this adaptor protein contributes to breast cancer progression. PMID:24811175

  1. Melatonin Mediates Monochromatic Light-induced Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Secretion of Chick Liver: Involvement of Membrane Receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Suqi; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Wenli; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-07-01

    Monochromatic lights influenced the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal satellite cells in broilers by the enhancement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) secretion. However, whether melatonin (MEL)-mediated monochromatic lights influenced the IGF-1 secretion remains unclear. Newly hatched broilers, including intact, sham operation and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to blue (BL), green (GL), red (RL) and white light (WL) from a light-emitting diode system for 14 days. The results showed that GL effectively promoted the secretion of MEL and IGF-1, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MEL receptor subtypes Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the liver compared to BL and RL in vivo. Moreover, those was a positive correlation between MEL and IGF-1 (r = 0.834). After pinealectomy, however, these parameters declined, and there were no differences between GL and other monochromatic light treatments. In vitro, exogenous MEL increased hepatocyte proliferation and IGF-1 secretion. Meanwhile, the MEL enhancements were suppressed by prazosin (selective Mel1c antagonist), followed by luzindole (nonselective Mel1a/Mel1b antagonist), but not suppressed by 4-phenyl-2-propionamideotetralin (selective Mel1b antagonist). These findings demonstrated that MEL mediated the monochromatic light-induced secretion of IGF-1 in chicks' livers by Mel1c and that Mel1a may be involved in this process. PMID:27128575

  2. Insulin stimulates movement of sorting nexin 9 between cellular compartments: a putative role mediating cell surface receptor expression and insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    MaCaulay, S Lance; Stoichevska, Violet; Grusovin, Julian; Gough, Keith H; Castelli, Laura A; Ward, Colin W

    2003-01-01

    SNX9 (sorting nexin 9) is one member of a family of proteins implicated in protein trafficking. This family is characterized by a unique PX (Phox homology) domain that includes a proline-rich sequence and an upstream phospholipid binding domain. Many sorting nexins, including SNX9, also have a C-terminal coiled region. SNX9 additionally has an N-terminal SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. Here we have investigated the cellular localization of SNX9 and the potential role it plays in insulin action. SNX9 had a cytosolic and punctate distribution, consistent with endosomal and cytosolic localization, in 3T3L1 adipocytes. It was excluded from the nucleus. The SH3 domain was responsible, at least in part, for the membrane localization of SNX9, since expression of an SH3-domain-deleted GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SNX9 fusion protein in HEK293T cells rendered the protein cytosolic. Membrane localization may also be attributed in part to the PX domain, since in vitro phospholipid binding studies demonstrated SNX9 binding to polyphosphoinositides. Insulin induced movement of SNX9 to membrane fractions from the cytosol. A GST (glutathione S-transferase)-SNX9 fusion protein was associated with IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) and insulin receptors in vitro. A GFP-SNX9 fusion protein, overexpressed in 3T3L1 adipocytes, co-immunoprecipitated with insulin receptors. Furthermore, overexpression of this GFP-SNX9 fusion protein in CHOT cells decreased insulin binding, consistent with a role for SNX9 in the trafficking of insulin receptors. Microinjection of 3T3L1 cells with an antibody against SNX9 inhibited stimulation by insulin of GLUT4 translocation. These results support the involvement of SNX9 in insulin action, via an influence on the processing/trafficking of insulin receptors. A secondary role in regulation of the cellular processing, transport and/or subcellular localization of GLUT4 is also suggested. PMID:12917015

  3. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-05-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound /sup 125/I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development.

  4. Blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type 1-mediated TNF-alpha signaling protected Wistar rats from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huifang; Yin, Bingjiao; Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Shu; Zeng, Qingling; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Xiaodan; Yuan, Li; Wang, Cong-Yi; Li, Zhuoya

    2008-06-01

    TNF-alpha plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance in which the effect of TNF-alpha signaling via TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) largely remains controversial. To delineate the role of TNFR1-mediated TNF-alpha signaling in the pathogenesis of this disorder, a TNFR1 blocking peptide-Fc fusion protein (TNFR1BP-Fc) was used for the present study. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet for 16 wk until obesity and insulin resistance developed. In comparison with increased body weight and fat weight, enlarged adipocytes, and hypertriglyceridemia in the obese state, the subsequent 4-wk treatment with TNFR1BP-Fc resulted in significant weight loss characterized by decreased fat pad weight and adipocyte size and reduced plasma triglycerides. Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance, including hyperinsulinemia, elevated C-peptide, higher degree of hyperglycemia after glucose challenge, and less hypoglycemic response to insulin, was markedly improved, and the compensatory hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic islets were reduced. Interestingly, treatment with TNFR1BP-Fc markedly suppressed systemic TNF-alpha release and its local expression in pancreatic islets and muscle and adipose tissues. In addition, blockage of TNFR1-mediated TNF-alpha signaling in obese rats significantly enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in the muscle and fat tissues. Our results strongly suggest a pivotal role for TNFR1-mediated TNF-alpha signaling in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Thus, TNFR1BP-Fc may be a good candidate for the treatment of this disease. PMID:18339717

  5. Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Activation Mediated p53 Downregulation Protects Against Hypoxic-Ischemia in the Neonatal Brain.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yi-Fang; Jiang, Si-Tse; Chow, Yen-Hung; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Chou, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    This study determined if dietary restriction (DR) protects against hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain via insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/Akt pathway-mediated downregulation of p53 in the neurovascular unit. On postnatal (P) day 7, HI was induced in rat pups grouped from P1 into normal litter size (NL, 12 pups/dam) and increased litter size (DR, 18 pups/dam). In vivo IRS-1 anti-sense oligonucleotide and IRS-1 overexpressed recombinant adenovirus were given, and neurovascular damage was assessed. In vitro models of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) examined the inhibition and overexpression of IRS-1 on p53 and cell death in neurons and endothelial cells. Compared to NL pups, DR pups had significantly higher IRS-1, p-IRS-1, and pAkt levels, decreased p53, more tight junction proteins, reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage after HI, and less infarct volumes at P21. Immunofluorescence revealed that IRS-1 was upregulated in the endothelial cells and neurons of DR pups. IRS-1 downregulation in DR pups reduced p-Akt, increased p53, worsened BBB damage, and increased brain injury, whereas IRS-1 overexpression in NL pups upregulated p-Akt, decreased p53, attenuated BBB damage, and decreased brain injury. In vitro, IRS-1 downregulation aggravated cell death in neurons and endothelial cells and is associated with decreased p-Akt and increased p53. In contrast, IRS-1 overexpression reduced cell death in endothelial cells with increased p-Akt and decreased p53. In conclusion, DR reduces neurovascular damage after HI in the neonatal brain through an IRS-1/Akt-mediated p53 downregulation, suggesting that IRS-1 signaling is a therapeutic target for hypoxic brain injury in neonates. PMID:26111627

  6. Toll Like Receptor-4 Mediates Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular dysfunction is a major complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The current studies were undertaken to determine if inflammatory responses are activated in the vasculature of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), and if so, whether Toll Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), a ke...

  7. Down-regulation of insulin receptors is related to insulin internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.; Carpentier, J.L.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present study, we have tested the influence of inhibition of endocytosis by hypertonic medium on the regulation of cell surface insulin receptors. We show that active internalization of {sup 125}I-insulin is markedly inhibited by hypertonic media and that, in parallel, cell surface invaginations are significantly diminished. These two events are accompanied by a marked inhibition of cell surface insulin receptor down-regulation. These data provide further strong evidence that receptor-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism by which insulin receptors are regulated at the surface of target cells.

  8. Nuclear hormone receptor DHR96 mediates the resistance to xenobiotics but not the increased lifespan of insulin-mutant Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Afschar, Sonita; Toivonen, Janne M; Hoffmann, Julia Marianne; Tain, Luke Stephen; Wieser, Daniela; Finlayson, Andrew John; Driege, Yasmine; Alic, Nazif; Emran, Sahar; Stinn, Julia; Froehlich, Jenny; Piper, Matthew D; Partridge, Linda

    2016-02-01

    Lifespan of laboratory animals can be increased by genetic, pharmacological, and dietary interventions. Increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, together with resistance to xenobiotics, are frequent correlates of lifespan extension in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila, and mice. The Green Theory of Aging suggests that this association is causal, with the ability of cells to rid themselves of lipophilic toxins limiting normal lifespan. To test this idea, we experimentally increased resistance of Drosophila to the xenobiotic dichlordiphenyltrichlorethan (DDT), by artificial selection or by transgenic expression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450. Although both interventions increased DDT resistance, neither increased lifespan. Furthermore, dietary restriction increased lifespan without increasing xenobiotic resistance, confirming that the two traits can be uncoupled. Reduced activity of the insulin/Igf signaling (IIS) pathway increases resistance to xenobiotics and extends lifespan in Drosophila, and can also increase longevity in C. elegans, mice, and possibly humans. We identified a nuclear hormone receptor, DHR96, as an essential mediator of the increased xenobiotic resistance of IIS mutant flies. However, the IIS mutants remained long-lived in the absence of DHR96 and the xenobiotic resistance that it conferred. Thus, in Drosophila IIS mutants, increased xenobiotic resistance and enhanced longevity are not causally connected. The frequent co-occurrence of the two traits may instead have evolved because, in nature, lowered IIS can signal the presence of pathogens. It will be important to determine whether enhanced xenobiotic metabolism is also a correlated, rather than a causal, trait in long-lived mice. PMID:26787908

  9. Nuclear hormone receptor DHR96 mediates the resistance to xenobiotics but not the increased lifespan of insulin-mutant Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Afschar, Sonita; Toivonen, Janne M.; Tain, Luke Stephen; Wieser, Daniela; Finlayson, Andrew John; Driege, Yasmine; Alic, Nazif; Emran, Sahar; Stinn, Julia; Froehlich, Jenny; Piper, Matthew D.; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Lifespan of laboratory animals can be increased by genetic, pharmacological, and dietary interventions. Increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, together with resistance to xenobiotics, are frequent correlates of lifespan extension in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila, and mice. The Green Theory of Aging suggests that this association is causal, with the ability of cells to rid themselves of lipophilic toxins limiting normal lifespan. To test this idea, we experimentally increased resistance of Drosophila to the xenobiotic dichlordiphenyltrichlorethan (DDT), by artificial selection or by transgenic expression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450. Although both interventions increased DDT resistance, neither increased lifespan. Furthermore, dietary restriction increased lifespan without increasing xenobiotic resistance, confirming that the two traits can be uncoupled. Reduced activity of the insulin/Igf signaling (IIS) pathway increases resistance to xenobiotics and extends lifespan in Drosophila, and can also increase longevity in C. elegans, mice, and possibly humans. We identified a nuclear hormone receptor, DHR96, as an essential mediator of the increased xenobiotic resistance of IIS mutant flies. However, the IIS mutants remained long-lived in the absence of DHR96 and the xenobiotic resistance that it conferred. Thus, in Drosophila IIS mutants, increased xenobiotic resistance and enhanced longevity are not causally connected. The frequent co-occurrence of the two traits may instead have evolved because, in nature, lowered IIS can signal the presence of pathogens. It will be important to determine whether enhanced xenobiotic metabolism is also a correlated, rather than a causal, trait in long-lived mice. PMID:26787908

  10. Insulin receptor-mediated nutritional signalling regulates juvenile hormone biosynthesis and vitellogenin production in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Abrisqueta, Marc; Süren-Castillo, Songül; Maestro, José L

    2014-06-01

    Female reproductive processes, which comprise, amongst others, the synthesis of yolk proteins and the endocrine mechanisms which regulate this synthesis, need a considerable amount of energy and resources. The role of communicating that the required nutritional status has been attained is carried out by nutritional signalling pathways and, in particular, by the insulin receptor (InR) pathway. In the present study, using the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, as a model, we analysed the role of InR in different processes, but mainly those related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and vitellogenin production. We first cloned the InR cDNA from B. germanica (BgInR) and then determined that its expression levels were constant in corpora allata and fat body during the first female gonadotrophic cycle. Results showed that the observed increase in BgInR mRNA in fat body from starved compared to fed females was abolished in those females treated with systemic RNAi in vivo against the transcription factor BgFoxO. RNAi-mediated BgInR knockdown during the final two nymphal stages produced significant delays in the moults, together with smaller adult females which could not spread the fore- and hindwings properly. In addition, BgInR knockdown led to a severe inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in adult female corpora allata, with a concomitant reduction of mRNA levels corresponding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase-1, HMG-CoA synthase-2, HMG-CoA reductase and methyl farnesoate epoxidase. BgInR RNAi treatment also reduced fat body vitellogenin mRNA and oocyte growth. Our results show that BgInR knockdown produces similar phenotypes to those obtained in starved females in terms of corpora allata activity and vitellogenin synthesis, and indicate that the InR pathway mediates the activation of JH biosynthesis and vitellogenin production elicited by nutrition signalling. PMID:24657890

  11. Central insulin signaling is attenuated by long-term insulin exposure via insulin receptor substrate-1 serine phosphorylation, proteasomal degradation, and lysosomal insulin receptor degradation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christopher M; Belsham, Denise D

    2010-01-01

    Central insulin signaling is critical for the prevention of insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemia contributes to insulin resistance, but it is not yet clear whether neurons are subject to cellular insulin resistance. We used an immortalized, hypothalamic, clonal cell line, mHypoE-46, which exemplifies neuronal function and expresses the components of the insulin signaling pathway, to determine how hyperinsulinemia modifies neuronal function. Western blot analysis indicated that prolonged insulin treatment of mHypoE-46 cells attenuated insulin signaling through phospho-Akt. To understand the mechanisms involved, time-course analysis was performed. Insulin exposure for 4 and 8 h phosphorylated Akt and p70-S6 kinase (S6K1), whereas 8 and 24 h treatment decreased insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate 1 (IRS-1) protein levels. Insulin phosphorylation of S6K1 correlated with IRS-1 ser1101 phosphorylation and the mTOR-S6K1 pathway inhibitor rapamycin prevented IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. The proteasomal inhibitor epoxomicin and the lysosomal pathway inhibitor 3-methyladenine prevented the degradation of IRS-1 and IR by insulin, respectively, and pretreatment with rapamycin, epoxomicin, or 3-methyladenine prevented attenuation of insulin signaling by long-term insulin exposure. Thus, a sustained elevation of insulin levels diminishes neuronal insulin signaling through mTOR-S6K1-mediated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, proteasomal degradation of IRS-1 and lysosomal degradation of the IR. PMID:19887566

  12. Therapeutic potential of the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α/γ agonist aleglitazar in attenuating TNF-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Calabriso, Nadia; Wabitsch, Martin; Storelli, Carlo; Wright, Matthew; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is a mechanistic link between obesity and its related sequelae, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Dual ligands of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α and γ, combining in a single molecule the metabolic and inflammatory-regulatory properties of α and γ agonists, have been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy to antagonize adipose tissue inflammation. Here we investigated the effects of the dual PPARα/γ agonist aleglitazar on human adipocytes challenged with inflammatory stimuli. Human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were treated with aleglitazar or - for comparison - the selective agonists for PPARα or γ fenofibrate or rosiglitazone, respectively, for 24h before stimulation with TNF-α. Aleglitazar, at concentrations as low as 10nmol/L, providing the half-maximal transcriptional activation of both PPARα and PPARγ, reduced the stimulated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-6, the chemokine CXC-L10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Correspondingly, media from adipocytes treated with aleglitazar reduced monocyte migration, consistent with suppression of MCP-1 secretion. Under the same conditions, aleglitazar also reversed the TNF-α-mediated suppression of insulin-stimulated ser473 Akt phosphorylation and decreased the TNF-α-induced ser312 IRS1 phosphorylation, two major switches in insulin-mediated metabolic activities, restoring glucose uptake in insulin-resistant adipocytes. Such effects were similar to those obtainable with a combination of single PPARα and γ agonists. In conclusion, aleglitazar reduces inflammatory activation and dysfunction in insulin signaling in activated adipocytes, properties that may benefit diabetic and obese patients. The effect of aleglitazar was consistent with dual PPARα and γ agonism, but with no evidence of synergism. PMID:26976796

  13. Insulin glulisine: insulin receptor signaling characteristics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hennige, Anita M; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora; Moeschel, Klaus; Schäuble, Myriam; Metzinger, Elisabeth; Lammers, Reiner; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to design insulin molecules that overcome the limitations of regular insulin in mealtime supplementation. However, safety issues have been raised with these alternatives, as the alteration of the three-dimensional structure may alter the interaction with the insulin and/or IGF-I receptors and therefore lead to the activation of alternate metabolic as well as mitogenic signaling pathways. It is therefore essential to carefully study acute and long-term effects in a preclinical state, as insulin therapy is meant to be a lifelong treatment. In this study, we determined in vivo the insulin receptor signaling characteristics activated by insulin glulisine (Lys(B3), Glu(B29)) at the level of insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation, and downstream signaling elements such as phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, AKT, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. C57BL/6 mice were injected with insulin glulisine or regular insulin and Western blot analysis was performed for liver and muscle tissue. The extent and time course of insulin receptor phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling elements after insulin glulisine treatment was similar to that of human regular insulin in vivo. Moreover, insulin signaling in hypothalamic tissue determined by PI 3-kinase activity was comparable. Therefore, insulin glulisine may be a useful tool for diabetes treatment. PMID:15677493

  14. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. PMID:25817999

  15. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets*

    PubMed Central

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca2+-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca2+]i increases were likely caused by Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca2+]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. PMID:25817999

  16. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  17. Antibody-Mediated Targeting of siRNA Via the Human Insulin Receptor Using Avidin-Biotin Technology

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chun-Fang; Boado, Ruben J.; Pardridge, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) to cells in culture, and in vivo, is possible with combined use of a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) and avidin-biotin technology. In the present studies, the luciferase gene is transiently expressed in human 293 epithelial cells. The siRNA delivery system is comprised of the siRNA, mono-biotinylated on the 3′-terminus of the sense strand, and a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and a MAb to the human insulin receptor (HIR). Exposure of cells to 3′-biotinyl-siRNA bound to the HIRMAb/SA conjugate, but not to unconjugated SA, avidin, or the HIRMAb, causes a >90% reduction in luciferase gene expression. The receptor-targeted siRNA effect is maximal at 48 hours after delivery of the siRNA to the cells, and the effect is lost by 7 days after a single application of the targeted siRNA in culture. The KI of the receptor-targeted siRNA inhibition of gene expresssion is 30.5 ± 11.7 nM, and significant inhibition is observed with siRNA concentrations as low as 3 nM. In conclusion, the combination of a receptor-specific targeting ligand, such as the HIRMAb, and avidin-biotin technology, allows for high affinity capture of the mono-biotinylated siRNA by the targeting MAb. The siRNA is effectively delivered to the cytosol of cells and knockdown of gene expression with the HIRMAb/SA delivery system is comparable to RNA interference effects obtained with cationic polyplexes. Whereas the use of cationic polyplexes in vivo is problematic, the bond between the targeting MAb and the siRNA is stable with avidin-biotin technology, and RNAi effects at distant sites such as brain are observed in vivo following an intravenous administration of the targeted siRNA. PMID:19093871

  18. Myostatin Induces Insulin Resistance via Casitas B-Lineage Lymphoma b (Cblb)-mediated Degradation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) Protein in Response to High Calorie Diet Intake*

    PubMed Central

    Bonala, Sabeera; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; McFarlane, Craig; Patnam, Sreekanth; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    To date a plethora of evidence has clearly demonstrated that continued high calorie intake leads to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes with or without obesity. However, the necessary signals that initiate insulin resistance during high calorie intake remain largely unknown. Our results here show that in response to a regimen of high fat or high glucose diets, Mstn levels were induced in muscle and liver of mice. High glucose- or fat- mediated induction of Mstn was controlled at the level of transcription, as highly conserved carbohydrate response and sterol-responsive (E-box) elements were present in the Mstn promoter and were revealed to be critical for ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein) or SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) regulation of Mstn expression. Further molecular analysis suggested that the increased Mstn levels (due to high glucose or fatty acid loading) resulted in increased expression of Cblb in a Smad3-dependent manner. Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has been shown to specifically degrade insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein. Consistent with this, our results revealed that elevated Mstn levels specifically up-regulated Cblb, resulting in enhanced ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of IRS1. In addition, over expression or knock down of Cblb had a major impact on IRS1 and pAkt levels in the presence or absence of insulin. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that increased glucose levels and high fat diet, both, result in increased circulatory Mstn levels. The increased Mstn in turn is a potent inducer of insulin resistance by degrading IRS1 protein via the E3 ligase, Cblb, in a Smad3-dependent manner. PMID:24451368

  19. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ on angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated insulin sensitivity, vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Becher, Ulrich M.; Camara, Bakary; Yildirimtürk, Cihan; Aksoy, Adem; Kebschull, Moritz; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A number of studies have reported that AT1R inhibition or genetic AT1R disruption and PPARγ activation inhibit vascular inflammation and improve glucose and lipid metabolism, underscoring a molecular interaction of AT1R and PPARγ. We here analyzed the hypothesis that vasculoprotective anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of AT1R inhibition are mediated by PPARγ. Material and methods Female ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice were fedwith a high-fat and cholesterol-rich diet and received continuous treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or vehicle at a rate of 700 ng/kg/min for 4 weeks using subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps. Additionally, one group of female ApoE–/– mice served as a control group. After treatment for 4 weeks mice were sacrificed and read-outs (plaque development, vascular inflammation and insulinsensitivity) were performed. Results Using AT1R deficient ApoE–/– mice (ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice) we found decreased cholesterol-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis compared to ApoE–/– mice. Inhibition of PPARγ by application of the specific PPARγ antagonist GW9662 significantly abolished the anti-atherogenic effects of AT1R deficiency in ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice (plaque area as % of control: ApoE–/–: 39 ±5%; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–: 17 ±7%, p = 0.044 vs. ApoE–/–; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– + GW9662: 31 ±8%, p = 0.047 vs. ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–). Focusing on IL6 as a pro-inflammatory humoral marker we detected significantly increased IL-6 levels in GW9662-treated animals (IL-6 in pg/ml: ApoE–/–: 230 ±16; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–: 117 ±20, p = 0.01 vs. ApoE–/–; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– + GW9662: 199 ±20, p = 0.01 vs. ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–), while the anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 was significantly

  20. A novel regulation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) expression following short term insulin administration

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of T2DM (Type II diabetes mellitus). Impaired intracellular insulin signalling is implicated as a key underlying mechanism. Attention has focused on early signalling events such as defective tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), a major target for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. This is required for normal induction of signalling pathways key to many of the metabolic actions of insulin. Conversely, increased serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS1 following prolonged insulin exposure (or in obesity) reduces signalling capacity, partly by stimulating IRS1 degradation. We now show that IRS1 levels in human muscle are actually increased 3-fold following 1 h of hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemia. Similarly, transient induction of IRS1 (3-fold) in the liver or muscle of rodents occurs following feeding or insulin injection respectively. The induction by insulin is also observed in cell culture systems, although to a lesser degree, and is not due to reduced proteasomal targeting, increased protein synthesis or gene transcription. Elucidation of the mechanism by which insulin promotes IRS1 stability will permit characterization of the importance of this novel signalling event in insulin regulation of liver and muscle function. Impairment of this process would reduce IRS1 signalling capacity, thereby contributing to the development of hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance prior to the appearance of T2DM. PMID:16128672

  1. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  2. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  3. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates high-fat diet-induced impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale - Obesity is characterized by a chronic pro-inflammatory state that promotes insulin resistance in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle as well as impairing insulin action in vascular endothelium that contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Cadiovascular complications of obesity are ...

  4. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1

    PubMed Central

    Ferdaoussi, M.; Bergeron, V.; Zarrouki, B.; Kolic, J.; Cantley, J.; Fielitz, J.; Olson, E. N.; Prentki, M.; Biden, T.; MacDonald, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gαq/11 but the signalling cascade activated down-stream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Methods Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40−/− mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Results Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40−/− islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40−/− islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40−/− islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22820510

  5. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  6. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Hosomi, Naohisa; Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Griendling, Kathy K.; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  7. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances hippocampal excitatory and seizure activity through IGF-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guohui; Wang, Wei; Cao, Qingqing; Gu, Juan; Mi, Xiujuan; Wang, Kewei; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to promote neurogenesis and survival. However, recent studies have suggested that IGF-1 regulates neuronal firing and excitatory neurotransmission. In the present study, focusing on temporal lobe epilepsy, we found that IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 receptor activation are increased in human epileptogenic tissues, and pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole-treated rat models. Using an acute model of seizures, we showed that lateral cerebroventricular infusion of IGF-1 elevates IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling before pilocarpine application had proconvulsant effects. In vivo electroencephalogram recordings and power spectrogram analysis of local field potential revealed that IGF-1 promotes epileptiform activities. This effect is diminished by co-application of an IGF-1R inhibitor. In an in vitro electrophysiological study, we demonstrated that IGF-1 enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents is inhibited by IGF-1R inhibitor. Finally, activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) in seizures in rats is increased by exogenous IGF-1 and diminished by picropodophyllin. A behavioural study reveals that the ERK1/2 or Akt inhibitor attenuates seizure activity. These results indicate that increased IGF-1 levels after recurrent hippocampal neuronal firings might, in turn, promote seizure activity via IGF-1R-dependent mechanisms. The present study presents a previously unappreciated role of IGF-1R in the development of seizure activity. PMID:26286172

  8. Insulin Action is Blocked by a Monoclonal Antibody That Inhibits the Insulin Receptor Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David O.; Ho, Lisa; Korn, Laurence J.; Roth, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor were produced. Thirty-four bound the intracellular domain of the receptor β subunit, the domain containing the tyrosine-specific kinase activity. Of these 34 antibodies, 33 recognized the rat receptor and 1 was shown to precipitate the receptors from mice, chickens, and frogs with high affinity. Another of the antibodies inhibited the kinase activities of the human and frog receptors with equal potencies. This antibody inhibited the kinase activities of these receptors by more than 90%, whereas others had no effect on either kinase activity. Microinjection of the inhibiting antibody into Xenopus oocytes blocked the ability of insulin to stimulate oocyte maturation. In contrast, this inhibiting antibody did not block the ability of progesterone to stimulate the same response. Furthermore, control immunoglobulin and a noninhibiting antibody to the receptor β subunit did not block this response to insulin. These results strongly support a role for the tyrosine-specific kinase activity of the insulin receptor in mediating this biological effect of insulin.

  9. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-05-05

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4/sup 0/C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37/sup 0/C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation.

  10. Insulin receptors in normal and disease states.

    PubMed

    Grunberger, G; Taylor, S I; Dons, R F; Gorden, P

    1983-03-01

    The binding of insulin to its receptor has been studied under various physiological and pathological conditions. Quantitative studies have involved human circulating cells such as monocytes and erythrocytes, adipocytes, placental cells, and cultured cells such as fibroblasts and transformed lymphocytes. In animals, other target tissues such as liver and muscle have been studied and correlated with the human studies. Various physiological conditions such as diurnal rhythm, diet, age, exercise and the menstrual cycle affect insulin binding; in addition, many drugs perturb the receptor interaction. Disease affecting the insulin receptor can be divided into five general categories: (1) Receptor regulation--this involves diseases characterized by hyper- or hypoinsulinaemia. Hyperinsulinaemia in the basal state usually leads to receptor 'down' regulation as seen in obesity, type II diabetes, acromegaly and islet cell tumours. Hypoinsulinaemia such as seen in anorexia nervosa or type I diabetes may lead to elevated binding. (2) Antireceptor antibodies--these immunoglobulins bind to the receptor and competitively inhibit insulin binding. They may act as agonists, antagonists or partial agonists. (3) Genetic diseases which produce fixed alterations in both freshly isolated and cultured cells. (4) Diseases of receptor specificity where insulin may bind with different affinity to its own receptor or related receptors such as receptors for insulin-like growth factors. (5) Disease of affinity modulation where physical factors such as pH, temperature, ions, etc. may modify binding. In this review, we have considered primarily abnormality in insulin receptor binding. There are numerous other functions of the receptor such as coupling and transmission of the biological signal. These mechanisms are frequently referred to as postreceptor events, but more properly should be referred to as postbinding events since the receptor subserves other functions in addition to recognition and

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production and plays an integral role in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Storozhevykh, Tatiana P; Senilova, Yana E; Persiyantseva, Nadezhda A; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Pomytkin, Igor A

    2007-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in cells during insulin stimulation plays an integral role in insulin receptor signal transduction. The role of insulin-induced H2O2 in neuronal insulin receptor activation and the origin of insulin-induced H2O2 in neurons remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to test the following hypotheses (1) whether insulin-induced H2O2 is required for insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons, and (2) whether mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated H2O2 production, thus playing an integral role in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. Results Insulin stimulation elicited rapid insulin receptor autophosphorylation accompanied by an increase in H2O2 release from cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a H2O2 scavenger, inhibited both insulin-stimulated H2O2 release and insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of insulin receptor. Inhibitors of respiratory chain-mediated H2O2 production, malonate and carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone (FCCP), inhibited both insulin-stimulated H2O2 release from neurons and insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of insulin receptor. Dicholine salt of succinic acid, a respiratory substrate, significantly enhanced the effect of suboptimal insulin concentration on the insulin receptor autophosphorylation in CGN. Conclusion Results of the present study suggest that insulin-induced H2O2 is required for the enhancement of insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated H2O2 production, thus playing an integral role in the insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. PMID:17919343

  12. Insulin resistance and muscle insulin receptor substrate‐1 serine hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E. A.; Cartwright, Brian M.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Lee, Michelle L.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects is profound in spite of muscle insulin receptor and insulin‐responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression being nearly normal. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate‐1 (IRS‐1) at Tyr896 is a necessary step in insulin stimulation of translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Serine phosphorylation of IRS‐1 by some kinases diminishes insulin action in mice. We evaluated the phosphorylation status of muscle IRS‐1 in 33 subjects with the metabolic syndrome and seventeen lean controls. Each underwent euglycemic insulin clamps and a thigh muscle biopsy before and after 8 weeks of either strength or endurance training. Muscle IRS‐1 phosphorylation at six sites was quantified by immunoblots. Metabolic syndrome muscle IRS‐1 had excess phosphorylation at Ser337 and Ser636 but not at Ser307, Ser789, or Ser1101. Ser337 is a target for phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and Ser636 is phosphorylated by c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Exercise training without weight loss did not change the IRS‐1 serine phosphorylation. These data suggest that baseline hyperphosphorylation of at least two key serines within muscle IRS‐1 diminishes the transmission of the insulin signal and thereby decreases the insulin‐stimulated translocation of GLUT4. Excess fasting phosphorylation of muscle IRS‐1 at Ser636 may be a major cause of the insulin resistance seen in obesity and might prevent improvement in insulin responsiveness when exercise training is not accompanied by weight loss. PMID:25472611

  13. Autoantibodies to Insulin Receptor Spontaneously Develop as Anti-Idiotypes in Mice Immunized with Insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Yoram; Maron, Ruth; Elias, Dana; Cohen, Irun R.

    1982-04-01

    Mice immunized with insulin developed antibodies to both insulin and the insulin receptor. The antibodies to insulin receptor displaced labeled insulin from insulin receptors and mimicked the actions of insulin in stimulating the oxidation of glucose and its incorporation into lipids, and in inhibiting lipolysis. The antibodies to insulin receptor could be blocked by or bound to the antibodies to insulin, and therefore were identified as anti-idiotypes. Thus, immunization against a hormone may activate spontaneously an idiotype-anti-idiotype network resulting in antibodies to the hormone receptor.

  14. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  15. G(q/11) is involved in insulin-stimulated inositol phosphoglycan putative mediator generation in rat liver membranes: co-localization of G(q/11) with the insulin receptor in membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sleight, S; Wilson, B A; Heimark, D B; Larner, J

    2002-07-12

    Insulin signaling to generate inositol phosphoglycans (IPGs) was demonstrated to occur via the participation of the heterotrimeric G-proteins G(q/11). IPGs were measured as two specific inositol markers, myo-inositol and chiro-inositol after strong acid hydrolysis. Insulin and Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) generated both myo-inositol and chiro-inositol IPGs in a dose-dependent manner. PMT has been shown to activate G(q) specifically. Insulin action was abrogated by pre-treatment with anti G(q/11) antibody. Western blotting demonstrated the enrichment of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in the liver membrane vesicles. Vesicles also contained clathrin, caveolin PLC beta 1 and PLC Delta. Immunogold staining revealed the co-localization of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in an approximate stochiometric ratio of 1:3. No vesicles were detected with either component alone. The present and considerable published data provide strong evidence for insulin signaling both via a tyrosine kinase cascade mechanism and via heterotrimeric G-protein interactions. PMID:12150987

  16. Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter-Mediated ATP Release Regulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Jessica C.; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Li, Qin; Feranchak, Andrew P.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular ATP plays a critical role in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. The ATP released from insulin secretory vesicles has been proposed to be a major source of extracellular ATP. Currently, the mechanism by which ATP accumulates into insulin secretory granules remains elusive. In this study, the authors identified the expression of a vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in mouse pancreas, isolated mouse islets, and MIN6 cells, a mouse β cell line. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that VNUT colocalized extensively with insulin secretory granules. Functional studies showed that suppressing endogenous VNUT expression in β cells by small hairpin RNA knockdown greatly reduced basal- and glucose-induced ATP release. Importantly, knocking down VNUT expression by VNUT small hairpin RNA in MIN6 cells and isolated mouse islets dramatically suppressed basal insulin release and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Moreover, acute pharmacologic blockade of VNUT with Evans blue, a VNUT antagonist, greatly attenuated GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous ATP treatment effectively reversed the insulin secretion defect induced by both VNUT knockdown and functional inhibition, indicating that VNUT-mediated ATP release is essential for maintaining normal insulin secretion. In contrast to VNUT knockdown, overexpression of VNUT in β cells resulted in excessive ATP release and enhanced basal insulin secretion and GSIS. Elevated insulin secretion induced by VNUT overexpression was reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of P2X but not P2Y purinergic receptors. This study reveals VNUT is expressed in pancreatic β cells and plays an essential and novel role in regulating insulin secretion through vesicular ATP release and extracellular purinergic signaling. PMID:23254199

  17. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for receptor internalization: studies in 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; Kahn, C.R.; White, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    The relation between insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and internalization of the receptor was studied in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Treatment of Fao cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol for 45 min depleted cellular ATP by 80% and equally inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation, as determined by immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated or (/sup 32/P)phosphate-labeled cells with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. In contrast, internalization of the insulin receptor and internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin by 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells were normal. These data show that autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for the receptor-mediated internalization of insulin in Fao cells and suggest that insulin receptor recycling is independent of autophosphorylation.

  18. Peroxynitrite mediates muscle insulin resistance in mice via nitration of IRbeta/IRS-1 and Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jun; Huang Kaixun

    2009-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}) is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In the current study, we investigated whether insulin resistance in vivo could be mediated by nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway. Exogenous peroxynitrite donated by 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) induced in vivo nitration of the insulin receptor beta subunit (IRbeta), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) in skeletal muscle of mice and dramatically reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Moreover, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed insulin-resistant mice, we observed enhanced nitration of IRbeta and IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, in parallel with impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Reversal of nitration of these proteins by treatment with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS yielded an improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling in HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic insights for the involvement of peroxynitrite in the development of insulin resistance and suggest that nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin signal transduction is a novel molecular mechanism of HFD-induced muscle insulin resistance.

  19. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Ajit; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields}Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. {yields}Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. {yields}Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. {yields}Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia ({approx}18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 {+-} 16.32 vs. 126.37 {+-} 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance ({approx}78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  20. Thyrotropin via cyclic AMP induces insulin receptor expression and insulin Co-stimulation of growth and amplifies insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways in dog thyroid epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, R; Coulonval, K; Pirson, I; Lamy, F; Dumont, J E; Roger, P P

    1996-11-15

    Despite the similarity of their receptors and signal transduction pathways, insulin is regarded as a regulator of glucose, protein, and lipid metabolism, whereas insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) mainly act as mitogenic hormones. In the dog thyroid primary culture model, the triggering of DNA synthesis by thyrotropin (TSH) through cAMP, or by cAMP-independent factors including epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and phorbol esters, requires insulin or IGFs as comitogenic factors. In the present study, in TSH-treated cells, IGF-I receptors and insulin receptors were paradoxically equivalent in their capacity to elicit the comitogenic pathway, which, however, was mediated only by IGF-I receptors in dog thyroid cells stimulated by cAMP-independent mitogens. Moreover, prior cell exposure to TSH or forskolin increased their responsiveness to insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II, as seen on DNA synthesis and activation of a common insulin/IGF signaling pathway. To understand these observations, binding characteristics and expression of insulin and IGF-I receptors were examined. To analyze IGF-I receptor characteristics, the unexpected interference of a huge presence of IGF-binding proteins at the cell membrane was avoided using labeled Long R3 IGF-I instead of IGF-I. Strikingly, TSH, through cAMP, time-dependently induced insulin binding and insulin receptor mRNA and protein accumulation without any effect on IGF-I receptors. These findings constitute a first example of an induction of insulin receptor gene expression by a cAMP-mediated hormone. In dog thyroid cells, this allows low physiological insulin concentrations to act as a comitogenic factor and might explain in part the enhanced responsiveness to IGFs in response to TSH. This raises the possibility that TSH-insulin interactions may play a role in the regulation of thyroid growth and function in vivo. PMID:8910605

  1. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists. PMID:25449269

  2. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  3. Inter-domain tagging implicates caveolin-1 in insulin receptor trafficking and Erk signaling bias in pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Tobias; Lim, Gareth E.; Cen, Haoning; Skovsø, Søs; Piske, Micah; Li, Shu Nan; Nabi, Ivan R.; Gilon, Patrick; Johnson, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role and mechanisms of insulin receptor internalization remain incompletely understood. Previous trafficking studies of insulin receptors involved fluorescent protein tagging at their termini, manipulations that may be expected to result in dysfunctional receptors. Our objective was to determine the trafficking route and molecular mechanisms of functional tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods We generated functional insulin receptors tagged with pH-resistant fluorescent proteins between domains. Confocal, TIRF and STED imaging revealed a trafficking pattern of inter-domain tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors detected with antibodies. Results Surprisingly, interdomain-tagged and endogenous insulin receptors in beta-cells bypassed classical Rab5a- or Rab7-mediated endocytic routes. Instead, we found that removal of insulin receptors from the plasma membrane involved tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1, prior to trafficking within flotillin-1-positive structures to lysosomes. Multiple methods of inhibiting caveolin-1 significantly reduced Erk activation in vitro or in vivo, while leaving Akt signaling mostly intact. Conclusions We conclude that phosphorylated caveolin-1 plays a role in insulin receptor internalization towards lysosomes through flotillin-1-positive structures and that caveolin-1 helps bias physiological beta-cell insulin signaling towards Erk activation. PMID:27110488

  4. Insulin and insulin like growth factor II endocytosis and signaling via insulin receptor B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) act on tetrameric tyrosine kinase receptors controlling essential functions including growth, metabolism, reproduction and longevity. The insulin receptor (IR) binds insulin and IGFs with different affinities triggering different cell responses. Results We showed that IGF-II induces cell proliferation and gene transcription when IR-B is over-expressed. We combined biotinylated ligands with streptavidin conjugated quantum dots and visible fluorescent proteins to visualize the binding of IGF-II and insulin to IR-B and their ensuing internalization. By confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in living cells, we studied the internalization kinetic through the IR-B of both IGF-II, known to elicit proliferative responses, and insulin, a regulator of metabolism. Conclusions IGF-II promotes a faster internalization of IR-B than insulin. We propose that IGF-II differentially activates mitogenic responses through endosomes, while insulin-activated IR-B remains at the plasma membrane. This fact could facilitate the interaction with key effector molecules involved in metabolism regulation. PMID:23497114

  5. SRC Homology 2 Domain Binding Sites in Insulin, IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Specific peptide ligand recognition by modular interaction domains is essential for the fidelity of information flow through the signal transduction networks that control cell behavior in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize distinct phosphotyrosine peptide motifs, but the specific sites that are phosphorylated and the complement of available SH2 domains varies considerably in individual cell types. Such differences are the basis for a wide range of available protein interaction microstates from which signaling can evolve in highly divergent ways. This underlying complexity suggests the need to broadly map the signaling potential of systems as a prerequisite for understanding signaling in specific cell types as well as various pathologies that involve signal transduction such as cancer, developmental defects and metabolic disorders. This report describes interactions between SH2 domains and potential binding partners that comprise initial signaling downstream of activated fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin (Ins), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. A panel of 50 SH2 domains screened against a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides defines an extensive potential interactome while demonstrating the selectivity of individual SH2 domains. The interactions described confirm virtually all previously reported associations while describing a large set of potential novel interactions that imply additional complexity in the signaling networks initiated from activated receptors. This study of pTyr ligand binding by SH2 domains provides valuable insight into the selectivity that underpins complex signaling networks that are assembled using modular protein interaction domains. PMID:22974441

  6. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  7. The insulin receptor C-terminus is involved in regulation of the receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P; Baron, V; Alengrin, F; Takata, Y; Webster, N J; Olefsky, J M; Van Obberghen, E

    1993-09-21

    During the insulin receptor activation process, ligand binding and autophosphorylation induce two distinct conformational changes in the C-terminal domain of the receptor beta-subunit. To analyze the role of this domain and the involvement of the C-terminal autophosphorylation sites (Tyr1316 and Tyr1322) in receptor activation, we used (i) antipeptide antibodies against three different C-terminal sequences (1270-1281, 1294-1317, and 1309-1326) and (ii) an insulin receptor mutant (Y/F2) where Tyr1316 and Tyr1322 have been replaced by Phe. We show that the autophosphorylation-induced C-terminal conformational change is preserved in the Y/F2 receptor, indicating that this change is not induced by phosphorylation of the C-terminal sites but most likely by phosphorylation of the major sites in the kinase domain (Tyr1146, Tyr1150, and Tyr1151). Binding of antipeptide antibodies to the C-terminal domain modulated (activated or inhibited) both mutant and wild-type receptor-mediated phosphorylation of poly(Glu/Tyr). In contrast to the wild-type receptor, Y/F2 exhibited the same C-terminal configuration before and after insulin binding, evidencing that mutation of Tyr1316 and Tyr1322 introduced conformational changes in the C-terminus. Finally, the mutant receptor was 2-fold more active than the wild-type receptor for poly(Glu/Tyr) phosphorylation. In conclusion, the whole C-terminal region of the insulin receptor beta-subunit is likely to exert a regulatory influence on the receptor kinase activity. Perturbations of the C-terminal region, such as binding of antipeptides or mutation of Tyr1316 and Tyr1322, provoke alterations at the receptor kinase level, leading to activation or inhibition of the enzymic activity. PMID:7690586

  8. Agonism and Antagonism at the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Schäffer, Lauge; Blagoev, Blagoy; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Kiselyov, Vladislav V.; De Meyts, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B’29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1–10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints (3H-thymidine incorporation), and not on metabolic endpoints (14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells). The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity (3H-thymidine incorporation) and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B’29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed. PMID:23300584

  9. Surface-expressed insulin receptors as well as IGF-I receptors both contribute to the mitogenic effects of human insulin and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Anders; Bolvig, Pernille; Hegelund, Anne Charlotte; Hansen, Bo F; Worm, Jesper; Lützen, Anne; Billestrup, Nils; Bonnesen, Christine; Oleksiewicz, Martin B

    2015-07-01

    There is a medical need for new insulin analogues. Yet, molecular alterations to the insulin molecule can theoretically result in analogues with carcinogenic effects. Preclinical carcinogenicity risk assessment for insulin analogues rests to a large extent on mitogenicity assays in cell lines. We therefore optimized mitogenicity assay conditions for a panel of five cell lines. All cell lines expressed insulin receptors (IR), IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) and hybrid receptors, and in all cell lines, insulin as well as the comparator compounds X10 and IGF-I caused phosphorylation of the IR as well as IGF-IR. Insulin exhibited mitogenicity EC(50) values in the single-digit nanomolar to picomolar range. We observed correlations across cell types between (i) mitogenic potency of insulin and IGF-IR/IR ratio, (ii) Akt phosphorylation and mitogenic potency and (iii) Akt phosphorylation and IR phosphorylation. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown of IR and IGF-IR, we observed that in HCT 116 cells the IR appeared dominant in driving the mitogenic response to insulin, whereas in MCF7 cells the IGF-IR appeared dominant in driving the mitogenic response to insulin. Together, our results show that the IR as well as IGF-IR may contribute to the mitogenic potency of insulin. While insulin was a more potent mitogen than IGF-I in cells expressing more IR than IGF-IR, the hyper-mitogenic insulin analogue X10 was a more potent mitogen than insulin across all cell types, supporting that the hyper-mitogenic effect of X10 involves the IR as well as the IGF-IR. These results are relevant for preclinical safety assessment of developmental insulin analogues. PMID:25413577

  10. Sustained βAR Stimulation Mediates Cardiac Insulin Resistance in a PKA-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Phosri, Sarawuth; Pinthong, Darawan; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Shimauchi, Tsukasa; Nishida, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells are defective in response to the actions of insulin in tissue glucose uptake. Overstimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, the mechanisms by which sustained βAR stimulation affects insulin resistance in the heart are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained βAR stimulation resulted in the inhibition of insulin-induced glucose uptake, and a reduction of insulin induced glucose transporter (GLUT)4 expression that were mediated by the β2AR subtype in cardiomyocytes and heart tissue. Overstimulation of β2AR inhibited the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes. Additionally, βAR mediated cardiac insulin resistance by reducing glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression via the cAMP-dependent and protein kinase A-dependent pathways. Treatment with β-blockers, including propranolol and metoprolol antagonized isoproterenol-mediated insulin resistance in the heart. The data in this present study confirm a critical role for protein kinase A in βAR-mediated insulin resistance. PMID:26652903

  11. Adiponectin Inhibits Insulin Function in Primary Trophoblasts by PPARα-Mediated Ceramide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPARα. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPARα, because activation of PPARα with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPARα-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPARα and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability. PMID:24606127

  12. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling is Necessary for Epidermal Growth Factor Mediated Proliferation of SVZ Neural Precursors in vitro Following Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Min, Jungsoo; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the importance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor co-signaling for rat neural precursor (NP) cell proliferation and self-renewal in the context of a developmental brain injury that is associated with cerebral palsy. Consistent with previous studies, we found that there is an increase in the in vitro growth of subventricular zone NPs isolated acutely after cerebral hypoxia–ischemia; however, when cultured in medium that is insufficient to stimulate the IGF type 1 receptor, neurosphere formation and the proliferative capacity of those NPs was severely curtailed. This reduced growth capacity could not be attributed simply to failure to survive. The growth and self-renewal of the NPs could be restored by addition of both IGF-I and IGF-II. Since the size of the neurosphere is predominantly due to cell proliferation we hypothesized that the IGFs were regulating progression through the cell cycle. Analyses of cell cycle progression revealed that IGF-1R activation together with EGFR co-signaling decreased the percentage of cells in G1 and enhanced cell progression into S and G2. This was accompanied by increases in expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated histone 3, and phosphorylated Rb. Based on these data, we conclude that coordinate signaling between the EGF receptor and the IGF type 1 receptor is necessary for the normal proliferation of NPs as well as for their reactive expansion after injury. These data indicate that manipulations that maintain or amplify IGF signaling in the brain during recovery from developmental brain injuries will enhance the production of new brain cells to improve neurological function in children who are at risk for developing cerebral palsy. PMID:24904523

  14. Acute physical exercise reverses S-nitrosation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B/Akt in diet-induced obese Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, José R; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Cintra, Dennys E; Carvalho-Filho, Marco A; Moraes, Juliana C; De Souza, Cláudio T; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Saad, Mario J A

    2008-01-01

    Early evidence demonstrates that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and the NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can induce insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether this insulin resistance, mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway, could be reversed by acute physical exercise. Rats on a high-fat diet were subjected to swimming for two 3 h-long bouts, separated by a 45 min rest period. Two or 16 h after the exercise protocol the rats were killed and proteins from the insulin signalling pathway were analysed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet led to an increase in the iNOS protein level and S-nitrosation of insulin receptor β (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt. Interestingly, an acute bout of exercise reduced iNOS expression and S-nitrosation of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin action, and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity rats. Furthermore, administration of GSNO (NO donor) prevents this improvement in insulin action and the use of an inhibitor of iNOS (l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine; l-NIL) simulates the effects of exercise on insulin action, insulin signalling and S-nitrosation of IRβ, IRS1 and Akt. In summary, a single bout of exercise reverses insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese rats by improving the insulin signalling pathway, in parallel with a decrease in iNOS expression and in the S-nitrosation of IR/IRS1/Akt. The decrease in iNOS protein expression in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats after an acute bout of exercise was accompanied by an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise restores insulin sensitivity. PMID:17974582

  15. Knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors on vascular endothelial cells protects against retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tatsuya; Vicent, David; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; King, George L.; Holzenberger, Martin; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Both insulin and IGF-1 have been implicated in control of retinal endothelial cell growth, neovascularization, and diabetic retinopathy. To precisely define the role of insulin and IGF-1 signaling in endothelium in these processes, we have used the oxygen-induced retinopathy model to study mice with a vascular endothelial cell–specific knockout of the insulin receptor (VENIRKO) or IGF-1 receptor (VENIFARKO). Following relative hypoxia, VENIRKO mice show a 57% decrease in retinal neovascularization as compared with controls. This is associated with a blunted rise in VEGF, eNOS, and endothelin-1. By contrast, VENIFARKO mice show only a 34% reduction in neovascularization and a very modest reduction in mediator generation. These data indicate that both insulin and IGF-1 signaling in endothelium play a role in retinal neovascularization through the expression of vascular mediators, with the effect of insulin being most important in this process. PMID:12813019

  16. Insertion of isolated insulin receptors into placental membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, K; Carlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Purified human insulin receptors were inserted into placental plasma-membrane vesicles by fusion of membranes with receptor-lysophosphatidylcholine micelles. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding showed that about 10-15% of the added receptors became inserted into the membrane. The receptor number could be increased about 3-fold, corresponding to approx. 5 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors became firmly bound to the membrane, as they could not be removed by extensive wash. The insertion of exogenous receptors could be demonstrated by immunoblotting. The inserted insulin receptor had the same insulin-binding affinity as the isolated receptor and the endogenous receptor of the membrane. Insulin binding in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 revealed that more than 80% of the exogenous receptors had a right-side-out orientation. Function of the inserted receptors, as observed by insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, could be demonstrated. About 80% of the added lysophospholipid, corresponding to approx. 160 nmol of lysophospholipid/mg of membrane protein, became integrated into the membrane and was partly metabolized to phospholipid and to non-esterified fatty acid. The method of insertion of isolated insulin receptors using the natural detergent, lysophospholipid, may be a method for insertion of receptors into intact cells, where the lysophospholipid, as in the plasma-membrane vesicles, will be acylated to phospholipid. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1736892

  17. Molecular Basis of Signaling Specificity of Insulin and IGF Receptors: Neglected Corners and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors utilize common phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways to mediate a broad spectrum of “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Specificity of insulin and IGF action in vivo must in part reflect expression of receptors and responsive pathways in different tissues but it is widely assumed that it is also determined by the ligand binding and signaling mechanisms of the receptors. This review focuses on receptor-proximal events in insulin/IGF signaling and examines their contribution to specificity of downstream responses. Insulin and IGF receptors may differ subtly in the efficiency with which they recruit their major substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2 and Shc) and this could influence effectiveness of signaling to “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Other substrates (Grb2-associated binder, downstream of kinases, SH2Bs, Crk), scaffolds (RACK1, β-arrestins, cytohesins), and pathways (non-receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide kinases, reactive oxygen species) have been less widely studied. Some of these components appear to be specifically involved in “metabolic” or “mitogenic” signaling but it has not been shown that this reflects receptor-preferential interaction. Very few receptor-specific interactions have been characterized, and their roles in signaling are unclear. Signaling specificity might also be imparted by differences in intracellular trafficking or feedback regulation of receptors, but few studies have directly addressed this possibility. Although published data are not wholly conclusive, no evidence has yet emerged for signaling mechanisms that are specifically engaged by insulin receptors but not IGF receptors or vice versa, and there is only limited evidence for differential activation of signaling mechanisms that are common to both receptors. Cellular context, rather than intrinsic receptor activity, therefore appears

  18. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular alkali sensor

    PubMed Central

    Deyev, Igor E.; Sohet, Fabien; Vassilenko, Konstantin P.; Serova, Oxana V.; Popova, Nadezhda V.; Zozulya, Sergey A.; Burova, Elena B.; Houillier, Pascal; Rzhevsky, Dmitry I.; Berchatova, Anastasiya A.; Murashev, Arkady N.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Efremov, Roman G.; Nikol’sky, Nikolai N.; Bertelli, Eugenio; Eladari, Dominique; Petrenko, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, can be activated by alkaline media both in vitro and in vivo at pH>7.9. The alkali-sensing property of IRR is conserved in frog, mouse and human. IRR activation is specific, dose-dependent, quickly reversible and demonstrates positive cooperativity. It also triggers receptor conformational changes and elicits intracellular signaling. The pH sensitivity of IRR is primarily defined by its L1F extracellular domains. IRR is predominantly expressed in organs that come in contact with mildly alkaline media. In particular, IRR is expressed in the cell subsets of the kidney that secrete bicarbonate into urine. Disruption of IRR in mice impairs the renal response to alkali loading attested by development of metabolic alkalosis and decreased urinary bicarbonate excretion in response to this challenge. We therefore postulate that IRR is an alkali sensor that functions in the kidney to manage metabolic bicarbonate excess. PMID:21641549

  19. Elevated insulin receptor content in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Papa, V; Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A; Giuffrida, D; Frittitta, L; Vannelli, G B; Brand, R; Goldfine, I D; Vigneri, R

    1990-01-01

    The growth of breast cancer cells is under the regulation of hormones, growth factors, and their receptors. In the present study, we have employed a new, sensitive, and specific radioimmunoassay for the direct measurement of insulin receptors in surgical specimens of breast cancers. In 159 specimens the insulin receptor content was 6.15 +/- 3.69 ng/0.1 mg protein. This value was more than sixfold higher than the mean value found in both 27 normal breast tissues obtained at total mastectomy (0.95 + 0.68, P less than 0.001) and in six normal specimens obtained from reduction mammoplasty (0.84 +/- 0.78, P less than 0.001). The insulin receptor content in breast cancer tissues was also higher than in any normal tissue investigated including liver (Pezzino, V., V. Papa, V. Trischitta, A. Brunetti, P.A. Goodman, M.K. Treutelaar, J.A. Williams, B.A. Maddux, R. Vigneri, and I.D. Goldfine, 1989. Am. J. Physiol. 257:E451-457). The insulin receptor in breast cancer retained its ability to both bind insulin and undergo insulin-induced tyrosine kinase activation. Immunostaining of the specimens revealed that the insulin receptor was present in malignant epithelial cells, but was not detected in stromal and inflammatory cells. Univariant analysis revealed that the insulin receptor content of the tumors correlated positively with tumor size (P = 0.014), histological grading (P = 0.030), and the estrogen receptor content (P = 0.035). There were no significant correlations between insulin receptor content and the age, body weight, menopausal status, and nodal involvement of the patients. These studies indicate, therefore, that the insulin receptor content is increased in breast cancers and raise the possibility that the insulin receptor may have a role in the biology of these tumors. Images PMID:2243127

  20. Estradiol Binds to Insulin and Insulin Receptor Decreasing Insulin Binding in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Podufaly, Abigail; Dillon, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Insulin (INS) resistance associated with hyperestrogenemias occurs in gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, estrogen therapies, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanism by which INS and estrogen interact is unknown. We hypothesize that estrogen binds directly to INS and the insulin receptor (IR) producing INS resistance. Objectives: To determine the binding constants of steroid hormones to INS, the IR, and INS-like peptides derived from the IR; and to investigate the effect of estrogens on the binding of INS to its receptor. Methods: Ultraviolet spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and NMR demonstrated estrogen binding to INS and its receptor. Horse-radish peroxidase-linked INS was used in an ELISA-like procedure to measure the effect of estradiol on binding of INS to its receptor. Measurements: Binding constants for estrogens to INS and the IR were determined by concentration-dependent spectral shifts. The effect of estradiol on INS binding to its receptor was determined by shifts in the INS binding curve. Main Results: Estradiol bound to INS with a Kd of 12 × 10−9 M and to the IR with a Kd of 24 × 10−9 M, while other hormones had significantly less affinity. Twenty-two nanomolars of estradiol shifted the binding curve of INS to its receptor 0.8 log units to the right. Conclusion: Estradiol concentrations in hyperestrogenemic syndromes may interfere with INS binding to its receptor producing significant INS resistance. PMID:25101056

  1. Two truncated forms of rat insulin receptor-related receptor.

    PubMed

    Itoh, N; Jobo, K; Tsujimoto, K; Ohta, M; Kawasaki, T

    1993-08-25

    The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) (1271 amino acids) is expected to have unique functions as a novel member of the insulin receptor family. In this paper, we report two alternatively spliced variants of rat IRR mRNA, which are predicted to encode two truncated forms of IRR, sIRR-1 (410 amino acids) and sIRR-2 (469 amino acids). The amino acid sequence of sIRR-1 is identical to the N-terminal 410-amino acid sequence of IRR. sIRR-2 has an additional 59-amino acid insertion in the C-terminal region. Both truncated forms retain the N-terminal and cysteine-rich domains but lack the transmembrane and intracellular tyrosine kinase domains, indicating that the truncated forms are the secreted forms. The translation products of the truncated form mRNAs were detected in the stomach and kidney by Western analysis. However, the physiological significance of the secreted forms remains to be elucidated. PMID:7688734

  2. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  3. Interleukin-1β mediates macrophage-induced impairment of insulin signaling in human primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Madi, Mohamed; Ding, Cherlyn; Fok, Matthew; Steele, Thomas; Ford, Christopher; Hunter, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during obesity is associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Macrophage-derived factors significantly alter adipocyte function, inducing inflammatory responses and decreasing insulin sensitivity. Identification of the major factors that mediate detrimental effects of macrophages on adipocytes may offer potential therapeutic targets. IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be involved in the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of IL-1β in macrophage-adipocyte cross-talk, which affects insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Using macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium and human primary adipocytes, we examined the effect of IL-1β antagonism on the insulin signaling pathway. Gene expression profile and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules were determined, as was the production of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines. We also examined whether IL-1β mediates MC medium-induced alteration in adipocyte lipid storage. MC medium and IL-1β significantly reduced gene expression and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α, and glucose transporter 4 and phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, the expression and release of the proinflammatory markers, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by adipocytes were markedly increased. These changes were significantly reduced by blocking IL-1β activity, its receptor binding, or its production by macrophages. MC medium-inhibited expression of the adipogenic factors and -stimulated lipolysis was also blunted with IL-1β neutralization. We conclude that IL-1β mediates, at least in part, the effect of macrophages on insulin signaling and proinflammatory response in human adipocytes. Blocking IL-1β could be beneficial for preventing obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:24918199

  4. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

  5. Oxidative enhancement of insulin receptor signaling: experimental findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dröge, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    Signaling through the insulin receptor and several other receptor tyrosine kinases is subject to redox regulation. Prolonged exposure to hydrogen peroxide impairs the action of insulin, and may account to some extent for the decreased insulin responsiveness in hyperglycemic diabetic patients. However, insulin receptor kinase (IRK) autophosphorylation and/or kinase activity were found to be markedly enhanced by a more limited exposure to hydrogen peroxide or by an oxidative shift in the thiol/disulfide redox status. Oxidative enhancement of IRK function may be mediated by two different mechanisms with similar effects, i.e., by direct oxidative activation of IRK activity or by oxidative inactivation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which otherwise down-regulates IRK-mediated signaling. As both mechanisms enhance IRK activity in the absence of insulin, there is a strong possibility that the background IRK activity in the postabsorptive period may be abnormally increased in certain oxidative conditions and thereby disturb the metabolism of glucose and other energy substrates. This remains to be tested. In line with the oxidative enhancement of IRK activity, clinical studies have shown that treatment with a thiol-containing antioxidant increases the postabsorptive glucose and/or insulin concentrations (i.e., the HOMA-R index) at least under certain conditions. This effect may have therapeutic implications. PMID:15998262

  6. Insulin Directly Regulates Steroidogenesis via Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1 in Testicular Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong Deuk; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Harris, Robert A.; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone level is low in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Whether this is due to negative effects of high level of insulin on the testes caused by insulin resistance has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that insulin directly binds to insulin receptors in Leydig cell membranes and activates phospho-insulin receptor-β (phospho-IR-β), phospho-IRS1, and phospho-AKT, leading to up-regulation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) gene expression in the MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line. Insulin also inhibits cAMP-induced and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1)-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of DAX-1 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis. Whether insulin directly represses steroidogenesis through regulation of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression was assessed in insulin-injected mouse models and high fat diet-induced obesity. In insulin-injected mouse models, insulin receptor signal pathway was activated and subsequently inhibited steroidogenesis via induction of DAX-1 without significant change of luteinizing hormone or FSH levels. Likewise, the levels of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis were low, but interestingly, the level of DAX-1 was high in the testes of high fat diet-fed mice. These results represent a novel regulatory mechanism of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. Insulin-mediated induction of DAX-1 in Leydig cells of testis may be a key regulatory step of serum sex hormone level in insulin-resistant states. PMID:23589295

  7. The role of thermosensitive TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is the only efficient means to decrease blood glucose concentrations. Glucose is the principal stimulator of insulin secretion with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel-voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway being the primary one involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Recently, several reports demonstrated that some transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in pancreatic β-cells and contribute to pancreatic β-cell functions. Interestingly, six of them (TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4) are thermosensitive TRP channels. Thermosensitive TRP channels in pancreatic β-cells can function as multimodal receptors and cause Ca2+ influx and membrane depolarization at physiological body temperature. TRPM channels (TRPM2, TRPM4 and TRPM5) control insulin secretion levels by sensing intracellular Ca2+ increase, NAD metabolites, or hormone receptor activation. TRPV2 is involved not only in insulin secretion but also cell proliferation, and is regulated by the autocrine effects of insulin. TRPV1 expressed in sensory neurons is involved in β-cell stress and islet inflammation by controlling neuropeptide release levels. It is thus clear that thermosensitive TRP channels play important roles in pancreatic β-cell functions, and future analyses of TRP channel function will lead to better understanding of the complicated mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:21785227

  8. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Normal and Insulin-Resistant States

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jérémie; Kleinridders, André; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the worldwide increase in type-2 diabetes, a major focus of research is understanding the signaling pathways impacting this disease. Insulin signaling regulates glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, predominantly via action on liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Precise modulation of this pathway is vital for adaption as the individual moves from the fed to the fasted state. The positive and negative modulators acting on different steps of the signaling pathway, as well as the diversity of protein isoform interaction, ensure a proper and coordinated biological response to insulin in different tissues. Whereas genetic mutations are causes of rare and severe insulin resistance, obesity can lead to insulin resistance through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding these pathways is essential for development of new drugs to treat diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their complications. PMID:24384568

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the KRLB Region in Insulin Receptor Substrate-2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,J.; Tseng, Y.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; White, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and -2) are crucial adaptor proteins in mediating the metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1. These proteins consist of a pleckstrin homology domain, a phosphotyrosine binding domain and a C-terminal region containing numerous sites of tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies identified a region unique to IRS2, termed the kinase regulatory-loop binding (KRLB) region, which interacts with the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. Here we present the crystal structure of the insulin receptor kinase in complex with a 15-residue peptide from the KRLB region. In the structure, this segment of IRS2 is bound in the kinase active site with Tyr628 positioned for phosphorylation. Although Tyr628 was phosphorylated by the insulin receptor, its catalytic turnover was poor, resulting in kinase inhibition. Our studies indicate that the KRLB region functions to limit tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2.

  10. Development of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor and Insulin Receptor Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Clare A; Rowzee, Anne M; Choe, Gina H; Saleh, Farrah L; Radford, Caitlin C; Taylor, Hugh S; Wood, Teresa L

    2016-04-01

    The biological activity of insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, is based in part on the relative abundance and distribution of their target receptors: the insulin receptor (IR) splice variants A (IR-A) and B (IR-B) and IGF 1 receptor (IGF-1R). However, the relative quantity of all three receptors in human tissues has never been measured together on the same scale. Due to the high homology between insulin receptor (IR)-A and IR-B proteins and lack of antibodies that discern the two IR splice variants, their mRNA sequence is the most reliable means of distinguishing between the receptors. Hence, highly specific primers for IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-1R mRNA were designed to accurately detect all three receptors by quantitative RT-PCR and enable direct quantification of relative receptor expression levels. A standard concentration curve of cDNA from each receptor was performed. Assay specificity was tested using competition assays and postamplification analysis by gel electrophoresis and cloning. Forward and reverse primer concentrations were optimized to ensure equal efficiencies across primer pairs. This assay enables a specific molecular signature of IGF/insulin signaling receptors to be assayed in different tissues, cell types, or cancers. PMID:26862994

  11. Characterization of an interaction between insulin receptor substrate 1 and the insulin receptor by using the two-hybrid system.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, T J; Craparo, A; Gustafson, T A

    1994-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a major substrate of the insulin receptor and has been implicated in insulin signaling. Although IRS-1 is thought to interact with the insulin receptor, the nature of the interaction has not been defined. In this study, we used the two-hybrid assay of protein-protein interaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the interaction between human IRS-1 and the insulin receptor. We demonstrate that IRS-1 forms a specific complex with the cytoplasmic domain of the insulin receptor when both are expressed as hybrid proteins in yeast cells. We show that the interaction is strictly dependent upon receptor tyrosine kinase activity, since IRS-1 shows no interaction with a kinase-inactive receptor hybrid containing a mutated ATP-binding site. Furthermore, mutation of receptor tyrosine 960 to phenylalanine eliminates IRS-1 interaction in the two-hybrid assay. These data suggest that the interaction between IRS-1 and the receptor is direct and provide evidence that the juxtamembrane domain of the receptor is involved. Furthermore, we show that a 356-amino-acid region encompassed by amino acids 160 through 516 of IRS-1 is sufficient for interaction with the receptor in the two-hybrid assay. Lastly, in agreement with our findings for yeast cells, we show that the insulin receptor is unable to phosphorylate an IRS-1 protein containing a deletion of amino acids 45 to 516 when expressed in COS cells. The two-hybrid assay should provide a facile means by which to pursue a detailed understanding of this interaction. Images PMID:7935368

  12. Insulin receptor alternative splicing is regulated by insulin signaling and modulates beta cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Pushkar; Chartarifsky, Lital; Hija, Ayat; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Karni, Rotem

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) affects more than 300 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of T2DM is peripheral insulin resistance, in part due to unproductive insulin signaling through the insulin receptor. The insulin receptor (INSR) exists as two isoforms, INSR-A and INSR-B, which results from skipping or inclusion of exon 11 respectively. What determines the relative abundance of the different insulin receptor splice variants is unknown. Moreover, it is not yet clear what the physiological roles of each of the isoforms are in normal and diseased beta cells. In this study, we show that insulin induces INSR exon 11 inclusion in pancreatic beta cells in both human and mouse. This occurs through activation of the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and up-regulation of the splicing factor SRSF1. Induction of exon 11 skipping by a splice-site competitive antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, sensitizing the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 to stress-induced apoptosis and lipotoxicity. These results assign to insulin a regulatory role in INSR alternative splicing through the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. We suggest that in beta cells, INSR-B has a protective role, while INSR-A expression sensitizes beta cells to programmed cell death. PMID:27526875

  13. Insulin-degrading enzyme as a downstream target of insulin receptor signaling cascade: implications for Alzheimer's disease intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lixia; Teter, Bruce; Morihara, Takashi; Lim, Giselle P; Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Ubeda, Oliver J; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2004-12-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is one of the proteins that has been demonstrated to play a key role in degrading beta-amyloid (Abeta) monomer in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility of upregulating IDE as an approach to reduce Abeta. Little is known, however, about the cellular and molecular regulation of IDE protein. Because one of the main functions of IDE is to degrade insulin, we hypothesized that there is a negative feedback mechanism whereby stimulation of insulin receptor-mediated signaling upregulates IDE to prevent chronic activation of the pathway. We show that treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with insulin increased IDE protein levels by approximately 25%. Insulin treatment also led to phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation evidenced by Akt phosphorylation, which was blocked by PI3 kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY 294002. Inhibition of PI3 kinase abolished the IDE upregulation by insulin, indicating a cause-effect relationship between insulin signaling and IDE upregulation. Further support for this link was provided by the findings that deficient insulin signaling (decreased PI3 kinase subunit P85) was correlated with reduced IDE in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and in Tg2576 Swedish amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice fed a safflower oil-enriched ("Bad") diet used to accelerate pathogenesis. Consistent with IDE function in the degradation of Abeta monomer, the IDE decrease in the Bad diet-fed Tg2576 mice was associated with increased Abeta monomer levels. These in vitro and in vivo analyses validate the use of enhanced CNS insulin signaling as a potential strategy for AD intervention to correct the IDE defects occurring in AD. PMID:15590928

  14. Opposite effects of genistein on the regulation of insulin-mediated glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Gao, X J; Zhao, W W; Zhao, W J; Jiang, C H; Huang, F; Kou, J P; Liu, B L; Liu, K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Genistein is an isoflavone phytoestrogen found in a number of plants such as soybeans and there is accumulating evidence that it has beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein on glucose homeostasis and its underlying mechanisms in normal and insulin-resistant conditions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To induce insulin resistance, mice or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with macrophage-derived conditioned medium. A glucose tolerance test was used to investigate the effect of genistein. Insulin signalling activation, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) activation were detected by Western blot analysis or elisa. KEY RESULTS Genistein impaired glucose tolerance and attenuated insulin sensitivity in normal mice by inhibiting the insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) at tyrosine residues, leading to inhibition of insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Mac-CM, an inflammatory stimulus induced glucose intolerance accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity; genistein reversed these changes by restoring the disturbed IRS1 function, leading to an improvement in GLUT4 translocation. In addition, genistein increased AMPK activity under both normal and inflammatory conditions; this was shown to contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of genistein, which leads to an improvement in insulin signalling and the amelioration of insulin resistance. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Genistein showed opposite effects on insulin sensitivity under normal and inflammatory conditions in adipose tissue and this action was derived from its negative or positive regulation of IRS1 function. Its up-regulation of AMPK activity contributes to the inhibition of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance. PMID:23763311

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist Treatment of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Pang, Maoyin; Chaudhry, Rajeeve; Duan, Kevin; Longato, Lisa; Carter, Jade; Ouh, Jiyun; Wands, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure impairs insulin signaling in the liver. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonists function as insulin sensitizers and are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the therapeutic effectiveness of PPAR agonists in reducing alcoholic hepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance in a model of chronic ethanol feeding. Adult male Long Evans rats were pair fed with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% (control) or 37% ethanol (caloric content; 9.2% v/v) for 8 weeks. After 3 weeks on the diets, the rats were treated with vehicle, or a PPAR-α, PPAR-δ, or PPAR-γ agonist twice weekly by i.p. injection. Livers were harvested for histopathological, gene expression (RT-PCR), protein (Western and ELISA), and receptor binding studies. Ethanol-fed rats developed steatohepatitis with disordered hepatic chord architecture, increased hepatocellular apoptosis, reduced binding to the insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors, and decreased expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aspartyl-(asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase (mediates remodeling), which are regulated by insulin/IGF signaling. PPAR-α, PPAR-δ, or PPAR-γ agonist treatments reduced the severity of ethanol-mediated liver injury, including hepatic architectural disarray and steatosis. In addition, PPAR-δ and PPAR-γ agonists reduced insulin/IGF resistance and increased insulin/IGF-responsive gene expression. In conclusion, PPAR agonists may help reduce the severity of chronic ethanol-induced liver injury and insulin/IGF resistance, even in the context of continued high-level ethanol consumption. PMID:21426453

  16. Receptor-mediated mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Osamu; Murakawa, Tomokazu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that supply ATP through oxidative phosphorylation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Extrinsic or intrinsic agents can impair mitochondria, and these impaired mitochondria can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts, inducing cellular damage and cell death. The quality control of mitochondria is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular functions, particularly in cardiomyocytes, because they are terminally differentiated. Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is characteristic of various diseases, including heart failure, neurodegenerative disease, and aging-related diseases. Mitochondria are generally degraded through autophagy, an intracellular degradation system that is conserved from yeast to mammals. Autophagy is thought to be a nonselective degradation process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are engulfed by isolation membrane to form autophagosomes in eukaryotic cells. However, recent studies have described the process of selective autophagy, which targets specific proteins or organelles such as mitochondria. Mitochondria-specific autophagy is called mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy is implicated in the development of chronic diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases, and heart failure. In this review, we discuss recent progress in research on mitophagy receptors. PMID:27021519

  17. Regulation of gonadotropin receptors, gonadotropin responsiveness, and cell multiplication by somatomedin-C and insulin in cultured pig Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, M.; Chatelain, P.; Mather, J.P.; Saez, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    The author have investigated the effects of insulin and somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor I(Sm-C) in purified porcine Leydig cells in vitro on gonadotrophins (hCG) receptor number, hCG responsiveness (cAMP and testosterone production), and thymidine incorporation into DNA. Leydig cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, vitamin E, and insulin (5 ..mu..g/ml) maintained fairly constant both hCG receptors and hCG responsiveness. When they were cultured for 3 days in the same medium without insulin, there was a dramatic decline (more than 80%) in both hCG receptor number and hCG responsiveness. However the cAMP but not the testosterone response to forskolin was normal. Both insulin and Sm-C at nanomolar concentrations prevent the decline of both hCG receptors and hCG-induced cAMP production. At nanomolar concentrations, Sm-C and insulin enhanced hCG-induced testosterone production but the effect of Sm-C was significantly higher than that of insulin. However, the effect of insulin at higher concentrations (5 ..mu..g/ml) was significantly higher than that of Sm-C at 50 ng/ml. In contrast, at nanomolar concentrations only Sm-C stimulated (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell multiplication, the stimulatory effect of insulin on these parameters, was seen only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that both Sm-C and insulin acting through the receptors increase Leydig cell steroidogenic responsiveness to hCG by increasing hCG receptor number and improving some step beyond cAMP formation. In contrast, the mitogenic effects of insulin are mediated only through Sm-C receptors.

  18. Disruption of insulin receptor function inhibits proliferation in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jie Ying; LaPara, Kelly; Yee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a well-studied growth regulatory pathway implicated in breast cancer biology. Clinical trials testing monoclonal antibodies directed against the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) in combination with estrogen receptor-α (ER) targeting have been completed, but failed to show benefits in patients with endocrine resistant tumors compared to ER targeting alone. We have previously shown that the closely related insulin receptor (InsR) is expressed in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells. Here we examined if inhibition of InsR affected tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) breast cancer cells. InsR function was inhibited by three different mechanisms: InsR shRNA, a small InsR blocking peptide, S961 and an InsR monoclonal antibody (mAb). Suppression of InsR function by these methods in TamR cells successfully blocked insulin-mediated signaling, monolayer proliferation, cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent growth. This strategy was not effective in parental cells likely due to the presence of IGFR/InsR hybrid receptors. Down-regulation of IGF1R in conjunction with InsR inhibition was more effective in blocking IGF- and insulin-mediated signaling and growth in parental cells compared to single receptor targeting alone. Our findings show TamR cells were stimulated by InsR and were not sensitive to IGF1R inhibition, whereas in tamoxifen-sensitive parental cancer cells, the presence of both receptors, especially hybrid receptors, allowed cross-reactivity of ligand-mediated activation and growth. To suppress the IGF system, targeting of both IGF1R and InsR is optimal in endocrine sensitive and resistant breast cancer. PMID:26876199

  19. Disruption of insulin receptor function inhibits proliferation in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; LaPara, K; Yee, D

    2016-08-11

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a well-studied growth regulatory pathway implicated in breast cancer biology. Clinical trials testing monoclonal antibodies directed against the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) in combination with estrogen receptor-α (ER) targeting have been completed, but failed to show benefits in patients with endocrine-resistant tumors compared to ER targeting alone. We have previously shown that the closely related insulin receptor (InsR) is expressed in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) breast cancer cells. Here we examined if inhibition of InsR affected TamR breast cancer cells. InsR function was inhibited by three different mechanisms: InsR short hairpin RNA, a small InsR-blocking peptide, S961 and an InsR monoclonal antibody (mAb). Suppression of InsR function by these methods in TamR cells successfully blocked insulin-mediated signaling, monolayer proliferation, cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent growth. This strategy was not effective in parental cells likely because of the presence of IGFR /InsR hybrid receptors. Downregulation of IGF1R in conjunction with InsR inhibition was more effective in blocking IGF- and insulin-mediated signaling and growth in parental cells compared with single-receptor targeting alone. Our findings show TamR cells were stimulated by InsR and were not sensitive to IGF1R inhibition, whereas in tamoxifen-sensitive parental cancer cells, the presence of both receptors, especially hybrid receptors, allowed cross-reactivity of ligand-mediated activation and growth. To suppress the IGF system, targeting of both IGF1R and InsR is optimal in endocrine-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer. PMID:26876199

  20. Cell-mediated immunity to insulin: a new criterion for differentiation of diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Asfandiyarova, Nailya S

    2012-03-01

    Any classification is a step forward and it should help to determine the reason, the course, the prognosis, the treatment of a disease. The current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) is really very convenient for work, but it has some drawbacks, and the absence of differentiation of type 2 diabetes is the main. The problem is the absence of an adequate criterion, based on pathogenesis for differentiation. We suppose that cell mediated immunity (CMI) to insulin plays the central role in the diabetes genesis. Autoimmune process may be triggered by viruses family Paramyxoviridae, in 10-20% of type 1 diabetes patients the disease is a consequence of direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses to the islet cells of pancreas. In acute phase of viral infection (measles, mumps, parainfluenza) CMI against viruses is developed, in some patients CMI to insulin appeared. We suppose that autoimmune reactions in these cases are the result of cross reaction between viral antigens and insulin. The majorities of patients suppress these reactions and recover from acute infection diseases with the antiviral immunity development and without any complications. Other patients are not able to suppress autoimmune reactions to insulin and pathological process is triggered. Type 1A diabetes is a result of direct CMI to insulin, and this process is responsible for beta-cells destruction; may be type 1B DM is due to the direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses or toxins to them. Some patients with acute viral infection cannot destroy the aggressive clone and they suppress autoimmune reaction to insulin by prostaglandin synthesizing cells (PGSC) or сells with histamine receptors (CHR). As a result of this process the insulin resistance is developed, because these cells or their cytokines form a block to the insulin receptors not only on immunocompetent cells, but in insulin sensitive tissues too. Patients with different reactions to insulin have different courses and outcomes of DM. We

  1. Rapid internalization of the insulin receptor in rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have studied the internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) in rat hepatoma cells (Fao). The cells were surface-iodinated at 4C, stimulated with insulin at 37C, and then cooled rapidly, trypsinized at 4C and solubilized. The IR was immunoprecipitated with a specific antibody, and internalization of the IR was assessed by the appearance of trypsin-resistant bands on SDS-PAGE. Insulin induced the internalization of surface receptors with a t 1/2 of 9-10 mins; cells not exposed to insulin internalized less than 20% of the IR during 1 h at 37C. Further experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of trypsin-resistant IR paralleled a loss of receptor from the cell surface. Insulin-stimulated cells were chilled and iodinated at 4C, followed by solubilization, immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE; alternatively, insulin-stimulated cells were chilled, surface-bound ligand removed by washing the cells at pH 4.2, and specific ( SVI)insulin binding measured at 4C. Both techniques confirmed the disappearance of IR from the cell surface at rates comparable to the insulin-stimulated internalization described above. The total amount of phosphotyrosine-containing IR, as assessed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, remained constant during this time interval, suggesting that active kinase is translocated into the cell. In summary, the authors data indicate that insulin binding increases the rate of IR internalization of Fao cells. This relocation may facilitate the interaction of the activated tyrosine kinase in the IR with intracellular substrates, thus transmitting the insulin signal to metabolic pathways.

  2. The insulin receptor activation process involves localized conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Gautier, N; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-11-15

    The molecular process by which insulin binding to the receptor alpha-subunit induces activation of the receptor beta-subunit with ensuing substrate phosphorylation remains unclear. In this study, we aimed at approaching this molecular mechanism of signal transduction and at delineating the cytoplasmic domains implied in this process. To do this, we used antipeptide antibodies to the following sequences of the receptor beta-subunit: (i) positions 962-972 in the juxtamembrane domain, (ii) positions 1247-1261 at the end of the kinase domain, and (iii) positions 1294-1317 and (iv) positions 1309-1326, both in the receptor C terminus. We have previously shown that insulin binding to its receptor induces a conformational change in the beta-subunit C terminus. Here, we demonstrate that receptor autophosphorylation induces an additional conformational change. This process appears to be distinct from the one produced by ligand binding and can be detected in at least three different beta-subunit regions: the juxtamembrane domain, the kinase domain, and the C terminus. Hence, the cytoplasmic part of the receptor beta-subunit appears to undergo an extended conformational change upon autophosphorylation. By contrast, the insulin-induced change does not affect the juxtamembrane domain 962-972 nor the kinase domain 1247-1261 and may be limited to the receptor C terminus. Further, we show that the hormone-dependent conformational change is maintained in a kinase-deficient receptor due to a mutation at lysine 1018. Therefore, during receptor activation, the ligand-induced change could precede ATP binding and receptor autophosphorylation. We propose that insulin binding leads to a transient receptor form that may allow ATP binding and, subsequently, autophosphorylation. The second conformational change could unmask substrate-binding sites and stabilize the receptor in an active conformation. PMID:1331080

  3. Differential Activation of Insulin Receptor Substrates 1 and 2 by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Activated Insulin Receptors▿

    PubMed Central

    Denley, Adam; Carroll, Julie M.; Brierley, Gemma V.; Cosgrove, Leah; Wallace, John; Forbes, Briony; Roberts, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (insulin-like growth factor I [IGF-I] and IGF-II) exert important effects on growth, development, and differentiation through the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) transmembrane tyrosine kinase. The insulin receptor (IR) is structurally related to the IGF-IR, and at high concentrations, the IGFs can also activate the IR, in spite of their generally low affinity for the latter. Two mechanisms that facilitate cross talk between the IGF ligands and the IR at physiological concentrations have been described. The first of these is the existence of an alternatively spliced IR variant that exhibits high affinity for IGF-II as well as for insulin. A second phenomenon is the ability of hybrid receptors comprised of IGF-IR and IR hemireceptors to bind IGFs, but not insulin. To date, however, direct activation of an IR holoreceptor by IGF-I at physiological levels has not been demonstrated. We have now found that IGF-I can function through both splice variants of the IR, in spite of low affinity, to specifically activate IRS-2 to levels similar to those seen with equivalent concentrations of insulin or IGF-II. The specific activation of IRS-2 by IGF-I through the IR does not result in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway but does induce delayed low-level activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and biological effects such as enhanced cell viability and protection from apoptosis. These findings suggest that IGF-I can function directly through the IR and that the observed effects of IGF-I on insulin sensitivity may be the result of direct facilitation of insulin action by IGF-I costimulation of the IR in insulin target tissues. PMID:17325037

  4. Snapin mediates incretin action and augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jin; Seshadri, Madhav; Ashraf, Uzair; Mdluli, Thembi; Mondal, Prosenjit; Keil, Meg; Azevedo, Monalisa; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Hussain, Mehboob A

    2011-03-01

    Impaired insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potentiates insulin secretion and improves metabolic control in humans with T2DM. GLP-1 receptor-mediated signaling leading to insulin secretion occurs via cyclic AMP stimulated protein kinase A (PKA)- as well as guanine nucleotide exchange factor-mediated pathways. However, how these two pathways integrate and coordinate insulin secretion remains poorly understood. Here we show that these incretin-stimulated pathways converge at the level of snapin, and that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of snapin increases interaction among insulin secretory vesicle-associated proteins, thereby potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In diabetic islets with impaired GSIS, snapin phosphorylation is reduced, and expression of a snapin mutant, which mimics site-specific phosphorylation, restores GSIS. Thus, snapin is a critical node in GSIS regulation and provides a potential therapeutic target to improve β cell function in T2DM. PMID:21356520

  5. Advanced glycation end-products: modifiable environmental factors profoundly mediate insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ottum, Mona S.; Mistry, Anahita M.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products are toxic by-products of metabolism and are also acquired from high-temperature processed foods. They promote oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleotides. Aging and chronic diseases are strongly associated with markers for oxidative stress, especially advanced glycation end-products, and resistance to peripheral insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Modifiable environmental factors including high levels of refined and simple carbohydrate diets, hypercaloric diets and sedentary lifestyles drive endogenous formation of advanced glycation end-products via accumulation of highly reactive glycolysis intermediates and activation of the polyol/aldose reductase pathway producing high intracellular fructose. High advanced glycation end-products overwhelm innate defenses of enzymes and receptor-mediated endocytosis and promote cell damage via the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Oxidative stress disturbs cell signal transduction, especially insulin-mediated metabolic responses. Here we review emerging evidence that restriction of dietary advanced glycation end-products significantly reduces total systemic load and insulin resistance in animals and humans in diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, healthy populations and dementia. Of clinical importance, this insulin sensitizing effect is independent of physical activity, caloric intake and adiposity level. PMID:26236094

  6. Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rachel J.; Toth, Istvan; Liang, Jiening; Mangat, Amanjot; McManus, Donald P.; You, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors (SjIRs) have been identified as encouraging vaccine candidates. Interrupting or blocking the binding between host insulin and the schistosome insulin receptors (IRs) may result in reduced glucose uptake leading to starvation and stunting of worms with a reduction in egg output. To further understand how schistosomes are able to exploit host insulin for development and growth, and whether these parasites and their mammalian hosts compete for the same insulin source, we identified insulin binding sites on the SjIRs. Based on sequence analysis and the predicted antigenic structure of the primary sequences of the SjIRs, we designed nine and eleven peptide analogues from SjIR-1 and SjIR-2, respectively. Using the Octet RED system, we identified analogues derived from SjIR-1 (10) and SjIR-2 (20, 21 and 22) with insulin-binding sequences specific for S. japonicum. Nevertheless, the human insulin receptor (HIR) may compete with the SjIRs in binding human insulin in other positions which are important for HIR binding to insulin. However, no binding occurred between insulin and parasite analogues derived from SjIR-1 (2, 7 and 8) and SjIR-2 (14, 16 and 18) at the same locations as HIR sequences which have been shown to have strong insulin binding affinities. Importantly, we found two analogues (1 and 3), derived from SjIR-1, and two analogues (13 and 15) derived from SjIR-2, were responsible for the major insulin binding affinity in S. japonicum. These peptide analogues were shown to have more than 10 times (in KD value) stronger binding capacity for human insulin compared with peptides derived from the HIR in the same sequence positions. Paradoxically, analogues 1, 3, 13 and 15 do not appear to contain major antigenic determinants which resulted in poor antibody responses to native S. japonicum protein. This argues against their future development as peptide-vaccine candidates. PMID:27441998

  7. Involvement of mTOR in Type 2 CRF Receptor Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hongxia; Li, Haochen; Grande, Rebecca; Lira, Vitor; Yan, Zhen; Harris, Thurl E; Li, Chien

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR2) is expressed in skeletal muscle and stimulation of the receptor has been shown to inhibit the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in muscle cells. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. In this study, we first showed that both in vivo and in vitro CRFR2 expression in muscle was closely correlated with insulin sensitivity, with elevated receptor levels observed in insulin resistant muscle cells. Stimulation of CRFR2 by urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a CRFR2-selective ligand, in C2C12 myotubes greatly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling required cAMP production and is involved the mammalian target of rapamycine pathway, as rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 stimulation on insulin-induced glucose uptake. Moreover, stimulation of CRFR2 failed to inhibit glucose uptake in muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor, which, similar to insulin, signals through Akt-mediated pathway but is independently of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins to promote glucose uptake. This result argues that CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin's action likely at the levels of IRS. Consistent with this notion, Ucn 2 reduced insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and treatment with rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of Ucn 2 on IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling on insulin action is mediated by cAMP in a mammalian target of rapamycine-dependent manner, and IRS-1 is a key nodal point where CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells. PMID:25875045

  8. GLUT 4 and insulin receptor binding and kinase activity in trained human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dela, F; Handberg, A; Mikines, K J; Vinten, J; Galbo, H

    1993-01-01

    1. Physical training enhances sensitivity and responsiveness of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in human muscle. This study examines if this effect of physical training is due to increased insulin receptor function or increased total concentration of insulin-recruitable glucose transporter protein (GLUT 4). 2. Seven healthy young subjects carried out single leg bicycle training for 10 weeks at 70% of one leg maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max). Subsequently biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs. 3. Single leg VO2,max increased for the trained leg (46 +/- 3 to 52 +/- 2 ml min-1 kg-1 (means +/- S.E.M., P < 0.05), and cytochrome c oxidase activity was higher in this compared to the untrained leg (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 nmol s-1 (mg muscle)-1, P < 0.05). Insulin binding as well as basal- and insulin-stimulated receptor kinase activity did not differ between trained and untrained muscle. The concentration of GLUT 4 protein was higher in the former (14.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.0 arbitrary units (micrograms protein)-1 in crude membranes, P < 0.05). The training-induced increase in GLUT 4 (26 +/- 11%) matched a previously reported increase in maximum insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake (25 +/- 7%) in the same subjects, and individual values of the two variables correlated (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84, P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, in human muscle training induces a local contraction-dependent increase in GLUT 4 protein, which enhances the effect of insulin on glucose uptake. On the other hand, insulin receptor function in muscle is unlikely to be affected by training. PMID:8271219

  9. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  10. Insulin receptor binding motif tagged with IgG4 Fc (Yiminsu) works as an insulin sensitizer to activate Akt signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zou, T; Yang, H X; Gong, Y Z; Xie, X J; Liu, H Y; Liao, D F

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interaction of insulin with the insulin receptor (IR) leads to both its auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IR substrate (IRS) proteins, initiating the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. The metabolic effects of IRS are known to be mediated through pathways involving phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), which result in the activation of Akt signaling. The C-terminal region of the IR ectodomain is required to facilitate the conformational changes that are required for high-affinity binding to insulin. Furthermore, the CH2 and CH3 domains in the Fc fragments of immunoglobulins are responsible for their binding to the Fc receptor, which triggers transcytosis. In this study, we created a fusion peptide of the C-terminal end of the human IR ectodomain with the IgG4 Fc fragment, including an intervening polyG fragment to ensure enough space for insulin binding. We named this new peptide "Yiminsu", meaning an insulin sensitizer. The results of our analyses show that Yiminsu significantly facilitates insulin signaling via the activation of Akt in hepatocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further studies are required to determine whether Yiminsu can act as an insulin sensitizer. PMID:26345813

  11. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Is a Negative Regulator of Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Elaine E.; Drinkwater, Laura; Radwanska, Kasia; Al-Qassab, Hind; Smith, Mark A.; O'Brien, Melissa; Kielar, Catherine; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Krauss, Stefan; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Withers, Dominic J.; Giese, Karl Peter

    2011-01-01

    Insulin has been shown to impact on learning and memory in both humans and animals, but the downstream signaling mechanisms involved are poorly characterized. Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is an adaptor protein that couples activation of insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Here, we have…

  12. Insulin receptor mutation results in insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but does not exacerbate Alzheimer's-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yokoyama, Shin-ichi; Murata, Nakaba; Ozawa, Yusuke; Irie, Kazuhiro; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2011-05-27

    Obesity is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by amyloid β depositions and cognitive dysfunction. Although insulin resistance is one of the phenotypes of obesity, its deleterious effects on AD progression remain to be fully elucidated. We previously reported that the suppression of insulin signaling in a mouse with a heterozygous mutation (P1195L) in the gene for the insulin receptor showed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but did not develop diabetes mellitus [15]. Here, we generated a novel AD mouse model carrying the same insulin receptor mutation and showed that the combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia did not accelerate plaque formation or memory abnormalities in these mice. Interestingly, the insulin receptor mutation reduced oxidative damage in the brains of the AD mice. These findings suggest that insulin resistance is not always involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:21549686

  13. [Insulin receptor defect as a cause of Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome and other rare genetic insulin resistance syndromes].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Aleksandra; Niedziela, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Insulin plays a very important role in maintaining homeostasis of the whole organism. It regulates glucose metabolism, glycogen synthesis, lipid and protein metabolism. Insulin receptors are present in virtually all cells, which is reflected by the diversity of regulatory processes in which this hormone is involved. Any dysfunction of insulin signalling pathway as a result of insulin receptor gene mutations is linked with various forms of insulin resistance, including insulin resistance type A, Donohue or Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, which differ in the level of severity. Molecular analysis of insulin receptor gene may lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying various types of insulin resistance and help to develop a more efficient treatment. They may also be used as a powerful tool in prenatal diagnostics as well as in pregnancy planning. PMID:21092701

  14. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 but not Shc can activate the insulin receptor independent of insulin and induce proliferation in CHO-IR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, Markus . E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch; Jaschinski, Frank; Item, Flurin; McNamara, Morgan P.; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Trueb, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Ligand-activated insulin receptor (IR) attracts and phosphorylates various substrates such as insulin receptor substrates 1-4 (IRS) and Shc. To investigate how binding affinity for substrate affects signalling we generated chimeric receptors with the {beta}-chain of the insulin receptor containing NPXY motives with different affinities for receptor substrates. We found that the extent of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation positively correlates with binding affinity towards IRS1/2 but not towards Shc. Moreover, overexpression of IRS1 or IRS2 but not of Shc increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, also independent of insulin. Molecular truncations of IRS1 revealed that neither the isolated PH and PTB domains nor the C-terminus with the tyrosine phosphorylation sites alone are sufficient for substrate-dependent receptor activation. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 impaired insulin-induced internalization of the IR in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that IRS proteins prevent endosome-associated receptor dephosphorylation/inactivation. IRS1 and IRS2 could therefore target the activated IR to different cellular compartments. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 inhibited insulin-stimulated activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 while it increased/induced activation of Akt/PKB. Finally, overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 but not of Shc induced DNA synthesis in starved CHO-IR cells independent of exogenous growth factors. Our results demonstrate that variations in cellular IRS1 and IRS2 concentration affect insulin signalling both upstream and downstream and that IRS proteins could play instructive rather than just permissive roles in signal transmission.

  15. Sam68 Mediates the Activation of Insulin and Leptin Signalling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Vilariño-García, Teresa; de la Cruz, Luis; Virizuela, Juan A.; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. High insulin and leptin levels seem to have a role modulating the growth of these tumours. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein with signalling functions that has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Moreover, Sam68 may be recruited to insulin and leptin signalling pathways, mediating its effects on survival, growth and proliferation in different cellular types. We aimed to study the expression of Sam68 and its phosphorylation level upon insulin and leptin stimulation, and the role of Sam68 in the proliferative effect and signalling pathways that are activated by insulin or leptin in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. In the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474, Sam68 protein quantity and gene expression were increased upon leptin or insulin stimulation, as it was checked by qPCR and immunoblot. Moreover, both insulin and leptin stimulation promoted an increase in Sam68 tyrosine phosphorylation and negatively regulated its RNA binding capacity. siRNA was used to downregulate Sam68 expression, which resulted in lower proliferative effects of both insulin and leptin, as well as a lower activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways promoted by both hormones. These effects may be partly explained by the decrease in IRS-1 expression by down-regulation of Sam68. These results suggest the participation of Sam68 in both leptin and insulin receptor signaling in human breast cancer cells, mediating the trophic effects of these hormones in proliferation and cellular growth. PMID:27415018

  16. Interaction of myocardial insulin receptor and IGF receptor signaling in exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Shiojima, Ichiro; Ozasa, Yukako; Yoshida, Masashi; Holzenberger, Martin; Kahn, C Ronald; Walsh, Kenneth; Igarashi, Takashi; Abel, E Dale; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling has recently been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy after long-term endurance training, via mechanisms that may involve energetic stress. Given the potential overlap of insulin and IGF-1 signaling we sought to determine if both signaling pathways could contribute to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy following shorter-term exercise training. Studies were performed in mice with cardiac-specific IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) knockout (CIGFRKO), mice with cardiac-specific insulin receptor (IR) knockout (CIRKO), CIGFRKO mice that lacked one IR allele in cardiomyocytes (IGFR−/−IR+/−), and CIRKO mice that lacked one IGF1R allele in cardiomyocytes (IGFR+/−IR−/−). Intravenous administration of IGF-1 or 75 hours of swimming over 4 weeks increased IGF1R tyrosine phosphorylation in the heart in control and CIRKO mice but not in CIGFRKO mice. Intriguingly, IR tyrosine phosphorylation in the heart was also increased following IGF-1 administration or exercise training in control and CIGFRKO mice but not in CIRKO mice. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy following exercise training in CIGFRKO and CIRKO mice was comparable to that in control mice. In contrast, exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was significantly attenuated in IGFR−/−IR+/− and IGFR+/−IR−/− mice. Thus, IGF-1 and exercise activates both IGF1R and IR in the heart, and IGF1R- and IR-mediated signals may serve redundant roles in the hypertrophic responses of the heart to exercise training. PMID:19744489

  17. Defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from a patient with insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Shiba, T; Tobe, K; Shibasaki, Y; Koshio, O; Izumi, T; Odawara, M; Mikami, Y; Matsuura, N; Akanuma, Y

    1990-04-01

    We report here a defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from an insulin-resistant patient with acanthosis nigricans using cultured Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphocytes. As judged by affinity labeling and immunoblotting, the alpha- and beta-subunits of insulin receptors from the patient's lymphocytes exhibited the same mol wt as those from control subjects. Lectin-purified extracts from lymphocytes of the patient and the control subjects containing the same insulin-binding capacity were assayed for autophosphorylation and the ability to phosphorylate histone H2B. The degree of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from the patient's lymphocytes were decreased to 15% and 13%, respectively, in a cell-free system. The insulin-dependent autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor was also impaired in intact EBV lymphocytes from the patient. Consistent with these results, we found that one of this patient's alleles had a mutation in which valine is substituted for Gly996, the third glycine in the conserved Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly motif in the kinase domain. Thus, it seems likely that the defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor cause the insulin resistance in this patient. The EBV lymphocyte can be a good system to detect genetically determined abnormalities in the insulin receptor. PMID:2180980

  18. Pancreatic Insulin Content Regulation by the Estrogen Receptor ERα

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Ropero, Ana B.; Carrera, M. Pilar; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Baquié, Mathurin; Gauthier, Benoit R.; Nef, Serge; Stefani, Enrico; Nadal, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The function of pancreatic β-cells is the synthesis and release of insulin, the main hormone involved in blood glucose homeostasis. Estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, are important molecules involved in glucose metabolism, yet their role in pancreatic β-cell physiology is still greatly unknown. In this report we show that both ERα and ERβ are present in pancreatic β-cells. Long term exposure to physiological concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) increased β-cell insulin content, insulin gene expression and insulin release, yet pancreatic β-cell mass was unaltered. The up-regulation of pancreatic β-cell insulin content was imitated by environmentally relevant doses of the widespread endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA). The use of ERα and ERβ agonists as well as ERαKO and ERβKO mice suggests that the estrogen receptor involved is ERα. The up-regulation of pancreatic insulin content by ERα activation involves ERK1/2. These data may be important to explain the actions of E2 and environmental estrogens in endocrine pancreatic function and blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:18446233

  19. Interacting with the Human Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kidmose, Rune T; Andersen, Gregers R

    2016-03-01

    Insulin is an essential regulator of glucose homeostasis. In this issue of Structure, Croll et al. (2016) reports a significantly improved model of the Fab-complexed IR ectodomain refined against a dataset extending to 3.3 Å. PMID:26933970

  20. In vivo stimulation of oestrogen receptor α increases insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gorres, Brittany K; Bomhoff, Gregory L; Morris, Jill K; Geiger, Paige C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggest oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is involved in oestrogen-mediated regulation of glucose metabolism and is critical for maintenance of whole body insulin action. Despite this, the effect of direct ERα modulation in insulin-responsive tissues is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of ERα activation, using the ER subtype-selective ligand propylpyrazoletriyl (PPT), on skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Two-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats, ovariectomized for 1 week, were given subcutaneous injections of PPT (10 mg kg−1), oestradiol benzoate (EB; 20 μg kg−1), the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 10 mg kg−1) or vehicle every 24 h for 3 days. On the fourth day, insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake was measured in vitro and insulin signalling intermediates were assessed via Western blotting. Activation of ERα with PPT resulted in increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, activation of insulin signalling intermediates (as measured by phospho-Akt (pAkt) and pAkt substrate (PAS)) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT4 protein was increased only in the EDL muscle. Rats treated with EB or DPN for 3 days did not show an increase in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake compared to vehicle-treated animals. These new findings reveal that direct activation of ERα positively mediates glucose uptake and insulin action in skeletal muscle. Evidence that oestrogens and ERα stimulate glucose uptake has important implications for understanding mechanisms of glucose homeostasis, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:21486807

  1. Insulin receptor isoform A and insulin-like growth factor II as additional treatment targets in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avnet, Sofia; Sciacca, Laura; Salerno, Manuela; Gancitano, Giovanni; Cassarino, Maria Francesca; Longhi, Alessandra; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Carboni, Joan M; Gottardis, Marco; Giunti, Armando; Pollak, Michael; Vigneri, Riccardo; Baldini, Nicola

    2009-03-15

    Despite the frequent presence of an insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR)-mediated autocrine loop in osteosarcoma (OS), interfering with this target was only moderately effective in preclinical studies. Here, we considered other members of the IGF system that might be involved in the molecular pathology of OS. We found that, among 45 patients with OS, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 serum levels were significantly lower, and IGF-II serum levels significantly higher, than healthy controls. Increased IGF-II values were associated with a decreased disease-free survival. After tumor removal, both IGF-I and IGF-II levels returned to normal values. In 23 of 45 patients, we obtained tissue specimens and found that all expressed high mRNA level of IGF-II and >IGF-I. Also, isoform A of the insulin receptor (IR-A) was expressed at high level in addition to IGFIR and IR-A/IGFIR hybrids receptors (HR(A)). These receptors were also expressed in OS cell lines, and simultaneous impairment of IGFIR, IR, and Hybrid-Rs by monoclonal antibodies, siRNA, or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-536924, which blocks both IGFIR and IR, was more effective than selective anti-IGFIR strategies. Also, anti-IGF-II-siRNA treatment in low-serum conditions significantly inhibited MG-63 OS cells that have an autocrine circuit for IGF-II. In summary, IGF-II rather than IGF-I is the predominant growth factor produced by OS cells, and three different receptors (IR-A, HR(A), and IGFIR) act complementarily for an IGF-II-mediated constitutive autocrine loop, in addition to the previously shown IGFIR/IGF-I circuit. Cotargeting IGFIR and IR-A is more effective than targeting IGF-IR alone in inhibiting OS growth. PMID:19258511

  2. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali R; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J; Green, Michael R; Shulman, Gerald I; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  3. SORLA facilitates insulin receptor signaling in adipocytes and exacerbates obesity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Schulz, Nadja; Yan, Xin; Schürmann, Annette; Kempa, Stefan; Kern, Matthias; Blüher, Matthias; Poy, Matthew N; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Willnow, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    In humans, genetic variation of sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing (SORL1), which encodes the intracellular sorting receptor SORLA, is a major genetic risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease. Recent GWAS analysis has also associated SORL1 with obesity in humans and in mouse models, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in regulating metabolism. Here, using mouse models with genetic loss or tissue-specific overexpression of SORLA as well as data from obese human subjects, we observed a gene-dosage effect that links SORLA expression to obesity and glucose tolerance. Overexpression of human SORLA in murine adipose tissue blocked hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and caused excessive adiposity. In contrast, Sorl1 gene inactivation in mice accelerated breakdown of triacylglycerides in adipocytes and protected animals from diet-induced obesity. We then identified the underlying molecular mechanism whereby SORLA promotes insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis in adipocytes. Specifically, we determined that SORLA acts as a sorting factor for the insulin receptor (IR) that redirects internalized receptor molecules from endosomes to the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing IR surface expression and strengthening insulin signal reception in target cells. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the association of SORL1 with human obesity and confirm a genetic link between neurodegeneration and metabolism that converges on the receptor SORLA. PMID:27322061

  4. Protective hinge in insulin opens to enable its receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Menting, John G.; Yang, Yanwu; Chan, Shu Jin; Phillips, Nelson B.; Smith, Brian J.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P.; Whittaker, Linda J.; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Wan, Zhu-li; Yadav, Satya P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Strokes, Natalie; Roberts, Charles T.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Milewski, Wieslawa; Steiner, Donald F.; Chauhan, Virander S.; Ward, Colin W.; Weiss, Michael A.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated “microreceptors” that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of PheB24 to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1–β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (IleA2, ValA3, ValB12, PheB24, and PheB25) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function. PMID:25092300

  5. Autoreactive T-cell receptor (Vbeta/D/Jbeta) sequences in diabetes are homologous to insulin, glucagon, the insulin receptor, and the glucagon receptor.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The hypervariable (Vbeta/D/Jbeta) regions of T-cell receptors (TCR) have been sequenced in a variety of autoimmune diseases by various investigators. An analysis of some of these sequences shows that TCR from both human diabetics and NOD mice mimic insulin, glucagon, the insulin receptor, and the glucagon receptor. Such similarities are not found in the TCR produced in other human autoimmune diseases. These data may explain how insulin, glucagon, and their receptors are targets of autoimmunity in diabetes and also suggest that TCR mimicking insulin and its receptor may be targets of anti-insulin autoantibodies. Such intra-systemic mimicry of self-proteins also raises complex questions about how "self" and "nonself" are regulated during TCR production, especially in light of the complementarity of insulin for its receptor and glucagon for its receptor. The data presented here suggest that some TCR may be complementary to other TCR in autoimmune diseases, a possibility that is experimentally testable. Such complementarity, if it exists, could either serve to down-regulate the clones bearing such TCR or, alternatively, trigger an intra-immune system civil war between them. PMID:19051206

  6. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Regulates Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Monden, Masayo; Koyama, Hidenori; Otsuka, Yoshiko; Morioka, Tomoaki; Mori, Katsuhito; Shoji, Takuhito; Mima, Yohei; Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya; Shioi, Atsushi; Emoto, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been shown to be involved in adiposity as well as atherosclerosis even in nondiabetic conditions. In this study, we examined mechanisms underlying how RAGE regulates adiposity and insulin sensitivity. RAGE overexpression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using adenoviral gene transfer accelerated adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas inhibitions of RAGE by small interfering RNA significantly decrease adipocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, double knockdown of high mobility group box-1 and S100b, both of which are RAGE ligands endogenously expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, also canceled RAGE-medicated adipocyte hypertrophy, implicating a fundamental role of ligands–RAGE ligation. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by RAGE overexpression is associated with suppression of glucose transporter type 4 and adiponectin mRNA expression, attenuated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and insulin-stimulated signaling. Toll-like receptor (Tlr)2 mRNA, but not Tlr4 mRNA, is rapidly upregulated by RAGE overexpression, and inhibition of Tlr2 almost completely abrogates RAGE-mediated adipocyte hypertrophy. Finally, RAGE−/− mice exhibited significantly less body weight, epididymal fat weight, epididymal adipocyte size, higher serum adiponectin levels, and higher insulin sensitivity than wild-type mice. RAGE deficiency is associated with early suppression of Tlr2 mRNA expression in adipose tissues. Thus, RAGE appears to be involved in mouse adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin sensitivity, whereas Tlr2 regulation may partly play a role. PMID:23011593

  7. Interaction of insulin with the rat diaphragm. Subcellular distribution of insulin and its receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, J.S.; Guzman-Diaz, A.; Celis, J.

    1987-05-01

    In studying the uptake and processing of A-14( SVI)monoiodoinsulin by isolated rat hemidiaphragms it was found that major amounts of the hormone are associated with the debris fraction. A method was developed for separating debris components by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Major amounts of radioactivity were associated with its myofibril component with much lower amounts in its sarcolemmal elements. Using a modified method of Marshall, et. al. insulin receptor was measurable in these fractions with greatest amounts in myofibril and microsomal fractions. Receptor was also detectable in the latter after gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with receptor antiserum. Sarcolemmal marker enzyme (K -stimulated, ouabain-suppressible p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase) activity was insignificant in sarcolemmal and myofibril fractions, but was significant in the microsomal fraction. Sarcolemmal activity becomes significant after hemidiaphragm incubation with 1 M insulin for 90 sec. but does not change in the microsomal fraction. It is concluded that 1) a component bound to the myofibrils in muscle is important in insulin processing, and 2) the largest part of sarcolemmal insulin receptors are incorporated in the microsomal fraction of homogenized tissue.

  8. A novel method for simulating insulin mediated GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Jezewski, Andrew J; Larson, Joshua J; Wysocki, Beata; Davis, Paul H; Wysocki, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Glucose transport in humans is a vital process which is tightly regulated by the endocrine system. Specifically, the insulin hormone triggers a cascade of intracellular signals in target cells mediating the uptake of glucose. Insulin signaling triggers cellular relocalization of the glucose transporter protein GLUT4 to the cell surface, which is primarily responsible for regulated glucose import. Pathology associated with the disruption of this pathway can lead to metabolic disorders, such as type II diabetes mellitus, characterized by the failure of cells to appropriately uptake glucose from the blood. We describe a novel simulation tool of the insulin intracellular response, incorporating the latest findings regarding As160 and GEF interactions. The simulation tool differs from previous computational approaches which employ algebraic or differential equations; instead, the tool incorporates statistical variations of kinetic constants and initial molecular concentrations which more accurately mimic the intracellular environment. Using this approach, we successfully recapitulate observed in vitro insulin responses, plus the effects of Wortmannin-like inhibition of the pathway. The developed tool provides insight into transient changes in molecule concentrations throughout the insulin signaling pathway, and may be employed to identify or evaluate potentially critical components of this pathway, including those associated with insulin resistance. In the future, this highly tractable platform may be useful for simulating other complex cell signaling pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2454-2465. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24917169

  9. Direct method for detection and characterization of cell surface receptors for insulin by means of 125I-labeled autoantibodies against the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, D B; Roth, J; Kahn, C R; Flier, J S

    1976-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against the cell surface receptors for insulin are found in some patients with extreme insulin resistance. These antibodies specifically inhibit the binding of insulin to its receptor. A purified IgG fraction from one patient's plasma was labeled with 125I. The 125I-labeled antireceptor antibody, which initially represented about 0.3% of the total 125I-IgG, was enriched by selective adsorption and subsequent elution from cells rich in insulin receptors. The 125I-antireceptor antibody bound to cells and the binding was inhibited by whole plasma and purified IgG from this patient, as well as whole plasma from another patient with autoantibodies to the insulin receptor. Insulins that differed 300-fold in biological potency and affinity inhibited binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody in direct proportion to their ability to bind to the insulin receptor. The binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody was closely correlated with the binding of 125I-insulin over a wide range of receptor concentrations on different cell types. Experimentally induced reduction of the insulin receptor concentration was associated with parallel decreases in the binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody and 125I-insulin. The preparation of 125I-antireceptor antibody with a high specific activity by cytoadsorption and elution has provided a sensitive method for the detection of receptors and autoantibodies to cell surface components. PMID:1069300

  10. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-09-18

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  11. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  12. Involvement of PRMT1 in hnRNPQ activation and internalization of insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki

    2008-07-25

    Insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes is known to be affected by arginine methylation catalyzed by protein N-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), however, the mechanism by which this occurs has not yet been defined. This study aimed to determine the exact substrate involved in the methylation and regulating insulin signaling in cells. Insulin enhanced arginine methylation of a 66-kDa protein (p66) concomitant with translocation of PRMT1 to the membrane fraction. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified p66 as a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNPQ that was bound to and methylated by PRMT1. Pharmacological inhibition of methylation (MTA) and small interfering RNA against PRMT1 (PRMT1-siRNA) attenuated insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of hnRNPQ and insulin receptor (IR), and the interaction between hnRNPQ and IR. MTA, PRMT1-siRNA, and hnRNPQ-siRNA inhibited internalization of IR in the same manner. These data suggest that the PRMT1-mediated methylation of hnRNPQ is implicated in IR trafficking and insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes.

  13. Dual regulation of glycogen metabolism by insulin and insulin-like growth factors in human hepatoma cells (HEP-G2). Analysis with an anti-receptor monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Verspohl, E J; Roth, R A; Vigneri, R; Goldfine, I D

    1984-01-01

    Insulin and the insulinlike growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) are members of a family of hormones that regulate the metabolism and growth of many tissues. Cultured HEP-G2 cells (a minimal deviation human hepatoma) have insulin receptors and respond to insulin by increasing their glycogen metabolism. In the present study with HEP-G2 cells, we used 125I-labeled insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II to identify distinct receptors for each hormone by competition-inhibition studies. Unlabeled insulin was able to inhibit 125I-IGF-I binding but not 125I-IGF-II binding. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the human insulin receptor that inhibits insulin binding and blocks insulin action inhibited 75% of 125I-insulin binding, but inhibited neither 125I-IGF-I nor 125I-IGF-II binding. When glycogen metabolism was studied, insulin stimulated [3H]glucose incorporation into glycogen in a biphasic manner; one phase that was 20-30% of the maximal response occurred over 1-100 pM, and the other phase occurred over 100 pM-100 nM. The anti-receptor monoclonal antibody inhibited the first phase of insulin stimulation but not the second. Both IGF-I and IGF-II stimulated [3H]glucose incorporation over the range of 10 pM-10 nM; IGF-I was three to fivefold more potent. The monoclonal antibody, however, was without effect on IGF regulation of glycogen metabolism. Therefore, these studies indicate that insulin as well as the IGFs at physiological concentrations regulate glycogen metabolism in HEP-G2 cells. Moreover, this regulation of glycogen metabolism is mediated by both the insulin receptor and the IGF receptors. PMID:6090502

  14. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. PMID:27101299

  15. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Billestrup, N.; Moeldrup, A.; Serup, P.; Nielsen, J.H. ); Mathews, L.S.; Norstedt, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, the authors have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and to contain a specific GH receptor mRNA that was not expressed in the parent cell line. The expression of GH receptors in one clone (1.24) selected for detailed analysis was increased 2.6-fold compared to untransfected cells. The increased GH receptor expression was accompanied by an increased responsiveness to GH. Thus, the maximal GH-stimulated increase of insulin biosynthesis was 4.1-fold in 1.24 cells compared to 1.9-fold in the nontransfected RIN5-AH cells. The expression of the transfected receptor was stimulated 1.6- and 2.3-fold when cells were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 {mu}M Zn{sup 2+} was associated with an increased magnitude of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. A close stoichiometric relationship between the level of receptor expression and the level of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis was observed. They conclude from these results that the hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the effect of GH on insulin biosynthesis in RIN5-AH cells.

  16. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. While sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2. PMID:26462119

  17. Thrombin stimulates insulin secretion via protease-activated receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Hänzelmann, Sonja; Wang, Jinling; Güney, Emre; Tang, Yunzhao; Zhang, Enming; Axelsson, Annika S; Nenonen, Hannah; Salehi, Albert S; Wollheim, Claes B; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik; Costa, Ivan G; Castelo, Robert; Rosengren, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    The disease mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly defined. Here we aimed to explore the pathophysiology of T2D by analyzing gene co-expression networks in human islets. Using partial correlation networks we identified a group of co-expressed genes (‘module’) including F2RL2 that was associated with glycated hemoglobin. F2Rl2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that encodes protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3). PAR3 is cleaved by thrombin, which exposes a 6-amino acid sequence that acts as a ‘tethered ligand’ to regulate cellular signaling. We have characterized the effect of PAR3 activation on insulin secretion by static insulin secretion measurements, capacitance measurements, studies of diabetic animal models and patient samples. We demonstrate that thrombin stimulates insulin secretion, an effect that was prevented by an antibody that blocks the thrombin cleavage site of PAR3. Treatment with a peptide corresponding to the PAR3 tethered ligand stimulated islet insulin secretion and single β-cell exocytosis by a mechanism that involves activation of phospholipase C and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Moreover, we observed that the expression of tissue factor, which regulates thrombin generation, was increased in human islets from T2D donors and associated with enhanced β-cell exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate that thrombin generation potential in patients with T2D was associated with increased fasting insulin and insulinogenic index. The findings provide a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and hyperinsulinemia and suggest that reducing thrombin activity or blocking PAR3 cleavage could potentially counteract the exaggerated insulin secretion that drives insulin resistance and β-cell exhaustion in T2D. PMID:26742564

  18. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Anju, Thoppil R; Smijin, Soman; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-secreting β cells, share common characteristics with neurons. Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and pancreas, and its action is mediated through glutamate receptors. In the present work, we analysed the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of AMPA receptor subunit and their functional role in insulin release. Radio receptor binding study in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density. Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells. We also found lowered IP3 content and decreased IP3 receptor in pancreas of diabetic rats. The alterations in AMPA and IP3 receptor resulted in reduced cytosolic calcium level concentration, which further blocks Ca(2+)-mediated insulin release. Vitamin D3 supplementation restored the alteration in vitamin D receptor expression, AMPA receptor density and AMPA and IP3 receptor expression in the pancreatic islets that helps to restore the calcium-mediated insulin secretion. Our study reveals the antidiabetic property of vitamin D3 that is suggested to have therapeutic role through regulating glutamatergic function in diabetic rats. PMID:26054778

  19. Is insulin signaling molecules misguided in diabetes for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation?

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy; Sampathkumar, Rangasamy; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2005-07-01

    Recent mining of the human and mouse genomes, use of yeast genetics, and detailed analyses of several biochemical pathways, have resulted in the identification of many new roles for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation of proteins. In the context of last year's award of Noble Prize (Chemistry) work, the ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications are increasingly recognized as key regulatory events in health and disease. Although the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system has evolved as premier cellular proteolytic machinery, dysregulation of this system by several different mechanisms leads to inappropriate degradation of specific proteins and pathological consequences. While aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway have been implicated in certain malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders, recent studies indicate a role for this system in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Inappropriate degradation of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2) has been demonstrated in experimental diabetes, mediated in part through the up-regulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS). It appears that altered ubiquitin-proteasome system might be one of the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in many pathological situations. Drugs that modulate the SOCS action and/or proteasomal degradation of proteins could become novel agents for the treatment of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. PMID:16335791

  20. Rosiglitazone-Mediated Effects on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression Correlate with Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals with HIV-Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mynarcik, Dennis C.; McNurlan, Margaret A.; Melendez, Mark M.; Vosswinkel, James A.; Gelato, Marie C.

    2011-01-01

    Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ), improves insulin sensitivity by increasing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle tissue. This study was undertaken to assess changes in expression of PPAR-regulated genes in muscle tissue following treatment of HIV-associated insulin resistance with rosiglitazone. Muscle gene expression was assessed in twenty-two seronegative HIV subjects (control), 21 HIV-infected individuals with normal insulin sensitivity (HIV-IS) and 19 HIV-infected individuals with insulin resistance (HIV-IR). A subset of the HIV-IR group (N = 10) were re-evaluated 12 weeks after treatment with 8 mg/d of rosiglitazone. The HIV-IR group's rosiglitazone-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity was highly correlated with increased expression of PPARγ and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), (r = 0.87, P < .001) and (r = 0.95, P < .001), respectively. The changes in PPARγ expression were also correlated with the changes in CPT1 expression (r = 0.75, P = .009). The results suggest that rosiglitazone; may have a direct effect on muscle tissue to improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:21559208

  1. Rosiglitazone-Mediated Effects on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression Correlate with Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals with HIV-Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Mynarcik, Dennis C; McNurlan, Margaret A; Melendez, Mark M; Vosswinkel, James A; Gelato, Marie C

    2011-01-01

    Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ), improves insulin sensitivity by increasing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle tissue. This study was undertaken to assess changes in expression of PPAR-regulated genes in muscle tissue following treatment of HIV-associated insulin resistance with rosiglitazone. Muscle gene expression was assessed in twenty-two seronegative HIV subjects (control), 21 HIV-infected individuals with normal insulin sensitivity (HIV-IS) and 19 HIV-infected individuals with insulin resistance (HIV-IR). A subset of the HIV-IR group (N = 10) were re-evaluated 12 weeks after treatment with 8 mg/d of rosiglitazone. The HIV-IR group's rosiglitazone-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity was highly correlated with increased expression of PPARγ and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), (r = 0.87, P < .001) and (r = 0.95, P < .001), respectively. The changes in PPARγ expression were also correlated with the changes in CPT1 expression (r = 0.75, P = .009). The results suggest that rosiglitazone; may have a direct effect on muscle tissue to improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:21559208

  2. Synchronization in G0/G1 enhances the mitogenic response of cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor A isoform to insulin

    PubMed Central

    Nelander, Gitte-Mai; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Krabbe, Jonas S.; Jensen, Marianne B.; Hegelund, Anne Charlotte; Svendsen, Jette E.; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating mitogenic signaling specifically through the human insulin receptor (IR) is relevant for the preclinical safety assessment of developmental insulin analogs. It is known that overexpression of IR sensitizes cells to the mitogenic effects of insulin, but it is essentially unknown how mitogenic responses can be optimized to allow practical use of such recombinant cell lines for preclinical safety testing. We constitutively overexpressed the short isoform of the human insulin receptor (hIR-A, exon 11-negative) in L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Because the mitogenic effect of growth factors such as insulin is expected to act in G0/G1, promoting S-phase entry, we developed a combined topoinhibition + serum deprivation strategy to explore the effect of G0/G1 synchronization as an independent parameter in the context of serum deprivation, the latter being routinely used to reduce background in mitogenicity assays. G0/G1 synchronization significantly improved the mitogenic responses of L6-hIR cells to insulin, measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Comparison with the parental L6 cells using phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, phospho-AKT, as well as 3H-thymidine incorporation end points supported that the majority of the mitogenic effect of insulin in L6-hIR cells was mediated by the overexpressed hIR-A. Using the optimized L6-hIR assay, we found that the X-10 insulin analog was more mitogenic than native human insulin, supporting that X-10 exhibits increased mitogenic signaling through the hIR-A. In summary, this study provides the first demonstration that serum deprivation may not be sufficient, and G0/G1 synchronization may be required to obtain optimal responsiveness of hIR-overexpressing cell lines for preclinical safety testing. PMID:19898946

  3. Design and synthesis of inositolphosphoglycan putative insulin mediators.

    PubMed

    López-Prados, Javier; Cuevas, Félix; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; de Paz, José-Luis; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    The binding modes of a series of molecules, containing the glucosamine (1-->6) myo-inositol structural motif, into the ATP binding site of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been analysed using molecular docking. These calculations predict that the presence of a phosphate group at the non-reducing end in pseudodisaccharide and pseudotrisaccharide structures properly orientate the molecule into the binding site and that pseudotrisaccharide structures present the best shape complementarity. Therefore, pseudodisaccharides and pseudotrisaccharides have been synthesised from common intermediates using effective synthetic strategies. On the basis of this synthetic chemistry, the feasibility of constructing small pseudotrisaccharide libraries on solid-phase using the same intermediates has been explored. The results from the biological evaluation of these molecules provide additional support to an insulin-mediated signalling system which involves the intermediacy of inositolphosphoglycans as putative insulin mediators. PMID:15731862

  4. The Phosphotyrosine Interactome of the Insulin Receptor Family and Its Substrates IRS-1 and IRS-2*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Stefan; Mann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The insulin signaling pathway is critical in regulating glucose levels and is associated with diabetes, obesity, and longevity. A tyrosine phosphorylation cascade creates docking sites for protein interactions, initiating subsequent propagation of the signal throughout the cell. The phosphotyrosine interactome of this medically important pathway has not yet been studied comprehensively. We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to exhaustively profile all potential phosphotyrosine-dependent interaction sites in its key players. We targeted and compared insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) as central distributors of the insulin signal, the insulin receptor, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and the insulin receptor-related receptor. Using the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach with phosphorylated versus non-phosphorylated bait peptides, we found phosphorylation-specific interaction partners for 52 out of 109 investigated sites. In addition, doubly and triply phosphorylated motifs provided insight into the combinatorial effects of phosphorylation events in close proximity to each other. Our results retrieve known interactions and substantially broaden the spectrum of potential interaction partners of IRS-1 and IRS-2. A large number of common interactors rationalize their extensive functional redundancy. However, several proteins involved in signaling and metabolism interact differentially with IRS-1 and IRS-2 and thus provide leads into their different physiological roles. Differences in interactions at the receptor level are reflected in multisite recruitment of SHP2 by the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and limited but exclusive interactions with the IRR. In common with other recent reports, our data furthermore hint at non-SH2 or phosphotyrosine-binding domain-mediated phosphotyrosine binding. PMID:19001411

  5. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  6. Ceramide-Mediated Insulin Resistance and Impairment of Cognitive-Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Tong, Ming; Nguyen, VanAnh; Setshedi, Mashiko; Longato, Lisa; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with cognitive impairment, brain insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration. Recent studies linked these effects to increased pro-ceramide gene expression in liver and increased ceramide levels in serum. Since ceramides are neurotoxic and cause insulin resistance, we directly examined the role of ceramides as mediators of impaired signaling and central nervous system function using an in vivo model. Long Evans rat pups were administered C2Cer:N-acetylsphinganine or its inactive dihydroceramide analog (C2DCer) by i.p. injection. Rats were subjected to rotarod and Morris water maze tests of motor and cognitive function, and livers and brains were examined for histopathology and integrity of insulin/IGF signaling. C2Cer treatment caused hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and mild steatohepatitis, reduced brain lipid content, and increased ceramide levels in liver, brain, and serum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed significant alterations in expression of several genes needed for insulin and IGF-I signaling, and multiplex ELISAs demonstrated inhibition of signaling through the insulin or IGF-1 receptors, IRS-1, and Akt in both liver and brain. Ultimately, the toxic ceramides generated in peripheral sources such as liver or adipose tissue caused sustained impairments in neuro-cognitive function and insulin/IGF signaling needed for neuronal survival, plasticity, and myelin maintenance in the brain. These findings support our hypothesis that a liver/peripheral tissue-brain axis of neurodegeneration, effectuated by increased toxic lipid/ceramide production and transport across the blood-brain barrier, could mediate cognitive impairment in T2DM and NASH. PMID:20693650

  7. Characterization of an endogenous substrate of the insulin receptor in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Stegmann, E.W.; Dull, T.J.; Ullrich, A.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-07-15

    Using antiphosphotyrosine antibodies, we have characterized the tyrosine phosphorylation of an endogenous substrate of the insulin receptor in Fao hepatoma cells and in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a eukaryotic expression vector containing the human insulin receptor cDNA. In Fao cells, besides the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, a protein with a molecular mass between 170 and 210 kDa designated pp185, undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation immediately after insulin stimulation reaching a maximum level within 30 s. After 4 h of continuous insulin stimulation, the labeling of pp185 decreased to less than half of its original intensity, whereas the insulin receptor was unchanged. After 24 h of insulin stimulation, the phosphotyrosine-containing insulin receptor decreased by 75% owing to down-regulation, whereas the pp185 was completely undetectable. By several biochemical and physiological criteria, the pp185 is distinct from the insulin receptor. The pp185 and the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were strongly labeled with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate, but in contrast to the insulin receptor, the pp185 was not labeled by cross-linking with /sup 125/I-insulin or surface 125I iodination. Unlike the insulin receptor, the pp185 was extracted from Fao cells without detergent, and tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of the pp185 and the insulin receptor yielded distinct patterns. Thus, the pp185 is not located at the external face of the plasma membrane and does not bind insulin. Treatment of Fao cells with the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, stimulated the phosphorylation of two proteins with molecular weights of 170 and 210 kDa which were immunoprecipitated with the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Subsequent insulin stimulation increased the phosphorylation of the 210 kDa protein, but the pp185 was not detected.

  8. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  9. Molecular Recognition of Insulin by a Synthetic Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chinai, Jordan M.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Ryno, Lisa M.; Hargreaves, Nicholas D.; Morris, Christopher A.; Hart, P. John; Urbach, Adam R.

    2011-08-29

    The discovery of molecules that bind tightly and selectively to desired proteins continues to drive innovation at the interface of chemistry and biology. This paper describes the binding of human insulin by the synthetic receptor cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) in vitro. Isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments show that Q7 binds to insulin with an equilibrium association constant of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} and with 50-100-fold selectivity versus proteins that are much larger but lack an N-terminal aromatic residue, and with >1000-fold selectivity versus an insulin variant lacking the N-terminal phenylalanine (Phe) residue. The crystal structure of the Q7{center_dot}insulin complex shows that binding occurs at the N-terminal Phe residue and that the N-terminus unfolds to enable binding. These findings suggest that site-selective recognition is based on the properties inherent to a protein terminus, including the unique chemical epitope presented by the terminal residue and the greater freedom of the terminus to unfold, like the end of a ball of string, to accommodate binding. Insulin recognition was predicted accurately from studies on short peptides and exemplifies an approach to protein recognition by targeting the terminus.

  10. Activated central galanin type 1 receptor alleviated insulin resistance in diabetic rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Bu, Le; Chang, Xusheng; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qian; Su, Bin; Sheng, Chunjun; Qu, Shen

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that central galanin is involved in regulation of insulin resistance in animals. This study investigates whether type 1 galanin receptor (GAL1) in the brain mediates the ameliorative effect of galanin on insulin resistance in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with galanin(1-13)-bradykinin(2-9) amide (M617), a GAL1 agonist, and/or Akti-1/2, an Akt inhibitor, via caudal veins once per day for 10 days. Insulin resistance in muscle tissues was evaluated by glucose tolerance and 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) tests, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression levels, Akt phosphorylation, and GLUT4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) concentration at plasma membranes in muscle cells. The results show that i.c.v. treatment with M617 increased glucose tolerance, 2-NBDG uptake, PPARγ levels, Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 protein, and GLUT4 mRNA expression levels as well as GLUT4 and VAMP2 concentration at plasma membranes. All increases may be blocked by pretreatment with Akti-1/2. These results suggest that activated central GAL1 may trigger the Akt signaling pathway to alleviate insulin resistance in muscle cells. Therefore, the impact of galanin on insulin resistance is mediated mainly by GAL1 in the brain, and the GAL1 agonist may be taken as a potential antidiabetic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27410235

  11. CB1 receptor blockade counters age-induced insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lipina, Christopher; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Davidova, Anastasija; Mitchell, Sharon E; Storey-Gordon, Emma; Hambly, Catherine; Irving, Andrew J; Speakman, John R; Hundal, Harinder S

    2016-04-01

    The endocannabinoid system can modulate energy homeostasis by regulating feeding behaviour as well as peripheral energy storage and utilization. Importantly, many of its metabolic actions are mediated through the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), whose hyperactivation is associated with obesity and impaired metabolic function. Herein, we explored the effects of administering rimonabant, a selective CB1R inverse agonist, upon key metabolic parameters in young (4 month old) and aged (17 month old) adult male C57BL/6 mice. Daily treatment with rimonabant for 14 days transiently reduced food intake in young and aged mice; however, the anorectic response was more profound in aged animals, coinciding with a substantive loss in body fat mass. Notably, reduced insulin sensitivity in aged skeletal muscle and liver concurred with increased CB1R mRNA abundance. Strikingly, rimonabant was shown to improve glucose tolerance and enhance skeletal muscle and liver insulin sensitivity in aged, but not young, adult mice. Moreover, rimonabant-mediated insulin sensitization in aged adipose tissue coincided with amelioration of low-grade inflammation and repressed lipogenic gene expression. Collectively, our findings indicate a key role for CB1R in aging-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction and highlight CB1R blockade as a potential strategy for combating metabolic disorders associated with aging. PMID:26757949

  12. Heat Stress Alters Ovarian Insulin-Mediated Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase and Steroidogenic Signaling in Gilt Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nteeba, Jackson; Sanz-Fernandez, M Victoria; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Ross, Jason W; Keating, Aileen F

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) compromises a variety of reproductive functions in several mammalian species. Inexplicably, HS animals are frequently hyperinsulinemic despite marked hyperthermia-induced hypophagia. Our objectives were to determine the effects of HS on insulin signaling and components essential to steroid biosynthesis in the pig ovary. Female pigs (35 ± 4 kg) were exposed to constant thermoneutral (20°C; 35%-50% humidity; n = 6) or HS conditions (35°C; 20%-35% humidity; n = 6) for either 7 (n = 10) or 35 days (n = 12). After 7 days, HS increased (P < 0.05) ovarian mRNA abundance of the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B subunit 1 (AKT1), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), and aromatase (CYP19a). After 35 days, HS increased INSR, IRS1, AKT1, LDLR, LHCGR, CYP19a, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) ovarian mRNA abundance. In addition, after 35 days, HS increased ovarian phosphorylated IRS1 (pIRS1), phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), STAR, and CYP19a protein abundance. Immunostaining analysis revealed similar localization of INSR and pAKT1 in the cytoplasmic membrane and oocyte cytoplasm, respectively, of all stage follicles, and in theca and granulosa cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that HS alters ovarian insulin-mediated PI3K signaling pathway members, which likely impacts follicle activation and viability. In summary, environmentally induced HS is an endocrine-disrupting exposure that modifies ovarian physiology and potentially compromises production of ovarian hormones essential for fertility and pregnancy maintenance. PMID:25926439

  13. Prostaglandin A2 enhances cellular insulin sensitivity via a mechanism that involves the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Walton, R G; Tian, L; Luo, N; Ho, S-R; Fu, Y; Garvey, W T

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that members of the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors can augment insulin's ability to stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes. In the current study, we endeavored to test for an insulin-sensitizing effect in muscle cells and to identify a potential transactivator. Lentiviral constructs were used to engineer both hyperexpression and shRNA silencing of NR4A3 in C2C12 myocytes. The NR4A3 hyper-expression construct led to a significant increase in glucose transport rates in the presence of maximal insulin while the NR4A3 knock-down exhibited a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport rates. Consistently, insulin-mediated AKT phosphorylation was increased by NR4A3 hyperexpression and decreased following shRNA NR4A3 suppression. Then, we examined effects of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) on insulin action and NR4A3 transactivation. PGA2 augmented insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes and AKT phosphorylation after 12-h treatment, without significant effects on basal transport or basal AKT phosphorylation. More importantly, we demonstrated that PGA2 led to a greater improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose rates in NR4A3 overexpressing C2C12 myocytes, when compared with Lac-Z controls stimulated with insulin and PGA2. Moreover, the sensitizing effect of PGA2 was significantly diminished in NR4A3 knockdown myocytes compared to scramble controls. These results show for the first time that: (i) PGA2 augments insulin action in myocytes as manifested by enhanced stimulation of glucose transport and AKT phosphorylation; and (ii) the insulin sensitizing effect is dependent upon the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. PMID:23104421

  14. si-RNA inhibition of brain insulin or insulin-like growth factor receptors causes developmental cerebellar abnormalities: relevance to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), cerebellar hypoplasia and hypofoliation are associated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance with impaired signaling through pathways that mediate growth, survival, plasticity, metabolism, and neurotransmitter function. To more directly assess the roles of impaired insulin and IGF signaling during brain development, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of si-RNA targeting the insulin receptor, (InR), IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), or IGF-2R into postnatal day 2 (P2) Long Evans rat pups and examined the sustained effects on cerebellar function, structure, and neurotransmitter-related gene expression (P20). Results Rotarod tests on P20 demonstrated significant impairments in motor function, and histological studies revealed pronounced cerebellar hypotrophy, hypoplasia, and hypofoliation in si-InR, si-IGF-1R, and si-IGF-2R treated rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that si-InR, and to a lesser extent si-IGF-2R, broadly inhibited expression of insulin and IGF-2 polypeptides, and insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors in the brain. ELISA studies showed that si-InR increased cerebellar levels of tau, phospho-tau and β-actin, and inhibited GAPDH. In addition, si-InR, si-IGF-1R, and si-IGF-2R inhibited expression of choline acetyltransferase, which mediates motor function. Although the ICV si-RNA treatments generally spared the neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor expression, si-InR and si-IGF-1R inhibited NT3, while si-IGF-1R suppressed BDNF. Conclusions early postnatal inhibition of brain InR expression, and to lesser extents, IGF-R, causes structural and functional abnormalities that resemble effects of FASD. The findings suggest that major abnormalities in brains with FASD are mediated by impairments in insulin/IGF signaling. Potential therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term impact of prenatal alcohol exposure may include treatment with agents

  15. A novel insulin receptor-signaling platform and its link to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Farah; Guo, Merry; Abdulkhalek, Samar; Crawford, Nicola; Amith, Schammim Ray; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-induced insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activation and insulin cell survival responses have been reported to be under the regulation of a membrane associated mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1). The molecular mechanism(s) behind this process is unknown. Here, we uncover a novel Neu1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which is essential for insulin-induced IR activation and cellular signaling. Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin B GPCR form a complex with IRβ subunit on the cell surface. Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®), anti-Neu1 antibodies, broad range MMP inhibitors piperazine and galardin (GM6001), MMP-9 specific inhibitor (MMP-9i), and GPCR neuromedin B specific antagonist BIM-23127 dose-dependently inhibited Neu1 activity associated with insulin stimulated rat hepatoma cells (HTCs) that overly express human IRs (HTC-IR). Tamiflu, anti-Neu1 antibodies and MMP-9i attenuated phosphorylation of IRβ and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) associated with insulin-stimulated cells. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent associated with insulin resistance, induced Neu3 sialidase activity in WG544 or 1140F01 human sialidosis fibroblast cells genetically defective in Neu1. Neu3 antagonist 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA) and anti-Neu3 antibodies inhibited sialidase activity associated with olanzapine treated murine Neu4 knockout macrophage cells. Olanzapine attenuated phosphorylation of IGF-R and IRS1 associated with insulin-stimulated human wild-type fibroblast cells. Our findings identify a novel insulin receptor-signaling platform that is critically essential for insulin-induced IRβ tyrosine kinase activation and cellular signaling. Olanzapine-induced Neu3 sialidase activity attenuated insulin-induced IGF-R and IRS1 phosphorylation contributing to insulin resistance. PMID:24583283

  16. Flexibility in the insulin receptor ectodomain enables docking of insulin in crystallographic conformation observed in a hormone-bound microreceptor.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Harish

    2014-01-01

    Insulin binding to the insulin receptor (IR) is the first key step in initiating downstream signaling cascades for glucose homeostasis in higher organisms. The molecular details of insulin recognition by IR are not yet completely understood, but a picture of hormone/receptor interactions at one of the epitopes (Site 1) is beginning to emerge from recent structural evidence. However, insulin-bound structures of truncated IR suggest that crystallographic conformation of insulin cannot be accommodated in the full IR ectodomain due to steric overlap of insulin with the first two type III fibronectin domains (F1 and F2), which are contributed to the insulin binding-pocket by the second subunit in the IR homodimer. A conformational change in the F1-F2 pair has thus been suggested. In this work, we present an all-atom structural model of complex of insulin and the IR ectodomain, where no structural overlap of insulin with the receptor domains (F1 and F2) is observed. This structural model was arrived at by flexibly fitting parts of our earlier insulin/IR all-atom model into the simulated density maps of crystallized constructs combined with conformational sampling from apo-IR solution conformations. Importantly, our experimentally-consistent model helps rationalize yet unresolved Site. PMID:25309993

  17. Complementation analysis demonstrates that insulin cross-links both alpha subunits in a truncated insulin receptor dimer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shu Jin; Nakagawa, Satoe; Steiner, Donald F

    2007-05-01

    The insulin receptor is a homodimer composed of two alphabeta half receptors. Scanning mutagenesis studies have identified key residues important for insulin binding in the L1 domain (amino acids 1-150) and C-terminal region (amino acids 704-719) of the alpha subunit. However, it has not been shown whether insulin interacts with these two sites within the same alpha chain or whether it cross-links a site from each alpha subunit in the dimer to achieve high affinity binding. Here we have tested the contralateral binding mechanism by analyzing truncated insulin receptor dimers (midi-hIRs) that contain complementary mutations in each alpha subunit. Midi-hIRs containing Ala(14), Ala(64), or Gly(714) mutations were fused with Myc or FLAG epitopes at the C terminus and were expressed separately by transient transfection. Immunoblots showed that R14A+FLAG, F64A+FLAG, and F714G+Myc mutant midi-hIRs were expressed in the medium but insulin binding activity was not detected. However, after co-transfection with R14A+FLAG/F714G+Myc or F64A+FLAG/F714G+Myc, hybrid dimers were obtained with a marked increase in insulin binding activity. Competitive displacement assays revealed that the hybrid mutant receptors bound insulin with the same affinity as wild type and also displayed curvilinear Scatchard plots. In addition, when hybrid mutant midi-hIR was covalently cross-linked with (125)I(A14)-insulin and reduced, radiolabeled monomer was immunoprecipitated only with anti-FLAG, demonstrating that insulin was bound asymmetrically. These results demonstrate that a single insulin molecule can contact both alpha subunits in the insulin receptor dimer during high affinity binding and this property may be an important feature for receptor signaling. PMID:17339314

  18. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in cultured hepatoma cells and a solubilized system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods are described which have been used successfully to study insulin receptor autophosphorylation in cultured cells (hepatoma cell line Fao) and detergent solubilized receptor systems. Intact cultured cells were labelled with /sup 32/PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/. Details are given for the solubilization and purification of the insulin receptor and insulin dose-response curves for phosphorylation of the solubilized insulin receptor. Trypsin digestion of a phosphorylated subunit suggests that at least peptides containing sites of /sup 32/P incorporation exist in the receptor molecule.

  19. IRS1Ser³⁰⁷ phosphorylation does not mediate mTORC1-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Herrema, Hilde; Lee, Jaemin; Zhou, Yingjiang; Copps, Kyle D; White, Morris F; Ozcan, Umut

    2014-01-10

    Increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity has been suggested to play important roles in development of insulin resistance in obesity. mTORC1 hyperactivity also increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which in turn contributes to development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Increased IRS1 phosphorylation at Ser307 in vitro is correlated with mTORC1- and ER stress-induced insulin resistance. This phosphorylation site correlates strongly with impaired insulin receptor signaling in diabetic mice and humans. In contrast, evidence from knock-in mice suggests that phosphorylation of IRS1 at Ser307 is actually required to maintain insulin sensitivity. To study the involvement of IRS1(Ser307) phosphorylation in mTORC1-mediated glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in vivo, we investigated the effects of liver specific TSC1 depletion in IRS1(Ser307Ala) mice and controls. Our results demonstrate that blockade of IRS1(Ser307) phosphorylation in vivo does not prevent mTORC1-mediated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. PMID:24333417

  20. A novel insulin receptor-binding protein from Momordica charantia enhances glucose uptake and glucose clearance in vitro and in vivo through triggering insulin receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Liu, Jau-Jin; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2014-09-10

    Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin is the principal mediator of glucose homeostasis. In a previous study, we identified a trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) in this study, that might interact with IR. The physical and functional interactions between mcIRBP and IR were clearly analyzed in the present study. Photo-cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry showed that three regions (17-21, 34-40, and 59-66 residues) located on mcIRBP physically interacted with leucine-rich repeat domain and cysteine-rich region of IR. IR-binding assay showed that the binding behavior of mcIRBP and insulin displayed a cooperative manner. After binding to IR, mcIRBP activated the kinase activity of IR by (5.87 ± 0.45)-fold, increased the amount of phospho-IR protein by (1.31 ± 0.03)-fold, affected phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways, and consequently stimulated the uptake of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells by (1.36 ± 0.12)-fold. Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 nmol/kg mcIRBP significantly decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.9 ± 3.2% and 10.8 ± 3.6% in normal and diabetic mice, respectively. Microarray analysis showed that mcIRBP affected genes involved in insulin signaling transduction pathway in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mcIRBP is a novel IRBP that binds to sites different from the insulin-binding sites on IR and stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance in mice. PMID:25144709

  1. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.

    1986-11-01

    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  2. H2O2 Signalling Pathway: A Possible Bridge between Insulin Receptor and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Pomytkin, Igor A

    2012-01-01

    This review is focused on the mechanistic aspects of the insulin-induced H2O2 signalling pathway in neurons and the molecules affecting it, which act as risk factors for developing central insulin resistance. Insulin-induced H2O2 promotes insulin receptor activation and the mitochondria act as the insulin-sensitive H2O2 source, providing a direct molecular link between mitochondrial dysfunction and irregular insulin receptor activation. In this view, the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria during chronological ageing and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a risk factor that may contribute to the development of dysfunctional cerebral insulin receptor signalling and insulin resistance. Due to the high significance of insulin-induced H2O2 for insulin receptor activation, oxidative stress-induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., in AD brains, may represent another risk factor contributing to the development of insulin resistance. As insulin-induced H2O2 signalling requires fully functional mitochondria, pharmacological strategies based on activating mitochondria biogenesis in the brain are central to the treatment of diseases associated with dysfunctional insulin receptor signalling in this organ. PMID:23730255

  3. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blazer-Yost, B.L.; Cox, M.

    1987-05-01

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (approx. 0.5-5.0 ..mu..M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na/sup +/ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10..mu..M) of the epithelial Na/sup +/ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10..mu..g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64..mu..M) stimulate Na/sup +/ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF/sub 1/ stimulate Na/sup +/ transport in this tissue support the latter contention.

  4. The Anti-angiogenic Peptide, Loop 6, Binds Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cecilia A.; Roy, Roopali; Lee, Sunyoung; Yang, Jiang; Panigrahy, Dipak; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Moses, Marsha A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), the endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, have been shown to possess biological functions that are independent of their ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. We have previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 and, in particular, Loop 6 inhibit capillary endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate the mechanism by which Loop 6 inhibits angiogenesis, we sought to determine whether its biological effects were the result of a known TIMP-2 protein-protein interaction or of a receptor-mediated event. In this study, we identify insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor as a binding partner of Loop 6/TIMP-2 and characterize this interaction on the endothelial cell surface and the consequences of this interaction on downstream receptor signaling. PMID:20940305

  5. mTOR complex 2 regulates proper turnover of insulin receptor substrate-1 via the ubiquitin ligase subunit Fbw8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Jin; DeStefano, Michael A.; Oh, Won Jun; Wu, Chang-chih; Vega-Cotto, Nicole M.; Finlan, Monica; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Jacinto, Estela

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals from nutrients and insulin via two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Disruption of mTORC2 impairs the insulin-induced activation of Akt, an mTORC2 substrate. Here we found that mTORC2 can also regulate insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Despite phosphorylation at the mTORC1-mediated serine sites, which supposedly triggers IRS-1 downregulation, inactive IRS-1 accumulated in mTORC2-disrupted cells. Defective IRS-1 degradation was due to attenuated expression and phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase substrate-targeting subunit, Fbw8. mTORC2 stabilizes Fbw8 by phosphorylation at Ser86, allowing the insulin-induced translocation of Fbw8 to the cytosol where it mediates IRS-1 degradation. Thus, mTORC2 negatively feeds back to IRS-1 via control of Fbw8 stability and localization. Our findings reveal that in addition to persistent mTORC1 signaling, heightened mTORC2 signals can promote insulin resistance due to mTORC2-mediated degradation of IRS-1. PMID:23142081

  6. Central Insulin Action Activates Kupffer Cells by Suppressing Hepatic Vagal Activation via the Nicotinic Alpha 7 Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kumi; Tanida, Mamoru; Nagata, Naoto; Inaba, Yuka; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Toshinai, Koji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling, which suppresses the gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. The vagus nerve plays an important role in this centrally mediated hepatic response; however, the precise mechanism underlying this brain-liver interaction is unclear. Here, we present our findings that the vagus nerve suppresses hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAchR) on Kupffer cells, and that central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling by suppressing vagal activity. Indeed, central insulin-mediated hepatic IL-6/STAT3 activation and gluconeogenic gene suppression were impeded in mice with hepatic vagotomy, pharmacological cholinergic blockade, or α7-nAchR deficiency. In high-fat diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice, control of the vagus nerve by central insulin action was disturbed, inducing a persistent increase of inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that dysregulation of the α7-nAchR-mediated control of Kupffer cells by central insulin action may affect the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic inflammation in obesity. PMID:26947072

  7. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor phosphorylation in µ-calpain knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous cellular processes are controlled by insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways. Due to previous work in our laboratories, we hypothesized that insulin (IR) and type 1 IGF-I (IGF-IR) receptor signaling is decreased due to increased protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity. C57BL/6J mice...

  8. Concentrations of Insulin Glargine and Its Metabolites During Long-Term Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Comparison of Effects of Insulin Glargine, Its Metabolites, IGF-I, and Human Insulin on Insulin and IGF-I Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Varewijck, Aimee J.; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Schmidt, Ronald; Tennagels, Norbert; Janssen, Joseph A.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 1) the ability of purified glargine (GLA), metabolites 1 (M1) and 2 (M2), IGF-I, and NPH insulin to activate the insulin receptor (IR)-A and IR-B and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro; 2) plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 during long-term insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients; and 3) IR-A and IR-B activation in vitro induced by serum from patients treated with GLA or NPH insulin. A total of 104 patients (age 56.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI 31.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2, and A1C 9.1 ± 0.1% [mean ± SE]) were randomized to GLA or NPH insulin therapy for 36 weeks. Plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay. IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation was induced by purified hormones or serum by kinase receptor activation assays. In vitro, M1 induced comparable IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation (activation) as NPH insulin. After 36 weeks, M1 increased from undetectable (<0.2 ng/mL) to 1.5 ng/mL (0.9–2.1), while GLA and M2 remained undetectable. GLA dose correlated with M1 (r = 0.84; P < 0.001). Serum from patients treated with GLA or NPH insulin induced similar IR-A and IR-B activation. These data suggest that M1 rather than GLA mediates GLA effects and that compared with NPH insulin, GLA does not increase IGF-IR signaling during long-term insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23569175

  9. The Drosophila TNF Eiger Is an Adipokine that Acts on Insulin-Producing Cells to Mediate Nutrient Response.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neha; Delanoue, Renald; Mauri, Alessandra; Basco, Davide; Pasco, Matthieu; Thorens, Bernard; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-04-12

    Adaptation of organisms to ever-changing nutritional environments relies on sensor tissues and systemic signals. Identification of these signals would help understand the physiological crosstalk between organs contributing to growth and metabolic homeostasis. Here we show that Eiger, the Drosophila TNF-α, is a metabolic hormone that mediates nutrient response by remotely acting on insulin-producing cells (IPCs). In the condition of nutrient shortage, a metalloprotease of the TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) family is active in fat body (adipose-like) cells, allowing the cleavage and release of adipose Eiger in the hemolymph. In the brain IPCs, Eiger activates its receptor Grindelwald, leading to JNK-dependent inhibition of insulin production. Therefore, we have identified a humoral connexion between the fat body and the brain insulin-producing cells relying on TNF-α that mediates adaptive response to nutrient deprivation. PMID:27076079

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26514092

  11. 14-3-3 proteins interact with the insulin-like growth factor receptor but not the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, R W; Dey, B R; Lopaczynski, W; Nissley, S P

    1997-01-01

    We have used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins which bind to the cytosolic portion of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGFIR) but not the insulin receptor (IR). This analysis identified 14-3-3beta and zeta proteins. 14-3-3beta also binds to the IGFIR but not the IR in vitro and 14-3-3-IGFIR complexes are present in insect cells overexpressing the IGFIR cytoplasmic domain. 14-3-3 proteins are substrates of the IGFIR in the yeast system and in vitro. The interaction of 14-3-3 with the IGFIR requires receptor-kinase activity and maps to the C-terminus of the receptor, but does not depend on tyrosine residues in this or the juxtamembrane regions. Instead, the binding maps to serine residue 1283 and requires phosphorylation of this residue. 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins which have been shown to interact directly with components of the mitogenic and apoptotic signalling pathways, suggesting that they participate in growth regulation. Our findings suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in IGFIR signal transduction and may contribute to the differences in IGF and IR signalling capabilities. PMID:9581554

  12. Essential Role of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 in Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fasshauer, Mathias; Klein, Johannes; Kriauciunas, Kristina M.; Ueki, Kohjiro; Benito, Manuel; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2001-01-01

    The most widely distributed members of the family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are IRS-1 and IRS-2. These proteins participate in insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, as well as the actions of some cytokines, growth hormone, and prolactin. To more precisely define the specific role of IRS-1 in adipocyte biology, we established brown adipocyte cell lines from wild-type and IRS-1 knockout (KO) animals. Using differentiation protocols, both with and without insulin, preadipocyte cell lines derived from IRS-1 KO mice exhibited a marked decrease in differentiation and lipid accumulation (10 to 40%) compared to wild-type cells (90 to 100%). Furthermore, IRS-1 KO cells showed decreased expression of adipogenic marker proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), fatty acid synthase, uncoupling protein-1, and glucose transporter 4. The differentiation deficit in the KO cells could be reversed almost completely by retrovirus-mediated reexpression of IRS-1, PPARγ, or C/EBPα but not the thiazolidinedione troglitazone. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) assays performed at various stages of the differentiation process revealed a strong and transient activation in IRS-1, IRS-2, and phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase in the wild-type cells, whereas the IRS-1 KO cells showed impaired phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activation, all of which was associated with IRS-2. Akt phosphorylation was reduced in parallel with the total PI 3-kinase activity. Inhibition of PI 3-kinase with LY294002 blocked differentiation of wild-type cells. Thus, IRS-1 appears to be an important mediator of brown adipocyte maturation. Furthermore, this signaling molecule appears to exert its unique role in the differentiation process via activation of PI 3-kinase and its downstream target, Akt, and is upstream of the effects of PPARγ and C/EBPα. PMID:11113206

  13. The Drosophila Insulin Receptor Independently Modulates Lifespan and Locomotor Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640

  14. The Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and locomotor senescence.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohd Zamri Bin Haji; Hodges, Matt D; Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640

  15. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25509050

  16. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25490849

  17. Electrophysiological and behavioral phenotype of insulin receptor defective mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, P.; Parsons, A.D.; Scarborough, J.; Hoffman, J.; Wilson, J.; Thompson, R.N.; Overton, J.M.; Fadool, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory bulb expresses one of the highest levels of insulin found in the brain. A high level of expression of the concomitant insulin receptor (IR) kinase is also retained in this brain region, even in the adult. We have previously demonstrated in a heterologous system that insulin modulates the voltage-dependent potassium channel, Kv1.3, through tyrosine phosphorylation of three key residues in the amino and carboxyl terminus of the channel protein. Phosphorylation also induces current suppression of the Kv1.3-contributed current in cultured olfactory bulb neurons (OBNs) of rodents. In order to explore the behavioral importance of this kinase-induced modulation of the channel for the olfactory ability of the animal, mice with a targeted-gene deletion of the insulin receptor were electrophysiologically and behaviorally characterized. Mice heterozygous for the insulin receptor kinase (IR+/−) gene performed the same as wild-type (+/+) mice when challenged with a traditional, non-learning-based task to test gross anosmia. There was also no significant difference across the two genotypes in tests designed to measure exploratory behavior or in a battery of systems physiology experiments designed to assess metabolic energy usage (locomotion, ingestive behaviors, weight, oxygen consumption, and respiratory quotient). Object memory recognition tests suggest that IR+/− mice have an impairment in recognition of familiarized objects; IR+/− mice demonstrate poor performance for both short-term (1 h) and long-term (24 h) memory tests in comparison to that of wild-type mice. Electrophysiological experiments indicate that mitral cell neurons cultured from both heterozygous and homozygous-null mice (IR+/− and IR−/−) have an decreased peak current amplitude compared with that recorded for wild-type (+/+) animals matched for days in vitro (DIV). These data indicate that the loss of one allele of the IR kinase gene modifies the electrical phenotype of the mitral

  18. Coevolution of insulin-like growth factors, insulin and their receptors and binding proteins in New World Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has shown that the evolution of both insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin shows an episode of accelerated change on the branch leading to New World Monkeys (NWM). Here the possibility that this is accompanied by a corresponding episode of accelerated evolution of IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), insulin receptor (IR) and/or IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) was investigated. Analysis of receptor sequences from a range of primates and some non-primate mammals showed that accelerated evolution did indeed occur on this branch in the case of IGF1R and IR, but not for the similar insulin receptor-related receptor (IRRR) which does not bind insulin or IGF1. Marked accelerated evolution on this branch was also seen for some IGFBPs, but not the mannose 6-phosphate/IGF2 receptor or epidermal growth factor receptor. The rate of evolution slowed before divergence of the lineages leading to the NWM for which sequences are available (Callithrix and Saimiri). For the IGF1R and IR, the accelerated evolution was most marked for the extracellular domains (ectodomains). Application of the branch-site method showed dN/dS ratios significantly greater than 1.0 for both receptor ectodomains and for IGFBP1, and allowed identification of residues likely to have been subject to selection. These residues were concentrated in the N-terminal half of the IGF1R ectodomain but the C-terminal half of the IR ectodomain, which could have implications for the formation of hybrid receptors. Overall the results suggest that adaptive coevolution of IGF1, insulin and their receptors and some IGFBPs occurred during the evolution of NWM. For the most part, the residues that change on this branch could not be associated with specific functional aspects (ligand binding, receptor dimerization, glycosylation) and the physiological significance of this coevolution remains to be established. PMID:26072449

  19. Type 1 Ig-E mediated allergy to human insulin, insulin analogues and beta-lactam antibiotics*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Pedro; Barros, Luísa; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Insulin, a crucial therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus, has been rarely associated with hypersensitivity events. We present a 69-year-old type-2 diabetic patient with urticariform lesions on the sites of subcutaneous injection of insulin. The patient denied any known allergies, except for an unspecific cutaneous reaction after intramuscular penicillin administration in childhood. Prick tests revealed positive reactions to all tested human insulins and insulin analogues. Serum IgE levels were above normal range and RAST tests were positive for human, bovine and porcine insulins, as well as beta-lactams. Type 1 IgE-mediated allergy to insulin analogues demands a prompt diagnosis and represents a significant therapeutic challenge in diabetic patients. PMID:23197216

  20. The tyrphostin NT157 suppresses insulin receptor substrates and augments therapeutic response of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Naokazu; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Reuveni, Hadas; Pandey, Mitali; Fazli, Ladan; Azuma, Haruhito; Gleave, Martin E; Levitzki, Alexander; Cox, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is associated with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) mediate mitogenic and antiapoptotic signaling from IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), insulin receptor, and other oncoproteins. This study demonstrates that IRS1/2 expression is increased in prostate cancer, and persists in CRPC. Furthermore, this study assesses the anticancer activity of NT157, a small molecule tyrphostin targeting IRS proteins, using androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and -independent (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. NT157 treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of IGF1R activation, suppression of IRS protein expression, inhibition of IGF1-induced AKT activation, but increased ERK activation in NT157-treated cells in vitro. These effects were correlated with decreased proliferation and increasing apoptosis of LNCaP cells and increasing G2-M arrest in PC3 cells. NT157 also suppressed androgen-responsive growth, delayed CRPC progression of LNCaP xenografts, and suppressed PC3 tumor growth alone and in combination with docetaxel. This study reports the first preclinical proof-of-principle data that this novel small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IRS1/2 expression, delays CRPC progression, and suppresses growth of CRPC tumors in vitro and in vivo. Demonstration that IRS expression can be increased in response to a variety of stressors that may lead to resistance or reduced effect of the therapies indicate that NT157-mediated IRS1/2 downregulation is a novel therapeutic approach for management of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25267499

  1. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Long-Term Memory Consolidation Following Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Jing-Tao; Chen, Min; Dufour, Franck; Alkon, Daniel L.; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2005-01-01

    Evidence has shown that the insulin and insulin receptor (IR) play a role in cognitive function. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying insulin's action on learning and memory are not yet understood. Here we investigated changes in long-term memory-associated expression of the IR and downstream molecules in the rat hippocampus. After…

  2. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T.; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l−1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance. PMID:24995000

  3. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l(-1) insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance. PMID:24995000

  4. High-fat diet-mediated lipotoxicity and insulin resistance is related to impaired lipase expression in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Vila, Isabelle K; Louche, Katie; Mairal, Aline; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Bourlier, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Elevated expression/activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and/or reduced activity of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in skeletal muscle are causally linked to insulin resistance in vitro. We investigated here the effect of high-fat feeding on skeletal muscle lipolytic proteins, lipotoxicity, and insulin signaling in vivo. Five-week-old C3H mice were fed normal chow diet (NCD) or 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks. Wild-type and HSL knockout mice fed NCD were also studied. Whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity, as well as lipolytic protein expression, lipid levels, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, were measured. HFD induced whole-body insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake compared with NCD. HFD increased skeletal muscle total diacylglycerol (DAG) content, protein kinase Cθ and protein kinase Cε membrane translocation, and impaired insulin signaling as reflected by a robust increase of basal Ser1101 insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation (2.8-fold, P < .05) and a decrease of insulin-stimulated v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog Ser473 (-37%, P < .05) and AS160 Thr642 (-47%, P <.01) phosphorylation. We next showed that HFD strongly reduced HSL phosphorylation at Ser660. HFD significantly up-regulated the muscle protein content of the ATGL coactivator comparative gene identification 58 and triacylglycerol hydrolase activity, despite a lower ATGL protein content. We further show a defective skeletal muscle insulin signaling and DAG accumulation in HSL knockout compared with wild-type mice. Together, these data suggest a pathophysiological link between altered skeletal muscle lipase expression and DAG-mediated insulin resistance in mice. PMID:23471217

  5. miR-200a regulates Rheb-mediated amelioration of insulin resistance after duodenal–jejunal bypass

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Han, H; Wang, Y; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Zhang, G; Hu, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Duodenal–jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery can induce the rapid and durable remission of diabetes. Recent studies indicate that ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance and improved insulin signaling might contribute to the diabetic control observed after DJB. Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is reported to have an important role in insulin pathway, and some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to regulate Rheb. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DJB on hepatic insulin resistance and the effects of miRNA-200a, a Rheb-targeting miRNA, on the development of DJB-induced amelioration in hepatic insulin resistance. Subjects: We investigated hepatic insulin signaling change and mapped the hepatic miRNAome involved in a rat model of DJB. We studied the effects of miR-200a on Rheb signaling pathway in buffalo rat liver cell lines. Liver tissues were studied and glucose tolerance tests were conducted in DJB rats injected with lentivirus encoding miR-200a inhibitor and diabetic rats injected with miR-200a mimic. Results: Rheb is a potential target of miR-200a. Transfection with an miR-200a inhibitor increased Rheb protein levels and enhanced the feedback action on insulin receptor substrate-dependent insulin signaling, whereas transfection with an miR-200a mimic produced the opposite effects. A luciferase assay confirmed that miR-200a bind to the 3′UTR (untranslated regions) of Rheb. Global downregulation of miR-200a in DJB rats showed impaired insulin sensitivity whereas upregulation of miR-200a in diabetic rats showed amelioration of diabetes. Conclusions: A novel mechanism was identified, in which miR-200a regulates the Rheb-mediated amelioration of insulin resistance in DJB. The findings suggest miR-200a should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27121251

  6. GPRC6A mediates the effects of L-arginine on insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Pi, Min; Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan; Quarles, L Darryl

    2012-10-01

    L-arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice to L-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to L-Arg administration to Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice in vivo and L-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice. L-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  7. GPRC6A Mediates the Effects of l-Arginine on Insulin Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a−/]minus] mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice to l-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to l-Arg administration to Gprc6a−/]minus] mice in vivo and l-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice. l-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  8. The Insulin Receptor: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Roberta; Belfiore, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidences have shown that both the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR) play a role in cancer development and progression. In particular, IR overactivation by IGF-II is common in cancer cells, especially in dedifferentiated/stem-like cells. In spite of these findings, until very recently, only IGF-IR but not IR has been considered a target in cancer therapy. Although several preclinical studies have showed a good anti-cancer activity of selective anti-IGF-IR drugs, the results of the clinical first trials have been disappointing. In fact, only a small subset of malignant tumors has shown an objective response to these therapies. Development of resistance to anti-IGF-IR drugs may include upregulation of IR isoform A (IR-A) in cancer cells and its overactivation by increased secretion of autocrine IGF-II. These findings have led to the concept that co-targeting IR together with IGF-IR may increase therapy efficacy and prevent adaptive resistance to selective anti-IGF-IR drugs. IR blockade should be especially considered in tumors with high IR-A:IGF-IR ratio and high levels of autocrine IGF-II. Conversely, insulin sensitizers, which ameliorate insulin resistance associated with metabolic disorders and cancer treatments, may have important implications for cancer prevention and management. Only few drugs co-targeting the IR and IGF-IR are currently available. Ideally, future IR targeting strategies should be able to selectively inhibit the tumor promoting effects of IR without impairing its metabolic effects. PMID:22654833

  9. Multiple Signaling Pathways of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Protection from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Francesca; Prisco, Marco; Dews, Michael; Salomoni, Paolo; Grassilli, Emanuela; Romano, Gaetano; Calabretta, Bruno; Baserga, Renato

    1999-01-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), activated by its ligands, protects several cell types from a variety of apoptotic injuries. The main signaling pathway for IGF-1R-mediated protection from apoptosis has been previously elucidated and rests on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. In 32D cells (a murine hemopoietic cell line devoid of insulin receptor substrate 1 [IRS-1]), the IGF-1R activates alternative pathways for protection from apoptosis induced by withdrawal of interleukin-3. One of these pathways leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, while a third pathway results in the mitochondrial translocation of Raf and depends on the integrity of a group of serines in the C terminus of the receptor that are known to interact with 14.3.3 proteins. All three pathways, however, result in BAD phosphorylation. The presence of multiple antiapoptotic pathways may explain the remarkable efficacy of the IGF-1R in protecting cells from apoptosis. PMID:10490655

  10. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians. PMID:26772721

  11. Changes in erythrocyte insulin receptors in normal dogs and keeshond dogs with inheritable, early onset, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Validation of a procedure to evaluate insulin receptors on erythrocytes (RBC-IR) in dogs is described. The specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin to RBC-IR of normal dogs is significantly greater than binding in keeshonds with an inheritable form of early onset diabetes mellitus. This decreased binding was due to a significant decrease in RBC-IR affinity in the diabetic keeshonds. To determine the effect on RBC-IR, normal dogs were treated with either dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or prednisone (0.3 mg/kg) for 10 days: concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin, plus binding characteristics of RBC-IR were determined. In the dexamethasone treated group, plasma glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 6 and continued through day 10. Insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3 and remained elevated through day 10. In the prednisone treated group, glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3, while insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 8. Maximum binding of RBC-IR was unaffected by prednisone and neither affinities nor receptor numbers were significantly different from day 1. No changes in plasma cortisol concentration were seen. Diabetic keeshonds on daily insulin treatment were removed from exogenous insulin therapy for 48 hours. Significant increases in glucose concentrations were observed, but no significant changes in cortisol, insulin, average receptor binding affinity, or RBC-IR number per cell occurred.

  12. Identification of determinants that confer ligand specificity on the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A S; Kjeldsen, T; Wiberg, F C; Vissing, H; Schäffer, L; Rasmussen, J S; De Meyts, P; Møller, N P

    1992-07-01

    We have previously shown, using truncated soluble recombinant receptors, that substituting the 62 N-terminal amino acids of the alpha subunit from the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) with the corresponding 68 amino acids from the insulin receptor (IR) results in a chimeric receptor with an approximately 200-fold increase in affinity for insulin and only a 5-fold decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) affinity (Kjeldsen, T., Andersen, A. S., Wiberg, F. C., Rasmussen, J. S., Schäffer, L., Balschmidt, P., Møller, K. B., and Møller, N. P. H. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 4404-4408). We demonstrate that these 68 N-terminal amino acids of the IR also confer insulin affinity on the intact IGFI holoreceptor both in the membrane-bound state and when solubilized by Triton X-100. Furthermore, this domain can be subdivided into two regions (amino acids 1-27 and 28-68 of the IR alpha subunit) that, when replacing the corresponding IGFIR sequences, increases the insulin affinity of truncated soluble receptor chimeras 8- and 20-fold, respectively, with only minor effects on the IGFI affinity. Within the latter of these two regions, we found that amino acids 38-68 of the IR, representing 13 amino acid differences from IGFIR, confer the same 20-fold increase in insulin affinity on the IGFIR. Finally, the amino acids from position 42 to 50 are not responsible for this increase in insulin affinity. We thus propose that at least two determinants within the 68 N-terminal amino acids of the insulin receptor are involved in defining the ligand specificity of the insulin receptor, and that one or a combination of the remaining seven amino acid differences between position 38 and 68 are involved in conferring insulin affinity on the insulin receptor. PMID:1320025

  13. Identification and characterization of the insulin receptor of bovine retinal microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, J.F.; Meezan, E.; Pillion, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The presence of specific, high affinity receptors for insulin has been demonstrated in purified preparations of bovine retinal microvessels. The binding of (/sup 125/I)insulin to isolated retinal microvessels was inhibited by unlabeled insulin, but not by other peptide hormones. Scatchard analysis of the (/sup 125/I)insulin binding data gave a curvilinear plot similar to that exhibited by insulin receptors in known insulin-sensitive tissues such as adipocytes and hepatocytes. Binding of (/sup 125/I)insulin to retinal microvessels, followed by covalent cross-linking of the bound ligand to the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor with the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate, yielded a prominent specific (/sup 125/I)insulin-labeled band when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography, and this band had a mobility identical to that of the corresponding complex obtained with rat liver plasma membranes (mol wt, 125,000). These results demonstrate for the first time that the retinal microvasculature, a major site of pathological injury in diabetes mellitus, contains insulin receptors that are similar to those present in known insulin-sensitive tissues, such as liver, fat, and muscle.

  14. Insulin receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens reflects nutritive value of a recently ingested meal.

    PubMed

    Woods, C A; Guttman, Z R; Huang, D; Kolaric, R A; Rabinowitsch, A I; Jones, K T; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Sclafani, A; Carr, K D

    2016-05-15

    With respect to feeding, insulin is typically thought of as a satiety hormone, acting in the hypothalamus to limit ingestive behavior. However, accumulating evidence suggests that insulin also has the ability to alter dopamine release in the striatum and influence food preferences. With increased access to high calorie foods, Western societies have a high prevalence of obesity, accompanied by insulin insensitivity. Little is known about how insulin is trafficked into the brain following food consumption and whether insulin insensitivity in the periphery is mirrored in the central nervous system. We investigated insulin receptor activation in the ventral striatum of rats receiving water or 16% glucose either orally or intragastrically. We also investigated whether glucose-induced insulin receptor activation was altered in food-restricted (FR) or diet-induced obesity (OB) rat models. Lastly, we examined whether insulin plays a significant role in flavor-nutrient preference learning. Glucose intake stimulated a rapid increase in insulin receptor activity in the ventral striatum of FR and ad libitum (AL) fed rats, but not OB rats. Similarly, both AL and FR, but not OB rats demonstrated significant flavor-nutrient preferences. However AL rats receiving brief inhibition of insulin activity during conditioning failed to acquire a significant flavor-nutrient preference. These findings suggest that impaired insulin receptor activation in the ventral striatum may result in inaccurate valuation of nutritive foods, which could lead to overconsumption of food or the selection of foods that don't accurately meet the body's current physiological needs. PMID:26988281

  15. Insulin-like factor regulates neural induction through an IGF1 receptor-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Shuji; Oshima, Tomomi; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Asashima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling is required for normal embryonic growth and development. Previous reports indicated that the IGF/IGF1R/MAPK pathway contributes to neural induction and the IGF/IGF1R/PI3K/Akt pathway to eye development. Here, we report the isolation of insulin3 encoding a novel insulin-like ligand involved in neural induction. Insulin3 has a similar structure to pro-insulin and mature IGF ligands, but cannot activate the IGF1 receptor. However, similar to IGFs, Insulin3 induced the gene expression of an anterior neural marker, otx2, and enlarged anterior head structures by inhibiting Wnt signalling. Insulin3 are predominantly localised to the endoplasmic reticulum when otx2 is induced by insulin3. Insulin3 reduced extracellular Wnts and cell surface localised Lrp6. These results suggest that Insulin3 is a novel cell-autonomous inhibitor of Wnt signalling. This study provides the first evidence that an insulin-like factor regulates neural induction through an IGF1R-independent mechanism. PMID:26112133

  16. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:25654406

  17. Effect of Scoparia dulcis extract on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan; Rao, Chippada Appa

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the insulin-receptor-binding effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male Wistar rats, using circulating erythrocytes (ER) as a model system. An aqueous extract of S dulcis plant (SPEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally. We measured blood levels of glucose and plasma insulin and the binding of insulin to cell-membrane ER receptors. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. The mean specific binding of insulin to ER was significantly lower in diabetic control rats (DC) (55.0 +/- 2.8%) than in SPEt-treated (70.0 +/- 3.5%)- and glibenclamide-treated (65.0 +/- 3.3%) diabetic rats, resulting in a significant decrease in plasma insulin. Scatchard plot analysis demonstrated that the decrease in insulin binding was accounted for by a lower number of insulin receptor sites per cell in DC rats when compared with SPEt- and glibenclamide-treated rats. High-affinity (Kd1), low-affinity (Kd2), and kinetic analysis revealed an increase in the average receptor affinity in ER from SPEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats having 2.5 +/- 0.15 x 10(10) M(-1) (Kd1); 17.0 +/- 1.0 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2), and 2.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-10) M(-1) (Kd1); 12.3 +/- 0.9 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2) compared with 1.0 +/- 0.08 x 10(-10) M(-1) (Kd1); 2.7 +/- 0.25 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2) in DC rats. The results suggest an acute alteration in the number of insulin receptors on ER membranes in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with SPEt and glibenclamide significantly improved specific insulin binding, with receptor number and affinity binding (p < 0.001) reaching almost normal non-diabetic levels. The data presented here show that SPEt and glibenclamide increase total ER membrane insulin binding sites with a concomitant significant increase in plasma insulin. PMID:15803960

  18. Insulin signaling, lifespan and stress resistance are modulated by metabotropic GABA receptors on insulin producing cells in the brain of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Enell, Lina E; Kapan, Neval; Söderberg, Jeannette A E; Kahsai, Lily; Nässel, Dick R

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) regulate growth, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, life span and stress resistance in worms, flies and mammals. A set of insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain that express three ILPs (DILP2, 3 and 5) have been the main focus of interest in hormonal DILP signaling. Little is, however, known about factors that regulate DILP production and release by these IPCs. Here we show that the IPCs express the metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GBR), but not the ionotropic GABA(A) receptor subunit RDL. Diminishing the GBR expression on these cells by targeted RNA interference abbreviates life span, decreases metabolic stress resistance and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at stress, but not growth in Drosophila. A direct effect of diminishing GBR on IPCs is an increase in DILP immunofluorescence in these cells, an effect that is accentuated at starvation. Knockdown of irk3, possibly part of a G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel that may link to GBRs, phenocopies GBR knockdown in starvation experiments. Our experiments suggest that the GBR is involved in inhibitory control of DILP production and release in adult flies at metabolic stress and that this receptor mediates a GABA signal from brain interneurons that may convey nutritional signals. This is the first demonstration of a neurotransmitter that inhibits insulin signaling in its regulation of metabolism, stress and life span in an invertebrate brain. PMID:21209905

  19. Differences in the sites of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Takayama, S.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-08-05

    Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was studied in intact well differentiated hepatoma cells (Fao) and in a solubilized and partially purified receptor preparation obtained from these cells by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin agarose. Tryptic peptides containing the phosphorylation sites of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphoamino acid content of these peptides was determined by acid hydrolysis and high voltage electrophoresis. Separation of the phosphopeptides from unstimulated Fao cells revealed one major and two minor phosphoserine-containing peptides and a single minor phosphothreonine-containing peptide. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor 3- to 4-fold in the intact Fao cell. After insulin stimulation, two phosphotyrosine-containing peptides were identified. Tyrosine phosphorylation reached a steady state within 20 s after the addition of insulin and remained nearly constant for 1 h. Under our experimental conditions, no significant change in the amount of (TSP)phosphoserine or (TSP)phosphothreonine associated with the beta-subunit was found during the initial response of cells to insulin. When the insulin receptor was extracted from the Fao cells and incubated in vitro with (gamma-TSP)ATP and MnS , very little phosphorylation occurred in the absence of insulin.

  20. Role of the occult insulin receptors in the regulation of atrophy and hypertrophy of skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    Insulin levels in the plasma are variable, as are insulin receptor numbers on the surface of skeletal muscles. Increased blood supply to the muscle during exercise delivers more insulin to the muscles even though insulin levels are suppressed by epinephrine. Increasing muscle temperatures result in an increased insulin effect, if enough receptors are available for binding. In exhaustive exercise, insulin levels are minimal but the movement of glucose across the cell membrane increases. Since insulin-receptor affinity decreases at high temperature, the only way this increased movement of glucose can be accomplished is by increased insulin binding. Thus more receptors must be available to capture the insulin. Epinephrine levels drop drastically after exercise. Insulin levels increase and the cell can import glucose, amino acids, and nucleotides. As the cell temperature decreases after exercise, insulin binding increases but the total effect decreases because the many surface receptors disappear again over a period of time. If the muscle is immobilized, the number of surface receptors decreases. There is less insulin effect and as a result the muscle atrophies. Acetylcholine (ACh) causes the proper arrangement of the myofibrils in the foetus, and has some effect on the rate of atrophy in an immobilized muscle. It also appears to maintain the cell membrane organization. Disuse atrophy is caused by a decrease in cell size, while exercise hypertrophy is caused by an increase in cell size. Growth hormone (STH) is therefore ruled out as the exercise hypertrophy controlling factor, since STH causes cell division and not hypertrophy. Testosterone can also be ruled out as the controlling factor in the development of hypertrophy and atrophy of muscles. Estrogen can likewise be ruled out. (ERB)

  1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel regulates diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjung; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Patel, Payal R; Hu, Xiaodi; Lee, Yongjin; Azuma, Yoshihiro; Wang, Hsun-Fan; Tsitsilianos, Nicholas; Shafiq, Umber; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K

    2015-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent studies have shown a metabolic role of capsaicin that may be mediated via the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel. In this study, TRPV1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice (as controls) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and metabolic studies were performed to measure insulin and leptin action. The TRPV1 KO mice became more obese than the WT mice after HFD, partly attributed to altered energy balance and leptin resistance in the KO mice. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiment showed that the TRPV1 KO mice were more insulin resistant after HFD because of the ∼40% reduction in glucose metabolism in the white and brown adipose tissue, compared with that in the WT mice. Leptin treatment failed to suppress food intake, and leptin-mediated hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activity was blunted in the TRPV1 KO mice. We also found that the TRPV1 KO mice were more obese and insulin resistant than the WT mice at 9 mo of age. Taken together, these results indicate that lacking TRPV1 exacerbates the obesity and insulin resistance associated with an HFD and aging, and our findings further suggest that TRPV1 has a major role in regulating glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin's effects in obesity. PMID:25888600

  2. Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Dissociates Fatty Liver from Insulin Resistance by Inducing FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peipei; Yan, Jiong; Liu, Ke; Garbacz, Wojciech G.; Wang, Pengcheng; Xu, Meishu; Ma, Xiaochao; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), also known as the dioxin receptor, was originally characterized as a xenobiotic receptor that senses xenotoxicants. Here we investigated the endobiotic and hepatic role of AHR in fatty liver and energy metabolism, and identified the endocrine factor that mediates the metabolic function of AHR. Wild type and liver-specific constitutively activated human AHR transgenic (TG) mice were used to investigate the role of AHR in fatty liver and energy homeostasis. Adenovirus expressing short hairpin RNA targeting the fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were used to determine the involvement of FGF21 in the metabolic effect of AHR. We showed that despite their severe fatty liver, the TG mice were protected from diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. We identified the endocrine hormone FGF21 as a mediator for the metabolic benefit of AHR and established FGF21 as a direct transcriptional target of AHR. Interestingly, the transactivation of FGF21 by AHR contributed to both hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin hypersensitivity, both of which were largely abolished upon FGF21 knockdown. Conclusions The AHR-FGF21 endocrine signaling pathway establishes AHR as a pivotal environmental modifier that integrates signals from chemical exposure in the regulation of lipid and energy metabolism. PMID:25614121

  3. n-3 Fatty acids preserve insulin sensitivity in vivo in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Morino, Katsutaro; Dong, Jianying; Wang-Fischer, Yanlin; Cline, Gary W; Romanelli, Anthony J; Rossbacher, Jörg C; Moore, Irene K; Regittnig, Werner; Munoz, David S; Kim, Jung H; Shulman, Gerald I

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that n-3 fatty acids, abundant in fish oil, protect against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation and a subsequent decrease in intracellular lipid abundance. To directly test this hypothesis, we fed PPAR-alpha null and wild-type mice for 2 weeks with isocaloric high-fat diets containing 27% fat from either safflower oil or safflower oil with an 8% fish oil replacement (fish oil diet). In both genotypes the safflower oil diet blunted insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (P < 0.02 vs. genotype control) and PEPCK gene expression. Feeding wild-type mice a fish oil diet restored hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose production [HGP], P < 0.002 vs. wild-type mice fed safflower oil), whereas in contrast, in PPAR-alpha null mice failed to counteract hepatic insulin resistance (HGP, P = NS vs. PPAR-alpha null safflower oil-fed mice). In PPAR-alpha null mice fed the fish oil diet, safflower oil plus fish oil, hepatic insulin resistance was dissociated from increases in hepatic triacylglycerol and acyl-CoA but accompanied by a more than threefold increase in hepatic diacylglycerol concentration (P < 0.0001 vs. genotype control). These data support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect from high-fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance in a PPAR-alpha-and diacylglycerol-dependent manner. PMID:17251275

  4. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Girbau, M; Bassas, L; Alemany, J; de Pablo, F

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage. Images PMID:2548191

  5. Colocalisation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in cultured rat sensory and sympathetic ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    KARAGIANNIS, S. N.; KING, R. H. M.; THOMAS, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    Peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons are known to possess insulin receptors. These have been considered to be of the peripheral type, i.e. similar to those of hepatic and fat cells rather than of the brain type which show dual specificity for both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). We have examined the localisation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in cultured sensory and sympathetic ganglion cells using confocal microscopy and indirect labelling with FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and TRITC (tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate) respectively. We have shown that in cultured U266B1 multiple myeloma cells these receptors display separate localisation, whereas they are colocalised in IM-9 lymphocytes which are known to possess hybrid receptors. We have confirmed the sequestration of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the cytoplasm of sensory and sympathetic neurons, consistent with a brain-type receptor. The colocalisation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in sensory and sympathetic ganglion cells is consistent with the view that they are hybrid receptors, similar to those present in the CNS. The function of these receptors, as suggested for the CNS, may be related to trophic support for neurons. PMID:9419000

  6. A BRET-based homogeneous insulin assay using interacting domains in the primary binding site of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Hajime; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio; Funabashi, Hisakage

    2015-03-01

    A new homogeneous insulin assay requiring no chemical modification of an insulin recognition domain, which can be applied to continuous monitoring of the time-dependent cellular response in vitro, was developed. The carboxy-terminal α-chain (αCT) segment and first leucine-rich-repeat (L1) domain in the primary binding site on the insulin receptor were genetically fused with a bioluminescent protein (Nanoluc, Nluc) and a fluorescent protein (yellow fluorescent protein, YPet) to produce the insulin-sensing probe proteins Nluc-αCT and L1-YPet. The BRET signal was observed on simple mixing of insulin with these protein probes, in a so-called homogeneous assay. The BRET signal was proportional to the insulin concentration, and the lower detection limit was 0.8 μM. Time-dependent insulin secretion from drug-stimulated MIN6 cells was also successfully monitored continuously with the probe proteins. This BRET-based homogeneous insulin assay method is thus expected to be applicable to drug development by high-throughput screening. PMID:25655236

  7. Role of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 phosphorylation and adiponectin in adipose tissue insulin resistance in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Julio; de Castro, Javier; Bocos, Carlos; Herrera, Emilio; Ramos, M Pilar

    2007-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a hallmark of late pregnancy both in human and rat. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues that most actively contributes to this reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in adipose tissue at late pregnancy. To this end, we analyzed the insulin signaling cascade in lumbar adipose tissue of nonpregnant and pregnant (d 20) rats both under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. We found that the levels of relevant signaling proteins, such as insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, ERK1/2, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) did not change at late pregnancy. However, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR and IRS-1 were significantly decreased, coincident with decreased IRS-1/p85 association and impaired phosphorylation of AKR mouse thymoma viral protooncogene (Akt) and ERK1/2. This impaired activation of IRS-1 occurred together with an increase of IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine 307 and a decrease in adiponectin levels. To corroborate the role of IRS-1 in adipose tissue insulin resistance during pregnancy, we treated pregnant rats with the antidiabetic drug englitazone. Englitazone improved glucose tolerance, and this pharmacological reversal of insulin resistance was paralleled by an increase of adiponectin levels in adipose tissue as well as by a reduction of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Furthermore, the impaired insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in adipose tissue of pregnant animals could be restored ex vivo by treating isolated adipocytes with adiponectin. Together, our findings support a role for adiponectin and serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the modulation of insulin resistance in adipose tissue at late pregnancy. PMID:17823255

  8. Demonstration of the insulin receptor in vivo in rabbits and its possible role as a reservoir for the plasma hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Zeleznik, A J; Roth, J

    1978-01-01

    Based on studies of the interaction of insulin with its receptors in vitro, we calculated that a receptor compartment should be measurable directly in vivo. For this purpose, rabbits were injected intravenously with a labeled insulin that has low affinity for receptors in combination with a radioiodinated insulin that has high affinity for receptors. Plasma concentrations of labeled insulins were measured at selected intervals after injection. Apparent volumes of distribution were calculated by extrapolation of plasma distribution were calculated by extrapolation of plasma disappearance curves; high affinity insulins consistently distributed into spaces that were two-three times greater than those of the low affinity insulins. Injections of unlabeled pork insulin before tracer insulins decreased the distribution space of the high affinity insulin in a dose-dependent manner while having little or no effect on the distribution space of the low affinity labeled insulin. When unlabeled insulin was injected after the tracer insulins, there was an immediate rise in the plasma concentration of the high affinity insulin with only a slight change in the plasma concentration of the low affinity insulin. These results demonstrate that high affinity insulins distribute into a body compartment which has many properties of the insulin receptor previously studied in vitro. This receptor compartment: (a) recognizes insulins based on their biological potencies; (b) is saturated by elevated concentrations of insulin; and (c) insulin bound to receptors is in equilibrium with free hormone in plasma. Further, the bound to free ratios for hormone, calculated from these data, suggest that in vivo greater than 50% of the extrapancreatic insulin is bound to receptors during normal physiological states. PMID:659598

  9. Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?

    PubMed

    Adabimohazab, Razieh; Garfinkel, Amanda; Milam, Emily C; Frosch, Olivia; Mangone, Alexander; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin was the only individual marker selected as a predictor of IR by RF, and the balance score only revealed a medium-to-low importance score. Neither adiponectin nor the inflammation balance score was found to mediate the relationship between obesity and IR. These findings do not support the premise that low-grade systemic inflammation is a key for the expression of IR in the human. Prospective longitudinal studies should confirm these findings. PMID:26956471

  10. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor II receptors by growth hormone and insulin in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnroth, P; Assmundsson, K; Edén, S; Enberg, G; Gause, I; Hall, K; Smith, U

    1987-01-01

    The acute and long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on the binding of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) were evaluated in adipose cells from hypophysectomized rats given replacement therapy with thyroxine and hydrocortisone and in cells from their sham-operated littermates. After the cells were incubated with insulin and/or GH, the recycling of IGF-II receptors was metabolically inhibited by treating the cells with KCN. IGF-II binding was 100 +/- 20% higher in cells from GH-deficient animals when compared with sham-operated controls. These GH-deficient cells also showed an increased sensitivity for insulin as compared with control cells (the EC50 for insulin was 0.06 ng/ml in GH-deficient cells and 0.3 ng/ml in control cells). However, the maximal incremental effect of insulin on IGF-II binding was reduced approximately 27% by hypophysectomy. GH added to the incubation medium increased the number of IGF-II binding sites by 100 +/- 18% in cells from hypophysectomized animals. This increase was rapidly induced (t1/2, approximately 10 min), but the time course was slower than that for the stimulatory effect of insulin. Half-maximal effect of GH on IGF-II binding was obtained at approximately equal to 10 ng/ml. Thus, GH added in vitro exerted a rapid insulin-like effect on the number of IGF-II receptors. GH also appears to play a regulating role for maintaining the cellular number of IGF-II receptors and, in addition, modulates the stimulatory effect of insulin on IGF-II binding. PMID:2954159

  11. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by

  12. An insulin receptor mutant (Asp707 --> Ala), involved in leprechaunism, is processed and transported to the cell surface but unable to bind insulin.

    PubMed

    Hart, L M; Lindhout, D; Van der Zon, G C; Kayserilli, H; Apak, M Y; Kleijer, W J; Van der Vorm, E R; Maassen, J A

    1996-08-01

    We have identified a homozygous mutation near the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor (IR) alpha subunit from a leprechaun patient, changing Asp707 into Ala. Fibroblasts from this patient had no high affinity insulin binding sites. To examine the effect of the mutation on IR properties, the mutant IR was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Western blot analysis and metabolic labeling showed a normal processing of the mutant receptor to alpha and beta subunits. No increase in high affinity insulin binding sites was observed on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mutant receptor, and also, affinity cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin by disuccinimidyl suberate to these cells failed to label the mutant alpha subunit. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins by biotin succinimidyl ester resulted in efficient biotinylation of the mutant IR alpha and beta subunits, showing its presence on the cell surface. On solubilization of the mutant insulin receptor in Triton X-100-containing buffers, 125I-insulin was efficiently cross-linked to the receptor alpha subunit by disuccinimidyl suberate. These studies demonstrate that Ala707 IR is normally processed and transported to the cell surface and that the mutation distorts the insulin binding site. Detergent restores this site. This is an example of a naturally occurring mutation in the insulin receptor that affects insulin binding without affecting receptor transport and processing. This mutation points to a major contribution of the alpha subunit carboxyl terminus to insulin binding. PMID:8702527

  13. Aberrant Liver Insulin Receptor Isoform A Expression Normalises with Remission of Type 2 Diabetes after Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Besic, Vinko; Shi, Hongjun; Stubbs, Richard S.; Hayes, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from a combination of progressive insulin resistance and loss of pancreatic beta cell function and/or mass. Insulin signalling occurs through the insulin receptor, (INSR) which is alternatively spliced into two isoforms: INSRA (-exon 11) and INSRB (+exon 11). Because the INSR isoforms have different functional characteristics, their relative expression ratio has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. We studied levels of INSR isoform mRNA in liver samples taken from 46 individuals with or without T2DM at Roux-en-Y (RYGB) surgery, and on average 17 (± 5.6) months later in 16 of the same individuals (8 diabetic and non-diabetic patients). INSRA or INSRB was also overexpressed in HepG2 cells to ascertain their effect on AKT phosphorylation and PCK1 expression as markers of insulin-mediated metabolic signalling. We found the INSRB:A isoform ratio was reduced in individuals with T2DM in comparison to those with normal glucose tolerance and normalised with remission of diabetes. The INSRB:A ratio increased due to a reduction in the alternatively spliced INSRA isoform following remission of diabetes. Overexpressing INSRA isoform in HepG2 hepatoma cells reduced inhibition of PCK1 transcription and did not increase AKT phosphorylation in response to insulin load compared to the effect of overexpressing the B isoform. Data presented here revitalizes the role of the INSR isoforms in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and suggests that an abrogated INSRB:A ratio that favours the INSRA isoform may negatively impact insulin-mediated metabolic signalling. PMID:25742416

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor density correlates with health risk factors and insulin resistance in Caucasian and African American subjects.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Chen, Y; Poth, M; Smith, Z P; Deuster, P A

    2012-09-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to secretion of cortisol, which binds to peripheral glucocorticoid receptor and mediates a complex series of metabolic and immune effects. Cortisol also binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and inhibits further secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone thus preventing an excessive response. Excess glucocorticoid effect is seen in Cushings disease, adrenal adenomas/carcinomas and in glucocorticoid resistance. Within such pathology there are health consequences of excessive glucocorticoid action, including obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance or diabetes. We hypothesized that increased glucocorticoid receptor in peripheral tissue might mediate an excess glucocorticoid effect in the absence of increased cortisol secretion. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between glucocorticoid receptor density in leukocytes and health risk indices relevant to obesity and diabetes in a sample of Caucasian and African American subjects. Comparison of glucocorticoid receptor concentration with subject body mass index, percentage body fat, waist circumference, insulin resistance, plasma cortisol levels, gender, and lipid profiles were conducted. Increased glucocorticoid receptor density significantly correlated with body mass index, percentage body fat, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. No significant correlation was observed for glucocorticoid receptor density with lipid profiles. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in glucocorticoid receptor density between Caucasian and African American subjects or male and female participants. Our results show that high risk health conditions, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, may be associated with a form of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, characterized by localized leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor over-expression. PMID:22851186

  15. [PPAR receptors and insulin sensitivity: new agonists in development].

    PubMed

    Pégorier, J-P

    2005-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones) are synthetic PPARgamma (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma) ligands with well recognized effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The clinical use of these PPARgamma agonists in type 2 diabetic patients leads to an improved glycemic control and an inhanced insulin sensitivity, and at least in animal models, to a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell function. However, they can produce adverse effects, generally mild or moderate, but some of them (mainly peripheral edema and weight gain) may conduct to treatment cessation. Several pharmacological classes are currently in pre-clinical or clinical development, with the objective to retain the beneficial metabolic properties of PPARgamma agonists, either alone or in association with the PPARalpha agonists (fibrates) benefit on lipid profile, but devoid of the side-effects on weight gain and fluid retention. These new pharmacological classes: partial PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma antagonists, dual PPARalpha/PPARgamma agonists, pan PPARalpha/beta(delta)/gamma agonists, RXR receptor agonists (rexinoids), are presented in this review. Main results from in vitro cell experiments and animal model studies are discussed, as well as the few published short-term studies in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:15959400

  16. Regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2)

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Michael A.; Jacinto, Estela

    2016-01-01

    mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) responds to the presence of nutrients, energy and growth factors to link cellular metabolism, growth and proliferation. The rapamycin-sensitive mTORC (mTOR complex) 1 activates the translational regulator S6K (S6 kinase), leading to increased protein synthesis in the presence of nutrients. On the other hand, the rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2 responds to the presence of growth factors such as insulin by phosphorylating Akt to promote its maturation and allosteric activation. We recently found that mTORC2 can also regulate insulin signalling at the level of IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1). Whereas mTORC1 promotes IRS-1 serine phosphorylation that is linked to IRS-1 down-regulation, we uncovered that mTORC2 mediates its degradation. In mTORC2-disrupted cells, inactive IRS-1 accumulated despite undergoing phosphorylation at the mTORC1-mediated serine sites. Defective IRS-1 degradation was due to attenuated expression of the CUL7 (Cullin 7) ubiquitin ligase substrate-targeting subunit Fbw8. mTORC2 and Fbw8 co-localize at the membrane where mTORC2 phosphorylates Ser86 to stabilize Fbw8 and promotes its cytosolic localization upon insulin stimulation. Under conditions of chronic insulin exposure, inactive serine-phosphorylated IRS-1 and Fbw8 co-localize to the cytosol where the former becomes ubiquitylated via CUL7/Fbw8. Thus mTORC2 negatively feeds back to IRS-1 via control of Fbw8 stability and localization. Our findings reveal that, in addition to persistent mTORC1 signalling, increased mTORC2 signals can promote insulin resistance due to mTORC2-mediated degradation of IRS-1. PMID:23863152

  17. Effect of glyburide on in vivo recycling of the hepatic insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, H.J.; Donohoe, M.T.; Morris, W.L.

    1985-09-20

    Sulfonylureas affect insulin action at both receptor and post-receptor sites, but their exact mechanism is poorly understood. In these studies, a novel technique was used to examine the influence of glyburide on in vivo cycling of the hepatic insulin receptor. Rats were gavage-fed with 5 mg/kg per day of glyburide solubilized in 60 percent polyethylene glycol and 40 percent phosphate buffer. Control rats were fed polyethylene glycol and buffer alone. After seven days, each rat was anesthetized, the abdomen was surgically exposed, and the animal was given a saturating bolus of 30 micrograms of unlabeled insulin via the portal vein. At seven specified times from 10 seconds to 45 minutes later, a second portal vein injection of a mixture of 1.5 microCi (0.015 micrograms) SVI-labeled insulin and 15 microCi THOH (a highly diffusible internal reference marker) was administered; 18 seconds later (time for one circulation), the right lobe of the liver was removed, and SVI and TH values were counted. The liver uptake index and the turnover half-time were then calculated. Glyburide caused a doubling of the turnover half-time for the receptor. This suggests that sulfonylureas potentiate the action of insulin either by increasing the dwell time of insulin on its receptor or by affecting an intracellular event that delays the recycling of the insulin receptor back to the cell surface plasma membrane.

  18. Venus Kinase Receptors at the Crossroads of Insulin Signaling: Their Role in Reproduction for Helminths and Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs) first discovered in the human parasite Schistosoma. They contain an extracellular Venus FlyTrap module similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C and an intracellular TK domain similar to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are present from cnidarians to echinoderms. They were shown to be activated by amino-acids, to induce insulin-like intracellular pathways, and to be highly expressed in larvae and in gonads of helminths and insects. The function of VKR in gametogenesis was demonstrated in schistosomes by VKR silencing and recent studies in Aedes aegypti have confirmed the importance of VKR in mosquito egg formation. AaeVKR was shown to bind to ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone and to activate the production of ecdysteroids by the ovary, independently of signaling mediated by insulin-like peptides. These new data confirm and specify the function of VKRs in the reproduction of helminths and insects and they open interesting perspectives for elucidating the role of VKRs in other models. VKR targeting would also provide opportunities for the control of parasites and various vector-borne infectious diseases. PMID:26284029

  19. Interaction of the C-terminal acidic domain of the insulin receptor with histone modulates the receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1995-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of the insulin receptor domain 1270-1280, an acid-rich sequence located in the receptor C-terminus. Antipeptide IgG raised against this sequence were obtained and used to analyze their effect on receptor function. Antipeptide IgG inhibited receptor autophosphorylation at Tyr1146, Tyr1150 and Tyr1151. These sites are known to be key modulators of the receptor activity. Autophosphorylation at other sites may also have been inhibited. The antipeptide antibody decreased the receptor kinase activity measured with poly(Glu80Tyr20) and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the proreceptor sequence 1142-1158. We provide evidence that the effect of the antibody on substrate phosphorylation may result from the control of the phosphorylation level of the receptor. Concerning the action of the antipeptide IgG on the receptor kinase activity, histone did not behave similarly to poly(Glu80Tyr20). The antibody recognizing sequence 1270-1280 competed with histone for an overlapping binding site. Histone also modulated insulin receptor autophosphorylation, supporting the idea that interference with domain 1270-1280 alters the receptor kinase. Our data suggest that the acidic region including residues 1270-1280 of the insulin receptor C-terminus is involved in the following events: (a) receptor binding with histone, an exogenous substrate of the receptor kinase, and (b) the regulation of receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity. Based on these observations, we would like to propose that this insulin receptor domain could interact with cellular proteins modulating the receptor kinase. PMID:7744039

  20. Insulin receptors and downstream substrates associate with membrane microdomains after treatment with insulin or chromium(III) picolinate.

    PubMed

    Al-Qatati, Abeer; Winter, Peter W; Wolf-Ringwall, Amber L; Chatterjee, Pabitra B; Van Orden, Alan K; Crans, Debbie C; Roess, Deborah A; Barisas, B George

    2012-04-01

    We have examined the association of insulin receptors (IR) and downstream signaling molecules with membrane microdomains in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells following treatment with insulin or tris(2-pyridinecarbxylato)chromium(III) (Cr(pic)(3)). Single-particle tracking demonstrated that individual IR on these cells exhibited reduced lateral diffusion and increased confinement within 100 nm-scale membrane compartments after treatment with either 200 nM insulin or 10 μM Cr(pic)(3). These treatments also increased the association of native IR, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphorylated AKT with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains of characteristically high buoyancy. Confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging of Di-4-ANEPPDHQ labeled RBL-2H3 cells also showed that plasma membrane lipid order decreased following treatment with Cr(pic)(3) but was not altered by insulin treatment. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy demonstrated that Cr(pic)(3) did not affect IR cell-surface density or compete with insulin for available binding sites. Finally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that Cr(pic)(3) likely associates with the lipid interface in reverse-micelle model membranes. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of IR signaling in a cellular model system by both insulin and Cr(pic)(3) involves retention of IR in specialized nanometer-scale membrane microdomains but that the insulin-like effects of Cr(pic)(3) are due to changes in membrane lipid order rather than to direct interactions with IR. PMID:22101510

  1. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling - Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O; Ismael, Mohammad A; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  2. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O.; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M.; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  3. Oncogenic transformation by the signaling adaptor proteins insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are adaptor proteins that link signaling from upstream activators to multiple downstream effectors to modulate normal growth, metabolism, survival, and differentiation. Recent cell culture studies have shown that IRSs can interact with, and are functionally require...

  4. Localization of insulin receptor mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.L.; Porte, D. Jr.; Stahl, W.L.; Baskin, D.G. )

    1990-12-01

    Insulin receptor mRNA was demonstrated in rat brain slices by in situ hybridization with three {sup 35}S-oligonucleotide probes and contact film autoradiography. Specificity was confirmed by showing that (a) excess unlabeled probe abolished the signal, (b) an oligonucleotide probe for rat neuropeptide Y mRNA showed a different distribution of hybridization signal, and (c) the distribution of insulin receptor binding was consistent with the distribution of insulin receptor mRNA. Insulin receptor mRNA was most abundant in the granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, cerebellum and dentate gyrus, in the pyramidal cell body layers of the pyriform cortex and hippocampus, in the choroid plexus and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

  5. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan . E-mail: jonathan.whittaker@case.edu

    2006-08-18

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the {alpha} subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K {sub d} of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site.

  6. Options for intensification of basal insulin in type 2 diabetes: Premeal insulin or short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists?

    PubMed

    Darmon, P; Raccah, D

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an evolutive disease with a progressive defect of beta-cell insulin secretion. This characteristic points to a need for treatment that takes into account such a natural history. When oral antidiabetic drugs fail to achieve the patient's target HbA1c level, basal insulin treatment is usually initiated and titrated in association with oral drugs to manage fasting hyperglycaemia. Over a period of time, it is enough to simply achieve the HbA1c target. However, when even a good fasting blood glucose level is no longer sufficient to control overall glycaemia, then prandial treatment must be combined with the titrated basal insulin to deal with the postprandial hyperglycaemia responsible for the elevation of HbA1c. Of the different therapeutic options now available for this, rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) can be used. Rapid-acting insulins can be added either at each meal, achieving full insulin supplementation with a basal-bolus regimen, or at the main meal only as a "basal-plus" regimen. Compared with the full basal-bolus, the basal-plus strategy is associated with fewer injections, yet provides similar efficacy in terms of HbA1c improvement, but with less weight gain and lower hypoglycaemic risk. As for GLP-1 RAs, numerous studies, and especially those using short-acting GLP-1 RAs, have demonstrated more pronounced effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia, good complementary effects with basal insulin, and significant improvement of HbA1c with no weight gain and a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Similarly, direct and indirect comparisons of the use of rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 RAs to intensify basal insulin have shown comparable efficacy in terms of HbA1c control, but with less weight gain and fewer hypoglycaemic episodes with GLP-1 RAs. PMID:26774016

  7. Insulin Receptor Substrate 1, the Hub Linking Follicle-stimulating Hormone to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activation.

    PubMed

    Law, Nathan C; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary E

    2016-02-26

    The ubiquitous phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway regulates many cellular functions. However, the mechanism by which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal to activate PI3K is poorly understood. We have used ovarian granulosa cells as a model to investigate this pathway, based on evidence that the GPCR agonist follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) on tyrosine residues that activate PI3K. We report that in the absence of FSH, granulosa cells secrete a subthreshold concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that primes the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) but fails to promote tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1. FSH via PKA acts to sensitize IRS1 to the tyrosine kinase activity of the IGF-1R by activating protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to promote dephosphorylation of inhibitory Ser/Thr residues on IRS1, including Ser(789). Knockdown of PP1β blocks the ability of FSH to activate PI3K in the presence of endogenous IGF-1. Activation of PI3K thus requires both PKA-mediated relief of IRS1 inhibition and IGF-1R-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1. Treatment with FSH and increasing concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 triggers synergistic IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation at PI3K-activating residues that persists downstream through protein kinase B (AKT) and FOXO1 (forkhead box protein O1) to drive synergistic expression of genes that underlies follicle maturation. Based on the ability of GPCR agonists to synergize with IGFs to enhance gene expression in other cell types, PP1 activation to relieve IRS1 inhibition may be a more general mechanism by which GPCRs act with the IGF-1R to activate PI3K/AKT. PMID:26702053

  8. Decreased Insulin Receptors but Normal Glucose Metabolism in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pirro, Roberto; Lauro, Renato; Testa, Ivano; Ferretti, Ginofabrizio; de Martinis, Carlo; Dellantonio, Renzo

    1982-04-01

    Compared to matched controls, 17 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy showed decreased insulin binding to monocytes due to decreased receptor concentration. These patients showed no signs of altered glucose metabolism and retrospective analysis of the clinical records of a further 56 such patients revealed no modification in carbohydrate metabolism. These data suggest that reduced insulin receptor number does not produce overt modifications of glucose metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  9. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Hjalti; Bergsten, Peter; Sargsyan, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate. Taking into account the key role of mitochondria in insulin secretion, we attempted to dissect the metabolic and FFAR1-mediated effects of fatty acids on mitochondrial function. One-hour culture of MIN6 cells with palmitate significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Antagonism or silencing of FFAR1 prevented the palmitate-induced rise in respiration. On the other hand, in the absence of extracellular palmitate FFAR1 agonists caused a modest increase in respiration. Using an agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and PKC inhibitor we found that in the presence of the fatty acid mitochondrial respiration is regulated via Gαq protein-coupled receptor signaling. The increase in respiration in palmitate-treated cells was largely due to increased glucose utilization and oxidation. However, glucose utilization was not dependent on FFAR1 signaling. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiration in palmitate-treated cells is enhanced via combined action of intracellular metabolism of the fatty acid and the Gαq-coupled FFAR1 signaling. Long-term palmitate exposure reduced ATP-coupling efficiency of mitochondria and deteriorated insulin secretion. The presence of the FFAR1 antagonist during culture did not improve ATP-coupling efficiency, however, it resulted in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and improved insulin secretion after culture. Taken together, our study demonstrates that during palmitate exposure, integrated actions of fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid-induced FFAR1 signaling on mitochondrial respiration underlie the synergistic action of the two pathways on insulin secretion. PMID:26408932

  10. [Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the cells of cold-blooded animals. II. The fate of internalized 125I-insulin in the isolated hepatocytes of the lamprey and the frog].

    PubMed

    Lappova, Iu L; Leĭbush, B N

    1994-01-01

    The 125I-insulin outflow from isolated hepatocytes of the frog and lamprey "loaded" with the labeled hormone has been studied. It is shown that the ligand outflow from the frog cells increased with the increase in the incubation temperature from 0 up to 20 degrees C. The curves of the rest cell radioactivity were reciprocal to those of the radioactivity accumulated in the medium at the corresponding temperatures. At 0.5 and 20 degrees C the degraded 125I-insulin made 5.7 and 17% of the whole hormone accumulated in the medium. In the lamprey hepatocytes, neither accumulation in the incubation medium nor outflow of the radioactivity from cell was seen at all temperatures studied. The intracellular degradation of 125I-insulin in the frog hepatocytes was no more than 7% of the internalized ligand, compared to about 25% in the lamprey cells. The specific binding of 125I-insulin was twice increased in the presence of lysosomal inhibitor chloroquin; contrary to this, no increase was found in the lamprey hepatocytes. The results of experiments on the frog hepatocytes lead us to a conclusion that the processing pathway of internalized insulin in cold-blooded vertebrate cells is similar mainly to that in cells of warm-blooded species, but takes place at lower temperatures and with slower rates. The peculiarities of processing in the lamprey hepatocytes (extralysosomal ligand degradation, the inability to release the internalized ligand and its degradation products) are dependent on a deep transformation of hepatocytes during prespawning migration period. PMID:7701627

  11. Structural insights into ligand-induced activation of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Lawrence, M.; Streltsov, V.; Garrett, T.; McKern, N.; Lou, M.-Z.; Lovrecz, G.; Adams, T.

    2008-04-29

    The current model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor proposes that there are two binding sites, referred to as sites 1 and 2, on each monomer in the receptor homodimer and two binding surfaces on insulin, one involving residues predominantly from the dimerization face of insulin (the classical binding surface) and the other residues from the hexamerization face. High-affinity binding involves one insulin molecule using its two surfaces to make bridging contacts with site 1 from one receptor monomer and site 2 from the other. Whilst the receptor dimer has two identical site 1-site 2 pairs, insulin molecules cannot bridge both pairs simultaneously. Our structures of the insulin receptor (IR) ectodomain dimer and the L1-CR-L2 fragments of IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) explain many of the features of ligand-receptor binding and allow the two binding sites on the receptor to be described. The IR dimer has an unexpected folded-over conformation which places the C-terminal surface of the first fibronectin-III domain in close juxtaposition to the known L1 domain ligand-binding surface suggesting that the C-terminal surface of FnIII-1 is the second binding site involved in high-affinity binding. This is very different from previous models based on three-dimensional reconstruction from scanning transmission electron micrographs. Our single-molecule images indicate that IGF-1R has a morphology similar to that of IR. In addition, the structures of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of the IR and IGF-1R show that there are major differences in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The implications of these findings for ligand-induced receptor activation will be discussed. This review summarizes the key findings regarding the discovery and characterization of the insulin receptor, the identification and arrangement of its structural domains in the sequence and the key features associated with ligand binding. The remainder of the review

  12. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  13. Canavanine induces insulin release via activation of imidazoline I3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting-Ting; Niu, Ho-Shan; Chen, Li-Jen; Ku, Po-Ming; Lin, Kao-Chang; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of canavanine on the imidazoline receptor because canavanine is a guanidinium derivative that has a similar structure to imidazoline receptor ligands. Transfected Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing imidazoline receptors (nischarin (NISCH)-CHO-K1 cells) were used to elucidate the direct effects of canavanine on imidazoline receptors. In addition, the imidazoline I3 receptor has been implicated in stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Wistar rats were used to investigate the effects of canavanine (0.1, 1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) on insulin secretion. In addition the a specific I3 receptor antagonist KU14R (4 or 8 mg/kg, i.v.) was used to block I3 receptors. Canavanine decreased blood glucose by increasing plasma insulin in rats. In addition, canavanine increased calcium influx into NISCH-CHO-K1 cells in a manner similar to agmatine, the endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors. Moreover, KU12R dose-dependently attenuated canavanine-induced insulin secretion in HIT-T15 pancreatic β-cells and in the plasma of rats. The data suggest that canavanine is an agonist of I3 receptors both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, canavanine would be a useful tool in imidazoline receptor research. PMID:25482045

  14. Effect of a thermogenic agent, BRL 26830A, on insulin receptors in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rochet, N; Tanti, J F; Grémeaux, T; Van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1988-08-01

    The effect of a new type of antidiabetic agent, BRL 26830A, has been tested in obese mice. Since this drug increases thermogenesis, insulin receptor binding and kinase activity were studied in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of mice made obese by gold thioglucose. At 1 mg.kg-1.day-1, a 3-wk treatment normalized the glycemia and increased the uncoupling protein content of brown adipose tissue. The insulin receptor number and its associated kinase activity increased only in brown adipose tissue. At 2 mg.kg-1.day-1, additional effects, i.e., a 20% reduction in body weight and a normalization of insulin receptor number both in brown adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle, were observed. All those results were obtained even though hyperinsulinemia was not corrected. At the higher drug dosage, insulin receptor kinase activity evolved in direct proportion to the receptor number in brown adipose tissue. By contrast, in skeletal muscle, the receptor kinase activity toward exogenous substrates increased more than the receptor number, suggesting that the alteration of insulin receptor kinase activity previously reported in skeletal muscle of obese mice was partly reversed by BRL 26830A. None of these parameters was modified by the drug in lean mice. These results show that, even without affecting obesity, BRL 26830A improves insulin resistance in obese mice, probably through its effect on insulin receptors. This action prevails in brown adipose tissue, supporting the idea that this tissue plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Thermogenic drugs could thus be powerful agents for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetics. PMID:2841863

  15. Insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides mediated by gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Q; Yao, G; Yannaing, S; ThanThan, S; Kuwayama, H

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterizes the receptor that mediates the insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides (BLP) in ruminants. Eight Holstein steers were randomly and intravenously injected with synthetic bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), neuromedin B (NMB; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), or neuromedin C (NMC; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), each alone or combined with the antagonist of GRP receptors N-acetyl-GRP-OCHCH (N-GRP-EE; 22.5 nmol/kg BW) or the antagonist of GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 (21.5 nmol/kg BW). Blood samples were collected at -10, 0 (just before injection), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min relative to injection time. Levels of injected peptides, insulin, and glucose in plasma were analyzed. Results showed that the peak of insulin levels was seen at 5 min after injection of NMC or GRP. Plasma glucose was observed in 2 phases; a significant rise followed a remarkable fall after NMC or GRP administration compared with injection of the vehicle ( < 0.05). On a same molar basis, effects of GRP on insulin and glucose were more potent than those of NMC ( < 0.05). The NMC-induced changes of insulin and glucose were completely blocked by N-GRP-EE, but [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 did not block any of these changes. Administration of NMB or N-GRP-EE alone did not change the circulating levels of insulin or glucose during any of the sampling time points ( > 0.05). These results indicated that the insulinotropic action of BLP is mediated by GRP receptors but not through a ghrelin/GHS-R1a pathway and that BLP may be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in ruminants. PMID:26812312

  16. Determination of Alkali-Sensing Parts of the Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor Using the Bioinformatic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Deyev, I. E.; Popova, N. V.; Petrenko, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the insulin receptor family, which also includes insulin receptor and IGF-IR receptor. We have previously shown that IRR is activated by extracellular fluid with pH > 7.9 and regulates excess alkali excretion in the body. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of the pH-sensitive potential of all three members of the insulin receptor family of various animal species (from frog to man) and their chimeras with swapping of different domains in the extracellular region. An analysis using the AcalPred program showed that insulin receptor family proteins are divided into two classes: one class with the optimal working pH in the acidic medium (virtually all insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor orthologs, except for the IGF-IR ortholog from Xenopus laevis) and the second class with the optimal working pH in the alkaline medium (all IRR orthologs). The program had predicted that the most noticeable effect on the pH-sensitive property of IRR would be caused by the replacement of the L1 and C domains in its extracellular region, as well as the replacement of the second and third fibronectin repeats. It had also been assumed that replacement of the L2 domain would have the least significant effect on the alkaline sensitivity of IRR. To test the in silico predictions, we obtained three constructs with swapping of the L1C domains, the third L2 domain, and all three domains L1CL2 of IRR with similar domains of the insulin-like growth factor receptor. We found that replacement of the L1C and L1CL2 domains reduces the receptor’s ability to be activated with alkaline pH, thus increasing the half-maximal effective concentration by about 100%. Replacement of the L2 domain increased the half-maximal effective concentration by 40%. Thus, our results indicate the high predictive potential of the AcalPred algorithm, not only for the pH-sensitive enzymes, but also for p

  17. Mechanisms of human insulin resistance and thiazolidinedione-mediated insulin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sears, D. D.; Hsiao, G.; Hsiao, A.; Yu, J. G.; Courtney, C. H.; Ofrecio, J. M.; Chapman, J.; Subramaniam, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular and tissue defects associated with insulin resistance are coincident with transcriptional abnormalities and are improved after insulin sensitization with thiazolidinedione (TZD) PPARγ ligands. We characterized 72 human subjects by relating their clinical phenotypes with functional pathway alterations. We transcriptionally profiled 364 biopsies harvested before and after hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, at baseline and after 3-month TZD treatment. We have identified molecular and functional characteristics of insulin resistant subjects and distinctions between TZD treatment responder and nonresponder subjects. Insulin resistant subjects exhibited alterations in skeletal muscle (e.g., glycolytic flux and intramuscular adipocytes) and adipose tissue (e.g., mitochondrial metabolism and inflammation) that improved relative to TZD-induced insulin sensitization. Pre-TZD treatment expression of MLXIP in muscle and HLA-DRB1 in adipose tissue from insulin resistant subjects was linearly predictive of post-TZD insulin sensitization. We have uniquely characterized coordinated cellular and tissue functional pathways that are characteristic of insulin resistance, TZD-induced insulin sensitization, and potential TZD responsiveness. PMID:19841271

  18. The human insulin receptor mRNA contains a functional internal ribosome entry segment

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Keith A.; Cobbold, Laura C.; Ridley, Simon H.; Coldwell, Mark; Bottley, Andrew; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E.; Siddle, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA translation is an important mechanism determining the level of expression of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Translation is most commonly initiated by cap-dependent scanning, but many eukaryotic mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry segments (IRESs), providing an alternative means of initiation capable of independent regulation. Here, we show by using dicistronic luciferase reporter vectors that the 5′-UTR of the mRNA encoding human insulin receptor (hIR) contains a functional IRES. RNAi-mediated knockdown showed that the protein PTB was required for maximum IRES activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that PTB1, PTB2 and nPTB, but not unr or PTB4, bound to hIR mRNA, and deletion mapping implicated a CCU motif 448 nt upstream of the initiator AUG in PTB binding. The IR-IRES was functional in a number of cell lines, and most active in cells of neuronal origin, as assessed by luciferase reporter assays. The IRES was more active in confluent than sub-confluent cells, but activity did not change during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. IRES activity was stimulated by insulin in sub-confluent cells. The IRES may function to maintain expression of IR protein in tissues such as the brain where mRNA translation by cap-dependent scanning is less effective. PMID:19654240

  19. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Rachel H; Thomas, James W

    2015-11-15

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or whether this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, we developed an editing-competent model in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a nonautoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, because selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab')2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:26432895

  20. The Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP4 Regulates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Mika; Tamura, Yukinori; Minami, Manabu; Higuchi, Sei; Fujikawa, Risako; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Arai, Hidenori; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    With increasing body weight, macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue. There, activated macrophages secrete numerous proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, giving rise to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses macrophage activation via EP4; however, the role of EP4 signaling in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unknown. In this study, we treated db/db mice with an EP4-selective agonist, ONO-AE1-329, for 4 weeks to explore the role of EP4 signaling in obesity-related inflammation in vivo. Administration of the EP4 agonist did not affect body weight gain or food intake; however, in the EP4 agonist–treated group, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were significantly improved over that of the vehicle–treated group. Additionally, administration of the EP4 agonist inhibited the accumulation of F4/80-positive macrophages and the formation of crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, and the adipocytes were significantly smaller. The treatment of the EP4 agonist increased the number of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, and in the stromal vascular fraction of white adipose tissue, which includes macrophages, it markedly decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, EP4 activation increased the expression of adiponectin and peroxidase proliferator–activated receptors in white adipose tissue. Next, we examined in vitro M1/M2 polarization assay to investigate the impact of EP4 signaling on determining the functional phenotypes of macrophages. Treatment with EP4 agonist enhanced M2 polarization in wild-type peritoneal macrophages, whereas EP4-deficient macrophages were less susceptible to M2 polarization. Notably, antagonizing peroxidase proliferator–activated receptor δ activity suppressed EP4 signaling-mediated shift toward M2 macrophage polarization. Thus, our results demonstrate that EP4 signaling plays a critical role in obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation

  1. All-Atom Structural Models of the Transmembrane Domains of Insulin and Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadiarani, Hossein; Vashisth, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily comprises many cell-surface receptors including the insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) that are constitutively homodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. Therefore, these receptors require ligand-triggered domain rearrangements rather than receptor dimerization for activation. Specifically, binding of peptide ligands to receptor ectodomains transduces signals across the transmembrane domains for trans-autophosphorylation in cytoplasmic kinase domains. The molecular details of these processes are poorly understood in part due to the absence of structures of full-length receptors. Using MD simulations and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms, we present all-atom structural models of peptides containing 51 residues from the transmembrane and juxtamembrane regions of IR and IGF1R. In our models, the transmembrane regions of both receptors adopt helical conformations with kinks at Pro961 (IR) and Pro941 (IGF1R), but the C-terminal residues corresponding to the juxtamembrane region of each receptor adopt unfolded and flexible conformations in IR as opposed to a helix in IGF1R. We also observe that the N-terminal residues in IR form a kinked-helix sitting at the membrane–solvent interface, while homologous residues in IGF1R are unfolded and flexible. These conformational differences result in a larger tilt-angle of the membrane-embedded helix in IGF1R in comparison to IR to compensate for interactions with water molecules at the membrane–solvent interfaces. Our metastable/stable states for the transmembrane domain of IR, observed in a lipid bilayer, are consistent with a known NMR structure of this domain determined in detergent micelles, and similar states in IGF1R are consistent with a previously reported model of the dimerized transmembrane domains of IGF1R. Our all-atom structural models suggest potentially unique structural organization of kinase domains in each receptor. PMID

  2. Insulin binding and receptor tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Párrizas, M; Planas, J; Plisetskaya, E M; Gutiérrez, J

    1994-06-01

    We characterized the insulin receptors in skeletal muscle from several fish species with different nutritional preferences: brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), and carp (Cyprinus carpio), semipurified by affinity chromatography (wheat germ agglutinin-agarose). Total specific binding and number of receptors per unit weight of piscine white skeletal muscle were lower than those values found in mammalian skeletal muscle. The same parameters in carp muscle receptor preparations were severalfold higher than in trout muscle (binding capacity 440 +/- 47 fmol/mg glycoprotein in carp and 82 +/- 23 fmol/mg glycoprotein in trout). Piscine insulin receptors phosphorylated exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr) but less so than mammalian receptors. Tyrosine kinase activity of receptors, calculated as percent of 32P incorporated into substrate in the presence of insulin compared with basal incorporation, was also highest in carp (210 +/- 4%) and lowest in trout (150 +/- 2%). In both trout and carp deprived of food for 15 days, specific binding of insulin decreased. Nevertheless, differences between the two species were retained. Our results demonstrate that particular properties of insulin receptors in fish skeletal muscle may be related to nutritional preferences. This finding coincides with the phenomenon of differential glucose tolerance in fish: carnivorous fish, such as trout, are less tolerant, whereas omnivorous fish, such as carp, readily utilize a carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:8024051

  3. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Stumvoll, M; Häring, H

    2001-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a co-factor in the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The causes of insulin resistance include factors such as obesity and physical inactivity, and there may also be genetic factors. The mechanism of obesity-related insulin resistance involves the release of factors from adipocytes which exert a negative effect on glucose metabolism: free fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the recently discovered hormone, resistin. The two resulting abnormalities observed consistently in glucose-intolerant states are impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production, and impaired stimulation of glucose uptake. Among the genetic factors, a polymorphism (Pro12Ala) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased insulin sensitivity, primarily that of lipolysis. On the other hand, the association with insulin resistance of a common polymorphism (Gly972Arg) in the insulin receptor substrate 1, long believed to be a plausible candidate gene, is weak at best. This polymorphism may instead be associated with reduced insulin secretion, which, in view of the recent recognition of the insulin signalling system in beta-cells, results in the development of a novel pathogenic concept. Finally, fine-mapping and positional cloning of the susceptibility locus on chromosome 2 resulted in the identification of a polymorphism (UCSNP-43 G/A) in the calpain-10 gene. In non-diabetic Pima Indians, this polymorphism was associated with insulin resistance of glucose disposal. The pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance has recently acquired a novel class of agents: the thiazolidinediones. They act through regulation of PPARgamma-dependent genes and probably interfere favourably with factors released from adipocytes which mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:11684868

  4. The role of insulin receptor substrate 2 in hypothalamic and β cell function

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Agharul I.; Heffron, Helen; Smith, Mark A.; Al-Qassab, Hind; Xu, Allison W.; Selman, Colin; Simmgen, Marcus; Clements, Melanie; Claret, Marc; MacColl, Gavin; Bedford, David C.; Hisadome, Kazunari; Diakonov, Ivan; Moosajee, Vazira; Bell, Jimmy D.; Speakman, John R.; Batterham, Rachel L.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Ashford, Michael L.J.; Withers, Dominic J.

    2005-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) plays complex roles in energy homeostasis. We generated mice lacking Irs2 in β cells and a population of hypothalamic neurons (RIPCreIrs2KO), in all neurons (NesCreIrs2KO), and in proopiomelanocortin neurons (POMCCreIrs2KO) to determine the role of Irs2 in the CNS and β cell. RIPCreIrs2KO mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced β cell mass. Overt diabetes did not ensue, because β cells escaping Cre-mediated recombination progressively populated islets. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed hyperphagia, obesity, and increased body length, which suggests altered melanocortin action. POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display this phenotype. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice retained leptin sensitivity, which suggests that CNS Irs2 pathways are not required for leptin action. NesCreIrs2KO and POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display reduced β cell mass, but NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed mild abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. RIPCre neurons did not express POMC or neuropeptide Y. Insulin and a melanocortin agonist depolarized RIPCre neurons, whereas leptin was ineffective. Insulin hyperpolarized and leptin depolarized POMC neurons. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for IRS2 in β cell and hypothalamic function and provide insights into the role of RIPCre neurons, a distinct hypothalamic neuronal population, in growth and energy homeostasis. PMID:15841180

  5. Structural differences between liver- and muscle-derived insulin receptors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Burant, C.F.; Treutelaar, M.K.; Block, N.E.; Buse, M.G.

    1986-11-05

    The structure of insulin receptors, solubilized from rat skeletal muscle and liver, was studied. The ..cap alpha.. subunit was identified by specific cross-linking to A14 /sup 125/I-insulin with disuccinimidyl suberate. Muscle- and liver-derived ..cap alpha.. subunits migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with a M/sub r/ of 131,000 and 135,000, respectively. There was no significant difference in insulin binding affinity. Treatment of cross-linked, immunoprecipitated receptors with either neuraminidase or endoglycosidase H decreased the M/sub r/ of muscle- and liver-derived ..cap alpha.. subunits but did not affect the difference in M/sub r/. Autophosphorylated ..beta.. subunits migrated with a M/sub r/ of 98,000 for muscle and 101,000 for liver. After partial V8 digestion of autophosphorylated, immunoprecipitated receptors the major phosphopeptide fragment migrated on SDS-PAGE at M/sub r/ 57,000 from muscle and 60,000 from liver. Glycosidase digestion of autophosphorylated receptors suggested that M/sub r/ heterogeneity was due in part to differences in the sialic acid content of ..beta.. subunits. Muscle and liver are the major target organs of insulin; the apparent heterogeneity of insulin receptor structure may be relevant to tissue-specific differences in insulin action.

  6. Direct demonstration of insulin receptor internalization. A quantitative electron microscopic study of covalently bound /sup 125/I-photoreactive insulin incubated with isolated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorden, P.; Carpentier, J.L.; Moule, M.L.; Yip, C.C.; Orci, L.

    1982-07-01

    When /sup 125/I-insulin is incubated with isolated rodent hepatocytes at 37 degrees C, the ligand initially binds to the plasma membrane of the cell and is subsequently internalized by adsorptive endocytosis. To confirm directly that the insulin receptor is internalized with the ligand, we covalently linked photoreactive /sup 125/I-N sigma B29 (azidobenzoyl) insulin to its specific hepatocyte receptor and followed its fate by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. We found that the covalently linked photoreactive insulin is internalized by the cell in fashion analogous to the internalization of ordinary /sup 125/I-insulin, indicating that, at least under these conditions, the insulin receptor is internalized with the ligand.

  7. Coordinate phosphorylation of insulin-receptor kinase and its 175,000-Mr endogenous substrate in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, M.; Karasik, A.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the early events in insulin signal transmission in liver, isolated rat hepatocytes were labeled with {sup 32}P, and proteins phosphorylated in response to insulin were detected by immunoprecipitation with anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-receptor antibodies and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. In these cells, insulin rapidly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the 95,000-Mr beta-subunit of the insulin receptor and a 175,000-Mr phosphoprotein (pp175). Both proteins were precipitated by anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, whereas only the insulin receptor was recognized with anti-insulin-receptor antibody. In the insulin-stimulated state, both pp175 and the receptor beta-subunit were found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine residues. Based on precipitation by the two antibodies, receptor phosphorylation was biphasic with an initial increase in tyrosine phosphorylation followed by a more gradual increase in serine phosphorylation over the first 30 min of stimulation. The time course of phosphorylation of pp175 was rapid and paralleled that of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. The pp175 was clearly distinguished from the insulin receptor, because it was detected only when boiling SDS was used to extract cellular phosphoproteins, whereas the insulin receptor was extracted with either Triton X-100 or SDS. In addition, the tryptic peptide maps of the two proteins were distinct. The dose-response curve for insulin stimulation was shifted slightly to the left of the insulin receptor, suggesting some signal amplification at this step. These data suggest that pp175 is a major endogenous substrate of the insulin receptor in liver and may be a cytoskeletal-associated protein.

  8. Negative and positive site-site interactions, and their modulation by pH, insulin analogs, and monoclonal antibodies, are preserved in the purified insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C C; Goldfine, I D; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y; Gattner, H G; Brandenburg, D; De Meyts, P

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic properties of the insulin receptor were studied in solution after its purification to homogeneity. Dissociation of 125I-labeled insulin at a 1:50 dilution was not first order; unlabeled insulin at physiological concentrations accelerated the dissociation rate with a maximal effect at approximately 17 nM. At higher concentrations, the unlabeled insulin slowed the dissociation rate. Maximal acceleration was seen at pH 8.0. The ability to accelerate the dissociation rate was diminished with [LeuB24]insulin and suppressed with desoctapeptide, [LeuB25], [LeuB24,B25], desalanine-desasparagine, and desheptapeptide insulins, all of which slowed the dissociation at high concentrations. Monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor alpha subunit (MA-5, MA-10, MA-20, and MA-51) all competed for insulin binding to the purified receptor. MA-10 and MA-51 accelerated the dissociation of 125I-labeled insulin, while MA-5 and MA-20 slowed the off rate. Thus, all the aspects of both negatively and positively cooperative site-site interactions previously described in whole cells are present in solubilized purified receptors, demonstrating that these interactions represent intrinsic properties of the receptor molecule, most likely as a result of ligand-induced conformational changes. PMID:3054887

  9. Soy pinitol acts partly as an insulin sensitizer or insulin mediator in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Do, Gyeong-Min; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hye-Jin; Woo, Myung-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    The blood glucose-lowering property of pinitol is mediated via the insulin signaling pathway. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of soy pinitol on adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell line; 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with pinitol (0–1 mM) together with insulin for 9 days. The regulation of lipid metabolism was assessed by oil-red-O staining of intracellular lipids and real-time PCR of adipogenesis-related factors. The inhibition of cell proliferation was estimated by MTT assay. Pinitol treatment did not inhibit lipid accumulation, nor did it affect expression of adipogenesis-related factors, including ADD1, aP2 and FAS, in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of adiponectin, GLUT4, IRS, C/EBPα and PPARγ mRNAs, however, increased in cells treated with 0.5 mM and/or 1 mM pinitol. Pinitol treatment did not affect the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, we suggest that pinitol is nontoxic to this cell line, and that it enhances adipogenesis by acting as an insulin sensitizer or insulin mediator via the upregulation of adiponectin, GLUT4, IRS, C/EBPα and PPARγ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:18850231

  10. Efficacy of anti-insulin-like growth factor I receptor monoclonal antibody cixutumumab in mesothelioma is highly correlated with insulin growth factor-I receptor sites/cell.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Neetu; Zhang, Jingli; Yu, Yunkai; Ho, Mitchell; Merino, Maria; Cao, Liang; Hassan, Raffit

    2012-11-01

    Insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is expressed in mesothelioma and therefore an attractive target for therapy. The antitumor activity of cixutumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IGF-IR, in mesothelioma and relationship to IGF-IR expression was investigated using eight early passage tumor cells obtained from patients, nine established cell lines and an in vivo human mesothelioma tumor xenograft model. Although IGF-IR expression at the mRNA and protein level was present in all mesothelioma cells, using a quantitative ELISA immunoassay, there was considerable variability of IGF-IR expression ranging from 1 to 14 ng/mg of lysate. Using flow cytometry, the number of IGF-IR surface receptors varied from ≈ 2,000 to 50,000 sites/cell. Cells expressing >10,000 sites/cell had greater than 10% growth inhibition when treated with cixutumumab (100 μg/ml). Cixutumumab also induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity (>10% specific lysis) in cell lines, which had >20,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. Treatment with cixutumumab decreased phosphorylation of IGF-IR, Akt and Erk in cell lines, H226 and H28 having 24,000 and 51,000 IGF-IR sites/cell, respectively, but not in the cell line H2052 with 3,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. In vivo, cixutumumab treatment delayed growth of H226 mesothelioma tumor xenografts in mice and improved the overall survival of these mice compared to mice treated with saline (p < 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the antitumor efficacy of cixutumumab including inhibition of IGF-IR downstream signaling is highly correlated with IGF-IR sites/cell. A phase II clinical trial of cixutumumab is currently ongoing for the treatment of patients with mesothelioma. PMID:22323052

  11. A Comparative Structural Bioinformatics Analysis of the Insulin Receptor Family Ectodomain Based on Phylogenetic Information

    PubMed Central

    Rentería, Miguel E.; Gandhi, Neha S.; Vinuesa, Pablo; Helmerhorst, Erik; Mancera, Ricardo L.

    2008-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR), the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) are covalently-linked homodimers made up of several structural domains. The molecular mechanism of ligand binding to the ectodomain of these receptors and the resulting activation of their tyrosine kinase domain is still not well understood. We have carried out an amino acid residue conservation analysis in order to reconstruct the phylogeny of the IR Family. We have confirmed the location of ligand binding site 1 of the IGF1R and IR. Importantly, we have also predicted the likely location of the insulin binding site 2 on the surface of the fibronectin type III domains of the IR. An evolutionary conserved surface on the second leucine-rich domain that may interact with the ligand could not be detected. We suggest a possible mechanical trigger of the activation of the IR that involves a slight ‘twist’ rotation of the last two fibronectin type III domains in order to face the likely location of insulin. Finally, a strong selective pressure was found amongst the IRR orthologous sequences, suggesting that this orphan receptor has a yet unknown physiological role which may be conserved from amphibians to mammals. PMID:18989367

  12. Novel Grb14-Mediated Cross Talk between Insulin and p62/Nrf2 Pathways Regulates Liver Lipogenesis and Selective Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Popineau, Lucie; Morzyglod, Lucille; Carré, Nadège; Caüzac, Michèle; Bossard, Pascale; Prip-Buus, Carina; Lenoir, Véronique; Ragazzon, Bruno; Fauveau, Véronique; Robert, Lorenne; Guilmeau, Sandra; Postic, Catherine; Komatsu, Masaaki; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Guillou, Hervé; Burnol, Anne-Françoise

    2016-08-15

    A long-standing paradox in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases is the selective insulin resistance of the liver. It is characterized by a blunted action of insulin to reduce glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia, while de novo lipogenesis remains insulin sensitive, participating in turn to hepatic steatosis onset. The underlying molecular bases of this conundrum are not yet fully understood. Here, we established a model of selective insulin resistance in mice by silencing an inhibitor of insulin receptor catalytic activity, the growth factor receptor binding protein 14 (Grb14) in liver. Indeed, Grb14 knockdown enhanced hepatic insulin signaling but also dramatically inhibited de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the liver of obese and insulin-resistant mice, downregulation of Grb14 markedly decreased blood glucose and improved liver steatosis. Mechanistic analyses showed that upon Grb14 knockdown, the release of p62/sqstm1, a partner of Grb14, activated the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which in turn repressed the lipogenic nuclear liver X receptor (LXR). Our study reveals that Grb14 acts as a new signaling node that regulates lipogenesis and modulates insulin sensitivity in the liver by acting at a crossroad between the insulin receptor and the p62-Nrf2-LXR signaling pathways. PMID:27215388

  13. Identification of common ligand binding determinants of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors. Insights into mechanisms of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Mynarcik, D C; Williams, P F; Schaffer, L; Yu, G Q; Whittaker, J

    1997-07-25

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are peptides that share nearly 50% sequence homology. However, although their cognate receptors also exhibit significant overall sequence homology, the affinity of each peptide for the non-cognate receptor is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than for the cognate receptor. The molecular basis for this discrimination is unclear, as are the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand binding. We have recently identified a major ligand binding site of the insulin receptor by alanine scannning mutagenesis. These studies revealed that a number of amino acids critical for insulin binding are conserved in the IGF-1 receptor, suggesting that they may play a role in ligand binding. We therefore performed alanine mutagenesis of these amino acids to determine whether this is the case. cDNAs encoding alanine-substituted secreted recombinant IGF-1 receptors were expressed in 293 EBNA cells, and the ligand binding properties of the expressed proteins were evaluated. Mutation of Phe701 resulted in a receptor with undetectable IGF-1 binding; alanine substitution of the corresponding amino acid of the insulin receptor, Phe714, produces a 140-fold reduction in affinity for insulin. Mutation of Asp8, Asn11, Phe58, Phe692, Glu693, His697, and Asn698 produces a 3.5-6-fold reduction in affinity for IGF-1. In contrast, alanine mutation of the corresponding amino acids of the insulin receptor with the exception of Asp12 produces reductions in affinity that are 50-fold or greater. The affinity of insulin for these mutants relative to wild type receptor was similar to that of their relative affinity for IGF-1 with two exceptions; the IC50 values for insulin binding to the mutants of Arg10, which has normal affinity for IGF-1, and His697, which has a 6-fold reduction in affinity for IGF-1, were both at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than for wild type receptor. The Kd values for insulin of the corresponding alanine mutants of the insulin receptor

  14. B lymphocytes as emerging mediators of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Winer, D A; Winer, S; Shen, L; Chng, M H Y; Engleman, E G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of various tissues including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which contributes to insulin resistance. T cells and macrophages infiltrate VAT in obesity and orchestrate this inflammation. Recently, we made the surprising discovery that B cells are important contributors to this process. Thus, some B cells and the antibodies they produce can promote VAT-associated and systemic inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. This report will focus on the properties of these B cells, and how they contribute to insulin resistance through T-cell modulation and production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Understanding the mechanisms by which B cells contribute to insulin resistance should lead to new antibody-based diagnostics and B-cell modulating therapeutics to manage this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:25089193

  15. Insulin receptor/IGF-I receptor hybrids are widely distributed in mammalian tissues: quantification of individual receptor species by selective immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Bailyes, E M; Navé, B T; Soos, M A; Orr, S R; Hayward, A C; Siddle, K

    1997-10-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor (IGFR) are both widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and are known to be capable of heteromeric assembly as insulin/IGF hybrid receptors, in addition to the classically described receptors. By selective immunoadsorption of radioligand/receptor complexes and by immunoblotting we have determined the fraction of insulin receptors and IGF receptors occurring as hybrids in different tissues. Microsomal membranes were isolated from tissue homogenates and solubilized with Triton X-100. Solubilized receptors were incubated with 125I-IGF-I, and radioligand/receptor complexes bound by IR-specific and IGFR-specific monoclonal antibodies were quantified. The fraction of IGF-I binding sites behaving as hybrids (anti-IR-bound/anti-IGFR-bound) was approx. 40% in liver and spleen, 70% in placenta, and 85-90% in skeletal muscle and heart, similar results being obtained in rabbit and human tissues. There was no correlation between the proportion of hybrids and the ratio of 125I-insulin/125I-IGF-I binding in different tissues. The fraction of 125I-insulin bound to hybrids was too low for accurate quantification, because of the relatively low affinity of hybrids for insulin. The fraction of insulin receptors present in hybrids was therefore determined by immunoblotting. Receptors in solubilized human placental microsomal membranes were precipitated with IR-specific or IGFR-specific monoclonal antibodies, and after SDS/PAGE, blots were prepared and probed with IR-specific and IGFR-specific antisera. It was found that 15% of IR and 80% of IGFR were present in hybrids. Consistent with these figures, the overall level of IR was estimated, by blotting with the respective antibodies at concentrations shown to give equal signals with equal amounts of receptor, to be 4-fold greater than IGFR. Overall it was concluded that a significant fraction of both IR and IGFR occurs as hybrids in most mammalian tissues

  16. Metabolic effect and receptor signalling profile of a non-metabolisable insulin glargine analogue

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Marcus; Schmidt, Ronald; Wendrich, Thomas M.; Tennagels, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Context Insulin glargine (GLA) is rapidly metabolized in vivo to metabolite M1, which has in vitro metabolic and mitogenic profiles comparable with human insulin (HI). Objective To investigate the pharmacologic and signalling profiles of a non-metabolizable analogue (A21Gly,DiD-Arg) insulin (D-GLA). Methods Rats were injected s.c. with 1, 12.5 or 200 U/kg of GLA or D-GLA; blood glucose and phosphorylation status of the insulin receptor (IR), Akt and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) in tissue samples were investigated after 1 h. Plasma samples were analysed for insulin by LC-MS/MS. Results Blood glucose lowering was prolonged with D-GLA. D-GLA comprised ≥98% of insulin after D-GLA injection; M1 comprised 76–92% after GLA injection. IR and Akt phosphorylation were comparable with GLA and D-GLA. Neither analogue stimulated IGF1R phosphorylation. Conclusions Suprapharmacological doses of D-GLA did not activate IGF1R in vivo. Mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin analogues might be solely based on IR growth-promoting activity. PMID:25144413

  17. Metabolic, anabolic, and mitogenic insulin responses: A tissue-specific perspective for insulin receptor activators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin acts as the major regulator of the fasting-to-fed metabolic transition by altering substrate metabolism, promoting energy storage, and helping activate protein synthesis. In addition to its glucoregulatory and other metabolic properties, insulin can also act as a growth factor. The metabolic...

  18. Dopamine-mediated autocrine inhibitory circuit regulating human insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Norman; Maffei, Antonella; Freeby, Matthew; Burroughs, Steven; Freyberg, Zachary; Javitch, Jonathan; Leibel, Rudolph L; Harris, Paul E

    2012-10-01

    We describe a negative feedback autocrine regulatory circuit for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in purified human islets in vitro. Using chronoamperometry and in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measurements, evidence is provided that dopamine (DA), which is loaded into insulin-containing secretory granules by vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in human β-cells, is released in response to glucose stimulation. DA then acts as a negative regulator of insulin secretion via its action on D2R, which are also expressed on β-cells. We found that antagonism of receptors participating in islet DA signaling generally drive increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These in vitro observations may represent correlates of the in vivo metabolic changes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, such as increased adiposity. PMID:22915827

  19. Dopamine-Mediated Autocrine Inhibitory Circuit Regulating Human Insulin Secretion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norman; Maffei, Antonella; Freeby, Matthew; Burroughs, Steven; Freyberg, Zachary; Javitch, Jonathan; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a negative feedback autocrine regulatory circuit for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in purified human islets in vitro. Using chronoamperometry and in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measurements, evidence is provided that dopamine (DA), which is loaded into insulin-containing secretory granules by vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in human β-cells, is released in response to glucose stimulation. DA then acts as a negative regulator of insulin secretion via its action on D2R, which are also expressed on β-cells. We found that antagonism of receptors participating in islet DA signaling generally drive increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These in vitro observations may represent correlates of the in vivo metabolic changes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, such as increased adiposity. PMID:22915827

  20. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  1. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-De; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  2. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.

    2014-10-01

    [AsnB26]- and [GlyB26]-insulin mutants attain a B26-turn like fold without assistance of chemical modifications. Their structures match the insulin receptor interface and expand the spectrum of insulin conformations. The structural characterization of the insulin–insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21–B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms.

  3. NKX3.1 activates expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 to mediate insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Muhlbradt, Erin; Asatiani, Ekaterina; Ortner, Elizabeth; Wang, Antai; Gelmann, Edward P

    2009-03-15

    NKX3.1 is a homeobox gene that codes for a haploinsufficient prostate cancer tumor suppressor. NKX3.1 protein levels are down-regulated in the majority of primary prostate cancer tissues. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA expression 10-fold as determined by expression microarray analysis. In both stably and transiently transfected PC-3 cells and in LNCaP cells, NKX3.1 expression increased IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression. In prostates of Nkx3.1 gene-targeted mice Igfbp-3 mRNA levels correlated with Nkx3.1 copy number. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells attenuated the ability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to induce phosphorylation of type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and AKT. The effect of NKX3.1 on IGF-I signaling was not seen when cells were exposed to long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-I variant peptide that does not bind to IGFBP-3. Additionally, small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of IGFBP-3 expression partially reversed the attenuation of IGF-IR signaling by NKX3.1 and abrogated NKX3.1 suppression of PC-3 cell proliferation. Thus, there is a close relationship in vitro and in vivo between NKX3.1 and IGFBP-3. The growth-suppressive effects of NKX3.1 in prostate cells are mediated, in part, by activation of IGFBP-3 expression. PMID:19258508

  4. Galectin-4-mediated transcytosis of transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some native epithelia, for example, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and kidney proximal tubule (KPT), constitutively lack the basolateral sorting adaptor AP-1B; this results in many basolateral plasma membrane proteins being repositioned to the apical domain, where they perform essential functions for their host organs. We recently reported the underlying apical polarity reversal mechanism: in the absence of AP-1B-mediated basolateral sorting, basolateral proteins are shuttled to the apical plasma membrane through a transcytotic pathway mediated by the plus-end kinesin KIF16B. Here, we demonstrate that this apical transcytotic pathway requires apical sorting of basolateral proteins, which is mediated by apical signals and galectin-4. Using RPE and KPT cell lines, and AP-1B-knockdown MDCK cells, we show that mutation of the N-glycan linked to N727 in the basolateral marker transferrin receptor (TfR) or knockdown of galectin-4 inhibits TfR transcytosis to apical recycling endosomes and the apical plasma membrane, and promotes TfR lysosomal targeting and subsequent degradation. Our results report a new role of galectins in basolateral to apical epithelial transcytosis. PMID:25179596

  5. Cytoplasmic domains determine signal specificity, cellular routing characteristics and influence ligand binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, H; Dull, T J; Honegger, A M; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1989-01-01

    The cell surface receptors for insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both employ a tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity to fulfil their distinct biological roles. To identify the structural domains responsible for various receptor activities, we have generated chimeric receptor polypeptides consisting of major EGF and insulin receptor structural domains and examined their biochemical properties and cellular signalling activities. The EGF-insulin receptor hybrids are properly synthesized and transported to the cell surface, where they form binding competent structures that are defined by the origin of their extracellular domains. While their ligand binding affinities are altered, we find that these chimeric receptors are fully functional in transmitting signals across the plasma membrane and into the cell. Thus, EGF receptor and insulin receptor cytoplasmic domain signalling capabilities are independent of their new heterotetrameric or monomeric environments respectively. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domains carry the structural determinants that define kinase specificity, mitogenic and transforming potential, and receptor routing. Images PMID:2583088

  6. Rapid elevation of sodium transport through insulin is mediated by AKT in alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Charlott; Laube, Mandy; Thome, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alveolar fluid clearance is driven by vectorial Na+ transport and promotes postnatal lung adaptation. The effect of insulin on alveolar epithelial Na+ transport was studied in isolated alveolar cells from 18–19‐day gestational age rat fetuses. Equivalent short‐circuit currents (ISC) were measured in Ussing chambers and different kinase inhibitors were used to determine the pathway of insulin stimulation. In Western Blot measurements the activation of mediators stimulated by insulin was analyzed. The ISC showed a fast dose‐dependent increase by insulin, which could be attributed to an increased ENaC (epithelial Na+ channel) activity in experiments with permeabilized apical or basolateral membrane. 5‐(N‐Ethyl‐N‐isopropyl)amiloride inhibition of ISC was not affected, however, benzamil‐sensitive ISC was increased in insulin‐stimulated monolayers. The application of LY‐294002 and Akti1/2 both completely blocked the stimulating effect of insulin on ISC. PP242 partly blocked the effect of insulin, whereas Rapamycin evoked no inhibition. Western Blot measurements revealed an increased phosphorylation of AKT after insulin stimulation. SGK1 activity was also increased by insulin as shown by Western Blot of pNDRG1. However, in Ussing chamber measurements, GSK650394, an inhibitor of SGK1 did not prevent the increase in ISC induced by insulin. The application of IGF‐1 mimicked the effect of insulin and increased the ENaC activity. In addition, an increased autophosphorylation of the IGF‐1R/IR was observed after insulin stimulation. We conclude that insulin rapidly increases epithelial Na+ transport by enhancing the activity of endogenous ENaC through activation of PI3K/AKT in alveolar cells. PMID:24760523

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment Promotes Glucose Uptake by Increasing Insulin Receptor Sensitivity and Ameliorates Kidney Lesions in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Rong; Hao, Dan-Dan; Sun, Ji-Ping; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Man-Man; Li, Xing-Hui; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Ding, Ying-Jiong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To examine if hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can promote glucose uptake and provide amelioration in type 2 diabetes. Results: Treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) increased glucose uptake in both myotubes and adipocytes. The H2S gas solution showed similar effects. The NaHS effects were blocked by an siRNA-mediated knockdown of the insulin receptor (IR). NaHS also increased phosphorylation of the IR, PI3K, and Akt. In Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats, chronic NaHS treatment (30 μmol·kg−1·day−1) decreased fasting blood glucose, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased glucose tolerance with increased phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in muscles. Similar insulin-sensitizing effects of NaHS treatment were also observed in Wistar rats. Moreover, glucose uptake was reduced in the cells with siRNA-mediated knockdown of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase in the presence or absence of exogenous H2S. Moreover, chronic NaHS treatment reduced oxygen species and the number of crescentic glomeruli in the kidney of GK rats. Innovation and Conclusion: This study provides the first piece of evidence for the insulin-sensitizing effect of NaHS/H2S in the both in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Rebound Track: This work was rejected during a standard peer review and rescued by the Rebound Peer Review (Antoxid Redox Signal 16: 293–296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Jin-Song Bian, Samuel Dudley, Hideo Kimura, and Xian Wang. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 5–23. PMID:23293908

  8. Carrageenan Inhibits Insulin Signaling through GRB10-mediated Decrease in Tyr(P)-IRS1 and through Inflammation-induced Increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation induced by exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to insulin resistance by increase in Ser(P)307-insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and subsequent decline in the insulin-stimulated increase in Ser(P)473-AKT. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation reversed the increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1 but did not completely reverse the carrageenan-induced decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. To identify the additional mechanism responsible for the decrease in Ser(P)473-AKT, studies were performed in human HepG2 cells and in C57BL/6J mice. Following carrageenan, expression of GRB10 (growth factor receptor-bound 10 protein), an adaptor protein that binds to the insulin receptor and inhibits insulin signaling, increased significantly. GRB10 silencing blocked the carrageenan-induced reduction of the insulin-stimulated increase in Tyr(P)-IRS1 and partially reversed the decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. The combination of GRB10 silencing with BCL10 silencing and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor Tempol completely reversed the decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. After carrageenan, GRB10 promoter activity was enhanced because of activation by GATA2. A direct correlation between Ser(P)473-AKT and Ser(P)401-GATA2 was evident, and inhibition of AKT phosphorylation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked Ser401-GATA2 phosphorylation and the increase in GRB10 expression. Studies indicated that carrageenan inhibited insulin signaling by two mechanisms: through the inflammation-mediated increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, and through a transcriptional mechanism leading to increase in GRB10 expression and GRB10-inhibition of Tyr(P)-IRS1, a positive regulator of insulin signaling. These mechanisms converge to inhibit the insulin-induced increase in Ser(P)473-AKT. They provide internal feedback, mediated by Ser(P)473-AKT, Ser(P)401-GATA2, and nuclear GATA2, which links the opposing effects of serine and tyrosine phosphorylations of IRS1 and can

  9. GQ-16, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Ligand, Promotes Insulin Sensitization without Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Angélica A.; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Lin, Jean Z.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Figueira, Ana C. M.; Lu, Jenny; Ayers, Stephen D.; Mottin, Melina; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Mourão, Rosa H. V.; Saad, Mário J. A.; Togashi, Marie; Simeoni, Luiz A.; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S. P.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikparpov, Igor; Lima, Maria C. A.; Galdino, Suely L.; Brennan, Richard G.; Baxter, John D.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Webb, Paul; Phillips, Kevin J.; Neves, Francisco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) targeted anti-diabetic drugs function by inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor has provided a new viewpoint to evaluate and perhaps develop improved insulin-sensitizing agents. Herein we report the development of a novel thiazolidinedione that retains similar anti-diabetic efficacy as rosiglitazone in mice yet does not elicit weight gain or edema, common side effects associated with full PPARγ activation. Further characterization of this compound shows GQ-16 to be an effective inhibitor of Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ. The structure of GQ-16 bound to PPARγ demonstrates that the compound utilizes a binding mode distinct from other reported PPARγ ligands, although it does share some structural features with other partial agonists, such as MRL-24 and PA-082, that have similarly been reported to dissociate insulin sensitization from weight gain. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies reveal that GQ-16 strongly stabilizes the β-sheet region of the receptor, presumably explaining the compound's efficacy in inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-273. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the partial agonist activity of GQ-16 results from the compound's weak ability to stabilize helix 12 in its active conformation. Our results suggest that the emerging model, whereby “ideal” PPARγ-based therapeutics stabilize the β-sheet/Ser-273 region and inhibit Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation while minimally invoking adipogenesis and classical agonism, is indeed a valid framework to develop improved PPARγ modulators that retain antidiabetic actions while minimizing untoward effects. PMID:22584573

  10. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in insulin-induced vasodilatation in mesenteric resistance blood vessels of rats.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Y; Kawasaki, H; Okazaki, M; Nakatsuma, A; Araki, H; Gomita, Y

    1998-04-01

    1. The vascular effect of insulin in the mesenteric resistance blood vessel and the role of calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP)-receptor in insulin-induced vascular responsiveness were investigated in rats. 2. The mesenteric vascular beds isolated from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs solution, and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. In preparations contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine in the presence of guanethidine, the perfusion of insulin (from 0.1 to 3000 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 6.94+/-0.22 and 43.9+/-5.2, respectively. 3. This vasodilator response to insulin was unaffected by 100 nM propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) plus 100 nM atropine (muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist), 100 microM L-NG-nitroarginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1 microM ouabain (Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor), or 1 microM glibenclamide (ATP sensitive K+-channel inhibitor). 4. In preparations without endothelium, perfusion of insulin produced a marked vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 7.62+/-0.21 and 81.0+/-4.6, respectively, significantly greater than in preparations with intact endothelium. 5. The vasodilator responses to insulin in the preparations without endothelium were significantly inhibited by CGRP[8 37], a CGRP receptor antagonist, whereas pretreatment with capsaisin, a toxin for CGRP-containing nerves, did not affect insulin-induced vasodilatation. 6. These results suggest that insulin induces non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, which is partially mediated by CGRP receptors. PMID:9605576

  11. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in insulin-induced vasodilatation in mesenteric resistance blood vessels of rats

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Yuichi; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Nakatsuma, Akira; Araki, Hiroaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    The vascular effect of insulin in the mesenteric resistance blood vessel and the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-receptor in insulin-induced vascular responsiveness were investigated in rats.The mesenteric vascular beds isolated from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs solution, and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. In preparations contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine in the presence of guanethidine, the perfusion of insulin (from 0.1 to 3000 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 6.94±0.22 and 43.9±5.2, respectively.This vasodilator response to insulin was unaffected by 100 nM propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist) plus 100 nM atropine (muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist), 100 μM L-NG-nitroarginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1 μM ouabain (Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor), or 1 μM glibenclamide (ATP sensitive K+-channel inhibitor).In preparations without endothelium, perfusion of insulin produced a marked vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 7.62±0.21 and 81.0±4.6, respectively, significantly greater than in preparations with intact endothelium.The vasodilator responses to insulin in the preparations without endothelium were significantly inhibited by CGRP[8–37], a CGRP receptor antagonist, whereas pretreatment with capsaisin, a toxin for CGRP-containing nerves, did not affect insulin-induced vasodilatation.These results suggest that insulin induces non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, which is partially mediated by CGRP receptors. PMID:9605576

  12. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L.; Klein, Seth J.; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N.; Klein, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTORSer2448, p-AKTSer473, and p-AKTThr308 in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTORSer2448 by ∼30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKTSer473 and p-AKTThr308 were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL−1 · min−1; P < 0.01), whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

  13. Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump is connected to your body by a flexible tube that has a tip that sticks under your skin. A cartridge of insulin is put in the pump. The insulin flows through the tube into your body. The pump controls how much insulin goes into your body. The ...

  14. Mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis caused by overexpression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) or IRS-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are signaling adaptors that play a major role in the metabolic and mitogenic actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Reports have recently noted increased levels, or activity, of IRSs in many human cancers, and some have linked this to poor patient prog...

  15. Context-dependent regulation of feeding behaviour by the insulin receptor, DAF-2, in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dillon, James; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Hopper, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Insulin signalling plays a significant role in both developmental programmes and pathways modulating the neuronal signalling that controls adult behaviour. Here, we have investigated insulin signalling in food-associated behaviour in adult C. elegans by scoring locomotion and feeding on and off bacteria, the worm's food. This analysis used mutants (daf-2, daf-18) of the insulin signalling pathway, and we provide evidence for an acute role for insulin signalling in the adult nervous system distinct from its impact on developmental programmes. Insulin receptor daf-2 mutants move slower than wild type both on and off food and showed impaired locomotory responses to food deprivation. This latter behaviour is manifest as a failure to instigate dispersal following prolonged food deprivation and suggests a role for insulin signalling in this adaptive response. Insulin receptor daf-2 mutants are also deficient in pharyngeal pumping on food and off food. Pharmacological analysis showed the pharynx of daf-2 is selectively compromised in its response to 5-HT compared to the excitatory neuropeptide FLP-17. By comparing the adaptive pharyngeal behaviour in intact worms and isolated pharyngeal preparations, we determined that an insulin-dependent signal extrinsic to the pharyngeal system is involved in feeding adaptation. Hence, we suggest that reactive insulin signalling modulates both locomotory foraging and pharyngeal pumping as the animal adapts to the absence of food. We discuss this in the context of insulin signalling directing a shift in the sensitivity of neurotransmitter systems to regulate the worm's response to changes in food availability in the environment. PMID:27209024

  16. Label-Free Proteomic Identification of Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Interaction Partners of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, Thangiah; Langlais, Paul; Luo, Moulun; Mapes, Rebekka; Lefort, Natalie; Chen, Shu-Chuan; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Yi, Zhengping

    2011-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to most cellular processes. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics combined with co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) has emerged as a powerful approach for studying protein complexes. However, a majority of systematic proteomics studies on protein-protein interactions involve the use of protein overexpression and/or epitope-tagged bait proteins, which might affect binding stoichiometry and lead to higher false positives. Here, we report an application of a straightforward, label-free CO-IP-MS/MS method, without the use of protein overexpression or protein tags, to the investigation of changes in the abundance of endogenous proteins associated with a bait protein, which is in this case insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. IRS-1 plays a central role in the insulin signaling cascade. Defects in the protein-protein interactions involving IRS-1 may lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses identified eleven novel endogenous insulin-stimulated IRS-1 interaction partners in L6 myotubes reproducibly, including proteins play an important role in protein dephosphorylation [protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, (PPP1R12A)], muscle contraction and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and protein folding, as well as protein synthesis. This novel application of label-free CO-IP-MS/MS quantification to assess endogenous interaction partners of a specific protein will prove useful for understanding how various cell stimuli regulate insulin signal transduction.

  17. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  18. Insulin Excites Anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin Neurons via Activation of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Zhang, Chunguang; Borgquist, Amanda; Nestor, Casey C; Smith, Arik W.; Bosch, Martha A.; Ku, Stephen; Wagner, Edward J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Although both the leptin receptor and insulin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide3-kinase (PI3K) in POMC neurons, they are thought to have disparate actions on POMC excitability. Using whole-cell recording and selective pharmacological tools, we have found that similar to leptin, purified insulin depolarized POMC, and adjacent kisspeptin neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels, which are highly expressed in these neurons. In contrast, insulin hyperpolarized and inhibited NPY/AgRP neurons via activation of KATP channels. Moreover, Zn2+, which is found in insulin formulations at nanomolar concentrations, inhibited POMC neurons via activation of KATP channels. Finally as predicted, insulin given intracerebroventrically robustly inhibited food intake and activated c-fos expression in arcuate POMC neurons. Our results show that purified insulin excites POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which we propose is a major mechanism by which insulin regulates energy homeostasis. PMID:24703699

  19. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  20. Fluctuations in the affinity and concentration of insulin receptors on circulating monocytes of obese patients: effects of starvation, refeeding, and dieting.

    PubMed Central

    Bar, R S; Gorden, P; Roth, J; Kahn, C R; De Meyts, P

    1976-01-01

    The binding of 125I-insulin to insulin receptors on circulating monocytes of obese patients and normal volunteers has been determined under various dietary states. In the basal, fed state the monocytes of obese patients with clinical insulin resistance (n= 6) bound less insulin than normals (n =10) because of a decrease in insulin receptor concentration (obese = 6,000-13,000 sites per monocyte versus normals 15,000-28,000 sites per monocyte). The single obese patient without evidence of clinical insulin resistance demonstrated normal binding of insulin with 16,000 sites per monocyte. In all patients, the total receptor concentration was inversely related to the circulating levels of insulin measured at rest after an overnight fast. For the obese patients with basally depressed insulin binding, a 48-72-h fast lowered circulating insulin and increased binding to normal levels but only at low hormone concentrations; this limited normalization of 125I-insulin binding was associated with increased receptor affinity for insulin without change in receptor concentration. Refeeding after the acute fasting periods resulted in return to the elevated plasma insulin levels, the basal receptor affinity, and the depressed insulin binding observed in the basal, fed state. Chronic diet restored plasma insulin levels, insulin binding, and receptor concentration to normal without change in affinity. When the data from this study are coupled with previous in vivo and in vitro findings they suggest that the insulin receptor of human monocytes is more sensitive to regulation by ambient insulin than the receptors of obese mice and cultured human lymphocytes. The results further indicate than an insulin receptor undergoes in vivo modulation of its interaction with insulin by changing receptor concentration and by altering the affinity of existing receptors. Images PMID:993336

  1. Independent signaling by Drosophila insulin receptor for axon guidance and growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caroline R.; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1–4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the

  2. Independent signaling by Drosophila insulin receptor for axon guidance and growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Caroline R; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1-4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the

  3. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Peptides and Receptors of the Insulin Family

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic interactions among peptides and receptors of the insulin family are required for glucose homeostasis, normal cellular growth and development, proliferation, differentiation and other metabolic processes. The peptides of the insulin family are disulfide-linked single or dual-chain proteins, while receptors are ligand-activated transmembrane glycoproteins of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily. Binding of ligands to the extracellular domains of receptors is known to initiate signaling via activation of intracellular kinase domains. While the structure of insulin has been known since 1969, recent decades have seen remarkable progress on the structural biology of apo and liganded receptor fragments. Here, we review how this useful structural information (on ligands and receptors) has enabled large-scale atomically-resolved simulations to elucidate the conformational dynamics of these biomolecules. Particularly, applications of molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methods are discussed in various contexts, including studies of isolated ligands, apo-receptors, ligand/receptor complexes and intracellular kinase domains. The review concludes with a brief overview and future outlook for modeling and computational studies in this family of proteins. PMID:25680077

  4. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish. PMID:25732591

  5. Association of the insulin-receptor variant Met-985 with hyperglycemia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    `t Hart, L.M.; Maassen, J.A.; Does, F.E.E. van der

    1996-11-01

    One of the characteristics of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is the presence of insulin. Most NIDDM patients have a normal sequence of the insulin receptor, indicating that, if insulin-receptor mutations contribute to the development of NIDDM, they will be present only in a minor fraction of the NIDDM population. The goal of the present study was to examine whether insulin-receptor mutations contribute to the development of NIDDM. We examined 161 individuals with NIDDM and 538 healthy controls from the population-based Rotterdam study for the presence of mutations in the insulin-receptor gene by SSCP. A heterozygous mutation changing valine-985 into methionine was detected in 5.6% of diabetic subjects and in 1.3% of individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance test. Adjusted for age, gender, and body-mass index, this revealed a relative risk for diabetes of 4.49 (95% confidence interval 1.59-12.25) for Met-985 carriers. When the total study group was analyzed, the prevalence of the mutation increased with increasing serum glucose levels (test for trend P < .005). We conclude that the Met-985 insulin-receptor variant associates with hyperglycemia and represents a risk factor for NIDDM. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) deficiency improves insulin resistance and glucose metabolism under diet-induced obesity conditions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hongfei; Zhang, Jun; Gong, Yan; Gupte, Jamila; Ye, Jay; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Samayoa, Kim; Coberly, Suzanne; Gardner, Jonitha; Wang, Huilan; Corbin, Tim; Chui, Danny; Baribault, Helene; Li, Yang

    2014-10-31

    The role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in regulating bile acid synthesis has been well defined; however, its reported role on glucose and energy metabolism remains unresolved. Here, we show that FGFR4 deficiency in mice leads to improvement in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and reduction in body weight under high fat conditions. Mechanism of action studies in FGFR4-deficient mice suggest that the effects are mediated in part by increased plasma levels of adiponectin and the endocrine FGF factors FGF21 and FGF15, the latter of which increase in response to an elevated bile acid pool. Direct actions of increased bile acids on bile acid receptors, and other potential indirect mechanisms, may also contribute to the observed metabolic changes. The results described herein suggest that FGFR4 antagonists alone, or in combination with other agents, could serve as a novel treatment for diabetes. PMID:25204652

  7. Acetylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; James, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    Background Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key moderators of insulin action. Their specific regulation determines downstream protein-protein interactions and confers specificity on growth factor signalling. Regulatory mechanisms that have been identified include phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine and serine residues and ubiquitination of lysine residues. This study investigated other potential molecular mechanisms of IRS-1 regulation. Results Using the sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system we found that IRS-1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) interact in the cytoplasmic compartment of yeast cells. The interaction mapped to the C-terminus of IRS-1 and was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation in vitro of recombinant IRS-1 and HDAC2. HDAC2 bound to IRS-1 in mammalian cells treated with phorbol ester or after prolonged treatment with insulin/IGF-1 and also in the livers of ob/ob mice but not PTP1B knockout mice. Thus, the association occurs under conditions of compromised insulin signalling. We found that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, of which the acetylation is increased by treatment of cells with Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC activity. TSA-induced increases in acetylation of IRS-1 were concomitant with increases in tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects were confirmed using RNA interference against HDAC2, indicating that HDAC2 specifically prevents phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the insulin receptor. Conclusions Our results show that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, a post-translational modification that has not been previously described. Acetylation of IRS-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation and facilitates insulin-stimulated signal transduction. Specific inhibition of HDAC2 may increase insulin sensitivity in otherwise insulin resistant conditions. PMID:15522123

  8. Insulin Restores Gestational Diabetes Mellitus–Reduced Adenosine Transport Involving Differential Expression of Insulin Receptor Isoforms in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Puebla, Carlos; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Cifuentes, Fredi; Leiva, Andrea; Casanello, Paola; Sobrevia, Luis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether insulin reverses gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)–reduced expression and activity of human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) in human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Primary cultured HUVECs from full-term normal (n = 44) and diet-treated GDM (n = 44) pregnancies were used. Insulin effect was assayed on hENT1 expression (protein, mRNA, SLC29A1 promoter activity) and activity (initial rates of adenosine transport) as well as endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity (serine1177 phosphorylation, l-citrulline formation). Adenosine concentration in culture medium and umbilical vein blood (high-performance liquid chromatography) as well as insulin receptor A and B expression (quantitative PCR) were determined. Reactivity of umbilical vein rings to adenosine and insulin was assayed by wire myography. Experiments were in the absence or presence of l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor) or ZM-241385 (an A2A-adenosine receptor antagonist). RESULTS Umbilical vein blood adenosine concentration was higher, and the adenosine- and insulin-induced NO/endothelium-dependent umbilical vein relaxation was lower in GDM. Cells from GDM exhibited increased insulin receptor A isoform expression in addition to the reported NO–dependent inhibition of hENT1-adenosine transport and SLC29A1 reporter repression, and increased extracellular concentration of adenosine and NO synthase activity. Insulin reversed all these parameters to values in normal pregnancies, an effect blocked by ZM-241385 and l-NAME. CONCLUSIONS GDM and normal pregnancy HUVEC phenotypes are differentially responsive to insulin, a phenomenon where insulin acts as protecting factor for endothelial dysfunction characteristic of this syndrome. Abnormal adenosine plasma levels, and potentially A2A-adenosine receptors and insulin receptor A, will play crucial roles in this phenomenon in GDM. PMID:21515851

  9. When Intensive Insulin Therapy (MDI) Fails in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Switching to GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Versus Insulin Pump.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ohad; Filetti, Sebastiano; Castañeda, Javier; Maranghi, Marianna; Glandt, Mariela

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with insulin, alone or with oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents, is becoming increasingly common in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, approximately 40% of patients fail to reach their glycemic targets with the initially prescribed regimen and require intensification of insulin therapy, which increases the risks of weight gain and hypoglycemia. Many of these patients eventually reach a state in which further increases in the insulin dosage fail to improve glycemic control while increasing the risks of weight gain and hypoglycemia. The recently completed OpT2mise clinical trial showed that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is more effective in reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) than intensification of multiple daily injection (MDI) insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not respond to intensive insulin therapy. CSII therapy may also be useful in patients who do not reach glycemic targets despite multidrug therapy with basal-bolus insulin and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists; current guidelines offer no recommendations for the treatment of such patients. Importantly, insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists have complementary effects on glycemia and, hence, can be used either sequentially or in combination in the initial management of diabetes. Patients who have not previously failed GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy may show reduction in weight and insulin dose, in addition to moderate improvement in HbA1c, when GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy is added to MDI regimens. In subjects with long-standing type 2 diabetes who do not respond to intensive insulin therapies, switching from MDI to CSII and/or the addition of GLP-1 receptor agonists to MDI have the potential to improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of adverse events. PMID:27440831

  10. Insulin-like Growth Factor-II (IGF-II) and IGF-II Analogs with Enhanced Insulin Receptor-a Binding Affinity Promote Neural Stem Cell Expansion*

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Forbes, Briony E.; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to employ genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. Neural precursors from the subventricular zone were propagated in vitro in culture medium supplemented with IGF-II analogs. Cell growth and identity were analyzed using sphere generation and further analyzed by flow cytometry. F19A, an analog of IGF-II that does not bind the IGF-2R, stimulated an increase in the proportion of neural stem cells (NSCs) while decreasing the proportion of the later stage progenitors at a lower concentration than IGF-II. V43M, which binds to the IGF-2R with high affinity but which has low binding affinity to the IGF-1R and to the A isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A) failed to promote NSC growth. The positive effects of F19A on NSC growth were unaltered by the addition of a functional blocking antibody to the IGF-1R. Altogether, these data lead to the conclusion that IGF-II promotes stemness of NSCs via the IR-A and not through activation of either the IGF-1R or the IGF-2R. PMID:24398690

  11. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  12. Suppressive Effect of Insulin on the Gene Expression and Plasma Concentrations of Mediators of Asthmatic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Husam; Abuaysheh, Sanaa; Batra, Manav; Kuhadiya, Nitesh D.; Patel, Reema; Makdissi, Antoine; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dandona, Paresh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis. Following our recent demonstration that the chronic inflammatory and insulin resistant state of obesity is associated with an increase in the expression of mediators known to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and that weight loss after gastric bypass surgery results in the reduction of these genes, we have now hypothesized that insulin suppresses the cellular expression and plasma concentrations of these mediators. Methods. The expression of IL-4, LIGHT, LTBR, ADAM-33, and TSLP in MNC and plasma concentrations of LIGHT, TGF-β1, MMP-9, MCP-1, TSLP, and NOM in obese patients with T2DM were measured before, during, and after the infusion of a low dose (2 U/h) infusion of insulin for 4 hours. The patients were also infused with dextrose or saline for 4 hours on two separate visits and served as controls. Results. Following insulin infusion, the mRNA expression of IL-4, ADAM-33, LIGHT, and LTBR mRNA expression fell significantly (P < 0.05 for all). There was also a concomitant reduction in plasma NOM, LIGHT, TGF-β1, MCP-1, and MMP-9 concentrations. Conclusions. Insulin suppresses the expression of these genes and mediators related to asthma and may, therefore, have a potential role in the treatment of asthma. PMID:25642424

  13. Characterization of the growth of murine fibroblasts that express human insulin receptors. I. The effect of insulin in the absence of other growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Randazzo, P.A.; Morey, V.A.; Polishook, A.K.; Jarett, L. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of insulin on the growth of murine fibroblasts transfected with an expression vector containing human insulin receptor cDNA (NIH 3T3/HIR) and the parental cells (NIH/3T3) was characterized. Insulin in the absence of other mitogens increased the rate of incorporation of thymidine into NIH 3T3/HIR cells with a half-maximal response occurring at an insulin concentration of 35 ng/ml and a maximal response that was equivalent to that elicited by 10% fetal calf serum. The thymidine incorporation rate was increased by 12 h, was maximal at approximately 16 h, and returned to basal rates at 24 h after the addition of insulin. Insulin induced a maximum of 65% of cells to incorporate thymidine. The increased DNA synthesis was accompanied by net growth. Addition of insulin to the NIH 3T3/HIR cells resulted in increased DNA content with a half-maximal response occurring at approximately 30 ng/ml insulin and a maximal response equivalent to that elicited by serum. An increase in cell number detected after the addition of insulin to the NIH 3T3/HIR suggests that the cells had progressed through mitosis. Insulin did not increase the rate of thymidine incorporation, DNA content, or number of the parental NIH 3T3 cells. These data show that insulin, in the absence of a second mitogen, is able to induce NIH 3T3/HIR fibroblasts to traverse the cell cycle.

  14. Grb-IR: A SH2-Domain-Containing Protein that Binds to the Insulin Receptor and Inhibits Its Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Roth, Richard A.

    1995-10-01

    To identify potential signaling molecules involved in mediating insulin-induced biological responses, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed with the cytoplasmic domain of the human insulin receptor (IR) as bait to trap high-affinity interacting proteins encoded by human liver or HeLa cDNA libraries. A SH2-domain-containing protein was identified that binds with high affinity in vitro to the autophosphorylated IR. The mRNA for this protein was found by Northern blot analyses to be highest in skeletal muscle and was also detected in fat by PCR. To study the role of this protein in insulin signaling, a full-length cDNA encoding this protein (called Grb-IR) was isolated and stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human IR. Insulin treatment of these cells resulted in the in situ formation of a complex of the IR and the 60-kDa Grb-IR. Although almost 75% of the Grb-IR protein was bound to the IR, it was only weakly tyrosine-phosphorylated. The formation of this complex appeared to inhibit the insulin-induced increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of two endogenous substrates, a 60-kDa GTPase-activating-protein-associated protein and, to a lesser extent, IR substrate 1. The subsequent association of this latter protein with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase also appeared to be inhibited. These findings raise the possibility that Grb-IR is a SH2-domain-containing protein that directly complexes with the IR and serves to inhibit signaling or redirect the IR signaling pathway.

  15. Insulin glulisine--a comprehensive preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stammberger, Ingo; Seipke, Gerhard; Bartels, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Receptor binding and signaling and the mitogenic potential of insulin glulisine (glulisine), regular human insulin (RHI), and Asp(B10) were compared in vivo and in vitro. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor binding was studied with human insulin receptors (293HEK cells) and the human osteosarcoma-derived cell line B10. Insulin receptor-mediated signaling was assessed in rat-1 fibroblasts overexpressing insulin receptors. Activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1/ IRS-2) was studied in rat and human myoblasts and rat cardiomyocytes. DNA synthesis induction was assessed by [3H] thymidine incorporation in the human epithelial breast cell line MCF10. Interaction with the IGF-1 receptor, DNA synthesis, and intracellular signal transduction were assessed in cardiac K6 myoblasts. Immunohistochemical examination of Sprague-Dawley rat tissue treated with glulisine for 6 months (n = 40), and glulisine and RHI for 12 months (n = 60), was performed. Steady-state insulin receptor binding affinity was slightly lower for glulisine versus RHI (approximately 0.70). IGF-1 receptor binding affinity was lower (four- to fivefold) for glulisine, but significantly higher (four-fold) for Asp(B10) versus RHI. Glulisine, Asp(B10), and RHI showed similar insulin receptor-association kinetics; however, Asp(B10) revealed increased insulin receptor affinity. Glulisine and RHI showed similar insulin receptor-mediated phosphorylation and IRS-2 activation. Activation of IRS-1 was 6- to 10-fold lower with glulisine; glulisine was less potent and Asp(B10) slightly more potent in stimulating DNA synthesis versus RHI. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was comparable for glulisine and RHI in K6 myoblasts. At 12 months, there was no significant difference between glulisine and RHI in proliferative activity. This preclinical evaluation suggests that structural changes in glulisine versus RHI are not associated with any safety issues. PMID:16510354

  16. Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (SMRT) regulates glucocorticoid action in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Emont, Margo P.; Mantis, Stelios; Kahn, Jonathan H.; Landeche, Michael; Han, Xuan; Sargis, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Local modulation of glucocorticoid action in adipocytes regulates adiposity and systemic insulin sensitivity. However, the specific cofactors that mediate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action in adipocytes remain unclear. Here we show that the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) is recruited to GR in adipocytes and regulates ligand-dependent GR function. Decreased SMRT expression in adipocytes in vivo increases expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. Moreover, adipocytes with decreased SMRT expression exhibit altered glucocorticoid regulation of lipolysis. We conclude that SMRT regulates the metabolic functions of GR in adipocytes in vivo. Modulation of GR-SMRT interactions in adipocytes represents a novel approach to control the local degree of glucocorticoid action and thus influence adipocyte metabolic function. PMID:25766503

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Influences Glucose Homeostasis and β-Cell Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Strodthoff, Daniela; Ma, Zuheng; Wirström, Tina; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Engel, David; Clarke, Robert; Falkmer, Sture; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Göran K; Björklund, Anneli; Lundberg, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We examined the function of TLR3 in glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes-related phenotypes in animals and humans. TLR3 is highly expressed in the pancreas, suggesting that it can influence metabolism. Using a diet-induced obesity model, we show that TLR3-deficient mice had enhanced glycemic control, facilitated by elevated insulin secretion. Despite having high insulin levels, Tlr3(-/-) mice did not experience disturbances in whole-body insulin sensitivity, suggesting that they have a robust metabolic system that manages increased insulin secretion. Increase in insulin secretion was associated with upregulation of islet glucose phosphorylation as well as exocytotic protein VAMP-2 in Tlr3(-/-) islets. TLR3 deficiency also modified the plasma lipid profile, decreasing VLDL levels due to decreased triglyceride biosynthesis. Moreover, a meta-analysis of two healthy human populations showed that a missense single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR3 (encoding L412F) was linked to elevated insulin levels, consistent with our experimental findings. In conclusion, our results increase the understanding of the function of innate receptors in metabolic disorders and implicate TLR3 as a key control system in metabolic regulation. PMID:25918231

  18. Identification and Transcriptional Modulation of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, Vitellogenin Receptor During Oocyte Development by Insulin and Sex Steroids1

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Porak, Wesley F.; Grier, Harry J.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E2), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E2 or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E2 or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues. PMID:22786822

  19. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin: therapeutic rationales and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, thus conferring glycaemic control with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. GLP-1RAs also promote weight loss, and have beneficial effects on markers of β cell function, lipid levels, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk markers. However, the durability of their effectiveness is unknown and, compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic potential of GLP-1RA-insulin combination therapy, typically showing beneficial effects on glycaemic control and body weight, with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia and, in established insulin therapy, facilitating reductions in insulin dose. In this review, the physiological and pharmacological rationale for using GLP-1RA and insulin therapies in combination is discussed, and data from clinical studies that have assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment strategy are outlined. PMID:22646532

  20. Insulin receptor-like ectodomain genes and splice variants are found in both arthropods and human brain cDNA

    PubMed Central

    VÄSTERMARK, Åke; RASK-ANDERSEN, Mathias; SAWANT, Rahul S.; REITER, Jill L.; SCHIÖTH, Helgi B.; WILLIAMS, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Truncated receptor ectodomains have been described for several classes of cell surface receptors, including those that bind to growth factors, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and adhesion molecules. Soluble receptor isoforms are typically generated by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface receptor or by alternative splicing of RNA transcripts arising from the same gene encoding the full-length receptor. Both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin receptor (INSR) families produce soluble receptor splice variants in vertebrates and truncated forms of insulin receptor-like sequences have previously been described in Drosophila. The EGFR and INSR ectodomains share significant sequence homology with each other suggestive of a common evolutionary origin. We discovered novel truncated insulin receptor-like variants in several arthropod species. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved extracellular receptor L1 and L2 subdomains in invertebrate species. While the segregation of insulin receptor-like L1 and L2 domains indicated that an internal domain duplication had occurred only once, the generation of truncated insulin receptor-like sequences has occurred multiple times. The significance of this work is the previously unknown and widespread occurrence of truncated isoforms in arthropods, signifying that these isoforms play an important functional role, potentially related to such isoforms in mammals. PMID:27375681

  1. Increased insulin receptor binding in erythrocytes from growth hormone-deficient children.

    PubMed

    Dávila, N; Barceló, B; Carranza, M C; Calle, C

    1991-08-01

    Erythrocytes from growth hormone-deficient children (GHd-children) (n = 10) showed a statistically significant increase in insulin binding at low unlabeled insulin concentrations, together with a threefold decrease in apparent receptor affinity, as compared to control children (C) (n = 11). Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the two-site model revealed that both the receptor concentration R1 [GHd-children 0.10 +/- 0.01 ng/ml and C 0.03 +/- 0.002 ng/ml] and the dissociation constant KD1 [GHd-children (0.48 +/- 0.05) x 10(-9) M and C (0.19 +/- 0.01) x 10(-9) M] for high affinity-low capacity sites were significantly increased in erythrocytes from GHd-children, while neither receptor concentrations (R2) nor the dissociation constant (KD2) for low affinity-high capacity sites proved to be altered. These events were accompanied by a normal sensitivity to insulin as well as glucose tolerance in the GHd-group. The meaning of the increased insulin binding with normal insulin sensitivity in GH-deficiency is discussed. PMID:1760528

  2. Metformin Disrupts Crosstalk Between G protein-Coupled Receptor and Insulin Receptor Signaling Systems and Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Eibl, Guido; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Recently we identified a novel crosstalk between insulin and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells. Insulin enhanced GPCR signaling through a rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-dependent pathway. Metformin, the most widely used drug in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, activates AMP kinase (AMPK), which negatively regulates mTOR. Here, we determined whether metformin disrupts crosstalk between insulin receptor and GPCR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, BxPC-3) with insulin (10ng/ml) for 5 min markedly enhanced the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] induced by GPCR agonists (e.g. neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensin II). Metformin pretreatment completely abrogated insulin-induced potentiation of Ca2+ signaling but did not interfere with the effect of GPCR agonists alone. Insulin also enhanced GPCR agonist-induced growth, measured by DNA synthesis, and numbers of cells cultured in adherent or non-adherent conditions. Low doses of metformin (0.1-0.5 mM) blocked stimulation of DNA synthesis, anchorage-dependent and independent growth induced by insulin and GPCR agonists. Treatment with metformin induced striking and sustained increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and a selective AMPK inhibitor (compound C, at 5μM) reversed the effects of metformin on [Ca2+]i, and DNA synthesis, indicating that metformin acts through AMPK activation. In view of these results we tested whether metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer growth. Administration of metformin significantly decreased the growth of MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells xenografted on the flank of nude mice. The results raise the possibility that metformin could be a potential candidate in novel treatment strategies for human pancreatic cancer. PMID:19679549

  3. Increase of Calcium Sensing Receptor Expression Is Related to Compensatory Insulin Secretion during Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eun-Hui; Lee, Young-Sun; Cho, Sung Chun; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is caused by both insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. To investigate age-related changes in glucose metabolism and development of type 2 diabetes, we compared glucose homeostasis in different groups of C57BL/6J mice ranging in age from 4 months to 20 months (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months). Interestingly, we observed that non-fasting glucose levels were not significantly changed, but glucose tolerance gradually increased by 20 months of age, whereas insulin sensitivity declined with age. We found that the size of islets and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased with aging. However, mRNA expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and granuphilin was decreased in islets of older mice compared with that of 4-month-old mice. Serum calcium (Ca2+) levels were significantly decreased at 12, 20 and 28 months of age compared with 4 months and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mRNA expression in the islets significantly increased with age. An extracellular calcium depletion agent upregulated CaSR mRNA expression and consequently enhanced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, we suggest that decreased Ca2+ levels and increased CaSR expression might be involved in increased insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance in aged mice. PMID:27441644

  4. A receptor state space model of the insulin signalling system in glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Gray, Catheryn W; Coster, Adelle C F

    2015-12-01

    Insulin is a potent peptide hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood. Insulin-sensitive cells respond to insulin stimulation with the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM), enabling the clearance of glucose from the blood. Defects in this process can give rise to insulin resistance and ultimately diabetes. One widely cited model of insulin signalling leading to glucose transport is that of Sedaghat et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 283, E1084-E1101. Consisting of 20 deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs), it is the most comprehensive model of insulin signalling to date. However, the model possesses some major limitations, including the non-conservation of key components. In the current work, we detail mathematical and sensitivity analyses of the Sedaghat model. Based on the results of these analyses, we propose a reduced state space model of the insulin receptor subsystem. This reduced model maintains the input-output relation of the original model but is computationally more efficient, analytically tractable and resolves some of the limitations of the Sedaghat model. PMID:25673317

  5. Assessing the range of kinase autoinhibition mechanisms in the insulin receptor family

    PubMed Central

    Artim, Stephen C.; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the range of autoinhibitory mechanisms used by TKDs (tyrosine kinase domains) from the insulin receptor family of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), we determined crystal structures of TKDs from TrkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A, a nerve growth factor receptor) and Ror2 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2, an unconventional Wnt receptor). TrkA autoinhibition closely resembles that seen for the insulin receptor, relying on projection of an activation loop tyrosine residue into the substrate-binding site and occlusion of the ATP-binding site by the activation loop. Ror2 employs similar mechanisms, but the unusual replacement of the phenylalanine residue in its Asp-Phe-Gly motif with leucine necessitates occlusion of the ATP-binding site by other means. The unusual Asp-Leu-Gly motif in Ror2 is displaced compared with other inactive kinases, allowing the activation loop to interact directly with the TKD's αC helix, in another mode of autoinhibition that is characteristic of the other extreme of this receptor family: ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and Met. These findings provide insight into the expected range of activating mutations in these TKDs in cancer. We also describe symmetrical dimers of the inactive TrkA TKD resembling those found in other RTKs, possibly reflecting an arrangement of kinase domains in a pre-formed TrkA dimer. PMID:22992069

  6. Aptamer-based single-molecule imaging of insulin receptors in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Minhyeok; Kwon, Mijin; Kim, Sooran; Yunn, Na-Oh; Kim, Daehyung; Ryu, Sung Ho; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2014-05-01

    We present a single-molecule imaging platform that quantitatively explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of individual insulin receptors in living cells. Modified DNA aptamers that specifically recognize insulin receptors (IRs) with a high affinity were selected through the SELEX process. Using quantum dot-labeled aptamers, we successfully imaged and analyzed the diffusive motions of individual IRs in the plasma membranes of a variety of cell lines (HIR, HEK293, HepG2). We further explored the cholesterol-dependent movement of IRs to address whether cholesterol depletion interferes with IRs and found that cholesterol depletion of the plasma membrane by methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduces the mobility of IRs. The aptamer-based single-molecule imaging of IRs will provide better understanding of insulin signal transduction through the dynamics study of IRs in the plasma membrane.

  7. Insulin receptor substrate-3, interacting with Bcl-3, enhances p50 NF-{kappa}B activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Cho, Yoshitake; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Wada, Keiji; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2010-04-09

    The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are major substrates of both insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that IRS-3 is localized to both cytosol and nucleus, and possesses transcriptional activity. In the present study, we identified Bcl-3 as a novel binding protein to IRS-3. Bcl-3 is a nuclear protein, which forms a complex with the homodimer of p50 NF-{kappa}B, leading to enhancement of transcription through p50 NF-{kappa}B. We found that Bcl-3 interacts with the pleckstrin homology domain and the phosphotyrosine binding domain of IRS-3, and that IRS-3 interacts with the ankyrin repeat domain of Bcl-3. In addition, IRS-3 augmented the binding activity of p50 to the NF-{kappa}B DNA binding site, as well as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Lastly, IRS-3 enhanced NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic gene induction and consequently inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced cell death. This series of results proposes a novel function for IRS-3 as a transcriptional regulator in TNF-{alpha} signaling, distinct from its function as a substrate of insulin/IGF receptor kinases.

  8. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Záková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M

    2014-10-01

    The structural characterization of the insulin-insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21-B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms. PMID:25286859

  9. A highly pleiotropic amino acid polymorphism in the Drosophila insulin receptor contributes to life-history adaptation.

    PubMed

    Paaby, Annalise B; Bergland, Alan O; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Finding the specific nucleotides that underlie adaptive variation is a major goal in evolutionary biology, but polygenic traits pose a challenge because the complex genotype-phenotype relationship can obscure the effects of individual alleles. However, natural selection working in large wild populations can shift allele frequencies and indicate functional regions of the genome. Previously, we showed that the two most common alleles of a complex amino acid insertion-deletion polymorphism in the Drosophila insulin receptor show independent, parallel clines in frequency across the North American and Australian continents. Here, we report that the cline is stable over at least a five-year period and that the polymorphism also demonstrates temporal shifts in allele frequency concurrent with seasonal change. We tested the alleles for effects on levels of insulin signaling, fecundity, development time, body size, stress tolerance, and life span. We find that the alleles are associated with predictable differences in these traits, consistent with patterns of Drosophila life-history variation across geography that likely reflect adaptation to the heterogeneous climatic environment. These results implicate insulin signaling as a major mediator of life-history adaptation in Drosophila, and suggest that life-history trade-offs can be explained by extensive pleiotropy at a single locus. PMID:25319083

  10. Mediation of Autophagic Cell Death by Type 3 Ryanodine Receptor (RyR3) in Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Min; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Park, Hyunhee; An, Hyun-Kyu; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ actively engages in diverse intracellular processes from protein synthesis, folding and trafficking to cell survival and death. Dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is observed in various neuropathological states including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca2+ release channels located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, are known to direct various cellular events such as autophagy and apoptosis. Here we investigated the intracellular Ca2+-mediated regulation of survival and death of adult hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells utilizing an insulin withdrawal model of autophagic cell death (ACD). Despite comparable expression levels of RyR and IP3R transcripts in HCN cells at normal state, the expression levels of RyRs—especially RyR3—were markedly upregulated upon insulin withdrawal. While treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine significantly promoted the autophagic death of insulin-deficient HCN cells, treatment with its inhibitor dantrolene prevented the induction of autophagy following insulin withdrawal. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the RyR3 gene abolished ACD of HCN cells. This study delineates a distinct, RyR3-mediated ER Ca2+ regulation of autophagy and programmed cell death in neural stem cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical, yet understudied mechanisms underlying the regulatory function of ER Ca2+ in neural stem cell biology. PMID:27199668

  11. Evidence for two different types of P2 receptors stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic B cell.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Hillaire-Buys, D; Manteghetti, M; Debrus, S; Chapal, J; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1998-11-01

    Adenine nucleotides have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion by acting on P2 receptors of the P2Y type. Since there have been some discrepancies in the insulin response of different analogues of ATP and ADP, we investigated whether two different types of P2 receptors exist on pancreatic B cells. The effects of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, which is more specific for the P2X subtype, were studied in vitro in pancreatic islets and isolated perfused pancreas from rats, in comparison with the potent P2Y receptor agonist ADPbetaS. In isolated islets, incubated with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP (200 microM) and ADPbetaS (50 microM) similarly stimulated insulin secretion; by contrast, under a non stimulating glucose concentration (3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP was still effective whereas ADPbetaS was not. In the same way, in islets perifused with 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP but not ADPbetaS induced a partial but significant reduction in the peak 86Rb efflux induced by the ATP-dependent potassium channel opener diazoxide. In the isolated pancreas, perfused with a non stimulating glucose concentration (4.2 mM), ADPbetaS and alpha,beta-me ATP (5-50 microM), administered for 10 min, induced an immediate, transient and concentration-dependent increase in the insulin secretion; their relative potency was not significantly different. In contrast, with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), ADPbetaS was previously shown to be 100 fold more potent than alpha,beta-me ATP. Furthermore, at 4.2 mM glucose a second administration of alpha,beta-me ATP was ineffective. In the same way, ADPbetaS was also able to desensitize its own insulin response. At 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP as well as ADPbetaS (50 microM) induced a transient stimulation of insulin secretion and down regulated the action of each other. These results give evidence that pancreatic B cells, in addition to P2Y receptors, which potentiate glucose

  12. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology. PMID:27126913

  13. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Nigel; Rudigier, Carla; Moest, Hansjörg; Müller, Sebastian; Mrosek, Nadja; Röder, Eva; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Rülicke, Thomas; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Augustin, Robert; Neubauer, Heike; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Failure to properly dispose of glucose in response to insulin is a serious health problem, occurring during obesity and is associated with type 2 diabetes development. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is facilitated by the translocation and plasma membrane fusion of vesicles containing glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), the rate-limiting step of post-prandial glucose disposal. Methods We analyzed the role of Tusc5 in the regulation of insulin-stimulated Glut4-mediated glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we measured Tusc5 expression in two patient cohorts. Results Herein, we report that TUSC5 controls insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC5 facilitates the proper recycling of GLUT4 and other key trafficking proteins during prolonged insulin stimulation, thereby enabling proper protein localization and complete vesicle formation, processes that ultimately enable insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Tusc5 knockout mice exhibit impaired glucose disposal and TUSC5 expression is predictive of glucose tolerance in obese individuals, independent of body weight. Furthermore, we show that TUSC5 is a PPARγ target and in its absence the anti-diabetic effects of TZDs are significantly blunted. Conclusions Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans. PMID:26629404

  14. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P.; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N.; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira

    2012-01-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding–deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells. PMID:22918957

  15. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N; Bayer, K Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira

    2012-10-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding-deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells. PMID:22918957

  16. Mesenteric Fat Lipolysis Mediates Obesity-Associated Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wueest, Stephan; Item, Flurin; Lucchini, Fabrizio C; Challa, Tenagne D; Müller, Werner; Blüher, Matthias; Konrad, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance are among the most prevalent metabolic disorders and are tightly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms linking obesity to hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are incompletely understood. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is the common signal transducer of all interleukin 6 (IL-6) cytokines. We provide evidence that gp130-mediated adipose tissue lipolysis promotes hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. In obese mice, adipocyte-specific gp130 deletion reduced basal lipolysis and enhanced insulin's ability to suppress lipolysis from mesenteric but not epididymal adipocytes. Consistently, free fatty acid levels were reduced in portal but not in systemic circulation of obese knockout mice. Of note, adipocyte-specific gp130 knockout mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis as well as from insulin resistance. In humans, omental but not subcutaneous IL-6 mRNA expression correlated positively with liver lipid accumulation (r = 0.31, P < 0.05) and negatively with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp glucose infusion rate (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). The results show that IL-6 cytokine-induced lipolysis may be restricted to mesenteric white adipose tissue and that it contributes to hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. Therefore, blocking IL-6 cytokine signaling in (mesenteric) adipocytes may be a novel approach to blunting detrimental fat-liver crosstalk in obesity. PMID:26384383

  17. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  18. Targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor to overcome bortezomib resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Deborah J; Berkova, Zuzana; Jones, Richard J; Woessner, Richard; Bjorklund, Chad C; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R Eric; Lin, Pei; Wang, Hua; Madden, Timothy L; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Wang, Michael; Thomas, Sheeba K; Shah, Jatin J; Weber, Donna M; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2012-10-18

    Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib is a validated approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma, but drug resistance often emerges and limits its utility in the retreatment setting. To begin to identify some of the mechanisms involved, we developed bortezomib-resistant myeloma cell lines that, unlike previously reported models, showed no β5 subunit mutations. Instead, up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis was identified, with increased autocrine and paracrine secretion of IGF-1, leading to increased activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Exogenous IGF-1 reduced cellular sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas pharmacologic or small hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R suppression enhanced bortezomib sensitivity in cell lines and patient samples. In vitro studies with OSI-906, a clinically relevant dual IGF-1R and insulin receptor inhibitor, showed it acted synergistically with bortezomib, and potently resensitized bortezomib-resistant cell lines and patient samples to bortezomib. Importantly, OSI-906 in combination with bortezomib also overcame bortezomib resistance in an in vivo model of myeloma. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that signaling through the IGF-1/IGF-1R axis contributes to acquired bortezomib resistance, and provide a rationale for combining bortezomib with IGF-1R inhibitors like OSI-906 to overcome or possibly prevent the emergence of bortezomib-refractory disease in the clinic. PMID:22932796

  19. Targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor to overcome bortezomib resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Deborah J.; Berkova, Zuzana; Jones, Richard J.; Woessner, Richard; Bjorklund, Chad C.; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R. Eric; Lin, Pei; Wang, Hua; Madden, Timothy L.; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Wang, Michael; Thomas, Sheeba K.; Shah, Jatin J.; Weber, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib is a validated approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma, but drug resistance often emerges and limits its utility in the retreatment setting. To begin to identify some of the mechanisms involved, we developed bortezomib-resistant myeloma cell lines that, unlike previously reported models, showed no β5 subunit mutations. Instead, up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)–1 axis was identified, with increased autocrine and paracrine secretion of IGF-1, leading to increased activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Exogenous IGF-1 reduced cellular sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas pharmacologic or small hairpin RNA–mediated IGF-1R suppression enhanced bortezomib sensitivity in cell lines and patient samples. In vitro studies with OSI-906, a clinically relevant dual IGF-1R and insulin receptor inhibitor, showed it acted synergistically with bortezomib, and potently resensitized bortezomib-resistant cell lines and patient samples to bor-tezomib. Importantly, OSI-906 in combination with bortezomib also overcame bor-tezomib resistance in an in vivo model of myeloma. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that signaling through the IGF-1/IGF-1R axis contributes to acquired bortezomib resistance, and provide a rationale for combining bortezomib with IGF-1R inhibitors like OSI-906 to overcome or possibly prevent the emergence of bortezomib-refractory disease in the clinic. PMID:22932796

  20. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats. PMID:7972005

  1. Regulator of insulin receptor affinity in rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, R.H.; Barnard, K.J.; Kaplan, S.A.; Itakura, K.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity purification of detergent solubilized insulin receptors (IR) from rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles resulted in an apparent increase in total insulin binding activity of greater than 5-fold, suggesting that an inhibitory component had been removed. This was verified when the flow-through fraction from the WGA column was dialyzed and added back to the partially purified receptor. The addition of a 100-fold dilution of the inhibitor preparation caused a 50% reduction in binding to trace amounts of /sup 125/I-insulin. Scatchard analysis revealed that the effect of the inhibitor was to decrease the affinity of the muscle IR. The inhibitor appeared to be tissue specific, inasmuch as the I/sub 50/'s for WGA-purified IR from rat fat and liver were 10 times the I/sub 50/ for muscle IR. The I/sub 50/ for insulin binding to intact IM-9 cells was 30 times the value for muscle IR. The inhibitor eluted in the void volume of Sephadex G-50 columns. Its activity was not destroyed by heating at 90/sup 0/C for 10 minutes, or by prolonged incubation with trypsin or dithiothreitol. The inhibitor described here may have a role in modulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle.

  2. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  3. Non-small cell lung cancer cell survival crucially depends on functional insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Carolin Maria; Zimmermann, Katrin; Zilleßen, Pia; Pfeifer, Alexander; Racké, Kurt; Mayer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Insulin plays an important role as a growth factor and its contribution to tumor proliferation is intensely discussed. It acts via the cognate insulin receptor (IR) but can also activate the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Apart from increasing proliferation, insulin might have additional effects in lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated insulin action and effects of IR knockdown (KD) in three (NCI-H292, NCI-H226 and NCI-H460) independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. All lung cancer lines studied were found to express IR, albeit with marked differences in the ratio of the two variants IR-A and IR-B. Insulin activated the classical signaling pathway with IR autophosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, activation of MAPK was observed in H292 cells, accompanied by enhanced proliferation. Lentiviral shRNA IR KD caused strong decrease in survival of all three lines, indicating that the effects of insulin in lung cancer go beyond enhancing proliferation. Unspecific effects were ruled out by employing further shRNAs and different insulin-responsive cells (human pre-adipocytes) for comparison. Caspase assays demonstrated that IR KD strongly induced apoptosis in these lung cancer cells, providing the physiological basis of the rapid cell loss. In search for the underlying mechanism, we analyzed alterations in the gene expression profile in response to IR KD. A strong induction of certain cytokines (e.g. IL20 and tumour necrosis factor) became obvious and it turned out that these cytokines trigger apoptosis in the NSCLC cells tested. This indicates a novel role of IR in tumor cell survival via suppression of pro-apoptotic cytokines. PMID:26113601

  4. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, H.J.; White, M.F.; Khan, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the ..beta..-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 22/sup 0/C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit (..cap alpha..Pep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the (/sup 32/P)phosphate originally found in the ..beta..-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the ..beta..-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor.

  5. Identification and evolution of two insulin receptor genes involved in Tribolium castaneum development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ming; Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2016-07-10

    The insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway exists in a wide range of organisms from mammals to invertebrates and regulates several vital physiological functions. A phylogenetic analysis have indicated that insulin receptors have been duplicated at least twice among vertebrates, whereas only one duplication occurred in insects before the differentiation of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Thus, we cloned two putative insulin receptor genes, T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2, from T. castaneum and determined that T.cas-ir1 is most strongly expressed during the late adult and early pupal stages, whereas T.cas-ir2 is most strongly expressed during the late larval stage. We found that larval RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 causes 100% and 42.0% insect death, respectively, and that parental RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 leads to 100% and 33.3% reductions in beetle fecundity, respectively. The hatching rate of ds-ir2 insects was 66.2%. Moreover, RNAi against these two genes increased the expression of the pkc, foxo, jnk, cdc42, ikk, and mekk genes but decreased erk gene expression. Despite these similarities, these two genes act via distinct regulatory pathways. These results indicate that these two receptors have functionally diverged with respect to the development and reproduction of T. castaneum, even though they retain some common regulatory signaling pathways. PMID:26923187

  6. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.

    2014-01-01

    The structural characterization of the insulin–insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21–B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms. PMID:25286859

  7. Insulin Receptor-Overexpressing β-Cells Ameliorate Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats through Wnt Signaling Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of β-cells with insulin receptor (IR) overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM), rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells), and subsequently transplanted into streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Compared with INS-1 cells, INS-IR cells showed improved β-cell function, including the increase in glucose utilization, calcium mobilization, and insulin secretion, and exhibited a higher rate of cell proliferation, and maintained lower levels of blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were attributed to the increase of β-catenin/PPARγ complex bindings to peroxisome proliferator response elements in rat glucokinase (GK) promoter and the prolongation of S-phase of cell cycle by cyclin D1. These events resulted from more rapid and higher phosphorylation levels of insulin-signaling intermediates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/IRS-2/phosphotylinositol 3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) 1, and the consequent enhancement of β-catenin nuclear translocation and Wnt responsive genes including GK and cyclin D1. Indeed, the higher functionality and proliferation shown in INS-IR cells were offset by β-catenin, cyclin D1, GK, AKT1, and IRS-2 gene depletion. In addition, the promotion of cell proliferation and insulin secretion by Wnt signaling activation was shown by 100 nM insulin treatment, and to a similar degree, was shown in INS-IR cells. In this regard, this study suggests that transferring INS-IR cells into diabetic animals is an effective and feasible DM treatment. Accordingly, the method might be a promising alternative strategy for treatment of DM given the adverse effects of insulin among patients, including the increased risk of modest weight gain and hypoglycemia. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the novel mechanism of cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling plays a primary role in the higher

  8. Four RFLPs of the human insulin receptor gene: PstI, KpnI, RsaI (2 RFLPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, N.J.; Spielman, R.S.; Taub, R. ); Kahn, C.R.; Muller-Wieland, D.; Kriauciunas, K.M. )

    1989-01-25

    Fragments were isolated from subclones containing the human insulin receptor cDNA. Probe 1 was a 677 bp XhoI/EcoRI fragment from the {alpha}-subunit region of the insulin receptor cDNA corresponding to nucleotides 334 to 1,011, the putative ligand binding domain. Probe 2 was a 1,599 bp PstI fragment from the {beta}-subunit region of the insulin receptor cDNA corresponding to nucleotides 2,746 to 4,345, encoding the tyrosine kinase domain.

  9. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Cho, J Hoon; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways. PMID:26018733

  10. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Hoon Cho, J; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways. PMID:26018733

  11. Preclinical and first-in-human phase I studies of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with insulin-like growth factor receptor-1/insulin receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary K; Dickson, Mark A; LoRusso, Patricia M; Sausville, Edward A; Maekawa, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Kashima, Naomi; Nakashima, Daisuke; Akinaga, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Numerous solid tumors overexpress or have excessively activated insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R). We summarize preclinical studies and the first-in-human study of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with IGF-1R and insulin receptor (IR) inhibitory activity. Preclinical activity of KW-2450 was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo models. It was then evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in 13 patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT00921336). In vitro, KW-2450 inhibited human IGF-1R and IR kinases (IC50 7.39 and 5.64 nmol/L, respectively) and the growth of various human malignant cell lines. KW-2450 40 mg/kg showed modest growth inhibitory activity and inhibited IGF-1-induced signal transduction in the murine HT-29/GFP colon carcinoma xenograft model. The maximum tolerated dose of KW-2450 was 37.5 mg once daily continuously; dose-limiting toxicity occurred in two of six patients at 50 mg/day (both grade 3 hyperglycemia) and in one of seven patients at 37.5 mg/day (grade 3 rash). Four of 10 evaluable patients showed stable disease. Single-agent KW-2450 was associated with modest antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumors and is being further investigated in combination therapy with lapatinib/letrozole in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-postive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26850678

  12. Dicholine succinate, the neuronal insulin sensitizer, normalizes behavior, REM sleep, hippocampal pGSK3 beta and mRNAs of NMDA receptor subunits in mouse models of depression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Brandon H.; Costa-Nunes, Joao P.; Cespuglio, Raymond; Markova, Natalyia; Santos, Ana I.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Kubatiev, Aslan; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Central insulin receptor-mediated signaling is attracting the growing attention of researchers because of rapidly accumulating evidence implicating it in the mechanisms of plasticity, stress response, and neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Dicholine succinate (DS), a mitochondrial complex II substrate, was shown to enhance insulin-receptor mediated signaling in neurons and is regarded as a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor. Compounds enhancing neuronal insulin receptor-mediated transmission exert an antidepressant-like effect in several pre-clinical paradigms of depression; similarly, such properties for DS were found with a stress-induced anhedonia model. Here, we additionally studied the effects of DS on several variables which were ameliorated by other insulin receptor sensitizers in mice. Pre-treatment with DS of chronically stressed C57BL6 mice rescued normal contextual fear conditioning, hippocampal gene expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, the NR2A/NR2B ratio and increased REM sleep rebound after acute predation. In 18-month-old C57BL6 mice, a model of elderly depression, DS restored normal sucrose preference and activated the expression of neural plasticity factors in the hippocampus as shown by Illumina microarray. Finally, young naïve DS-treated C57BL6 mice had reduced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and, similarly to imipramine-treated mice, preserved hippocampal levels of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GSK3 beta that was lowered by forced swimming in pharmacologically naïve animals. Thus, DS can ameliorate behavioral and molecular outcomes under a variety of stress- and depression-related conditions. This further highlights neuronal insulin signaling as a new factor of pathogenesis and a potential pharmacotherapy of affective pathologies. PMID:25767439

  13. Dicholine succinate, the neuronal insulin sensitizer, normalizes behavior, REM sleep, hippocampal pGSK3 beta and mRNAs of NMDA receptor subunits in mouse models of depression.

    PubMed

    Cline, Brandon H; Costa-Nunes, Joao P; Cespuglio, Raymond; Markova, Natalyia; Santos, Ana I; Bukhman, Yury V; Kubatiev, Aslan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Central insulin receptor-mediated signaling is attracting the growing attention of researchers because of rapidly accumulating evidence implicating it in the mechanisms of plasticity, stress response, and neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Dicholine succinate (DS), a mitochondrial complex II substrate, was shown to enhance insulin-receptor mediated signaling in neurons and is regarded as a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor. Compounds enhancing neuronal insulin receptor-mediated transmission exert an antidepressant-like effect in several pre-clinical paradigms of depression; similarly, such properties for DS were found with a stress-induced anhedonia model. Here, we additionally studied the effects of DS on several variables which were ameliorated by other insulin receptor sensitizers in mice. Pre-treatment with DS of chronically stressed C57BL6 mice rescued normal contextual fear conditioning, hippocampal gene expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, the NR2A/NR2B ratio and increased REM sleep rebound after acute predation. In 18-month-old C57BL6 mice, a model of elderly depression, DS restored normal sucrose preference and activated the expression of neural plasticity factors in the hippocampus as shown by Illumina microarray. Finally, young naïve DS-treated C57BL6 mice had reduced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and, similarly to imipramine-treated mice, preserved hippocampal levels of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GSK3 beta that was lowered by forced swimming in pharmacologically naïve animals. Thus, DS can ameliorate behavioral and molecular outcomes under a variety of stress- and depression-related conditions. This further highlights neuronal insulin signaling as a new factor of pathogenesis and a potential pharmacotherapy of affective pathologies. PMID:25767439

  14. Dual Exosite-binding Inhibitors of Insulin-degrading Enzyme Challenge Its Role as the Primary Mediator of Insulin Clearance in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Durham, Timothy B; Toth, James L; Klimkowski, Valentine J; Cao, Julia X C; Siesky, Angela M; Alexander-Chacko, Jesline; Wu, Ginger Y; Dixon, Jeffrey T; McGee, James E; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sherry Y; Cavitt, Rachel Nicole; Schindler, John; Thibodeaux, Stefan J; Calvert, Nathan A; Coghlan, Michael J; Sindelar, Dana K; Christe, Michael; Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Michael, M Dodson; Sloop, Kyle W

    2015-08-14

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin) is the best characterized catabolic enzyme implicated in proteolysis of insulin. Recently, a peptide inhibitor of IDE has been shown to affect levels of insulin, amylin, and glucagon in vivo. However, IDE(-/-) mice display variable phenotypes relating to fasting plasma insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity depending on the cohort and age of animals. Here, we interrogated the importance of IDE-mediated catabolism on insulin clearance in vivo. Using a structure-based design, we linked two newly identified ligands binding at unique IDE exosites together to construct a potent series of novel inhibitors. These compounds do not interact with the catalytic zinc of the protease. Because one of these inhibitors (NTE-1) was determined to have pharmacokinetic properties sufficient to sustain plasma levels >50 times its IDE IC50 value, studies in rodents were conducted. In oral glucose tolerance tests with diet-induced obese mice, NTE-1 treatment improved the glucose excursion. Yet in insulin tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp experiments, NTE-1 did not enhance insulin action or increase plasma insulin levels. Importantly, IDE inhibition with NTE-1 did result in elevated plasma amylin levels, suggesting the in vivo role of IDE action on amylin may be more significant than an effect on insulin. Furthermore, using the inhibitors described in this report, we demonstrate that in HEK cells IDE has little impact on insulin clearance. In total, evidence from our studies supports a minimal role for IDE in insulin metabolism in vivo and suggests IDE may be more important in helping regulate amylin clearance. PMID:26085101

  15. Dual Exosite-binding Inhibitors of Insulin-degrading Enzyme Challenge Its Role as the Primary Mediator of Insulin Clearance in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Timothy B.; Toth, James L.; Klimkowski, Valentine J.; Cao, Julia X. C.; Siesky, Angela M.; Alexander-Chacko, Jesline; Wu, Ginger Y.; Dixon, Jeffrey T.; McGee, James E.; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sherry Y.; Cavitt, Rachel Nicole; Schindler, John; Thibodeaux, Stefan J.; Calvert, Nathan A.; Coghlan, Michael J.; Sindelar, Dana K.; Christe, Michael; Kiselyov, Vladislav V.; Michael, M. Dodson; Sloop, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin) is the best characterized catabolic enzyme implicated in proteolysis of insulin. Recently, a peptide inhibitor of IDE has been shown to affect levels of insulin, amylin, and glucagon in vivo. However, IDE−/− mice display variable phenotypes relating to fasting plasma insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity depending on the cohort and age of animals. Here, we interrogated the importance of IDE-mediated catabolism on insulin clearance in vivo. Using a structure-based design, we linked two newly identified ligands binding at unique IDE exosites together to construct a potent series of novel inhibitors. These compounds do not interact with the catalytic zinc of the protease. Because one of these inhibitors (NTE-1) was determined to have pharmacokinetic properties sufficient to sustain plasma levels >50 times its IDE IC50 value, studies in rodents were conducted. In oral glucose tolerance tests with diet-induced obese mice, NTE-1 treatment improved the glucose excursion. Yet in insulin tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp experiments, NTE-1 did not enhance insulin action or increase plasma insulin levels. Importantly, IDE inhibition with NTE-1 did result in elevated plasma amylin levels, suggesting the in vivo role of IDE action on amylin may be more significant than an effect on insulin. Furthermore, using the inhibitors described in this report, we demonstrate that in HEK cells IDE has little impact on insulin clearance. In total, evidence from our studies supports a minimal role for IDE in insulin metabolism in vivo and suggests IDE may be more important in helping regulate amylin clearance. PMID:26085101

  16. Angiotensin-induced EGF receptor transactivation inhibits insulin signaling in C9 hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Hernandez-Aranda, Judith; Catt, Kevin J.; Olivares-Reyes, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential interactions between the angiotensin II (Ang II) and insulin signaling systems, regulation of IRS-1 phosphorylation and insulin-induced Akt activation by Ang II were examined in clone 9 (C9) hepatocytes. In these cells, Ang II specifically inhibited activation of insulin-induced Akt Thr308 and its immediate downstream substrate GSK-3α/β in a time-dependent fashion, with ∼70% reduction at 15min. These inhibitory actions were associated with increased IRS-1 phosphorylation of Ser636/Ser639 that was prevented by selective blockade of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity with AG1478. Previous studies have shown that insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser636/Ser639 is mediated mainly by the PI3K/mTOR/S6K-1 sequence. Studies with specific inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and mTOR (rapamycin) revealed that Ang II stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation of Ser636/Ser639 via the PI3K/mTOR/S6K-1 pathway. Both inhibitors blocked the effect of Ang II on insulin-induced activation of Akt. Studies using the specific MEK inhibitor, PD98059, revealed that ERK1/2 activation also mediates Ang II-induced S6K-1 and IRS-1 phosphorylation, and the impairment of Akt Thr308 and GSK-3α/β phosphorylation. Further studies with selective inhibitors showed that PI3K activation was upstream of ERK, suggesting a new mechanism for Ang II-induced impairment of insulin signaling. These findings indicate that Ang II has a significant role in the development of insulin resistance by a mechanism that involves EGFR transactivation and the PI3K/ERK1/2/mTOR-S6K-1 pathway. PMID:19879250

  17. Internalized insulin-receptor complexes are unidirectionally translocated to chloroquine-sensitive degradative sites. Dependence on metabolic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Berhanu, P.

    1988-04-25

    Insulin receptors on the surface of isolated rat adipocytes were photoaffinity labeled at 12 degrees C with the iodinated photoreactive insulin analogue, 125I-B2 (2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, and the pathways in the intracellular processing of the labeled receptors were studied at 37 degrees C. During 37 degrees C incubations, the labeled 440-kDa insulin receptors were continuously internalized (as assessed by trypsin inaccessibility) and degraded such that up to 50% of the initially labeled receptors were lost by 120 min. Metabolic poisons (0.125-0.75 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 1-10 mM NaF), which led to dose-dependent depletion of adipocyte ATP pools, inhibited receptor loss, and caused up to 3-fold increase in intracellular receptor accumulation. This effect was due to inhibition of intracellular receptor degradation, and there was no apparent effect of the metabolic poisons on initial internalization of the receptors. Following maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled insulin receptors in the presence of NaF or DNP, removal of these agents resulted in a subsequent, time-dependent degradation of the accumulated receptors. However, when the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine (0.2 mM), was added immediately following removal of the metabolic poisons, further degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors was prevented, suggesting that the chloroquine-sensitive degradation of insulin receptors occurs distal to the site of inhibition by NaF or DNP. To confirm this, maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled receptors was first allowed to occur in the presence of chloroquine and the cells were then washed and reincubated in chloroquine-free media in the absence or presence of NaF or DNP. Under these conditions, degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors continued to occur, and NaF or DNP failed to block the degradation.

  18. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Protects Against Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yinyuan; Xian, Xunde; Holland, William L; Tsai, Shirling; Herz, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional uptake receptor for chylomicron remnants in the liver. In vascular smooth muscle cells LRP1 controls reverse cholesterol transport through platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β) trafficking and tyrosine kinase activity. Here we show that LRP1 regulates hepatic energy homeostasis by integrating insulin signaling with lipid uptake and secretion. Somatic inactivation of LRP1 in the liver (hLRP1KO) predisposes to diet-induced insulin resistance with dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis. On a high-fat diet, hLRP1KO mice develop a severe Metabolic Syndrome secondary to hepatic insulin resistance, reduced expression of insulin receptors on the hepatocyte surface and decreased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) translocation. While LRP1 is also required for efficient cell surface insulin receptor expression in the absence of exogenous lipids, this latent state of insulin resistance is unmasked by exposure to fatty acids. This further impairs insulin receptor trafficking and results in increased hepatic lipogenesis, impaired fatty acid oxidation and reduced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride secretion. PMID:27322467

  19. Antibodies to the extracellular receptor domain restore the hormone-insensitive kinase and conformation of the mutant insulin receptor valine 382.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Gautier, N; Dolais-Kitabgi, J; Taylor, S; Accili, D; Van Obberghen, E

    1993-05-25

    A mutation substituting a valine for phenylalanine at residue 382 in the insulin receptor alpha-subunit has been found in two sisters with a genetic form of extreme insulin resistance. This receptor mutation impairs the ability of the hormone to activate autophosphorylation of solubilized receptors and phosphorylation of substrates (Accili, D., Mosthaf, L., Ullrich, A., and Taylor, S. I. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 434-439). We have previously demonstrated that in native receptors insulin induces a conformational change in the receptor beta-subunit, which is thought to be necessary for receptor activation (Baron, V., Gautier, N., Komoriya, A., Hainaut, P., Scimeca, J. C., Mervic, M., Lavielle, S., Dolais-Kitabgi, J., and Van Obberghen, E. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 4634-4641). Hence, it was thought that a defect in this conformational change might explain the functional defect of the mutant receptor. This appears to be the case, as we demonstrate here that the mutant receptor is locked in its inactive configuration. However, we found two monoclonal antibodies, directed to the extracellular domain, which are capable of restoring the mutant receptor kinase activity. The activation of the mutant receptor was accompanied by restoration of conformational changes in the beta-subunit C terminus. From these data, we draw the two following conclusions. (i) A causal link exists between receptor kinase activation and the occurrence of conformational changes. (ii) Ligands other than insulin, such as antibodies, which perturb the extracellular domain, can function as alternative ways to restore the mutant receptor kinase. PMID:8388389

  20. The receptor subunits generating NMDA receptor mediated currents in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Burzomato, Valeria; Frugier, Guillaume; Pérez-Otaño, Isabel; Kittler, Josef T; Attwell, David

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptors have been shown to contribute to glutamate-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes. Activation of these receptors damages myelin in ischaemia, in part because they are more weakly blocked by Mg2+ than are most neuronal NMDA receptors. This weak Mg2+ block was suggested to reflect an unusual subunit composition including the NR2C and NR3A subunits. Here we expressed NR1/NR2C and triplet NR1/NR2C/NR3A recombinant receptors in HEK cells and compared their currents with those of NMDA-evoked currents in rat cerebellar oligodendrocytes. NR1/NR2C/3A receptors were less blocked by 2 mm Mg2+ than were NR1/NR2C receptors (the remaining current was 30% and 18%, respectively, of that seen without added Mg2+) and showed less channel noise, suggesting a smaller single channel conductance. NMDA-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes showed a Mg2+ block (to 32%) similar to that observed for NR1/NR2C/NR3A and significantly different from that for NR1/NR2C receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed interactions between NR1, NR2C and NR3A subunits in a purified myelin preparation from rat brain. These data are consistent with NMDA-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes reflecting the activation of receptors containing NR1, NR2C and NR3A subunits. PMID:20660562

  1. The Novel Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Azilsartan Medoxomil Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by Chronic Angiotensin II Treatment in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, Guido; Santos, Fernando R.; Hooshmand, Payam; Hooshmand, Paria; Mugerfeld, Irina; Aroor, Annayya R.; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Sowers, James R.; Henriksen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers (ARBs) can reduce both hypertension and insulin resistance induced by local and systemic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The effectiveness of azilsartan medoxomil (AZIL-M), a novel imidazole-based ARB, to facilitate metabolic improvements in conditions of angiotensin II (Ang II)-associated insulin resistance is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic AZIL-M treatment on glucose transport activity and key insulin signaling elements in red skeletal muscle of Ang II-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 8 weeks with or without Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) combined with either vehicle or AZIL-M (1 mg/kg/day). Ang II induced significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood pressure, which were completely prevented by AZIL-M. Furthermore, Ang II reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport activity in incubated soleus muscle, and AZIL-M co-treatment increased this parameter. Moreover, AZIL-M treatment of Ang II-infused animals increased the absolute phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules, including Akt [both Ser473 (81%) and Thr308 (23%)] and AS160 Thr642 (42%), in red gastrocnemius muscle frozen in situ. Absolute AMPKα (Thr172) phosphorylation increased (98%) by AZIL-M treatment, and relative Thr389 phosphorylation of p70 S6K1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, decreased (51%) with AZIL-M treatment. These results indicate that ARB AZIL-M improves the in vitro insulin action on glucose transport in red soleus muscle and the functionality of the Akt/AS160 axis in red gastrocnemius muscle in situ in Ang II-induced insulin-resistant rats, with the latter modification possibly associated with enhanced AMPKα and suppressed p70 S6K1 activation. PMID:23922555

  2. Drosophila tribbles antagonizes insulin signaling-mediated growth and metabolism via interactions with Akt kinase.

    PubMed

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  3. Drosophila Tribbles Antagonizes Insulin Signaling-Mediated Growth and Metabolism via Interactions with Akt Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  4. The human insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1) is localized on 2q36

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Masaki; Matsufuji, Senya; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Furusaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Teruji ); Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Yusuke ); Ariyama, Takeshi ); Wands, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The chromosomal localization of some of the genes participating in the insulin signaling pathway is known. The insulin and insulin receptor genes have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 19, respectively. To identify the chromosomal localization of the human IRS1 gene, the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was employed with Genomic Clone B-10. A total of 50 metaphase cells exhibiting either single or double spots of hybridization signals were examined. Among them, 32 showed the specific signals on 2q36. Therefore, the authors assigned the human IRS1 gene to 2q36. The genes for homeobox sequence (HOX4), fibronectin 1, alkaline phosphatase (intestinal), transition protein 1, villin 1, collagen (type IV), Waardenburg syndrome (type 1), alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and glucagon have been localized in the vicinity of the IRS1 gene.

  5. Effect of Insulin Analogues on Insulin/IGF1 Hybrid Receptors: Increased Activation by Glargine but Not by Its Metabolites M1 and M2

    PubMed Central

    Pierre-Eugene, Cécile; Pagesy, Patrick; Nguyen, Tuyet Thu; Neuillé, Marion; Tschank, Georg; Tennagels, Norbert; Hampe, Cornelia; Issad, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    Background In diabetic patients, the pharmacokinetics of injected human insulin does not permit optimal control of glycemia. Fast and slow acting insulin analogues have been developed, but they may have adverse properties, such as increased mitogenic or anti-apoptotic signaling. Insulin/IGF1 hybrid receptors (IR/IGF1R), present in most tissues, have been proposed to transmit biological effects close to those of IGF1R. However, the study of hybrid receptors is difficult because of the presence of IR and IGF1R homodimers. Our objective was to perform the first study on the pharmacological properties of the five marketed insulin analogues towards IR/IGF1R hybrids. Methodology To study the effect of insulin analogues on IR/IGF1R hybrids, we used our previously developed Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) assay that permits specific analysis of the pharmacological properties of hybrid receptors. Moreover, we have developed a new, highly sensitive BRET-based assay to monitor phophatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PIP3) production in living cells. Using this assay, we performed a detailed pharmacological analysis of PIP3 production induced by IGF1, insulin and insulin analogues in living breast cancer-derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. Results Among the five insulin analogues tested, only glargine stimulated IR/IGF1R hybrids with an EC50 that was significantly lower than insulin and close to that of IGF1. Glargine more efficiently stimulated PIP3 production in MCF-7 cells but not in MDA-MB231 cells as compared to insulin. In contrast, glargine metabolites M1 and M2 showed lower potency for hybrid receptors stimulation, PIP3 production, Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells, compared to insulin. Conclusion Glargine, possibly acting through IR/IGF1R hybrids, displays higher potency, whereas its metabolites M1 and M2 display lower potency than insulin for the stimulation of proliferative/anti-apoptotic pathways in MCF-7 cells. PMID:22848683

  6. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced insulin resistance is mediated by protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tianming; Chen, Min; Sun, Xiance; Cao, Jun; Feng, Chang; Li, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Liping; Yao, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a persistent organic pollutant, is blamed to be associated with the incidence of insulin resistance in the general human population. In this study, we found that PFOS inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase B (AKT), a key mediator of cellular insulin sensitivity, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The mRNA level of the gluconeogenic gene PEPCK, a downstream target gene of AKT, was increased in PFOS-treated cells. Due to stimulated gluconeogenesis, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was decreased in HepG2 cells. In our previous study, we found that PFOS disturbed autophagy in HepG2 cells. We proposed that PFOS could inhibit the activation of AKT through inhibiting mTORC2, a key regulator of autophagy. In this study, we found that the levels of triglyceride were increased in HepG2 cells. PFOS-induced accumulation of hepatic lipids also contributed to the inhibition of AKT. Eventually, the inhibition of AKT led to insulin resistance in PFOS-treated cells. Our data would provide new mechanistic insights into PFOS-induced hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:27363333

  7. Statins inhibit insulin-like growth factor action in first trimester placenta by altering insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Karen; Shah, Vinit K; Siddals, Kirk; Gibson, J Martin; Aplin, John D; Westwood, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is one of the major healthcare problems of the Western world. Affected individuals are often treated with statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A [HMG CoA] reductase inhibitors) to reduce circulating cholesterol levels and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease; given the evolving demographic profile of these conditions, such drugs are increasingly prescribed to women of reproductive age. We have previously shown that exposure of placental tissue to statins inhibits the action of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II which are key regulators of trophoblast proliferation and placental development. N-linked glycans in the IGF receptor, IGF1R, influence its presentation at the cell surface. This study aimed to determine whether statins, which are known to affect N-glycosylation, modulate IGF1R function in placenta. Treatment of first trimester villous tissue explants with statins (pravastatin or cerivastatin) or inhibitors of N-glycosylation (tunicamycin, deoxymannojirimycin or castanospermine) altered receptor distribution in trophoblast and attenuated proliferation induced by IGF-I or IGF-II (Ki67; P < 0.05, n = 5). Decreased binding of Phaseolus vulgaris lectin and phytohaemagglutinin to IGF1R immunoprecipitated from treated explants demonstrated reduced levels of complex N-linked glycans. Co-incubation of tissue explants with statins and farnesyl pyrophosphate (which increases the supply of dolichol intermediates), prevented statin-mediated disruption of IGF1R localization and reversed the negative effect on IGF-mediated trophoblast proliferation. These data suggest that statins attenuate IGF actions in the placenta by inhibiting N-linked glycosylation and subsequent expression of mature IGF1R at the placental cell surface. PMID:25304981

  8. Leptin receptor polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to augment risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leptin receptor (LEPR) is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-fatty acid interactions may affect MetS risk. The objective was to investigate the relationship among LEPR polymorphisms, insulin resistance, andMetSrisk and whether plasma fatty acids,...

  9. Insulin receptor content in tissues of normal and diabetic rats measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Russo, P; Gullo, D; Papa, V

    1996-10-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) content in different tissues has been quantitatively evaluated by means of steady state binding studies with radiolabeled insulin. The information provided by this approach, however, does not give a direct measurement of the receptor protein. Rather, it depends on the binding function of the IR, evaluated on the basis of curvilinear plots derived by Scatchard analysis of the experimental data. In the present report we employed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) that allows a direct measurement of IR in solubilized cells or tissues. By this method we studied: a) IR distribution in several tissues of the rat, the animal model most frequently used in studies of insulin action; b) IR regulation in streptozotocin-treated, diabetic insulin deficient rats. Tissues from male Wistar rats (11 controls and 6 streptozotocin-treated diabetic animals) were homogenized, solubilized with Triton X-100 in the presence of protease inhibitors and stored at -80 C. IR content in the solubilized material was then measured by RIA. IR were detectable in all 11 tissues tested. Liver, kidney and brain neocortex had the highest IR content. (24.7 +/- 1.0, 20.5 +/- 1.1, 25.9 +/- 1.6 ng/mg protein, m +/- SE, respectively). As expected, circulating insulin levels were lower in diabetic rats than in control rats. In diabetic, insulin deficient rats, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle contained more IR than in control rats (p = 0.001; p = 0.018; p = 0.003, respectively), whereas IR content in neocortex was similar in the two groups. The IR RIA may represent a useful tool for the study of IR regulation and patho-physiology. Our data provide a comparative direct measurement of IR distribution in a variety of rat tissues. IR content in diabetic rats is increased in typical target organs for insulin action, as a consequence of up-regulation due to the reduced insulin levels. This is not the case for metabolically insulin-dependent tissues, like brain. PMID:8957742

  10. A Tale of Two Receptors: Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inhibition of the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) has been the focus of numerous clinical trials. Two reports in this issue describe the results of phase I trials of an IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906. This commentary will describe the complex endocrine changes induced by these types of agents. PMID:25303978

  11. Mutation in the Drosophila insulin-like receptor substrate, chico, affects the neuroendocrine stress-reaction development.

    PubMed

    Karpova, E K; Rauschenbach, I Yu; Burdina, E V; Gruntenko, N E

    2016-07-01

    It is shown for the first time that the insulin receptor substrate gene chico controls the functioning of the systems of metabolism of dopamine and juvenile hormone in Drosophila melanogaster females under normal conditions and in thermal stress. PMID:27599505

  12. Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  13. Platelet hemostasis in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: cGMP- and NO-dependent mechanisms in the insulin-mediated platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Suslova, Tatiana E.; Sitozhevskii, Alexei V.; Ogurkova, Oksana N.; Kravchenko, Elena S.; Kologrivova, Irina V.; Anfinogenova, Yana; Karpov, Rostislav S.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have high risk of microcirculation complications and microangiopathies. An increase in thrombogenic risk is associated with platelet hyperaggregation, hypercoagulation, and hyperfibrinolysis. Factors leading to platelet activation in MetS and T2DM comprise insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, non-enzymatic glycosylation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review discusses the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of platelet adhesion and aggregation processes. NO is synthesized both in endotheliocytes, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and platelets. Modification of platelet NO-synthase (NOS) activity in MetS patients can play a central role in the manifestation of platelet hyperactivation. Metabolic changes, accompanying T2DM, can lead to an abnormal NOS expression and activity in platelets. Hyperhomocysteinemia, often accompanying T2DM, is a risk factor for cardiovascular accidents. Homocysteine can reduce NO production by platelets. This review provides data on the insulin effects in platelets. Decrease in a number and sensitivity of the insulin receptors on platelets in T2DM can cause platelet hyperactivation. Various intracellular mechanisms of anti-aggregating insulin effects are discussed. Anti-aggregating effects of insulin are mediated by a NO-induced elevation of cGMP and upregulation of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent pathways. The review presents data suggesting an ability of platelets to synthesize humoral factors stimulating thrombogenesis and inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines are considered as markers of T2DM and cardiovascular complications and are involved in the development of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. The article provides an evaluation of NO-mediated signaling pathway in the effects of cytokines on platelet aggregation. The effects of the proinflammatory cytokines on functional activity of platelets are demonstrated. PMID:25601838

  14. Momordica charantia and its novel polypeptide regulate glucose homeostasis in mice via binding to insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Lin, Chingju; Li, Chia-Cheng; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2013-03-13

    Momordica charantia (MC) has been used as an alternative therapy for diabetes mellitus. This study analyzed and elucidated therapeutic targets contributing to the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of MC seeds (MCSE) by transcriptomic analysis. Protein ingredients aimed at the hypoglycemic target were further identified by proteomic, docking, and receptor-binding assays. The data showed that MSCE (1 g/kg) significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal and diabetic mice. Moreover, MCSE primarily regulated the insulin signaling pathway in muscles and adipose tissues, suggesting that MCSE might target insulin receptor (IR), stimulate the IR-downstream pathway, and subsequently display hypoglycemic activity in mice. It was further revealed that inhibitor against trypsin (TI) of MC directly docked into IR and activated the kinase activity of IR in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the findings suggested that MCSE regulated glucose metabolism mainly via the insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, TI was newly identified as a novel IR-binding protein of MC that triggered the insulin signaling pathway via binding to IR. PMID:23414136

  15. Differential Roles of Insulin and IGF-1 Receptors in Adipose Tissue Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jeremie; Softic, Samir; El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Krumpoch, Megan T; Kleinridders, Andre; Kulkarni, Rohit N; O'Neill, Brian T; Kahn, C Ronald

    2016-08-01

    To determine the roles of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) action in adipose tissue, we created mice lacking the insulin receptor (IR), IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), or both using Cre-recombinase driven by the adiponectin promoter. Mice lacking IGF1R only (F-IGFRKO) had a ∼25% reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), whereas mice lacking both IR and IGF1R (F-IR/IGFRKO) showed an almost complete absence of WAT and BAT. Interestingly, mice lacking only the IR (F-IRKO) had a 95% reduction in WAT, but a paradoxical 50% increase in BAT with accumulation of large unilocular lipid droplets. Both F-IRKO and F-IR/IGFRKO mice were unable to maintain body temperature in the cold and developed severe diabetes, ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and muscle, and pancreatic islet hyperplasia. Leptin treatment normalized blood glucose levels in both groups. Glucose levels also improved spontaneously by 1 year of age, despite sustained lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. Thus, loss of IR is sufficient to disrupt white fat formation, but not brown fat formation and/or maintenance, although it is required for normal BAT function and temperature homeostasis. IGF1R has only a modest contribution to both WAT and BAT formation and function. PMID:27207537

  16. Insulin-Stimulated Release of D-Chiro-Inositol-Containing Inositolphosphoglycan Mediator Correlates with Insulin Sensitivity in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, Kai I.; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Essah, Paulina A.; Ostlund, Richard E.; Apridonize, Teimuraz; Islam, Leila; Nestler, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Some actions of insulin are mediated by inositolphosphoglycan mediators. Deficient release of a putative D-chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycan (DCI-IPG) mediator may contribute to insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Previously we demonstrated that oral DCI supplementation improved ovulation and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. However, whether oral DCI mediates an increase in the release of the DCI-IPG mediator and an improvement in insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS is unknown. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of DCI supplementation vs. placebo in 11 women with PCOS who were assessed at two-time points, 6 weeks apart. Plasma DCI, DCI-IPG release during OGTT (AUCDCI-IPG) and insulin sensitivity (Si) by FSIVGTT were assessed at baseline and end-of-study. The study was terminated early due to a sudden unavailability of the study drug. However, in all subjects without regard to treatment assignment, there was a positive correlation between the change in AUCDCI-IPG / AUCInsulin ratio and the change in Si during the 6-week period (r=0.69, p=0.02), which remained significant after adjustment for BMI (p=0.022), and after further adjustment for BMI and treatment allocation (p=0.0261). This suggests that in women with PCOS, increased glucose-stimulated DCI-IPG release is significantly correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. The significant relationship between DCI-IPG release and insulin sensitivity suggests that the DCI-IPG mediator may be a target for therapeutic interventions in PCOS. PMID:18803944

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling blockade combined with radiation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gregory W; Saba, Corey; Armstrong, Eric A; Huang, Shyh-Min; Benavente, Sergio; Ludwig, Dale L; Hicklin, Daniel J; Harari, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    Signaling through the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is implicated in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to cytotoxic cancer therapies. Targeted disruption of IGF-IR signaling combined with cytotoxic therapy may therefore yield improved anticancer efficacy over conventional treatments alone. In this study, a fully human anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibody A12 (ImClone Systems, Inc., New York, NY) is examined as an adjunct to radiation therapy. IGF-IR expression is shown for a diverse cohort of cell lines, whereas targeted IGF-IR blockade by A12 inhibits IGF-IR phosphorylation and activation of the downstream effectors Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Anchorage-dependent proliferation and xenograft growth is inhibited by A12 in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for non-small cell lung cancer lines. Clonogenic radiation survival of H226 and H460 cells grown under anchorage-dependent conditions is impaired by A12, demonstrating a radiation dose-enhancing effect for IGF-IR blockade. Postradiation anchorage-independent colony formation is inhibited by A12 in A549 and H460 cells. In the H460 xenograft model, combining A12 and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone. These effects may be mediated by promotion of radiation-induced, double-stranded DNA damage and apoptosis as observed in cell culture. In summary, these results validate IGF-IR signal transduction blockade as a promising strategy to improve radiation therapy efficacy in human tumors, forming a basis for future clinical trials. PMID:17283150

  18. mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yancun; Hua, Hui; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shu; Kong, Qingbin; Shao, Ting; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Qian; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core component of raptor-mTOR (mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) complexes that control diverse cellular processes. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF-IR and InsR themselves. Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF-IR/InsR. Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR. Moreover, mTORC2 promotes ligand-induced activation of IGF-IR/InsR. IGF- and insulin-induced IGF-IR/InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor-null cells. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF-IR/InsR and promoting rapamycin- or ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/InsR. mTOR exhibits tyrosine kinase activity towards the general tyrosine kinase substrate poly(Glu-Tyr) and IGF-IR/InsR. Both recombinant mTOR and immunoprecipitated mTORC2 phosphorylate IGF-IR and InsR on Tyr1131/1136 and Tyr1146/1151, respectively. These effects are independent of the intrinsic kinase activity of IGF-IR/InsR, as determined by assays on kinase-dead IGF-IR/InsR mutants. While both rictor and mTOR immunoprecitates from rictor(+/+) MCF-10A cells exhibit tyrosine kinase activity towards IGF-IR and InsR, mTOR immunoprecipitates from rictor(-/-) MCF-10A cells do not induce IGF-IR and InsR phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutation of residue Tyr1131 in IGF-IR or Tyr1146 in InsR abrogates the activation of IGF-IR/InsR by mTOR. Finally, overexpression of rictor promotes IGF-induced cell proliferation. Our work identifies mTOR as a dual-specificity kinase and clarifies how mTORC2 promotes IGF-IR/InsR activation. PMID:26584640

  19. Defective insulin secretion by chronic glucagon receptor activation in glucose intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, Linda; Omar, Bilal; Valeur, Anders; Fosgerau, Keld; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Stimulation of insulin secretion by short-term glucagon receptor (GCGR) activation is well characterized; however, the effect of long-term GCGR activation on β-cell function is not known, but of interest, since hyperglucagonemia occurs early during development of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic GCGR activation affects insulin secretion in glucose intolerant mice. To induce chronic GCGR activation, high-fat diet fed mice were continuously (2 weeks) infused with the stable glucagon analog ZP-GA-1 and challenged with oral glucose and intravenous glucose±glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). Islets were isolated to evaluate the insulin secretory response to glucose±GLP1 and their pancreas were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. Two weeks of ZP-GA-1 infusion reduced insulin secretion both after oral and intravenous glucose challenges in vivo and in isolated islets. These inhibitory effects were corrected for by GLP1. Also, we observed increased β-cell area and islet size. We conclude that induction of chronic ZP-GA-1 levels in glucose intolerant mice markedly reduces insulin secretion, and thus, we suggest that chronic activation of the GCGR may contribute to the failure of β-cell function during development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26698567

  20. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin-ichiro; Tsuchida, Takuma; Oguma, Takahiro; Marley, Anna; Wennberg-Huldt, Charlotte; Hovdal, Daniel; Fukuda, Hajime; Yoneyama, Yukimi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Johansson, Anders; Lundqvist, Sara; Brengdahl, Johan; Isaacs, Richard J.; Brown, Daniel; Geschwindner, Stefan; Benthem, Lambertus; Priest, Claire; Turnbull, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents. PMID:26720709

  1. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in the human insulin receptor gene: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Mineo, Ikuo; Fukui, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Iwamoto, Ryuya; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Insulinoma and insulin or insulin receptor (IR) autoantibodies are the main causes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, but the exact cause in other cases remains obscure. This study is to determine the genetic basis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in two cases without the above abnormalities. Sequence analysis of IR gene in two patients with adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and their relatives were performed, and the mutant gene observed in one case was analyzed. Both cases had normal levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, and hypoglycemia with excessive insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Both reported adult-onset postprandial hypoglycemic symptoms. In one patient, a missense mutation (Arg256Cys) was detected in both alleles of the IR gene, and his parents had the same mutation in only one allele but no hypoglycemia. The other had a novel nonsense mutation (Trp1273X) followed by a mutation (Gln1274Lys) in one allele, and his 9-year old son had the same mutation in one allele, together with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during OGTT. Overexpression experiments of the mutant gene found in Case 1 in mammalian cells showed abnormal processing of the IR protein and demonstrated reduced function of Akt/Erk phosphorylation by insulin in the cells. In two cases of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, we found novel mutations in IR gene considered to be linked to hypoglycemia. We propose a disease entity of adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in IR gene. PMID:25753915

  2. Growth-stimulatory monoclonal antibodies against human insulin-like growth factor I receptor.

    PubMed

    Xiong, L; Kasuya, J; Li, S L; Kato, J; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y

    1992-06-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against purified human placental insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors were prepared and characterized. Three IgG mAbs were specific for the human IGF-I receptor and displayed negligible crossreactivity with the human insulin receptor. They stimulated 125I-labeled IGF-I (125I-IGF-I) or 125I-IGF-II binding to purified human placental IGF-I receptors and to IGF-I receptors expressed in NIH 3T3 cells in contrast to the well-studied mAb alpha IR-3, which inhibits 125I-IGF-I or 125I-IGF-II binding to both forms of IGF-I receptors. The mAbs introduced in this study stimulated DNA synthesis in NIH 3T3 cells expressing human IGF-I receptors approximately 1.5-fold above the basal level and the IGF-I- or IGF-II-stimulated level. In contrast, alpha IR-3 inhibited both basal and IGF-I or IGF-II-stimulated DNA synthesis by approximately 30%. Inhibition of IGF-II-stimulated DNA synthesis by alpha IR-3 was as potent as its inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis, although IGF-II binding to the IGF-I receptors was not inhibited by IGF-II as potently as was IGF-I. With the purified IGF-I receptors, both inhibitory and stimulatory mAbs were shown to activate autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor beta subunit and to induce microaggregation of the receptors. These results suggest that conformational changes resulting from receptor dimerization in the presence of either type of mAb may affect the signal-transducing function of the IGF-I receptor differently. These additional mAbs and alpha IR-3 immunoprecipitated nearly 90% of IGF-I binding activity from Triton X-100-solubilized human placental membranes, indicating that IGF-I receptor reactive with these mAbs is the major form of the IGF-I receptor in human placenta. PMID:1319060

  3. Evidence that the angiotensin IV (AT(4)) receptor is the enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Albiston, A L; McDowall, S G; Matsacos, D; Sim, P; Clune, E; Mustafa, T; Lee, J; Mendelsohn, F A; Simpson, R J; Connolly, L M; Chai, S Y

    2001-12-28

    Central infusion of angiotensin IV or its more stable analogues facilitates memory retention and retrieval in normal animals and reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or by bilateral perforant pathway lesions. These peptides bind with high affinity and specificity to a novel binding site designated the angiotensin AT(4) receptor. Until now, the AT(4) receptor has eluded molecular characterization. Here we identify the AT(4) receptor, by protein purification and peptide sequencing, to be insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). HEK 293T cells transfected with IRAP exhibit typical AT(4) receptor binding characteristics; the AT(4) receptor ligands, angiotensin IV and LVV-hemorphin 7, compete for the binding of [(125)I]Nle(1)-angiotensin IV with IC(50) values of 32 and 140 nm, respectively. The distribution of IRAP and its mRNA in the brain, determined by immunohistochemistry and hybridization histochemistry, parallels that of the AT(4) receptor determined by radioligand binding. We also show that AT(4) receptor ligands dose-dependently inhibit the catalytic activity of IRAP. We have therefore demonstrated that the AT(4) receptor is IRAP and propose that AT(4) receptor ligands may exert their effects by inhibiting the catalytic activity of IRAP thereby extending the half-life of its neuropeptide substrates. PMID:11707427

  4. Substance P (SP)-Neurokinin-1 Receptor (NK-1R) Alters Adipose Tissue Responses to High-Fat Diet and Insulin Action

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Dimitris; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Kokkotou, Efi; Pirtskhalava, Tamara; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamed; Bowe, Collin; Bugni, James M.; Nuño, Miriam; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma P.; Leeman, Susan E.; Kirkland, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral administration of a specific neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist to mice leads to reduced weight gain and circulating levels of insulin and leptin after high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we assessed the contribution of substance P (SP) and NK-1R in diet-induced obesity using NK-1R deficient [knockout (KO)] mice and extended our previous findings to show the effects of SP-NK-1R interactions on adipose tissue-associated insulin signaling and glucose metabolic responses. NK-1R KO and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and obesity-associated responses were determined. Compared with WT, NK-1 KO mice show reduced weight gain and circulating levels of leptin and insulin in response to HFD. Adiponectin receptor mRNA levels are higher in mesenteric fat and liver in NK-1 KO animals compared with WT, after HFD. Mesenteric fat from NK-1R KO mice fed with HFD has reduced stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein kinase Cθ activation compared with WT mice. After glucose challenge, NK-1R KO mice remove glucose from the circulation more efficiently than WT and pair-fed controls, suggesting an additional peripheral effect of NK-1R-mediated signaling on glucose metabolism. Glucose uptake experiments in isolated rat adipocytes showed that SP directly inhibits insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Our results further establish a role for SP-NK-1R interactions in adipose tissue responses, specifically as they relate to obesity-associated pathologies such as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Our results highlight this pathway as an important therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. PMID:21467195

  5. Development of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I in head and brain of chick embryos: Autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Bassas, L.; Girbau, M.; Lesniak, M.A.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In whole brain of chick embryos insulin receptors are highest at the end of embryonic development, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors dominate in the early stages. These studies provided evidence for developmental regulation of both types of receptors, but they did not provide information on possible differences between brain regions at each developmental stage or within one region at different embryonic ages. We have now localized the specific binding of (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I in sections of head and brain using autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometric analysis. Embryos have been studied from the latter part of organogenesis (days 6 and 12) through late development (day 18, i.e. 3 days before hatching), and the binding patterns have been compared with those in the adult brain. At all ages the binding of both ligands was to discrete anatomical regions. Interestingly, while in late embryos and adult brain the patterns of (125I)insulin and (125I) IGF-I binding were quite distinct, in young embryos both ligands showed very similar localization of binding. In young embryos the retina and lateral wall of the growing encephalic vesicles had the highest binding of both (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I. In older embryos, as in the adult brain, insulin binding was high in the paleostriatum augmentatum and molecular layer of the cerebellum, while IGF-I binding was prominent in the hippocampus and neostriatum. The mapping of receptors in a vertebrate embryo model from early prenatal development until adulthood predicts great overlap in any possible function of insulin and IGF-I in brain development, while it anticipates differential localized actions of the peptides in the mature brain.

  6. Angiotensin type 2 receptor in pancreatic islets of adult rats: a novel insulinotropic mediator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunhong; Zucker, Irving H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the relative abundance of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein in various tissues of adult rats. We found that pancreatic islets expressed the highest AT2R protein compared with all other tissues. Accordingly, we then determined the functional significance of AT2R in the endocrine pancreas in in vivo and in vitro experiments by using angiotensin II (ANG II) alone, losartan (Los; AT1R antagonist), compound 21 (C21; AT2R agonist), and PD-123319 (PD; AT2R antagonist). Experiments carried out in rats indicated that, 1) ANG II treatment significantly increased plasma insulin concentration (1.51 ± 0.20 vs. 0.82 ± 0.14 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.05) in the fed state. This insulinotropic effect was further augmented by combined treatment with ANG II + Los (2.31 ± 0.25 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01). C21 also elevated insulin levels (2.13 ± 0.20 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01), which was completely abolished by PD. 2) ANG II impaired glucose tolerance, whereas ANG II + Los or C21 improved this function. 3) All treated rats displayed an enhanced insulin secretory response to a glucose challenge. 4) All treated rats displayed upregulated proinsulin 2 mRNA and insulin protein expression in the pancreas. In in vitro experiments using INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets, we found that AT2R activation significantly improved insulin biosynthesis and secretion. These results suggest that the AT2R functions as an insulinotropic mediator. AT2R and its downstream signaling pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for diabetes. PMID:24085035

  7. Insulin receptor substrate 1 translocation to the nucleus by the human JC virus T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Lassak, Adam; Del Valle, Luis; Peruzzi, Francesca; Wang, Jin Ying; Enam, Sahnila; Croul, Sidney; Khalili, Kamel; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2002-05-10

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is the major signaling molecule for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor I receptors, which transduces both metabolic and growth-promoting signals, and has transforming properties when overexpressed in the cells. Here we show that IRS-1 is translocated to the nucleus in the presence of the early viral protein-T-antigen of the human polyomavirus JC. Nuclear IRS-1 was detected in T-antigen-positive cell lines and in T-antigen-positive biopsies from patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma. The IRS-1 domain responsible for a direct JC virus T-antigen binding was localized within the N-terminal portion of IRS-1 molecule, and the binding was independent from IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and was strongly inhibited by IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. In addition, competition for the IRS-1-T-antigen binding by a dominant negative mutant of IRS-1 inhibited growth and survival of JC virus T-antigen-transformed cells in anchorage-independent culture conditions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role for the IRS-1-T-antigen complex in controlling cellular equilibrium during viral infection. It may involve uncoupling of IRS-1 from its surface receptor and translocation of its function to the nucleus. PMID:11877394

  8. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. PMID:27221116

  9. Zip4 Mediated Zinc Influx Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Alexandre B.; Prentice, Kacey J.; Froese, Sean; Liu, Ying; Andrews, Glen K.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc has an important role in normal pancreatic beta cell physiology as it regulates gene transcription, insulin crystallization and secretion, and cell survival. Nevertheless, little is known about how zinc is transported through the plasma membrane of beta cells and which of the class of zinc influx transporters (Zip) is involved. Zip4 was previously shown to be expressed in human and mouse beta cells; however, its function there is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the zinc transport role of Zip4 in beta cells. To investigate this, Zip4 was over-expressed in MIN6 beta cells using a pCMV6-Zip4GFP plasmid. Organelle staining combined with confocal microscopy showed that Zip4 exhibits a widespread localization in MIN6 cells. Time-lapse zinc imaging experiments showed that Zip4 increases cytoplasmic zinc levels. This resulted in increased granular zinc content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, it is unlikely that the increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion was triggered by a modulation of mitochondrial function, as mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. To define the role of Zip4 in-vivo, we generated a beta cell-specific knockout mouse model (Zip4BKO). Deletion of the Zip4 gene was confirmed in Zip4BKO islets by PCR, RT-PCR, and immuno-histochemistry. Zip4BKO mice showed slightly improved glucose homeostasis but no change in insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. While Zip4 was not found to be essential for proper glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in vivo in mice, this study also found that Zip4 mediates increases in cytoplasmic and granular zinc pools and stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion in-vitro. PMID:25806541

  10. Cloning, mRNA expression and transcriptional regulation of five retinoid X receptor subtypes in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Xiong; Luo, Zhi; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Li-Han; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and mediate development, reproduction, homeostasis and cell differentiation processes in vertebrates. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of five rxr subtypes from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were cloned. Their mRNA expression patterns in different tissues and transcriptional regulation by insulin were determined. Five P. fulvidraco rxr (Pf-rxr) subtypes differed in the length of cDNA sequence and the open reading frame, but shared the similar domain structures as in typical nuclear receptors. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the five Pf-rxr subtypes were paralogous genes, and that Pf-rxrβa and Pf-rxrβb had arisen during a teleost-specific genome duplication event. Five subtypes of Pf-rxr were detected in all the tested tissues. Overlapping and distinct expression patterns were found for different Pf-rxr subtypes, suggesting functional redundancy and divergence of these duplicates. Intraperitoneal insulin injection and incubation reduced the mRNA expression of Pf-rxrgb, but not other subtypes, in the liver and hepatocytes of P. fulvidraco, respectively, suggesting that Pf-rxrgb is the dominant rxr subtype involved in the insulin signaling pathway in P. fulvidraco. PMID:26519760

  11. Insulin-releasing and metabolic effects of small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Patterson, Steven; Green, Brian D

    2010-02-25

    Much recent attention has focused on the GLP-1 receptor as a potential target for antidiabetic drugs. Enzyme resistant GLP-1 mimetics such as exenatide are now employed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but must be administered by injection. The present study has examined and compared the in vitro and in vivo metabolic actions of a small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (DMB), with native GLP-1, exenatide and liraglutide. DMB significantly stimulated in vitro insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 cells but with decreased molar potency compared to native GLP-1 or related mimetics. Administration of DMB in combination with glucose to mice significantly (P<0.05) decreased the overall glucose excursion compared to controls. Exenatide and liraglutide evoked similar (P<0.001) reductions of the overall glycaemic excursion, but were significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.05; respectively) more effective than DMB. These observations were associated with prominently (P<0.05) enhanced glucose-mediated insulin release by exenatide and liraglutide, but not by DMB. Combined injection of DMB with either liraglutide or exenatide did not substantially improve glucose-lowering or insulin-releasing responses. However, administration of DMB in combination with exendin(9-39) did not impair its glucoregulatory actions. These results provide evidence to support the development and potential use of low molecular weight GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19917278

  12. Receptor Complex Mediated Regulation of Symplastic Traffic.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Faulkner, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Plant receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor proteins (RPs) are involved in a plethora of cellular processes, including developmental decisions and immune responses. There is increasing evidence that plasmodesmata (PD)-localized RKs and RPs act as nexuses that perceive extracellular signals and convey them into intra- and intercellular responses by regulating the exchange of molecules through PD. How RK/RP complexes regulate the specific and nonspecific traffic of molecules through PD, and how these receptors are specifically targeted to PD, have been elusive but underpin comprehensive understanding of the function and regulation of the symplast. In this review we gather the current knowledge of RK/RP complex function at PD and how they might regulate intercellular traffic. PMID:26655263

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  14. NMDA Receptors Mediate Synaptic Competition in Culture

    PubMed Central

    She, Kevin; Craig, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background Activity through NMDA type glutamate receptors sculpts connectivity in the developing nervous system. This topic is typically studied in the visual system in vivo, where activity of inputs can be differentially regulated, but in which individual synapses are difficult to visualize and mechanisms governing synaptic competition can be difficult to ascertain. Here, we develop a model of NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic competition in dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons. Methodology/Principal Findings GluN1 -/- (KO) mouse hippocampal neurons lacking the essential NMDA receptor subunit were cultured alone or cultured in defined ratios with wild type (WT) neurons. The absence of functional NMDA receptors did not alter neuron survival. Synapse development was assessed by immunofluorescence for postsynaptic PSD-95 family scaffold and apposed presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter VGlut1. Synapse density was specifically enhanced onto minority wild type neurons co-cultured with a majority of GluN1 -/- neighbour neurons, both relative to the GluN1 -/- neighbours and relative to sister pure wild type cultures. This form of synaptic competition was dependent on NMDA receptor activity and not conferred by the mere physical presence of GluN1. In contrast to these results in 10% WT and 90% KO co-cultures, synapse density did not differ by genotype in 50% WT and 50% KO co-cultures or in 90% WT and 10% KO co-cultures. Conclusions/Significance The enhanced synaptic density onto NMDA receptor-competent neurons in minority coculture with GluN1 -/- neurons represents a cell culture paradigm for studying synaptic competition. Mechanisms involved may include a retrograde ‘reward’ signal generated by WT neurons, although in this paradigm there was no ‘punishment’ signal against GluN1 -/- neurons. Cell culture assays involving such defined circuits may help uncover the rules and mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic competition in the developing nervous

  15. Inhibitory effect of PYY on vagally stimulated acid secretion is mediated predominantly by Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K C; Grandt, D; Aurang, K; Eysselein, V E; Schimiczek, M; Reeve, J R

    1996-01-01

    Two molecular forms of peptide YY (PYY), PYY-(1--36) and PYY-(3--36), are abundant in rabbit intestine and blood. We have previously shown that PYY-(1--36) (PYYI) activates equipotently Y1 and Y2 receptors and PYY-(3--36) (PYY II) is a highly selective agonist for Y2 receptors. In the present study, we examined the effect of exogenous infusion of PYY on vagally stimulated gastric acid secretion in awake rabbits with chronic gastric fistula. To determine the specific PYY receptor(s) that mediates this effect, we used a highly selective Y1 agonist, Pro34-PYY, a synthetic PYY, and a Y2-selective agonist, PYY II. Vagal stimulation of acid secretion was elicited by an intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.125 U/kg) 30 min after beginning a 180-min intravenous infusion of either PYY I, PYY II, or [Pro34]-PYY after a 50 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus of atropine followed immediately by a 500 micrograms/kg sc injection. During infusion of 200 pmol.kg 1.h-1 PYY I, acid output was significantly inhibited to 45 +/- 13% of maximum acid output 60 min after injection of insulin. Similarly, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 [Pro34]-PYY was significantly inhibited to 52 +/- 12% of maximum. In contrast, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 of PYY II was not significantly inhibited (101 +/- 18% of maximum). Infusion of double the dose (400 pmol.kg-1.h-1) of PYY II resulted in acid inhibition (51 = 15% of maximum), whereas infusion of the same dose did not significantly enhance acid inhibition by infusion of either PYY I or [Pro34]-PYY (28 +/- 11 and 42 +/- 15% of maximum). These results indicate that PYY, acting predominantly at Y1 receptors, is a potent inhibitor of vagally stimulated acid secretion in adult rabbits. PMID:8772509

  16. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  17. Differences in Organizational Structure of Insulin Receptor on Rat Adipocyte and Liver Plasma Membranes: Role of Disulfide Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, John B.; Smith, Robert M.; Jarett, Leonard

    1980-08-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled insulin to rat liver and adipocyte plasma membranes has been investigated after treatment of the membranes with agents that modify disulfide bonds or sulfhydryl groups. Dithiothreitol, a disulfide-reducing agent, produced a bimodal response in adipocyte plasma membranes with dose-dependent increases in binding occurring over the range of 0-1 mM dithiothreitol; 5 mM dithiothreitol produced decreased binding. Insulin binding reached its maximal increase at 1 mM and was 3 times control values. Scatchard analysis of the 1 mM dithiothreitol effect revealed a straight line plot indicative of one class of sites with a Ka of 1.0× 108 M-1 which is intermediate between the two Kas obtained from the curvilinear Scatchard plot of control membranes. There was a 20-fold increase in the number of intermediate-affinity receptors compared to high-affinity receptors. The increased 125I-labeled insulin binding after dithiothreitol treatment was reversed by oxidized glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Interposition of treatment with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylating agent, prevented oxidized glutathione from reversing the dithiothreitol effect. Reduced glutathione produced the same effect as dithiothreitol. Liver plasma membranes treated with up to 1 mM dithiothreitol exhibited a maximum increase in insulin binding of 20% compared to control. Dithiothreitol at 5 mM decreased insulin binding below that of control membranes. The results indicate that the dithiothreitol effect on insulin binding to adipocyte plasma membranes is due to disruption of disulfide bonds, and that the structural organization of the insulin receptor on the plasma membranes is different for liver and for adipose tissue. The data imply that the insulin receptors on the plasma membrane of adipocytes possess at least two functionally distinct subclasses of disulfide bond but liver insulin receptors do not.

  18. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, Eva; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; González-Rodríguez, Agueda; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente; Valverde, Angela M; Frago, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  19. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    PubMed Central

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  20. Identification of an epitope shared by the DNA-binding domain of glucocorticoid receptor and the B chain of insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Cayanis, E; Sarangarajan, R; Lombes, M; Nahon, E; Edelman, I S; Erlanger, B F

    1989-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (8G11-C6) generated by an auto-anti-idiotypic route and directed to a site near the ligand-binding site of the glucocorticoid receptor also binds to native insulin and the B chain of insulin but not to the A chain of insulin. The glucocorticoid receptor and the B chain of insulin, therefore, share a cross-reacting epitope. Examination of the primary sequences of the two proteins revealed a limited number of regions of identity or close homology. Several peptides representative of those regions were synthesized. A heptapeptide sequence of the B chain of insulin with homology to a sequence in the first "zinc finger" of the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor was identified as the cross-reactive epitope. This heptapeptide sequence is restricted to and highly conserved among insulins of various species. Homologous sequences are found in the DNA-binding domains of most steroid receptors and related DNA-binding proteins. Consistent with this is the finding that 8G11-C6 inhibits the binding of glucocorticoid receptor to DNA-cellulose. PMID:2467302

  1. Insulin-induced cytokine production in macrophages causes insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Manowsky, Julia; Camargo, Rodolfo Gonzalez; Kipp, Anna P; Henkel, Janin; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2016-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and a low-grade inflammation. Although hyperinsulinemia is generally thought to result from an attempt of the β-cell to compensate for insulin resistance, there is evidence that hyperinsulinaemia itself may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and possibly the low-grade inflammation. To test this hypothesis, U937 macrophages were exposed to insulin. In these cells, insulin induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, CCL2, and OSM. The insulin-elicited induction of IL-1β was independent of the presence of endotoxin and most likely mediated by an insulin-dependent activation of NF-κB. Supernatants of the insulin-treated U937 macrophages rendered primary cultures of rat hepatocytes insulin resistant; they attenuated the insulin-dependent induction of glucokinase by 50%. The cytokines contained in the supernatants of insulin-treated U937 macrophages activated ERK1/2 and IKKβ, resulting in an inhibitory serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate. In addition, STAT3 was activated and SOCS3 induced, further contributing to the interruption of the insulin receptor signal chain in hepatocytes. These results indicate that hyperinsulinemia per se might contribute to the low-grade inflammation prevailing in overweight and obese patients and thereby promote the development of insulin resistance particularly in the liver, because the insulin concentration in the portal circulation is much higher than in all other tissues. PMID:27094035

  2. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Penhoat, A.; Chatelain, P.G.; Jaillard, C.; Saez, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions (/sup 125/I)iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less.

  3. Functional alterations of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in placenta of diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Louizeau, M; Girard, J

    1992-01-01

    The presence of type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptors on placental membranes led to the hypothesis that these receptors might play a critical role in the rapid growth of this organ. Diabetes induces feto-placental overgrowth, but it is not known whether it modifies IGF-I receptor activity in fetal and/or placental tissues. To answer this question, we have partially purified and characterized placental receptors from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, binding of 125I-IGF-I to a 140 kDa protein corresponding to the alpha subunit of the receptor was observed in cross-linking experiments performed under reducing conditions. Stimulation by IGF-I induces the autophosphorylation of a 105 kDa phosphoprotein representing the beta subunit of the receptor. In rats made hyperglycaemic and insulinopenic by streptozotocin injection on day 1 of pregnancy, placental IGF-I receptor-binding parameters were not different from controls on day 20 of pregnancy. In contrast, the autophosphorylation and kinase activity of IGF-I receptors of diabetic rats were increased 2-3-fold in the basal state and after IGF-I stimulation. The present study indicates that the rat placental IGF-I receptor possesses structural characteristics similar to that reported for fetal-rat muscle, and suggests that the high-molecular-mass beta subunit could represent a type of receptor specifically expressed during prenatal development. In addition, it clearly demonstrates that diabetes induces functional alterations in IGF-I receptor kinase activity that may play a major role in the placental overgrowth in diabetic pregnancy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:1445271

  4. Targeted gene delivery via N-acetylglucosamine receptor mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Kim, You-Kyoung; Jiang, Tai; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kang, Sang-Kee; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a promising approach of gene delivery into the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction. Vimentins at the cell surface are recently known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue, therefore, the cell surfaces of vimentin-expressing cells could be targeted by using the GlcNAc residue as a specific ligand for receptor-mediated gene delivery. Here, we have developed polymeric gene delivery vectors, based on poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) and poly(aspartamide), namely poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO-(GlcNAc)] (PADPG) and poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO] (PADP) to elucidate the efficiency of GlcNAc ligand for gene delivery through receptor mediated endocytosis. To determine the efficiency of these polymeric vectors for specific gene delivery, the DNA condensation ability of PADPG and PADP and the subsequent formation of polymeric nanoparticles were confirmed by gel retardation assay and transmission electron microscopy respectively. Both PADPG and PADP had lower cytotoxicity than polyethylenimine 25 K (PEI 25 K). However, their transfection efficiency was comparatively lower than PEI 25 K due to hydrophilic property of PEO in the vectors. To observe the stability of polymeric nanoparticles, the transfection of PADPG and PADP was carried out in the presence of serum. Favorably, the interfering effect of serum on the transfection efficiency of PADPG and PADP was also very low. Finally, when the cell specificity of these polymeric vectors was investigated, PADPG had high gene transfection in vimentin-expressing cells than vimentin-deficiency cells. The high transfection efficiency of PADPG was attributed to the GlcNAc in the polymeric vector which interact specifically with vimentin in the cells for the receptor-mediated endocytosis. The competitive inhibition assay further proved the receptor-mediated endocytosis of PADPG. Thus, this study demonstrates that conjugation of GlcNAc is an effective and rational

  5. Treating Diabetes Mellitus: Pharmacophore Based Designing of Potential Drugs from Gymnema sylvestre against Insulin Receptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S. M.; Ali, Mohammad Tuhin; Islam, Md. Saidul; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders which can affect the quality of life severely. Injectable insulin is currently being used to treat DM which is mainly associated with patient inconvenience. Small molecules that can act as insulin receptor (IR) agonist would be better alternatives to insulin injection. Herein, ten bioactive small compounds derived from Gymnema sylvestre (G. sylvestre) were chosen to determine their IR binding affinity and ADMET properties using a combined approach of molecular docking study and computational pharmacokinetic elucidation. Designing structural analogues were also performed for the compounds associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the ten parent compounds, six were found to have significant pharmacokinetic properties with considerable binding affinity towards IR while four compounds were associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the forty structural analogues, four compounds demonstrated considerably increased binding affinity towards IR and less toxicity compared with parent compounds. Finally, molecular interaction analysis revealed that six parent compounds and four analogues interact with the active site amino acids of IR. So this study would be a way to identify new therapeutics and alternatives to insulin for diabetic patients. PMID:27034931

  6. Treating Diabetes Mellitus: Pharmacophore Based Designing of Potential Drugs from Gymnema sylvestre against Insulin Receptor Protein.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md Arif; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S M; Ali, Mohammad Tuhin; Islam, Md Saidul; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders which can affect the quality of life severely. Injectable insulin is currently being used to treat DM which is mainly associated with patient inconvenience. Small molecules that can act as insulin receptor (IR) agonist would be better alternatives to insulin injection. Herein, ten bioactive small compounds derived from Gymnema sylvestre (G. sylvestre) were chosen to determine their IR binding affinity and ADMET properties using a combined approach of molecular docking study and computational pharmacokinetic elucidation. Designing structural analogues were also performed for the compounds associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the ten parent compounds, six were found to have significant pharmacokinetic properties with considerable binding affinity towards IR while four compounds were associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the forty structural analogues, four compounds demonstrated considerably increased binding affinity towards IR and less toxicity compared with parent compounds. Finally, molecular interaction analysis revealed that six parent compounds and four analogues interact with the active site amino acids of IR. So this study would be a way to identify new therapeutics and alternatives to insulin for diabetic patients. PMID:27034931

  7. Impact of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism on insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Mesallamy, H; El-Refaie, T; El-Razek, R A

    2013-04-01

    Insulin resistance is allegedly a target pathophysiological mechanism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Moreover, this metabolic alteration is possibly genetically determined. In view of the recent evidence implicating genetic variants of the renin-angiotensin system as candidates in several metabolic disorders, we investigated the allele and genotype frequencies of the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in relation with various metabolic and biochemical parameters in affected females trying to asses its role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The study was conducted on 83 females of which 39 females served as the control group. The participants were matched for age, body mass index and degree of obesity. For all subjects biochemical parameters were assayed including soluble CD40 ligand together with fasting glucose and insulin which were used for calculation of insulin resistance indices, Genotyping performed using real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the C allele frequency and the AC genotype were less frequently observed in patients compared to controls, however this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.146). Lack of the C allele was associated with adverse metabolic parameters including higher rate of insulin resistance as well as solubes CD40 ligand in the patients group. Results of the current study support a causative role for the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis or phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23564192

  8. Insulin receptor regulates food intake through sulfakinin signaling in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianyu; Yu, Na; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-06-01

    Insects obtain energy and nutrients via feeding to support growth and development. The insulin signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of feeding; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that insulin signaling regulates food intake via crosstalk with neuropeptide sulfakinin in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Silencing of the insulin receptor (InR) decreased the food intake in the penultimate and final instar stages, leading to a decrease of weight gain and mortality during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Interestingly, the knockdown of InR co-occurred with an increased expression of sulfakinin (sk), a gene encoding neuropeptide SK functioning as a satiety signal. In parallel, double silencing of sk and InR eliminated the inhibitory effect on food intake as induced by silencing of InR and the larvae died as prepupae. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the insulin/InR signaling regulates food intake through the sulfakinin signaling pathway in the larval stages of this important model and pest insect, indicating a novel target for pest control. PMID:26972481

  9. Dephosphorylation of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor exhibits structural and functional similarities to the insulin receptor. Although the regulation of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor have received only little attention. To obtain a better understanding of the mode of IGF-I action, we have investigated the effects of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) on the phosphorylation status of the IGF-I receptor. The dephosphorylation of the human IGF-I receptor by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases was studied by an immuno-enzymic assay based on the recognition of phosphotyrosine residues by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using intact IGF-I receptors as substrates, we show that they could be completely dephosphorylated by different cellular PTPases. Three pieces of evidence indicate that receptor dephosphorylation takes place on phosphotyrosine, i.e. the inhibition profile of phosphatase activity by zinc and vanadate, its absolute requirement for thiol compounds and the diminution of [32P]phosphotyrosine labelling of the beta subunit assessed by SDS/PAGE and phosphoamino acid analysis. Tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PTPases, indicating that partial dephosphorylation of the receptor was associated with a decrease in its intrinsic activity. The sensitivity of the activated human IGF-I receptor to dephosphorylation on tyrosine leads to the speculation that IGF-I receptor activity might be regulated by mechanisms such as those described for the insulin receptor. Further investigation of the pathways of IGF-I receptor dephosphorylation will contribute to define the role(s) of PTPases in the overall mechanism of IGF-I signalling. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1322128

  10. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes. PMID:23299857

  11. Insulin Receptor Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Its Relation to Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Oh, Sung Soo; Lee, Mi-Ra; Jung, Jae Hung; Chung, Hyun Chul; Cha, Seung-Kuy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling are key regulators of energy metabolism, cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is overexpressed in most types of human cancers including renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with poor prognosis. Insulin receptor (IR) shares downstream effectors with IGF-1R; however, the expression and function of IR in the tumorigenesis of renal cancer remains elusive. Therefore, we examined the expression of IR and its prognostic significance in clear cell RCC (CCRCC). Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical staining for IR was performed on 126 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CCRCC tissue samples. Eight of these cases were utilized for western blot analysis. The results were compared with various clinico-pathologic parameters of CCRCC and patient survival. Results IR was expressed in the nuclei of CCRCC tumor cells in 109 cases (87.9%). Higher IR expression was significantly correlated with the presence of cystic change, lower Fuhrman nuclear grade, lower pathologic T stage, and lower TNM stage, although it wasn't significantly related to diabetes status and patient survival. Western blot analyses supported the results of the immunohistochemistry studies. Conclusion IR expression in CCRCC may be associated with favorable prognostic factors. PMID:24954312

  12. Leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LepROT) gene participates in insulin pathway through FoxO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Xu; Zhao, Ai-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LepROT) is co-transcribed with the leptin receptor (LepR). However, the function and mechanism of LepROT in insulin pathway is unclear. In this study, we report the function of LepROT in maintaining consistent FoxO transcription. LepROT is constitutively expressed during larval development. 20-Hydroxyecdysone, methoprene, and insulin have no effect on the transcription of LepROT. However, the knockdown of LepROT by dsRNA injection in larvae causes delay of the development of Helicoverpa armigera. Knockdown of LepROT results in the upregulation of FoxO and downregulation of PI3K. The knockdown of LepROT also results in the subcellular translocation of FoxO from cytoplasm to nuclei. By contrast, overexpression of LepROT in the HaEpi cell line inhibits FoxO expression. Results suggest that LepROT participates in insulin signaling. PMID:27106118

  13. Loss of Insulin Receptor in Osteoprogenitor Cells Impairs Structural Strength of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thrailkill, Kathryn; Bunn, R. Clay; Lumpkin, Charles; Cockrell, Gael; Kahn, C. Ronald; Fowlkes, John; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is associated with decreased bone mineral density, a deficit in bone structure, and subsequently an increased risk of fragility fracture. These clinical observations, paralleled by animal models of T1D, suggest that the insulinopenia of T1D has a deleterious effect on bone. To further examine the action of insulin signaling on bone development, we generated mice with an osteoprogenitor-selective (osterix-Cre) ablation of the insulin receptor (IR), designated OIRKO. OIRKO mice exhibited an 80% decrease in IR in osteoblasts. Prenatal elimination of IR did not affect fetal survival or gross morphology. However, loss of IR in mouse osteoblasts resulted in a postnatal growth-constricted phenotype. By 10–12 weeks of age, femurs of OIRKO mice were more slender, with a thinner diaphyseal cortex and, consequently, a decrease in whole bone strength when subjected to bending. In male mice alone, decreased metaphyseal trabecular bone, with thinner and more rodlike trabeculae, was also observed. OIRKO mice did not, however, exhibit abnormal glucose tolerance. The skeletal phenotype of the OIRKO mouse appeared more severe than that of previously reported bone-specific IR knockdown models, and confirms that insulin receptor expression in osteoblasts is critically important for proper bone development and maintenance of structural integrity. PMID:24963495

  14. Ligand-independent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by insulin and C-peptide in kidney proximal tubular cells: dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Chana, Ravinder S; Baines, Richard J; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-11-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has key roles in the regulation of adipogenesis, inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. C-peptide is believed to be inert and without appreciable biological functions. Recent studies suggest that C-peptide possesses multiple functions. The present study investigated the effects of insulin and C-peptide on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells. Both insulin and C-peptide induced a concentration-dependent stimulation of PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Both agents substantially augmented thiazolidinedione-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Neither insulin nor C-peptide had any effect on the expression levels of PPARgamma. GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, blocked PPARgamma activation by thiazolidinediones but had no effect on either insulin- or C-peptide-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Co-transfection of opossum kidney cells with dominant negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase significantly depressed basal PPARgamma transcriptional activity but had no effect on that induced by either insulin or C-peptide. Both insulin- and C-peptide-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity were attenuated by wortmannin and by expression of a dominant negative phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit. In addition PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of PPARgamma was observed after stimulation by C-peptide or insulin. C-peptide effects but not insulin on PPARgamma transcriptional activity were abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Finally both C-peptide and insulin positively control the expression of the PPARgamma-regulated CD36 scavenger receptor in human THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that insulin and C-peptide can stimulate PPARgamma activity in a ligand-independent fashion and that this effect is mediated by PI 3-kinase. These results support a new and potentially important physiological role for C-peptide in

  15. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the dual insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin receptor inhibitor, BMS-554417.

    PubMed

    Haluska, Paul; Carboni, Joan M; Loegering, David A; Lee, Francis Y; Wittman, Mark; Saulnier, Mark G; Frennesson, David B; Kalli, Kimberly R; Conover, Cheryl A; Attar, Ricardo M; Kaufmann, Scott H; Gottardis, Marco; Erlichman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor are either overactivated and/or overexpressed in a wide range of tumor types and contribute to tumorigenicity, proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance. Here, we show that BMS-554417, a novel small molecule developed as an inhibitor of IGF-IR, inhibits IGF-IR and insulin receptor kinase activity and proliferation in vitro, and reduces tumor xenograft size in vivo. In a series of carcinoma cell lines, the IC50 for proliferation ranged from 120 nmol/L (Colo205) to >8.5 micromol/L (OV202). The addition of stimulatory ligands was unnecessary for the antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 and OV202 cells. BMS-554417 treatment inhibited IGF-IR and insulin receptor signaling through extracellular signal-related kinase as well as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, as evidenced by decreased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. At doses that inhibited proliferation, the compound also caused a G0-G1 arrest and prevented nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 in response to LR3 IGF-I. In Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells, this agent triggered apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway. BMS-554417 was orally bioavailable and significantly inhibited the growth of IGF1R-Sal tumor xenografts in vivo. BMS-554417 is a member of a novel class of IGF-IR/insulin receptor inhibitors that have potential clinical applications because of their antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16397250

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols alleviate insulin resistance and renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel action mechanism mediated by type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yang, Yi-Sun; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Mu-Lin; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2014-10-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important in renal fibrosis. Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 (S307)) is a hallmark of insulin resistance. We report that polyphenol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HPE) ameliorate diabetic nephropathy and EMT. Recently it has been observed that type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin is effective for treating type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We investigated if DPP-4 and insulin resistance are involved in renal EMT and explored the role of HPE. In high glucose-stimulated tubular cells, HPE, like linagliptin, inhibited DPP-4 activation, thereby regulating vimentin (EMT marker) and IRS-1 (S307). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, pIRS-1 (S307) abundantly surrounds the tubular region, with increased vimentin in kidney. Both the expressions were reduced by HPE. In conclusion, HPE exerts effects similar to those of linagliptin, which improves insulin resistance and EMT, and could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25226384

  17. A candidate targeting molecule of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor for gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirokazu; Endo, Takao; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Advances in molecular research in cancer have brought new therapeutic strategies into clinical usage. One new group of targets is tyrosine kinase receptors, which can be treated by several strategies, including small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Aberrant activation of growth factors/receptors and their signal pathways are required for malignant transformation and progression in gastrointestinal (GI) carcinomas. The concept of targeting specific carcinogenic receptors has been validated by successful clinical application of many new drugs. Type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF-IR) signaling potently stimulates tumor progression and cellular differentiation, and is a promising new molecular target in human malignancies. In this review, we focus on this promising therapeutic target, IGF-IR. The IGF/IGF-IR axis is an important modifier of tumor cell proliferation, survival, growth, and treatment sensitivity in many malignant diseases, including human GI cancers. Preclinical studies demonstrated that downregulation of IGF-IR signals reversed the neoplastic phenotype and sensitized cells to anticancer treatments. These results were mainly obtained through our strategy of adenoviruses expressing dominant negative IGF-IR (IGF-IR/dn) against gastrointestinal cancers, including esophagus, stomach, colon, and pancreas. We also summarize a variety of strategies to interrupt the IGFs/IGF-IR axis and their preclinical experiences. Several mAbs and TKIs targeting IGF-IR have entered clinical trials, and early results have suggested that these agents have generally acceptable safety profiles as single agents. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy and discuss the merits/demerits of dual targeting of IGF-IR and other growth factor receptors, including Her2 and the insulin receptor, as well as other alternatives and possible drug combinations. Thus, IGF-IR might be a candidate for a molecular

  18. Developmental aspects of the rat brain insulin receptor: loss of sialic acid and fluctuation in number characterize fetal development

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, W.A. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    In this study, I have investigated the structure of the rat brain insulin receptor during fetal development. There is a progressive decrease in the apparent molecular size of the brain alpha-subunit during development: 130K on day 16 of gestation, 126K at birth, and 120K in the adult. Glycosylation was investigated as a possible reason for the observed differences in the alpha-subunit molecular size. The results show that the developmental decrease in the brain alpha-subunit apparent molecular size is due to a parallel decrease in sialic acid content. This was further confirmed by measuring the retention of autophosphorylated insulin receptors on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose. An inverse correlation between developmental age and retention of /sup 32/P-labeled insulin receptors on the lectin column was observed. Insulin binding increases 6-fold between 16 and 20 days of gestation (61 +/- 25 (+/- SE) fmol/mg protein and 364 +/- 42 fmol/mg, respectively). Thereafter, binding in brain membranes decreases to 150 +/- 20 fmol/mg by 2 days after birth, then reaches the adult level of 63 +/- 15 fmol/mg. In addition, the degree of insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation closely parallels the developmental changes in insulin binding. Between 16 and 20 days of fetal life, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the beta-subunit increases 6-fold. Thereafter, the extent of phosphorylation decreases rapidly, reaching adult values identical with those in 16-day-old fetal brain. These results suggest that the embryonic brain possesses competent insulin receptors whose expression changes markedly during fetal development. This information should be important in defining the role of insulin in the developing nervous system.

  19. Insulin: its binding to specific receptors and its stimulation of DNA synthesis and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase in embryonic mouse brain cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, G.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Previously, the authors demonstrated that ornithine decarboxylase was stimulated by insulin in cultures of embryonic mouse brain cells. In the present work, they have investigated the presence and specificity of insulin receptors in these cultures. A time study showed that maximum binding of /sup 125/(I) labelled insulin was around 75 min. Other studies measured the influence of concentration and age on insulin binding. A displacement study using increasing concentrations of cold insulin, glucagon or growth hormone demonstrated that the specificity of the receptors for insulin was rather high. It was also found that insulin displayed a clear dose-dependent stimulation of thymidine incorporation into the brain cells. Insulin also stimulated the glial enzyme 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase (CNP-ase). The results suggest a dual role for insulin; it regulates both cell proliferation as well as differentiation.

  20. Arg924X homozygous mutation in insulin receptor gene in a Tunisian patient with Donohue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ons; Jilani, Houweyda; Rejeb, Imen; Siala, Nadia; Elaribi, Yasmina; Hizem, Syrine; Selmi, Ines; Halioui, Sonia; Lascols, Olivier; Jemaa, Lamia Ben; Maherzi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Donohue syndrome (DS) is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene, manifesting marked insulin resistance, severe growth retardation, hypertrichosis, and characteristic dysmorphic features. We describe a new case of Donohue syndrome born at 37 weeks' gestation of unrelated parents and presented with intra-uterine growth retardation, nipple hypertrophy, macropenis, distended abdomen, hirsutism and dysmorphic features. The clinical course showed failure to thrive, and episodes of alternating hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Laboratory tests revealed direct hyperbilirubinemia. The diagnosis of Donohue syndrome was established based on the above clinical characteristics and determination of the INSR mutation. He was found to have homozygous nonsense mutation c. 2270 C>T (Arg924X) at exon 14 of the INSR gene. He later developed enterocolitis and died at 3 months old. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for the family via chorionic villous biopsy. We try to explain gastrointestinal dysfunction seen in our patient. PMID:26974131

  1. Curcumin pretreatment mediates antidiabetogenesis via functional regulation of adrenergic receptor subtypes in the pancreas of multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Naijil, George; Anju, T R; Jayanarayanan, S; Paulose, C S

    2015-09-01

    Lifestyle modification pivoting on nutritional management holds tremendous potential to meet the challenge of management of diabetes. The current study hypothesizes that regular uptake of curcumin lowers the incidence of diabetes by functional regulation of pancreatic adrenergic receptor subtypes. The specific objective of the study was to identify the regulatory pathways implicated in the antidiabetogenesis effect of curcumin in multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Administration of MLD-STZ to curcumin-pretreated rats induced a prediabetic condition. Scatchard analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopic studies confirmed a significant increase in α2-adrenergic receptor expression in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Pretreatment with curcumin significantly decreased α2-adrenergic receptor expression. The diabetic group showed a significant decrease in the expression of β-adrenergic receptors when compared with control. Pretreatment significantly increased β-adrenergic receptor expression to near control. When compared with the diabetic rats, a significant up-regulation of CREB, phospholipase C, insulin receptor, and glucose transporter 2 were observed in the pretreated group. Curcumin pretreatment was also able to maintain near control levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and inositol triphosphate. These results indicate that a marked decline in α2-adrenergic receptor function relents sympathetic inhibition of insulin release. It also follows that escalated signaling through β-adrenergic receptors mediates neuronal stimulation of hyperglycemia-induced β-cell compensatory response. Curcumin-mediated functional regulation of adrenergic receptors and modulation of key cell signaling molecules improve pancreatic glucose sensing, insulin gene expression, and insulin secretion. PMID:26255758

  2. In situ single molecule detection of insulin receptors on erythrocytes from a type 1 diabetes ketoacidosis patient by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Pi, Jiang; Shi, Qiping; Cai, Jiye; Yang, Peihui; Liang, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an insulin-dependent metabolic disorder always associated with ketoacidosis and a high morbidity rate in teenagers. The in situ single molecule detection of insulin receptors on healthy and diseased erythrocytes is helpful to understand the pathomechanism of type 1 diabetes ketoacidosis (T1-DKA), which would also benefit the diagnosis and treatment of T1-DKA. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, the single molecule interaction between insulin and insulin receptor on erythrocytes from a healthy volunteer and a T1-DKA patient using high sensitivity atomic force microscopy (AFM) in PBS solution. The single molecule force results demonstrated the decreased binding force and binding probability between insulin and insulin receptor on T1-DKA erythrocytes, implying the deficit of insulin receptor functions in T1-DKA. The binding kinetic parameters calculated from dynamic force spectroscopy indicated that the insulin-insulin receptor complexes on T1-DKA erythrocytes were less stable than those from healthy volunteer. Using high resolution AFM imaging, a decreased roughness was found both in intact T1-DKA erythrocytes and in the purified membrane of T1-DKA erythrocytes, and an increased stiffness was also found in T1-DKA erythrocytes. Moreover, AFM, which was used to investigate the single molecule interactions between insulin-insulin receptor, cell surface ultrastructure and stiffness in healthy and diseased erythrocytes, was expected to develop into a potential nanotool for pathomechanism studies of clinical samples at the nanoscale. PMID:26405719

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF II) receptor from rat brain is of lower apparent molecular weight than the IGF II receptor from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Poronnik, P.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    The binding subunits of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF I) receptors from rat brain are of lower molecular weight than the corresponding receptor in rat liver, possibly due to variations in sialic acid content. We have compared the IGF II receptor from rat brain and rat liver. The brain receptor is of smaller apparent mol wt (about 10 K) on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This size difference is independent of ligand binding as it persists in iodinated and specifically immunoprecipitated receptors. From studies of wheat germ agglutinin binding and the effect of neuraminidase on receptor mobility, we conclude that this difference is not simply due to variations in sialic acid content. Treatment with endoglycosidase F results in reduction in the molecular size of both liver and brain receptors and after this treatment the aglycoreceptors are of similar size. We conclude that in rat brain tissue the IGF II receptor like the binding subunits of the insulin and IGF I receptors is of lower molecular size than the corresponding receptors in rat liver. This difference is due to differences in N-linked glycosylation.

  4. A fibronectin scaffold approach to bispecific inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Stuart L; Engle, Linda J; Chao, Ginger; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Cao, Carolyn; Lin, Zheng; Yamniuk, Aaron; Hosbach, Jennifer; Brown, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Gokemeijer, Jochem; Morin, Paul; Morse, Brent; Carvajal, Irvith M; Fabrizio, David; Wright, Martin C; Das Gupta, Ruchira; Gosselin, Michael; Cataldo, Daniel; Ryseck, Rolf P; Doyle, Michael L; Wong, Tai W; Camphausen, Raymond T; Cload, Sharon T; Marsh, H Nicholas; Gottardis, Marco M

    2011-01-01

    Engineered domains of human fibronectin (Adnectins™) were used to generate a bispecific Adnectin targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), two transmembrane receptors that mediate proliferative and survival cell signaling in cancer. Single-domain Adnectins that specifically bind EGFR or IGF-IR were generated using mRNA display with a library containing as many as 1013 Adnectin variants. mRNA display was also used to optimize lead Adnectin affinities, resulting in clones that inhibited EGFR phosphorylation at 7 to 38 nM compared to 2.6 µM for the parental clone. Individual optimized Adnectins specific for blocking either EGFR or IGF-IR signaling were engineered into a single protein (EI-Tandem Adnectin). The EI-Tandems inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and IGF-IR, induced receptor degradation and inhibited down-stream cell signaling and proliferation of human cancer cell lines (A431, H292, BxPC3 and RH41) with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 113 nM. Although Adnectins bound to EGFR at a site distinct from those of anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab, panitumumab and nimotuzumab, like the antibodies, the anti-EGFR Adnectins blocked the binding of EGF to EGFR. PEGylated EI-Tandem inhibited the growth of both EGFR and IGF-IR driven human tumor xenografts, induced degradation of EGFR and reduced EGFR phosphorylation in tumors. These results demonstrate efficient engineering of bispecific Adnectins with high potency and desired specificity. The bispecificity may improve biological activity compared to monospecific biologics as tumor growth is driven by multiple growth factors. Our results illustrate a technological advancement for constructing multi-specific biologics in cancer therapy. PMID:21099371

  5. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture 1993. The journey of the insulin receptor into the cell: from cellular biology to pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, J L

    1993-09-01

    The data that we have reviewed indicate that insulin binds to a specific cell-surface receptor. The complex then becomes involved in a series of steps which lead the insulin-receptor complex to be internalized and rapidly delivered to endosomes. From this sorting station, the hormone is targeted to lysosomes to be degraded while the receptor is recycled back to the cell surface. This sequence of events presents two degrees of ligand specificity: (a) The first step is ligand-dependent and requires insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues. It consists in the surface redistribution of the receptor from microvilli where it preferentially localizes in its unoccupied form. (b) The second step is more general and consists in the association with clathrin-coated pits which represents the internalization gate common to many receptors. This sequence of events participates in the regulation of the biological action of the hormone and can thus be implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and various extreme insulin resistance syndromes, including type A extreme insulin resistance, leprechaunism, and Rabson-Mendehall syndrome. Alterations of the internalization process can result either from intrinsic abnormalities of the receptor or from more general alteration of the plasma membrane or of the cell metabolism. Type I diabetes is an example of the latter possibility, since general impairment of endocytosis could contribute to extracellular matrix accumulation and to an increase in blood cholesterol. Thus, better characterization of the molecular and cellular biology of the insulin receptor and of its journey inside the cell definitely leads to better understanding of disease states, including diabetes. PMID:8244769

  6. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  7. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J; Clark, Kevin D; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled. PMID:24076067

  8. Diabetic state, high plasma insulin and angiotensin II combine to augment endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction via ETA receptors and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T; Nogami, T; Taguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kamata, K

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Mechanisms associated with the enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in hyperinsulinaemic diabetes have been examined using the rat aorta. Functions for angiotensin II, endothelin-1 receptor expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) have been investigated. Experimental approach: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were infused with angiotensin II or, following insulin treatment, were treated with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Contractions of aortic strips with or without endothelium, in response to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, were examined in vitro. Aortic ETA receptors and ERK/MEK expression were measured by western blotting. Key results: Insulin-treated diabetic rats exhibited increases in plasma insulin, angiotensin II and endothelin-1. The systolic blood pressure and endothelin-1-induced contractile responses in aortae in vitro were enhanced in insulin-treated diabetic rats and blunted by chronic losartan administration. LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and/or PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) diminished the enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in aortae from insulin-treated diabetic rats. ETA and ETB receptors, ERK-1/2 and MEK-1/2 protein expression and endothelin-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation were all increased in aortae from insulin-treated diabetic rats. Such increases were blunted by chronic losartan administration. Endothelin-1-induced contraction was significantly higher in aortae from angiotensin II-infused diabetic rats. angiotensin II-infusion increased ERK phosphorylation, but the expression of endothelin receptors and ERK/MEK proteins remained unchanged. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that the combination of high plasma angiotensin II and insulin with a diabetic state induced enhancement of endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction, ETA receptor expression and ERK expression/activity in the aorta. Losartan improved both the diabetes

  9. Application of network construction to estimate functional changes to insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 in Huh7 cells following infection with the hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingkun; Wang, Linbang; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Yaping; Jia, Xiaoli; Zhai, Song; Shi, Juan; Dang, Shuangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely associated with insulin resistance (IS), acting primarily by interfering with insulin signaling pathways, increasing cytokine-mediated (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6) inflammatory responses and enhancing oxidative stress. In the insulin signaling pathways, the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is one of the key regulatory factors. The present study constructed gene regulatory sub-networks specific for IRS1 and IRS2 in Huh7 cells and HCV-infected Huh7 (HCV-Huh7) cells using linear programming and a decomposition algorithm, and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the function of IRS1/2 in HCV-induced IS in Huh7 cells. All data were obtained from GSE20948 of the Gene Expression Omnibus database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Genes which were significantly differentially expressed between Huh7 and HCV-Huh7 cells were analyzed using the significance analysis of microarray algorithm. The top 50 genes, including IRS1/2, were used as target genes to determine the gene regulatory networks and next the sub-networks of IRS1 and IRS2 in HCV-Huh7 and Huh7 cells using Gene Regulatory Network Inference Tool, an algorithm based on linear programming and the decomposition process. The IRS1/2 sub-networks were divided into upstream/downstream groups and activation/suppression clusters, and were further analyzed using Molecule Annotation System 3.0 and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery software, two online platforms for enrichment and clustering analysis and visualization. The results indicated that in Huh7 cells, the downstream network of IRS2 is more complex than that of IRS1, indicating that the insulin metabolism in Huh7 cells may be primarily mediated by IRS2. In HCV-Huh7 cells, the downstream pathway of IRS2 is blocked, suggesting that this may be the underlying mechanism in HCV infection that leads to insulin resistance. The present findings add a further dimension

  10. Insulin receptor substrate-1 deficiency drives a proinflammatory phenotype in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Metz, Heather E; Kargl, Julia; Busch, Stephanie E; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kurland, Brenda F; Abberbock, Shira R; Randolph-Habecker, Julie; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Kolls, Jay K; White, Morris F; Houghton, A McGarry

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a signaling adaptor protein that interfaces with many pathways activated in lung cancer. It has been assumed that IRS-1 promotes tumor growth through its ability to activate PI3K signaling downstream of the insulin-like growth factor receptor. Surprisingly, tumors with reduced IRS-1 staining in a human lung adenocarcinoma tissue microarray displayed a significant survival disadvantage, especially within the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutant subgroup. Accordingly, adenoviral Cre recombinase (AdCre)-treated LSL-Kras/Irs-1(fl/fl) (Kras/Irs-1(-/-)) mice displayed increased tumor burden and mortality compared with controls. Mechanistically, IRS-1 deficiency promotes Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling via the IL-22 receptor, resulting in enhanced tumor-promoting inflammation. Treatment of Kras/Irs-1(+/+) and Kras/Irs-1(-/-) mice with JAK inhibitors significantly reduced tumor burden, most notably in the IRS-1-deficient group. PMID:27439864

  11. Characterization of insulin-degrading enzyme-mediated cleavage of Aβ in distinct aggregation states.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Ellen; Cioffi, Federica; Rozenski, Jef; van Nuland, Nico A J; Broersen, Kerensa

    2016-06-01

    To enhance our understanding of the potential therapeutic utility of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied in vitro IDE-mediated degradation of different amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation states. Our findings show that IDE activity is driven by the dynamic equilibrium between Aβ monomers and higher ordered aggregates. We identify Met35-Val36 as a novel IDE cleavage site in the Aβ sequence and show that Aβ fragments resulting from IDE cleavage form non-toxic amorphous aggregates. These findings need to be taken into account in therapeutic strategies designed to increase Aβ clearance in AD patients by modulating IDE activity. PMID:26968463

  12. Insulin receptor A and Sirtuin 1 synergistically improve learning and spatial memory following chronic salidroside treatment during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Barhwal, Kalpana; Das, Saroj K; Kumar, Ashish; Hota, Sunil K; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting in learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we investigated the potential of salidroside, a glucoside derivative of tyrosol, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Morris water maze test showed improvement in learning and spatial memory of salidroside-treated hypoxic rats correlating with increased dendritic intersections and arborization. Salidroside administration increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit A (IRA) at Y972, Y1162/63, and Y1146 sites and subsequent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α subunit isoforms pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis. Contrarily, silencing of IRA in salidroside-supplemented hypoxic hippocampal cells could not improve cell viability or alter pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 expression. Rats administered with salidroside showed elevated expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus. Salidroside administration also resulted in increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity through a cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-regulated mechanism that was independent of pIRA. Taken together, these findings suggest a synergistic role of pIRA and SIRT1 in salidroside-mediated neuroprotection, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cognitive improvement during hypoxia. We propose a novel mechanism for salidroside-mediated neuroprotection in hypoxia. PMID:26173704

  13. C1-Ten Is a Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS-1), Regulating IRS-1 Stability and Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ara; Lee, Mi Nam; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Jeong, Heeyoon; Ghim, Jaewang; Noh, Jeongeun; Kim, Jaeyoon; Ryu, Dongryeol; Park, Sehoon; Song, Parkyong; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Leslie, Nick R.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Choi, Jang Hyun; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2013-01-01

    Muscle atrophy occurs under various catabolic conditions, including insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, or increased levels of glucocorticoids. This results from reduced levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), leading to decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and thereby activation of FoxO transcription factors. However, the precise mechanism of reduced IRS-1 under a catabolic condition is unknown. Here, we report that C1-Ten is a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) of IRS-1 that acts as a mediator to reduce IRS-1 under a catabolic condition, resulting in muscle atrophy. C1-Ten preferentially dephosphorylated Y612 of IRS-1, which accelerated IRS-1 degradation. These findings suggest a novel type of IRS-1 degradation mechanism which is dependent on C1-Ten and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanism of muscle atrophy under catabolic conditions. C1-Ten expression is increased by catabolic glucocorticoid and decreased by anabolic insulin. Reflecting these hormonal regulations, the muscle C1-Ten is upregulated in atrophy but downregulated in hypertrophy. This reveals a previously unidentified role of C1-Ten as a relevant PTPase contributing to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:23401856

  14. Urocortin3 mediates somatostatin-dependent negative feedback control of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Donaldson, Cynthia J.; Cáceres, Elena; Hunter, Anna E.; Cowing–Zitron, Christopher; Pound, Lynley D.; Adams, Michael W.; Zembrzycki, Andreas; Grove, Kevin L.; Huising, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone Urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co–released with insulin and potentiates glucose–stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptor on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 demonstrate fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque diabetes models and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26076035

  15. Inhibition of net HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, independent of insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Borradaile, Nica M; de Dreu, Linda E; Huff, Murray W

    2003-10-01

    The flavonoid naringenin improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-treated rats. In HepG2 human hepatoma cells, naringenin inhibits apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion primarily by inhibiting microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and enhances LDL receptor (LDLr)-mediated apoB-containing lipoprotein uptake. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation by insulin increases sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and LDLr expression and inhibits apoB secretion in hepatocytes. Thus, we determined whether naringenin activates this pathway. Insulin and naringenin induced PI3K-dependent increases in cytosolic and nuclear SREBP-1 and LDLr expression. Similar PI3K-mediated increases in SREBP-1 were observed in McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, which express predominantly SREBP-1c. Reductions in HepG2